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How to Write an Argumentative Essay

How to Write an Argumentative Essay

4-minute read

  • 30th April 2022

An argumentative essay is a structured, compelling piece of writing where an author clearly defines their stance on a specific topic. This is a very popular style of writing assigned to students at schools, colleges, and universities. Learn the steps to researching, structuring, and writing an effective argumentative essay below.

Requirements of an Argumentative Essay

To effectively achieve its purpose, an argumentative essay must contain:

●  A concise thesis statement that introduces readers to the central argument of the essay

●  A clear, logical, argument that engages readers

●  Ample research and evidence that supports your argument

Approaches to Use in Your Argumentative Essay

1.   classical.

●  Clearly present the central argument.

●  Outline your opinion.

●  Provide enough evidence to support your theory.

2.   Toulmin

●  State your claim.

●  Supply the evidence for your stance.

●  Explain how these findings support the argument.

●  Include and discuss any limitations of your belief.

3.   Rogerian

●  Explain the opposing stance of your argument.

●  Discuss the problems with adopting this viewpoint.

●  Offer your position on the matter.

●  Provide reasons for why yours is the more beneficial stance.

●  Include a potential compromise for the topic at hand.

Tips for Writing a Well-Written Argumentative Essay

●  Introduce your topic in a bold, direct, and engaging manner to captivate your readers and encourage them to keep reading.

●  Provide sufficient evidence to justify your argument and convince readers to adopt this point of view.

●  Consider, include, and fairly present all sides of the topic.

●  Structure your argument in a clear, logical manner that helps your readers to understand your thought process.

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●  Discuss any counterarguments that might be posed.

●  Use persuasive writing that’s appropriate for your target audience and motivates them to agree with you.

Steps to Write an Argumentative Essay

Follow these basic steps to write a powerful and meaningful argumentative essay :

Step 1: Choose a topic that you’re passionate about

If you’ve already been given a topic to write about, pick a stance that resonates deeply with you. This will shine through in your writing, make the research process easier, and positively influence the outcome of your argument.

Step 2: Conduct ample research to prove the validity of your argument

To write an emotive argumentative essay , finding enough research to support your theory is a must. You’ll need solid evidence to convince readers to agree with your take on the matter. You’ll also need to logically organize the research so that it naturally convinces readers of your viewpoint and leaves no room for questioning.

Step 3: Follow a simple, easy-to-follow structure and compile your essay

A good structure to ensure a well-written and effective argumentative essay includes:

Introduction

●  Introduce your topic.

●  Offer background information on the claim.

●  Discuss the evidence you’ll present to support your argument.

●  State your thesis statement, a one-to-two sentence summary of your claim.

●  This is the section where you’ll develop and expand on your argument.

●  It should be split into three or four coherent paragraphs, with each one presenting its own idea.

●  Start each paragraph with a topic sentence that indicates why readers should adopt your belief or stance.

●  Include your research, statistics, citations, and other supporting evidence.

●  Discuss opposing viewpoints and why they’re invalid.

●  This part typically consists of one paragraph.

●  Summarize your research and the findings that were presented.

●  Emphasize your initial thesis statement.

●  Persuade readers to agree with your stance.

We certainly hope that you feel inspired to use these tips when writing your next argumentative essay . And, if you’re currently elbow-deep in writing one, consider submitting a free sample to us once it’s completed. Our expert team of editors can help ensure that it’s concise, error-free, and effective!

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How to Write the AP Lang Synthesis Essay + Example

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What is the ap lang synthesis essay, how will ap scores affect my college chances.

AP English Language and Composition, commonly known as AP Lang, is one of the most engaging and popular AP classes offered at most high schools, with over 535,000 students taking the class . AP Lang tests your ability to analyze written pieces, synthesize information, write rhetorical essays, and create cohesive and concrete arguments. However, the class is rather challenging as only 62% of students were able to score a three or higher on the exam. 

The AP Lang exam has two sections. The first consists of 45 multiple choice questions which need to be completed in an hour. This portion counts for around 45% of your total score. These questions ask students to analyze written pieces and answer questions related to each respective passage.  All possible answer choices can be found within the text, and no prior knowledge of literature is needed to understand the passages.

The second section contains three free-response questions to be finished in under two hours and 15 minutes. This section counts for 55% of your score and includes the synthesis essay, the rhetorical essay, and the argumentative essay.

  • The synthesis essay requires you to read 6-7 sources and create an argument using at least three sources.
  • The rhetorical analysis essay requires you to describe how a piece of writing evokes specific meanings and symbolism.
  • The argumentative essay requires you to pick a perspective of a debate and create an argument based on the evidence provided.

In this post, we will take a look at the AP Lang synthesis essay and discuss tips and tricks to master this part of the exam. We will also provide an example of a well-written essay for review.  

The AP Lang synthesis essay is the first of three essays included in the Free Response section of the AP Lang exam. The exam presents 6-7 sources that are organized around a specific topic, with two of those sources purely visual, including a single quantitative source (like a graph or pie chart). The remaining 4-5 sources are text-based, containing around 500 words each. It’s recommended that students spend an hour on this essay—15 minute reading period, 40 minutes writing, and 5 minutes of spare time to check over work.

Each synthesis essay has a topic that all the sources will relate to. A prompt will explaining the topic and provide some background, although the topics are usually broad so you will probably know something related to the issue. It will also present a claim that students will respond to in an essay format using information from at least three of the provided sources. You will need to take a stance, either agreeing or disagreeing with the position provided in the claim. 

According to the CollegeBoard, they are looking for essays that “combine different perspectives from sources to form a support of a coherent position.” This means that you must state your claim on the topic and highlight relationships between several sources that support your specific position on the topic. Additionally, you’ll need to cite clear evidence from your sources to prove your point.

The synthesis essay counts for six points on the AP Lang exam. Students can receive 0-1 points for writing a thesis statement, 0-4 based on the incorporation of evidence and commentary, and 0-1 points based on the sophistication of thought and demonstration of complex understanding.

While this essay seems extremely overwhelming, considering there are a total of three free-response essays to complete, with proper time management and practiced skills, this essay is manageable and straightforward. In order to enhance the time management aspect of the test to the best of your ability, it is essential to divide the essay up into five key steps.

Step 1: Analyze the Prompt

As soon as the clock starts, carefully read and analyze what the prompt asks from you. It might be helpful to markup the text to identify the most critical details. You should only spend around 2 minutes reading the prompt so you have enough time to read all the sources and figure out your argument. Don’t feel like you need to immediately pick your stance on the claim right after reading the prompt. You should read the sources before you commit to your argument.

Step 2: Read the Sources Carefully

Although you are only required to use 3 of the 6-7 sources provides, make sure you read ALL of the sources. This will allow you to better understand the topic and make the most educated decision of which sources to use in your essay. Since there are a lot of sources to get through, you will need to read quickly and carefully.

Annotating will be your best friend during the reading period. Highlight and mark important concepts or lines from each passage that would be helpful in your essay. Your argument will probably begin forming in your head as you go through the passages, so you will save yourself a lot of time later on if you take a few seconds to write down notes in the margins. After you’ve finished reading a source, reflect on whether the source defends, challenges, or qualifies your argument.

You will have around 13 minutes to read through all the sources, but it’s very possible you will finish earlier if you are a fast reader. Take the leftover time to start developing your thesis and organizing your thoughts into an outline so you have more time to write. 

Step 3: Write a Strong Thesis Statement 

In order to write a good thesis statement, all you have to do is decide your stance on the claim provided in the prompt and give an overview of your evidence. You essentially have three choices on how to frame your thesis statement: You can defend, challenge or qualify a claim that’s been provided by the prompt. 

  • If you are defending the claim, your job will be to prove that the claim is correct .
  • If you are challenging the claim, your job will be to prove that the claim is incorrect .
  • If you choose to qualify the claim, your job will be to agree to a part of the claim and disagree with another part of the claim. 

A strong thesis statement will clearly state your stance without summarizing the issue or regurgitating the claim. The CollegeBoard is looking for a thesis statement that “states a defensible position and establishes a line of reasoning on the issue provided in the prompt.”

Step 4: Create a Minimal Essay Outline

Developing an outline might seem like a waste of time when you are up against the clock, but believe us, taking 5-10 minutes to outline your essay will be much more useful in the long run than jumping right into the essay.

Your outline should include your thesis statement and three main pieces of evidence that will constitute each body paragraph. Under each piece of evidence should be 2-3 details from the sources that you will use to back up your claim and some commentary on how that evidence proves your thesis.

Step 5: Write your Essay

Use the remaining 30-35 minutes to write your essay. This should be relatively easy if you took the time to mark up the sources and have a detailed outline.  Remember to add special consideration and emphasis to the commentary sections of the supporting arguments outlined in your thesis. These sentences are critical to the overall flow of the essay and where you will be explaining how the evidence supports or undermines the claim in the prompt.

Also, when referencing your sources, write the in-text citations as follows: “Source 1,” “Source 2,” “Source 3,” etc. Make sure to pay attention to which source is which in order to not incorrectly cite your sources. In-text citations will impact your score on the essay and are an integral part of the process.

After you finish writing, read through your essay for any grammatical errors or mistakes before you move onto the next essay.

Here are six must-have tips and tricks to get a good score on the synthesis essay:

  • Cite at least four sources , even though the minimum requirement is three. Remember not to plagiarize and cite everything you use in your arguments.
  • Make sure to develop a solid and clear thesis . Develop a stable stance for the claim and stick with it throughout the entire paper.
  • Don’t summarize the sources. The summary of the sources does not count as an argument. 
  • You don’t necessarily have to agree with the sources in order to cite them. Using a source to support a counterargument is still a good use of a source.
  • Cite the sources that you understand entirely . If you don’t, it could come back to bite you in the end. 
  • Use small quotes , do not quote entire paragraphs. Make sure the quote does not disrupt the flow or grammar of the sentence you write. 

free response argumentative essay

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Here is an example prompt and essay from 2019 that received 5 of the 6 total points available:

In response to our society’s increasing demand for energy, large-scale wind power has drawn attention from governments and consumers as a potential alternative to traditional materials that fuel our power grids, such as coal, oil, natural gas, water, or even newer sources such as nuclear or solar power. Yet the establishment of large-scale, commercial-grade wind farms is often the subject of controversy for a variety of reasons.

Carefully read the six sources, found on the AP English Language and Composition 2019 Exam (Question 1), including the introductory information for each source. Write an essay that synthesizes material from at least three of the sources and develops your position on the most important factors that an individual or agency should consider when deciding whether to establish a wind farm.

Source A (photo)

Source B (Layton)

Source C (Seltenrich)

Source D (Brown)

Source E (Rule)

Source F (Molla)

In your response you should do the following:

  • Respond to the prompt with a thesis presents a defensible position.
  • Select and use evidence from at least 3 of the provided sources to support your line of reasoning. Indicate clearly the sources used through direct quotation, paraphrase, or summary. Sources may be cited as Source A, Source B, etc., or by using the description in parentheses.
  • Explain how the evidence supports your line of reasoning.
  • Use appropriate grammar and punctuation in communicating your argument.

[1] The situation has been known for years, and still very little is being done: alternative power is the only way to reliably power the changing world. The draw of power coming from industry and private life is overwhelming current sources of non-renewable power, and with dwindling supplies of fossil fuels, it is merely a matter of time before coal and gas fuel plants are no longer in operation. So one viable alternative is wind power. But as with all things, there are pros and cons. The main factors for power companies to consider when building wind farms are environmental boon, aesthetic, and economic factors.

[2] The environmental benefits of using wind power are well-known and proven. Wind power is, as qualified by Source B, undeniably clean and renewable. From their production requiring very little in the way of dangerous materials to their lack of fuel, besides that which occurs naturally, wind power is by far one of the least environmentally impactful sources of power available. In addition, wind power by way of gearbox and advanced blade materials, has the highest percentage of energy retention. According to Source F, wind power retains 1,164% of the energy put into the system – meaning that it increases the energy converted from fuel (wind) to electricity 10 times! No other method of electricity production is even half that efficient. The efficiency and clean nature of wind power are important to consider, especially because they contribute back to power companies economically.

[3] Economically, wind power is both a boon and a bone to electric companies and other users. For consumers, wind power is very cheap, leading to lower bills than from any other source. Consumers also get an indirect reimbursement by way of taxes (Source D). In one Texan town, McCamey, tax revenue increased 30% from a wind farm being erected in the town. This helps to finance improvements to the town. But, there is no doubt that wind power is also hurting the power companies. Although, as renewable power goes, wind is incredibly cheap, it is still significantly more expensive than fossil fuels. So, while it is helping to cut down on emissions, it costs electric companies more than traditional fossil fuel plants. While the general economic trend is positive, there are some setbacks which must be overcome before wind power can take over as truly more effective than fossil fuels.

[4] Aesthetics may be the greatest setback for power companies. Although there may be significant economic and environmental benefit to wind power, people will always fight to preserve pure, unspoiled land. Unfortunately, not much can be done to improve the visual aesthetics of the turbines. White paint is the most common choice because it “[is] associated with cleanliness.” (Source E). But, this can make it stand out like a sore thumb, and make the gargantuan machines seem more out of place. The site can also not be altered because it affects generating capacity. Sound is almost worse of a concern because it interrupts personal productivity by interrupting people’s sleep patterns. One thing for power companies to consider is working with turbine manufacturing to make the machines less aesthetically impactful, so as to garner greater public support.

[5] As with most things, wind power has no easy answer. It is the responsibility of the companies building them to weigh the benefits and the consequences. But, by balancing economics, efficiency, and aesthetics, power companies can create a solution which balances human impact with environmental preservation.

More examples can be found here at College Board.

While AP Scores help to boost your weighted GPA, or give you the option to get college credit, AP Scores don’t have a strong effect on your admissions chances . However, colleges can still see your self-reported scores, so you might not want to automatically send scores to colleges if they are lower than a 3. That being said, admissions officers care far more about your grade in an AP class than your score on the exam.

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Hi all! I've been searching for quality AP Gov sample FRQs to practice with before the exam. What's the best way to use these samples to increase my chances of doing well on test day? Thank you!

Hi! Practicing with sample AP Gov Free Response Questions (FRQs) is a great way to prepare for the exam. Here are some steps to effectively use these samples to maximize your chances of doing well on test day:

1. Gather sample FRQs: You can find official sample FRQs on the College Board website. There are also various unofficial sources online that provide practice questions, but always prioritize practicing with official samples.

2. Understand the question format: Familiarize yourself with the format and structure of the FRQs. There are four types of FRQs in the AP Gov exam: Concept Application, Quantitative Analysis, SCOTUS Comparison, and Argument Essay. Know the requirements and expectations for each type of question.

3. Time yourself: FRQs are time-constrained, so practicing with a timer will help you get used to working under pressure. The recommended time allocation is 20 minutes for each of the first three FRQs, and 40 minutes for the Argument Essay.

4. Analyze the prompts: Before answering the question, analyze the prompt and identify the key concepts, terms, and arguments. This will help you better understand what's being asked and what information you need to include in your response.

5. Outline your response: Creating an outline for your answer can help you to better organize your thoughts and ensure you address all parts of the question. This is particularly important for the Argument Essay, where you'll need to present a clear and persuasive argument.

6. Write your response: After outlining your answer, write your response using clear and concise language. Be sure to use evidence from course materials to support your claims and fully address all parts of the prompt.

7. Review and revise: After writing your response, take some time to review your work, checking for clarity, grammar, and spelling errors. Consider whether all parts of the prompt have been effectively addressed and if your argument is well-structured, clear, and persuasive.

8. Compare with sample responses and scoring guidelines: Finally, compare your response to the official sample responses and scoring guidelines provided by the College Board. This will help you identify areas of improvement and see how your answers align with those scoring high marks.

9. Repeat the process: Consistent practice is key to improving your skills and confidence in tackling FRQs. Repeat this practice process with new sample questions to continue refining your abilities.

Remember, practice makes perfect! By following these steps, you'll be well-prepared to tackle the FRQs on your AP Gov exam. Good luck!

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Argumentative Essay Examples to Inspire You (+ Free Formula)

Argumentative Essay Examples to Inspire You (+ Free Formula)

Table of contents

free response argumentative essay

Meredith Sell

Have you ever been asked to explain your opinion on a controversial issue? 

  • Maybe your family got into a discussion about chemical pesticides
  • Someone at work argues against investing resources into your project
  • Your partner thinks intermittent fasting is the best way to lose weight and you disagree

Proving your point in an argumentative essay can be challenging, unless you are using a proven formula.

Argumentative essay formula & example

In the image below, you can see a recommended structure for argumentative essays. It starts with the topic sentence, which establishes the main idea of the essay. Next, this hypothesis is developed in the development stage. Then, the rebuttal, or the refutal of the main counter argument or arguments. Then, again, development of the rebuttal. This is followed by an example, and ends with a summary. This is a very basic structure, but it gives you a bird-eye-view of how a proper argumentative essay can be built.

Structure of an argumentative essay

Writing an argumentative essay (for a class, a news outlet, or just for fun) can help you improve your understanding of an issue and sharpen your thinking on the matter. Using researched facts and data, you can explain why you or others think the way you do, even while other reasonable people disagree.

Free AI argumentative essay generator > Free AI argumentative essay generator >

argumentative essay

What Is an Argumentative Essay?

An argumentative essay is an explanatory essay that takes a side.

Instead of appealing to emotion and personal experience to change the reader’s mind, an argumentative essay uses logic and well-researched factual information to explain why the thesis in question is the most reasonable opinion on the matter.  

Over several paragraphs or pages, the author systematically walks through:

  • The opposition (and supporting evidence)
  • The chosen thesis (and its supporting evidence)

At the end, the author leaves the decision up to the reader, trusting that the case they’ve made will do the work of changing the reader’s mind. Even if the reader’s opinion doesn’t change, they come away from the essay with a greater understanding of the perspective presented — and perhaps a better understanding of their original opinion.

All of that might make it seem like writing an argumentative essay is way harder than an emotionally-driven persuasive essay — but if you’re like me and much more comfortable spouting facts and figures than making impassioned pleas, you may find that an argumentative essay is easier to write. 

Plus, the process of researching an argumentative essay means you can check your assumptions and develop an opinion that’s more based in reality than what you originally thought. I know for sure that my opinions need to be fact checked — don’t yours?

So how exactly do we write the argumentative essay?

How do you start an argumentative essay

First, gain a clear understanding of what exactly an argumentative essay is. To formulate a proper topic sentence, you have to be clear on your topic, and to explore it through research.

Students have difficulty starting an essay because the whole task seems intimidating, and they are afraid of spending too much time on the topic sentence. Experienced writers, however, know that there is no set time to spend on figuring out your topic. It's a real exploration that is based to a large extent on intuition.

6 Steps to Write an Argumentative Essay (Persuasion Formula)

Use this checklist to tackle your essay one step at a time:

Argumentative Essay Checklist

1. Research an issue with an arguable question

To start, you need to identify an issue that well-informed people have varying opinions on. Here, it’s helpful to think of one core topic and how it intersects with another (or several other) issues. That intersection is where hot takes and reasonable (or unreasonable) opinions abound. 

I find it helpful to stage the issue as a question.

For example: 

Is it better to legislate the minimum size of chicken enclosures or to outlaw the sale of eggs from chickens who don’t have enough space?

Should snow removal policies focus more on effectively keeping roads clear for traffic or the environmental impacts of snow removal methods?

Once you have your arguable question ready, start researching the basic facts and specific opinions and arguments on the issue. Do your best to stay focused on gathering information that is directly relevant to your topic. Depending on what your essay is for, you may reference academic studies, government reports, or newspaper articles.

‍ Research your opposition and the facts that support their viewpoint as much as you research your own position . You’ll need to address your opposition in your essay, so you’ll want to know their argument from the inside out.

2. Choose a side based on your research

You likely started with an inclination toward one side or the other, but your research should ultimately shape your perspective. So once you’ve completed the research, nail down your opinion and start articulating the what and why of your take. 

What: I think it’s better to outlaw selling eggs from chickens whose enclosures are too small.

Why: Because if you regulate the enclosure size directly, egg producers outside of the government’s jurisdiction could ship eggs into your territory and put nearby egg producers out of business by offering better prices because they don’t have the added cost of larger enclosures.

This is an early form of your thesis and the basic logic of your argument. You’ll want to iterate on this a few times and develop a one-sentence statement that sums up the thesis of your essay.

Thesis: Outlawing the sale of eggs from chickens with cramped living spaces is better for business than regulating the size of chicken enclosures.

Now that you’ve articulated your thesis , spell out the counterargument(s) as well. Putting your opposition’s take into words will help you throughout the rest of the essay-writing process. (You can start by choosing the counter argument option with Wordtune Spices .)

free response argumentative essay

Counterargument: Outlawing the sale of eggs from chickens with too small enclosures will immediately drive up egg prices for consumers, making the low-cost protein source harder to afford — especially for low-income consumers.

There may be one main counterargument to articulate, or several. Write them all out and start thinking about how you’ll use evidence to address each of them or show why your argument is still the best option.

3. Organize the evidence — for your side and the opposition

You did all of that research for a reason. Now’s the time to use it. 

Hopefully, you kept detailed notes in a document, complete with links and titles of all your source material. Go through your research document and copy the evidence for your argument and your opposition’s into another document.

List the main points of your argument. Then, below each point, paste the evidence that backs them up.

If you’re writing about chicken enclosures, maybe you found evidence that shows the spread of disease among birds kept in close quarters is worse than among birds who have more space. Or maybe you found information that says eggs from free-range chickens are more flavorful or nutritious. Put that information next to the appropriate part of your argument. 

Repeat the process with your opposition’s argument: What information did you find that supports your opposition? Paste it beside your opposition’s argument.

You could also put information here that refutes your opposition, but organize it in a way that clearly tells you — at a glance — that the information disproves their point.

Counterargument: Outlawing the sale of eggs from chickens with too small enclosures will immediately drive up egg prices for consumers.

BUT: Sicknesses like avian flu spread more easily through small enclosures and could cause a shortage that would drive up egg prices naturally, so ensuring larger enclosures is still a better policy for consumers over the long term.

As you organize your research and see the evidence all together, start thinking through the best way to order your points.  

Will it be better to present your argument all at once or to break it up with opposition claims you can quickly refute? Would some points set up other points well? Does a more complicated point require that the reader understands a simpler point first?

Play around and rearrange your notes to see how your essay might flow one way or another.

4. Freewrite or outline to think through your argument

Is your brain buzzing yet? At this point in the process, it can be helpful to take out a notebook or open a fresh document and dump whatever you’re thinking on the page.

Where should your essay start? What ground-level information do you need to provide your readers before you can dive into the issue?

Use your organized evidence document from step 3 to think through your argument from beginning to end, and determine the structure of your essay.

There are three typical structures for argumentative essays:

  • Make your argument and tackle opposition claims one by one, as they come up in relation to the points of your argument - In this approach, the whole essay — from beginning to end — focuses on your argument, but as you make each point, you address the relevant opposition claims individually. This approach works well if your opposition’s views can be quickly explained and refuted and if they directly relate to specific points in your argument.
  • Make the bulk of your argument, and then address the opposition all at once in a paragraph (or a few) - This approach puts the opposition in its own section, separate from your main argument. After you’ve made your case, with ample evidence to convince your readers, you write about the opposition, explaining their viewpoint and supporting evidence — and showing readers why the opposition’s argument is unconvincing. Once you’ve addressed the opposition, you write a conclusion that sums up why your argument is the better one.
  • Open your essay by talking about the opposition and where it falls short. Build your entire argument to show how it is superior to that opposition - With this structure, you’re showing your readers “a better way” to address the issue. After opening your piece by showing how your opposition’s approaches fail, you launch into your argument, providing readers with ample evidence that backs you up.

As you think through your argument and examine your evidence document, consider which structure will serve your argument best. Sketch out an outline to give yourself a map to follow in the writing process. You could also rearrange your evidence document again to match your outline, so it will be easy to find what you need when you start writing.

5. Write your first draft

You have an outline and an organized document with all your points and evidence lined up and ready. Now you just have to write your essay.

In your first draft, focus on getting your ideas on the page. Your wording may not be perfect (whose is?), but you know what you’re trying to say — so even if you’re overly wordy and taking too much space to say what you need to say, put those words on the page.

Follow your outline, and draw from that evidence document to flesh out each point of your argument. Explain what the evidence means for your argument and your opposition. Connect the dots for your readers so they can follow you, point by point, and understand what you’re trying to say.

As you write, be sure to include:

1. Any background information your reader needs in order to understand the issue in question.

2. Evidence for both your argument and the counterargument(s). This shows that you’ve done your homework and builds trust with your reader, while also setting you up to make a more convincing argument. (If you find gaps in your research while you’re writing, Wordtune Spices can source statistics or historical facts on the fly!)

free response argumentative essay

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3. A conclusion that sums up your overall argument and evidence — and leaves the reader with an understanding of the issue and its significance. This sort of conclusion brings your essay to a strong ending that doesn’t waste readers’ time, but actually adds value to your case.

6. Revise (with Wordtune)

The hard work is done: you have a first draft. Now, let’s fine tune your writing.

I like to step away from what I’ve written for a day (or at least a night of sleep) before attempting to revise. It helps me approach clunky phrases and rough transitions with fresh eyes. If you don’t have that luxury, just get away from your computer for a few minutes — use the bathroom, do some jumping jacks, eat an apple — and then come back and read through your piece.

As you revise, make sure you …

  • Get the facts right. An argument with false evidence falls apart pretty quickly, so check your facts to make yours rock solid.
  • Don’t misrepresent the opposition or their evidence. If someone who holds the opposing view reads your essay, they should affirm how you explain their side — even if they disagree with your rebuttal.
  • Present a case that builds over the course of your essay, makes sense, and ends on a strong note. One point should naturally lead to the next. Your readers shouldn’t feel like you’re constantly changing subjects. You’re making a variety of points, but your argument should feel like a cohesive whole.
  • Paraphrase sources and cite them appropriately. Did you skip citations when writing your first draft? No worries — you can add them now. And check that you don’t overly rely on quotations. (Need help paraphrasing? Wordtune can help. Simply highlight the sentence or phrase you want to adjust and sort through Wordtune’s suggestions.)
  • Tighten up overly wordy explanations and sharpen any convoluted ideas. Wordtune makes a great sidekick for this too 😉

free response argumentative essay

Words to start an argumentative essay

The best way to introduce a convincing argument is to provide a strong thesis statement . These are the words I usually use to start an argumentative essay:

  • It is indisputable that the world today is facing a multitude of issues
  • With the rise of ____, the potential to make a positive difference has never been more accessible
  • It is essential that we take action now and tackle these issues head-on
  • it is critical to understand the underlying causes of the problems standing before us
  • Opponents of this idea claim
  • Those who are against these ideas may say
  • Some people may disagree with this idea
  • Some people may say that ____, however

When refuting an opposing concept, use:

  • These researchers have a point in thinking
  • To a certain extent they are right
  • After seeing this evidence, there is no way one can agree with this idea
  • This argument is irrelevant to the topic

Are you convinced by your own argument yet? Ready to brave the next get-together where everyone’s talking like they know something about intermittent fasting , chicken enclosures , or snow removal policies? 

Now if someone asks you to explain your evidence-based but controversial opinion, you can hand them your essay and ask them to report back after they’ve read it.

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Free Argumentative Essay Generator

State the point to be discussed in your body paragraph

State a supporting point to be discussed in body paragraph

State an opposing point to be discussed in body paragraph

State a similar aspect to be discussed

State a contrasting aspect to be discussed

So, you’ve tried every possible method and technique, but your argumentative essays are still not as good as they should be. What's worse, they take a lot of time to write. Is there a way out?

Yes, there is! With the help of our revolutionary argumentative essay generator, you will boost your creativity and improve the quality of your texts. Use it 100% free of charge to write a perfect argumentative essay!

  • ️🚀 How to Use This Tool
  • ️💡 Why Use Our Generator?
  • ️✍️ What Is an Argumentative Essay?
  • ️📚 Essay Structure
  • ️🗣️ Types of Arguments
  • ️🔥 How to Write
  • ️🔗 References

🚀 How to Use Our Argumentative Essay Maker

Our tool is a must-have for all students. Essays that it makes can serve as examples to boost your inspiration. Here’s how to use it effectively:

  • Type in your topic.
  • Select how many body paragraphs with supporting arguments you want.
  • Choose the number of body paragraphs with counterarguments.
  • Customize the main body by adjusting the app’s settings (optionally.)
  • Press “Generate” and get a fantastic result.

💡 Why Use Our Argumentative Essay Generator?

Our essay maker is one of the best you can get. It's all thanks to its amazing benefits:

✍️ What Is an Argumentative Essay?

An argumentative essay is a type of writing where you research a specific subject, state your point of view, and gather evidence. Its aim is to persuade readers to side with your viewpoint.

Assignments for argumentative essays usually require substantial research of literature and previously published material. Additionally, you may need to conduct an empirical investigation . It means that you will gather information through interviews, surveys, observations, or experiments.

📚 Argumentative Essay Structure

An argumentative essay has a simple structure. It consists of 3 core parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. Let’s take a look at each of them separately.

Introduction

Your essay's introduction will consist of 3 parts:

  • Every paper begins with a captivating hook that motivates the audience to read your text thoroughly. It can be a shocking fact, a striking piece of statistics, or a humorous phrase.
  • The hook is then followed by a brief review of the topic's background .
  • Finally, a thesis statement that encapsulates the main ideas and sets the objectives for the entire essay.

An argumentative essay usually includes 3 or more body paragraphs that provide supporting or opposing arguments for the chosen topic. There, you usually list examples, evidence, statistics, studies, and citations to strengthen your position. Each paragraph starts with a short topic sentence summarizing its main argument.

A conclusion wraps up the entire assignment and links all the elements together. It aims to give a general overview of the whole essay and give it closure. A well-written conclusion appeals to the reader's emotions and effectively explains why it was essential to analyze the chosen topic in the first place.

🗣️ Types of Arguments

Good argumentation is the secret of a good essay. Even the greatest ideas will sink into the air if not supported by convincing facts. To help you with this task, we present to you 3 most popular argumentation techniques. Choose the one that suits you most!

The picture enumerates the 3 types of argumentation for an argumentative essay.

Classic (Aristotelian)

Let's start with a default framework, also known as Aristotelian . It uses reasoning in combination with logical facts. You can apply it to almost any concept except those that haven’t been researched enough. Aristotelian argumentation is perfect for narrow and straightforward topics.

It has the following structure:

  • A brief description of the topic.
  • A paragraph that explains your viewpoint.
  • A section that describes the opposing idea.
  • A presentation of proof that supports your position.

The Toulmin technique works best for unraveling complex issues that can be viewed from many angles. It has 7 primary sections that you can rearrange in any way that works best for your essay:

  • A concise statement of your viewpoint.
  • Several paragraphs that include supporting proof, such as statistics or scientific facts.
  • A paragraph that explains the relationship between your claim and evidence.
  • Additional findings to back up your assertion.
  • A review of opposing viewpoints.

Note that if you choose the Toulmin approach, your arguments should be used only to refute another claim. So, instead of researching a topic, your Toulmin essay will solely aim at disproving an opposing viewpoint.

The Rogerian technique is somewhere between Aristotelian and Toulmin. If you use it, you accept the legitimacy of both your and the opposition's stance. It's the least aggressive and most courteous approach, which aids in persuading skeptical readers.

It is structured in five steps as follows:

  • A description of the topic.
  • A paragraph about your opponent’s ideas.
  • A section about your viewpoint.
  • A proposition of compromise that allows both points of view to coexist.
  • A conclusion.

🔥 How to Write an Argumentative Essay

Writing an argumentative essay may initially seem complicated, but knowing the specifics makes it much easier. Here you’ll find a small step-by-step guide that will help you ace your task.

The picture talks about the benefits of making a plan of your essay before writing it.

1. Answer the Question from the Topic

An argumentative essay requires you to present a clear opinion. To do it, you can ask yourself a major topic-oriented question. Then, develop your thesis statement as a response to that question. For instance, your question may be, "What is the best drink?" Then your thesis will say: the best drink is pineapple juice.

This technique simplifies the writing process because you’ve chosen a position from the start and won’t have to formulate your opinion later in the main body.

2. State Why the Opposing Argument Is Wrong

To effectively defeat opposing viewpoints , try stating your objections right away. For example, "Some people believe that apple juice is the best, but not everyone supports this opinion. Compared to apple's sour taste, pineapple juice offers a much more balanced flavor that combines sweet and sour." This approach works well since it backs up your point of view with proof and doesn’t allow your opponent to win.

3. Outline Your Main Points

It’s vital to support each claim you make with facts. To do it, make sure to find enough adequate evidence that can serve as key assertions. It’s best if you select the strongest of them and write them down in an outline. To strengthen your claims even further, don't hesitate to make a list of references and citations from different sources.

4. Write a Draft

It's now time to start writing the first draft of your argumentative essay. All you have to do at this stage is to collect all the parts of your outline together. Ensure a logical flow between paragraphs, and use transitional words to connect your ideas.

Additionally, you may use our argumentative essay generator to create a perfect draft that can serve as a basis for your essay. You can then edit and improve it as you see fit.

5. Edit and Proofread

After the draft is complete, you can start polishing and proofreading it. This time, try to locate and resolve all the grammatical and logical mistakes . Look for areas of your essay that can be clarified or arguments that lack persuasiveness.

Finally, when you feel like your essay is perfect, you can call it a day. Until then, try not to hurry and be sure to revise everything carefully.

As you can see, there is nothing impossible about writing an argumentative essay, especially if you have great AI helpers like our free generator. Try it now and see how the quality of your papers goes through the roof!

We also recommend trying out our business tools such as SOAR analysis matrix and STP template .

❓ Argumentative Essay Generator FAQ

❓ what are the 5 parts of an argumentative essay.

The 5 parts of an argumentative essay include an introduction with a hook, background information on your chosen topic, a thesis statement, body paragraphs with an argument for or against your point of view, and a conclusion.

❓ What is the purpose of an argumentative essay?

A compelling argumentative essay aims to state a specific point of view regarding the chosen topic. To do it, you can use different arguments, evidence, and other proof. Aside from that, an argumentative essay also aims to disprove the opposing viewpoint.

❓ How to start the prewriting process for an argumentative essay?

The first step in prewriting the argumentative essay is to research and gather evidence and facts to support your thesis. Also, sometimes you might have to do empirical research. It means gathering information through interviews, surveys, observations, or experiments.

❓ In an argumentative essay, what tone should the author use?

The tone of an argumentative essay should be persuasive and authoritative. Persuasiveness means that you convince the reader that your position is correct and the opposing view is wrong. An authoritative tone will further demonstrate your expertise. Try to strike a balance in tone, and you'll succeed.

🔗 References

  • Argumentative Essay/Commentary: The University of Toledo
  • How to Write a Good Argumentative Essay: Easy Step-by-Step Guide: Masterclass
  • How to Write a Standout Argumentative Essay: Grammarly
  • Suggestions for Developing Argumentative Essays: University of California Berkeley
  • Tips for Organizing an Argumentative Essay: Valparaiso University

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AP® English Literature

How to approach ap® english literature free-response questions.

  • The Albert Team
  • Last Updated On: February 28, 2023

free response argumentative essay

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Focus on critical reading, utilize your syllabus, take notes as you read, carefully consider principal ideas, explore the context, read out loud, reread when necessary, consult your dictionary, thesaurus or encyclopedia, write, review, and rewrite regularly, how to answer ap® english literature free-response questions.

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Looking for ap® english literature practice, interested in a school license​, 2 thoughts on “how to approach ap® english literature free-response questions”.

Are you expected to have read the actual work previously for free response question #1 and #2? (For instance, would the test writers expect you have read Thomas Hardy’s The Mayor of Casterbridge (1886) for 2016 essay?)

Can you still pull out score 5, even if you haven’t read the work before and write your response solely based on the given passage?

Hi Jen, you would not have had to have read the passage before. You’d be expected to be able to interpret from the passage provided — this is how they assess you on your analysis skills.

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12.7: Essay as Argument

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  • Page ID 40506

  • Heather Ringo & Athena Kashyap
  • City College of San Francisco via ASCCC Open Educational Resources Initiative

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What is an argument, and why do you need one in your essays on literary analysis?

Arguments are everywhere

You may be surprised to hear that the word “argument” does not have to be written anywhere in your assignment for it to be an important part of your task. In fact, making an argument—expressing a point of view on a subject and supporting it with evidence—is often the aim of academic writing. Your instructors may assume that you know this and thus may not explain the importance of arguments in class.

Most material you learn in college is or has been debated by someone, somewhere, at some time. Even when the material you read or hear is presented as a simple fact, it may actually be one person’s interpretation of a set of information. Instructors may call on you to examine that interpretation and defend it, refute it, or offer some new view of your own. In writing assignments, you will almost always need to do more than just summarize information that you have gathered or regurgitate facts that have been discussed in class. You will need to develop a point of view on or interpretation of that material and provide evidence for your position.

Consider an example. For nearly 2000 years, educated people in many Western cultures believed that bloodletting—deliberately causing a sick person to lose blood—was the most effective treatment for a variety of illnesses. The claim that bloodletting is beneficial to human health was not widely questioned until the 1800s, and some physicians continued to recommend bloodletting as late as the 1920s. Medical practices have now changed because some people began to doubt the effectiveness of bloodletting; these people argued against it and provided convincing evidence. Human knowledge grows out of such differences of opinion, and scholars like your instructors spend their lives engaged in debates over what claims may be counted as accurate in their fields. In their courses, they want you to engage in similar kinds of critical thinking and debate.

Writing on literary texts is no different. You take a stance and make an argument in your essay with the needed support to back up your points.

Argumentation is not just what your instructors do. We all use argumentation on a daily basis, and you probably already have some skill at crafting an argument. The more you improve your skills in this area, the better you will be at thinking critically, reasoning, making choices, and weighing evidence. These are leadership skills that hone the mind and are highly sought after abilities, regardless of what field you choose to enter.

Making a claim

What is an argument? In academic writing, an argument is usually a main idea, often called a “claim” or “thesis statement,” backed up with evidence that supports the idea. In a majority of college papers, you will need to make some sort of claim and use evidence to support it, and your ability to do this well will separate your papers from those of students who see assignments as mere accumulations of fact and detail. In other words, gone are the happy days of being given a “topic” about which you can write anything. It is time to stake out a position and prove why it is a good position for a thinking person to hold. See our handout on thesis statements .

Claims can be as simple as, “Protons are positively charged, and electrons are negatively charged,” with evidence such as, “In this experiment, protons and electrons acted in such and such a way.” Claims can also be as complex as “The end of the South African system of apartheid was inevitable,” using reasoning and evidence such as, “Every successful revolution in the modern era has come about after the government in power has given and then removed small concessions to the uprising group.” In either case, the rest of your paper will detail the reasoning and evidence that have led you to believe that your position is best.

When beginning to write a paper, ask yourself, “What is my point?” For example, the point of this handout is to help you become a better writer, and we are arguing that an important step in the process of writing effective arguments is understanding the concept of argumentation. If your papers do not have a main point, they cannot be arguing for anything. Asking yourself what your point is can help avoid a mere “information dump.” Consider this: your instructors probably know a lot more than you do about your subject matter. Why, then, would you want to provide them with material they already know? Instructors are usually looking for two things:

  • Proof that you understand the material
  • A demonstration of your ability to use or apply materials in ways that go beyond what you have read or heard

This second part can be done in many ways: you can critique the material, apply it to something else, or even just explain it in a different way. In order to succeed at this second step, though, you must have a particular point to argue.

Arguments in academic writing are usually complex and take time to develop. Your argument will need to be more than a simple or obvious statement, such as “Frank Lloyd Wright was a great architect.” Such a statement might capture your initial impressions of Wright as you have studied him in class; however, you need to look deeper and express specifically what caused that “greatness.” Your instructor will probably expect something more complicated, such as “Frank Lloyd Wright’s architecture combines elements of European modernism, Asian aesthetic form, and locally found materials to create a unique new style,” or “There are many strong similarities between Wright’s building designs and those of his mother, which suggests that he may have borrowed some of her ideas.” To develop your argument, you would then define your terms and prove your claim with evidence from Wright’s drawings and buildings and those of the other architects you mention.

Do not stop with having a point. You have to back up your point with evidence. The strength of your evidence, and your use of it, can make or break your argument. See our handout on evidence . You already have the natural inclination for this type of thinking, if not in an academic setting. Think about how you talked your parents into letting you borrow the family car. Did you present them with lots of instances of your past trustworthiness? Did you make them feel guilty because your friends’ parents all let them drive? Did you whine until they just wanted you to shut up? Did you look up statistics on teen driving and use them to show how you didn’t fit the dangerous-driver profile? These are all types of argumentation, and they exist in academia in similar forms.

Every field has slightly different requirements for acceptable evidence, so familiarize yourself with some arguments from within that field instead of just applying whatever evidence you like best. Pay attention to your textbooks and your instructor’s lectures. What types of arguments and evidence are they using? The type of evidence that sways an English instructor may not work to convince a sociology instructor. Find out what counts as proof that something is true in that field. Is it statistics, a logical development of points, something from the object being discussed (artwork, text, culture, or atom), the way something works, or some combination of more than one of these things?

Be consistent with your evidence. Unlike negotiating for the use of your parents’ car, a college paper is not the place for an all-out blitz of every type of argument. You can often use more than one type of evidence within a paper, but make sure that within each section, you are providing the reader with evidence appropriate to each claim. So, if you start a paragraph or section with a statement like, “Putting the student seating area closer to the basketball court will raise player performance,” do not follow with your evidence on how much more money the university could raise by letting more students attend games for free. Information about how fan support raises player morale, which then results in better play, would be a better follow-up. Your next section could offer clear reasons why undergraduates have as much or more right to attend an undergraduate event as wealthy alumni—but this information would not go in the same section as the fan support stuff. You cannot convince a confused person, so keep things tidy and ordered.

Counterargument

One way to strengthen your argument and show that you have a deep understanding of the issue you are discussing is to anticipate and address counterarguments or objections. By considering what someone who disagrees with your position might have to say about your argument, you show that you have thought things through, and you dispose of some of the reasons your audience might have for not accepting your argument. Recall our discussion of student seating in the Dean Dome. To make the most effective argument possible, you should consider not only what students would say about seating but also what alumni who have paid a lot to get good seats might say.

You can generate counterarguments by asking yourself how someone who disagrees with you might respond to each of the points you’ve made or your position as a whole. If you can’t immediately imagine another position, here are some strategies to try:

  • Do some research. It may seem to you that no one could possibly disagree with the position you are arguing, but someone probably has. For example, some people argue that the American Civil War never ended. If you are making an argument concerning, for example, the outcomes of the Civil War, you might wish to see what some of these people have to say.
  • Talk with a friend or with your teacher. Another person may be able to imagine counterarguments that haven’t occurred to you.
  • Consider your conclusion or claim and the premises of your argument and imagine someone who denies each of them. For example, if you argued, “Cats make the best pets. This is because they are clean and independent,” you might imagine someone saying, “Cats do not make the best pets. They are dirty and needy.”

Once you have thought up some counterarguments, consider how you will respond to them—will you concede that your opponent has a point but explain why your audience should nonetheless accept your argument? Will you reject the counterargument and explain why it is mistaken? Either way, you will want to leave your reader with a sense that your argument is stronger than opposing arguments.

When you are summarizing opposing arguments, be charitable. Present each argument fairly and objectively, rather than trying to make it look foolish. You want to show that you have considered the many sides of the issue. If you simply attack or caricature your opponent (also referred to as presenting a “straw man”), you suggest that your argument is only capable of defeating an extremely weak adversary, which may undermine your argument rather than enhance it.

It is usually better to consider one or two serious counterarguments in some depth, rather than to give a long but superficial list of many different counterarguments and replies.

Be sure that your reply is consistent with your original argument. If considering a counterargument changes your position, you will need to go back and revise your original argument accordingly.

Audience is a very important consideration in argument. Take a look at our handout on audience . A lifetime of dealing with your family members has helped you figure out which arguments work best to persuade each of them. Maybe whining works with one parent, but the other will only accept cold, hard statistics. Your kid brother may listen only to the sound of money in his palm. It’s usually wise to think of your audience in an academic setting as someone who is perfectly smart but who doesn’t necessarily agree with you. You are not just expressing your opinion in an argument (“It’s true because I said so”), and in most cases, your audience will know something about the subject at hand—so you will need sturdy proof. At the same time, do not think of your audience as capable of reading your mind. You have to come out and state both your claim and your evidence clearly. Do not assume that because the instructor knows the material, he or she understands what part of it you are using, what you think about it, and why you have taken the position you’ve chosen.

Critical reading

Critical reading is a big part of understanding argument. Although some of the material you read will be very persuasive, do not fall under the spell of the printed word as authority. Very few of your instructors think of the texts they assign as the last word on the subject. Remember that the author of every text has an agenda, something that he or she wants you to believe. This is OK—everything is written from someone’s perspective—but it’s a good thing to be aware of. For more information on objectivity and bias and on reading sources carefully, read our handouts on evaluating print sources and reading to write .

Take notes either in the margins of your source (if you are using a photocopy or your own book) or on a separate sheet as you read. Put away that highlighter! Simply highlighting a text is good for memorizing the main ideas in that text—it does not encourage critical reading. Part of your goal as a reader should be to put the author’s ideas in your own words. Then you can stop thinking of these ideas as facts and start thinking of them as arguments.

When you read, ask yourself questions like, “What is the author trying to prove?” and, “What is the author assuming I will agree with?” Do you agree with the author? Does the author adequately defend her argument? What kind of proof does she use? Is there something she leaves out that you would put in? Does putting it in hurt her argument? As you get used to reading critically, you will start to see the sometimes hidden agendas of other writers, and you can use this skill to improve your own ability to craft effective arguments.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find the latest publications on this topic. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Anson, Chris M., and Robert A. Schwegler. The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers. 6th ed. New York: Longman, 2010.

Booth, Wayne C., Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams, Joseph Bizup, and William T. FitzGerald. The Craft of Research. 4th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016.

Ede, Lisa. Work in Progress. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1989.

Gage, John T. The Shape of Reason: Argumentative Writing in College. 4th ed. New York: Longman, 2005.

Lunsford, Andrea, and John Ruszkiewicz. Everything’s an Argument. 7th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2016.

Rosen, Leonard J., and Laurence Behrens. The Allyn & Bacon Handbook. 5th ed. New York: Longman, 2003.

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Examples

Argumentative Writing

Ai generator.

free response argumentative essay

Writing has been around for quite a long time. The history of the world we know now has been retained through the aid of written documents. Such free written documents have been used and reused all around the world from generation to another in order to spread information and awareness to people.

Many people find writing as an effective way to express their ideas and opinions. They exchange such ideas with other people, using different styles in writing example in pdf . Most people are probably familiar with the different writing styles, like argumentative writing, which we will be discussing in this post.

Argumentative Essay Writing

Argumentative Essay Writing

High School Argumentative Writing

High School Argumentative

Speech Argumentative Writing

Speech Writing

Argumentative Synthesis Writing

Argumentative Synthesis1

What Is Argumentative Writing?

Argumentative writing is the process of  writing an essay wherein you pick a stand about a certain issue, and discuss such stand as opposed to another stand on the same issue.

Also known as persuasive writing , argumentative writing is a writing style which intends to persuade the readers to believe or consider a certain stand about a certain issue. In argumentative writing, the writer primarily presents opinions, usually in the form of arguments, supported by facts and opinion from other people.

Purpose of Argumentative Writing

Because an argumentative composition carries the opinion of the writer, it can be considered as the gateway to other people’s opinions, especially those that are usually different from our own.

It allows the readers to think critically about a certain issue, and to weigh the two sides regarding such issue. Thus one can say that argumentative writing is an effective way to let other people see a certain issue in a different angle. An argumentative composition can, at the same time, be informative since it is supported by facts presented by the writer. Argumentative writing can also be a medium for the writer to practice his/her argumentative or persuasive writing skills .

Argumentative Research

Argumentative Research1

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Argumentative Letter Writing

Argumentative Letter

Short Argumentative Writing

Short Writing1

Tips for Argumentative Writing

An effective meeting argumentative composition has the power to change the readers’ perspective on a particular issue, or at the very least, encourage them to pursue such issue in depth. But how do you write a strong argumentative composition?

  • Know the purpose and goal of an argumentative composition.
  • Choose a timely or an interesting topic. Pick an issue that interests you and your readers
  • Do a research on the topic you have chosen, and understand what it is all about.
  • Read other argumentative compositions.  You can read those that talk about the same topic, each of which you can use as basis for your own arguments.
  • Pick a stand.  What is your opinion regarding the topic? Create arguments regarding the stand you’ve chosen.
  • Understand how your audience thinks. This will enable you to know what they want to know.
  • Present strong arguments.  Strong arguments have that ability to catch the readers attention, and at the same time make the writer’s claims more believable and realistic.
  • Use quotes to support your point. This is to prove that there are people having the same opinion as yours.
  • Consider the other side.  You cannot convince your readers to look at the issue at another angle without you doing it first.
  • Apply final touches.  Before doing so, make sure you check your composition for possible errors.

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Sat / act prep online guides and tips, expert guide to the ap language and composition exam.

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Advanced Placement (AP)

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With the 2023 AP English Language and Composition exam happening on Tuesday, May 9, it's time to make sure that you're familiar with all aspects of the exam. In this article, I'll give a brief overview of the test, do a deeper dive on each of the sections, discuss how the exam is scored, offer some strategies for studying, and finally wrap up with some essential exam day tips.

Exam Overview

The AP Language and Composition exam tests your rhetorical and composition skills. Essentially, how do authors construct effective arguments in their writing? What tools do they use? How can you use those tools to craft effective writing yourself? That is the essence of rhetorical analysis.

The exam has two parts: the first section is an hour-long, 45 question multiple-choice section. It includes five sets of questions, each based on a passage or passages. In this section, there will be 23-25 rhetorical analysis questions which test your rhetorical skills. There will also be 20-22 writing questions which require you to consider revisions to the texts you're shown.

The second section is free response. It starts with a 15-minute reading period, and then you'll have 120 minutes to write three analytical essays:

  • One essay where you synthesize several provided texts to create an argument
  • One essay where you analyze a nonfiction passage for its rhetorical construction
  • One essay where you create an original argument in response to a prompt.

You will have about 40 minutes to write each essay, but no one will prompt you to move from essay to essay—you can structure the 120 minutes as you wish.

In the next sections I'll go over each section of the exam more closely—first multiple choice, and then free response.

The AP English Language and Composition Multiple-Choice

The multiple-choice section tests you on two main areas. The first is how well you can read and understand nonfiction passages for their use of rhetorical devices and tools. The second is how well you can "think like a writer" and make revisions to texts in composition questions.

You will be presented with five passages, about which you will receive a small amount of orienting information, e.g. "This passage is excerpted from a collection of essays on boating" or "This passage is excerpted from an essay written in 19th-century Haiti." Each passage will be followed by a set of questions.

There are, in general, eight question types you can expect to encounter on the multiple-choice section of the exam. I've taken my examples from the sample questions in the " Course and Exam Description ."

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Magic eight-ball says there are eight types of multiple-choice questions!

Type 1: Reading Comprehension

These questions are focused on verifying that you understood what a certain part of the passage was saying on a concrete, literal level. You can identify these questions from phrases like "according to" "refers," etc. The best way to succeed on these questions is to go back and re-read the part of the passage referred to very carefully.

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Type 2: Implication

These questions take reading comprehension one step further—they are primarily focused on what the author is implying without directly coming out and saying it. These questions will have a correct answer, though, based on evidence from the passage. Which interpretation offered in the answers does the passage most support? You can identify questions like these from words like "best supported," ‘"implies," "suggests," "inferred," and so on.

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Type 3: Overall Passage and Author Questions

These questions ask about overall elements of the passage or the author, such as the author's attitude on the issue discussed, the purpose of the passage, the passage's overarching style, the audience for the passage, and so on.

You can identify these questions because they won't refer back to a specific moment in the text. For these questions, you'll need to think of the passage from a "bird's-eye view" and consider what all of the small details together are combining to say.

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Type 4: Relationships Between Parts of the Text

Some questions will ask you to describe the relationship between two parts of the text, whether they are paragraphs or specific lines. You can identify these because they will usually explicitly ask about the relationship between two identified parts of the text, although sometimes they will instead ask about a relationship implicitly, by saying something like "compared to the rest of the passage."

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Type 5: Interpretation of Imagery/Figurative Language

These questions will ask you about the deeper meaning or implication of figurative language or imagery that is used in the text. Essentially, why did the author choose to use this simile or this metaphor? What is s/he trying to accomplish?

You can generally identify questions like this because the question will specifically reference a moment of figurative language in the text. However, it might not be immediately apparent that the phrase being referenced is figurative, so you may need to go back and look at it in the passage to be sure of what kind of question you are facing.

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Type 6: Purpose of Part of the Text

Still other questions will ask you to identify what purpose a particular part of the text serves in the author's larger argument. What is the author trying to accomplish with the particular moment in the text identified in the question?

You can identify these questions because they will generally explicitly ask what purpose a certain part of the text serves. You may also see words or phrases like "serves to" or "function."

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Type 7: Rhetorical Strategy

These questions will ask you to identify a rhetorical strategy used by the author. They will often specifically use the phrase "rhetorical strategy," although sometimes you will be able to identify them instead through the answer choices, which offer different rhetorical strategies as possibilities.

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Type 8: Composition

This is the newest question type, first seen in the 2019/2020 school year. For these questions, the student will need to act as though they are the writer and think through different choices writers need to make when writing or revising text.

These questions can involve changing the order of sentences or paragraphs, adding or omitting information to strengthen an argument or improve clarity, making changes to draw reader attention, and other composition-based choices.

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Some very important stylish effects going on here.

The AP English Language and Composition Free Response

The free response section has a 15-minute reading period. After that time, you will have 120 minutes to write three essays that address three distinct tasks.

Because the first essay involves reading sources, it is suggested that you use the entire 15-minute reading period to read the sources and plan the first essay. However, you may want to glance at the other questions during the reading period so that ideas can percolate in the back of your mind as you work on the first essay.

Essay One: Synthesis

For this essay, you will be briefly oriented on an issue and then given anywhere from six to seven sources that provide various perspectives and information on the issue. You will then need to write an argumentative essay with support from the documents.

If this sounds a lot like a DBQ , as on the history AP exams, that's because it is! However, this essay is much more argumentative in nature—your goal is to persuade, not merely interpret the documents.

Example (documents not included, see 2022 free response questions ):

body-AP-Literature-synthesis

Essay Two: Rhetorical Analysis

In the second essay, you'll be presented with an excerpt from a nonfiction piece that advances an argument and asked to write an essay analyzing the rhetorical strategies used to construct the passage's argument. You will also be given some orienting information—where the passage was excerpted from, who wrote it, its approximate date, where it was published (if at all), and to whom it was directed.

Example (excerpt not included, see 2022 free response questions ):

body-AP-literature-Question-2

Essay Three: Argument

In the third essay, you will be presented with an issue and asked to write a persuasive essay taking a position on the issue. You will need to support your position with evidence from your "reading, experience, and observations."

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This doesn't look like a very well-constructed argument.

How The AP Language and Composition Exam Is Scored

The multiple-choice section of the exam is worth 45% of your score, and the free-response section is worth the other 55%. So each of the three free-response essays is worth about 18% of your score.

As on other APs, your raw score will be converted to a scaled score of 1-5. This exam has a relatively low 5 rate. Only 10% of test takers received a 5 in 2022 , although 56% of students received a score of 3 or higher.

In terms of how the raw score is obtained, the multiple-choice section is similar to other AP multiple-choice sections: you receive a point for every question you answer correctly, and there is no penalty for guessing.

The grading rubrics for the free-response questions were revamped in 2019. They are scored using analytic rubrics instead of holistic rubrics. For each free-response question, you will be given a score from 0-6. The rubrics assess three major areas:

#1: Thesis (0 to 1 points): Is there a thesis, and does it properly respond to the prompt?

#2: Evidence and Commentary (0 to 4 points): Does the essay include supporting evidence and analysis that is relevant, specific, well organized, and supports the thesis?

#3: Sophistication (0 to 1 points): Is the essay well-crafted and does it show a sufficiently nuanced understanding of the prompt?

Each scoring rubric broadly assesses these three factors. However, each task is also different in nature, so the rubrics do have some differences. I'll go over each rubric—and what it really means—for you here.

Synthesis Essay Rubrics

EVIDENCE AND COMMENTARY

SOPHISTICATION

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Time to synthesize this dough into some cookies.

Rhetorical Analysis Essay Rubrics

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Examine your texts closely!

Argumentative Essay Rubrics

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The best kind of frenzy is a puppy frenzy!

AP English Language Prep Tips

Unlike its cousin, the AP English Literature and Composition exam, the AP Language and Composition exam (and course) have very little to do with fiction or poetry. So some students used to more traditional English classes may be somewhat at a loss as to what to do to prepare.

Luckily for you, I have a whole slate of preparation tips for you!

Read Nonfiction—In a Smart Way

A major thing you can do to prepare for the AP Lang and Comp exam is to read nonfiction— particularly nonfiction that argues a position , whether explicitly (like an op-ed) or implicitly (like many memoirs and personal essays). Read a variety of non-fiction genres and topics, and pay attention to the following:

  • What is the author's argument?
  • What evidence do they use to support their position?
  • What rhetorical techniques and strategies do they use to build their argument?
  • Are they persuasive? What counterarguments can you identify? Do they address them?

Thinking about these questions with all the reading you do will help you hone your rhetorical analysis skills.

Learn Rhetorical Terms and Strategies

Of course, if you're going to be analyzing the nonfiction works you read for their rhetorical techniques and strategies, you need to know what those are! You should learn a robust stable of rhetorical terms from your teacher, but here's my guide to the most important AP Language and Composition terms .

  • We've compiled a list of 20 rhetorical devices you should know.
  • A heroic individual from Riverside schools in Ohio uploaded this aggressively comprehensive list of rhetorical terms with examples. It's 27 pages long, and you definitely shouldn't expect to know all of these for the exam, but it's a useful resource for learning some new terms.
  • Another great resource for learning about rhetorical analysis and how rhetorical devices are actually used is the YouTube Channel Teach Argument , which has videos rhetorically analyzing everything from Taylor Swift music videos to Super Bowl commercials. It's a fun way to think about rhetorical devices and get familiar with argumentative structures.
  • Finally, a great book—which you might already use in your class—is " They Say, I Say. " This book provides an overview of rhetoric specifically for academic purposes, which will serve you well for AP preparation and beyond.

You also need to practice argumentative and persuasive writing. In particular, you should practice the writing styles that will be tested on the exam: synthesizing your own argument based on multiple outside sources, rhetorically analyzing another piece of writing in-depth, and creating a completely original argument based on your own evidence and experience.

You should be doing lots of writing assignments in your AP class to prepare, but thoughtful, additional writing will help. You don't necessarily need to turn all of the practice writing you do into polished pieces, either—just writing for yourself, while trying to address some of these tasks, will give you a low-pressure way to try out different rhetorical structures and argumentative moves, as well as practicing things like organization and developing your own writing style.

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Not the most auspicious start to an argumentative essay.

Practice for the Exam

Finally, you'll need to practice specifically for the exam format. There are sample multiple-choice questions in the " AP Course and Exam Description ," and old free-response questions on the College Board website.

Unfortunately, the College Board hasn't officially released any complete exams from previous years for the AP English Language and Composition exam, but you might be able to find some that teachers have uploaded to school websites and so on by Googling "AP Language complete released exams." I also have a guide to AP Language and Composition practice tests .

Once you're prepped and ready to go, how can you do your best on the test?

Looking for help studying for your AP exam? Our one-on-one online AP tutoring services can help you prepare for your AP exams. Get matched with a top tutor who got a high score on the exam you're studying for!

AP Language and Composition Test Day Tips

Here are four key tips for test-day success.

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You are one hundred percent success!

Interact With the Text

When you are reading passages, both on the multiple-choice section and for the first two free-response questions, interact with the text! Mark it up for things that seem important, devices you notice, the author's argument, and anything else that seems important to the rhetorical construction of the text. This will help you engage with the text and make it easier to answer questions or write an essay about the passage.

Think About Every Text's Overarching Purpose and Argument

Similarly, with every passage you read, consider the author's overarching purpose and argument. If you can confidently figure out what the author's primary assertion is, it will be easier to trace how all of the other aspects of the text play into the author's main point.

Plan Your Essays

The single most important thing you can do for yourself on the free-response section of the AP English Language exam is to spend a few minutes planning and outlining your essays before you start to write them.

Unlike on some other exams, where the content is the most important aspect of the essay, on the AP Language Exam, organization, a well-developed argument, and strong evidence are all critical to strong essay scores. An outline will help you with all of these things. You'll be able to make sure each part of your argument is logical, has sufficient evidence, and that your paragraphs are arranged in a way that is clear and flows well.

Anticipate and Address Counterarguments

Another thing you can do to give your free responses an extra boost is to identify counterarguments to your position and address them within your essay. This not only helps shore up your own position, but it's also a fairly sophisticated move in a timed essay that will win you kudos with AP graders.

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Address counterarguments properly or they might get returned to sender!

Key Takeaways

The AP Language and Composition exam tests your rhetorical skills. The exam has two sections.

The first section is an hour-long, 45 question multiple-choice test based on the rhetorical techniques and composition choices.

The second section is a two-hour free-response section (with a 15-minute initial reading period) with three essay questions: one where you must synthesize given sources to make an original argument, one where you must rhetorically analyze a given passage, and one where you must create a wholly original argument about an issue with no outside sources given.

You'll receive one point for every correct answer on the multiple-choice section of the exam, which is worth 45% of your score. The free-response section is worth 55% of your score. For each free-response question, you'll get a score based on a rubric from 0-6. Your total raw score will be converted to a scaled score from 1-5.

Here are some test prep strategies for AP Lang:

#1 : Read nonfiction with an eye for rhetoric #2 : Learn rhetorical strategies and techniques #3 : Practice writing to deploy rhetorical skills #4 : Practice for the exam!

Here are some test-day success tips:

#1 : Interact with each passage you encounter! #2 : Consider every text's overarching purpose and argument. #3 : Keep track of time #4 : Plan your essays #5 : Identify and address counterarguments in your essays.

With all of this knowledge, you're ready to slay the AP English Language and Composition beast!

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Noble knight, prepare to slay the AP dragon!

What's Next?

Want more AP Lang review? We have a complete collection of released AP Language practice tests , as well as a list of the AP Lang terms you need to know and a guide to the multiple choice section .

Taking the AP Literature exam? Check out our ultimate guide to the AP English Literature test and our list of AP Literature practice tests .

Taking other AP exams? See our Ultimate Guides to AP World History , AP US History , AP Chemistry , AP Biology , AP World History , and AP Human Geography .

Need more AP prep guidance? Check out how to study for AP exams and how to find AP practice tests .

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Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University.

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Counterarguments

A counterargument involves acknowledging standpoints that go against your argument and then re-affirming your argument. This is typically done by stating the opposing side’s argument, and then ultimately presenting your argument as the most logical solution. The counterargument is a standard academic move that is used in argumentative essays because it shows the reader that you are capable of understanding and respecting multiple sides of an argument.

Counterargument in two steps

Respectfully acknowledge evidence or standpoints that differ from your argument.

Refute the stance of opposing arguments, typically utilizing words like “although” or “however.”

In the refutation, you want to show the reader why your position is more correct than the opposing idea.

Where to put a counterargument

Can be placed within the introductory paragraph to create a contrast for the thesis statement.

May consist of a whole paragraph that acknowledges the opposing view and then refutes it.

  • Can be one sentence acknowledgements of other opinions followed by a refutation.

Why use a counterargument?

Some students worry that using a counterargument will take away from their overall argument, but a counterargument may make an essay more persuasive because it shows that the writer has considered multiple sides of the issue. Barnet and Bedau (2005) propose that critical thinking is enhanced through imagining both sides of an argument. Ultimately, an argument is strengthened through a counterargument.

Examples of the counterargument structure

  • Argument against smoking on campus:  Admittedly, many students would like to smoke on campus. Some people may rightly argue that if smoking on campus is not illegal, then it should be permitted; however, second-hand smoke may cause harm to those who have health issues like asthma, possibly putting them at risk.
  • Argument against animal testing:  Some people argue that using animals as test subjects for health products is justifiable. To be fair, animal testing has been used in the past to aid the development of several vaccines, such as small pox and rabies. However, animal testing for beauty products causes unneeded pain to animals. There are alternatives to animal testing. Instead of using animals, it is possible to use human volunteers. Additionally, Carl Westmoreland (2006) suggests that alternative methods to animal research are being developed; for example, researchers are able to use skin constructed from cells to test cosmetics. If alternatives to animal testing exist, then the practice causes unnecessary animal suffering and should not be used.

Harvey, G. (1999). Counterargument. Retrieved from writingcenter.fas.harvard.edu/pages/counter- argument

Westmoreland, C. (2006; 2007). “Alternative Tests and the 7th Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive.” Hester, R. E., & Harrison, R. M. (Ed.) Alternatives to animal testing (1st Ed.). Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.

Barnet, S., Bedau, H. (Eds.). (2006). Critical thinking, reading, and writing . Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s.

Contributor: Nathan Lachner

Best 10+ Argumentative Essay Examples for Effective Writing

Discover top-notch argumentative essay examples that will elevate your writing skills and help you craft compelling arguments effectively.

Argumentative essays are a common assignment in academic writing that requires students to present a strong argument and support it with evidence. These essays aim to persuade the reader to agree with the writer's viewpoint on a particular topic or issue. To help you understand the key elements and techniques of writing an effective argumentative essay, we have compiled a list of the best 10+ argumentative essay examples. These examples will not only inspire you but also provide you with insights into different types of argumentative essays and how to write them successfully.

free response argumentative essay

What is an Argumentative Essay?

An argumentative essay is a type of essay that presents a well-reasoned argument on a specific topic. The goal of this essay is to convince the reader to adopt the writer's perspective or take a certain action. In an argumentative essay, the writer presents evidence, supports claims with facts, and provides counterarguments to address opposing views. This type of essay relies heavily on logical reasoning and critical thinking skills.

Types of Argumentative Essays:

Classical Argument : This type of essay presents a clear argument, supports it with evidence, and refutes counterarguments.

Rogerian Argument : In this approach, the writer seeks to find common ground and establish mutual understanding between opposing viewpoints.

Toulmin Argument : The Toulmin model emphasizes using evidence to support claims, identifying and responding to counterarguments, and acknowledging the limitations of the argument.

Deductive Argument : In a deductive argument essay, the writer starts with a general statement or premise and provides specific examples to support it.

Inductive Argument : The inductive argument essay begins with detailed observations or examples and uses them to draw a general conclusion.

How to Write an Argumentative Essay:

To write an effective argumentative essay, follow these steps:

  • Choose a debatable topic: Select a topic that is open to different interpretations or has contrasting viewpoints.
  • Conduct thorough research: Gather relevant and credible sources to support your argument and address counterarguments.
  • Develop a clear thesis statement: Your thesis statement should express your main argument and provide a roadmap for the essay.
  • Outline your essay: Organize your thoughts and evidence in a logical order. Create sections for your introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion.
  • Write a compelling introduction: Grab the reader's attention with a hook, provide background information, and present your thesis statement.
  • Present your argument: Each body paragraph should focus on a separate point and provide evidence to support it.
  • Address counterarguments: Acknowledge opposing viewpoints and refute them with evidence and logical reasoning.
  • Summarize and conclude: Restate your thesis, summarize your main points, and leave the reader with a thought-provoking conclusion.

Now, let's explore the best 10+ argumentative essay examples that will serve as inspiration for your own writing endeavors.

Example 1: Should the use of cell phones be allowed in schools?

  • Introduction: Cell phones have become an integral part of our daily lives, but their usage in schools remains a topic of debate.
  • Body Paragraph 1: Cell phones can be used as educational tools as they provide access to a wealth of information and resources.
  • Body Paragraph 2: Allowing cell phones in schools can enhance communication between students, parents, and teachers.
  • Body Paragraph 3: The use of cell phones can promote safety and security as students can quickly contact authorities in case of emergencies.
  • Counterargument: Opponents argue that cell phone usage can lead to distractions and disrupt the learning environment.
  • Refutation: Proper guidelines can be implemented to regulate cell phone usage and minimize distractions.
  • Conclusion: Allowing cell phones in schools, with appropriate restrictions, can have numerous benefits for education and overall student well-being.

Example 2: Should animal testing be banned?

  • Introduction: Animal testing has long been a subject of ethical concern, and the debate about its necessity continues to rage on.
  • Body Paragraph 1: Animal testing has contributed to numerous scientific breakthroughs and advancements in medicine.
  • Body Paragraph 2: The suffering and unethical treatment of animals during testing is morally wrong and goes against our duty to protect animal rights.
  • Body Paragraph 3: Alternative methods, such as in vitro testing and advanced computer simulations, can provide more accurate results without the need for animal experimentation.
  • Counterargument: Critics argue that without animal testing, scientific progress and medical advancements would be hindered.
  • Refutation: Increased funding and focus on alternative testing methods can lead to further advancements while eliminating the need for animal testing.
  • Conclusion: Banning animal testing is a necessary step towards a more ethical and effective approach to scientific research and medical advancements.

Example 3: Is social media beneficial or harmful to society?

  • Introduction: Social media has rapidly become a powerful force in our lives, but its impact on society remains a contentious issue.
  • Body Paragraph 1: Social media allows for global connectivity and facilitates the spread of information and ideas.
  • Body Paragraph 2: Social media provides a platform for marginalized groups to raise awareness, mobilize, and effect positive change.
  • Body Paragraph 3: The addictive nature of social media and its negative impact on mental health is a cause for concern.
  • Counterargument: Critics argue that social media promotes excessive self-comparison, depression, and cyberbullying.
  • Refutation: Education and awareness campaigns can help individuals navigate social media's negative aspects and promote healthier online behavior.
  • Conclusion: While social media has its downsides, its positive aspects outweigh the negatives, making it a valuable tool for communication and societal progress.

Example 4: Should college education be free for all?

  • Introduction: The rising cost of college education has sparked a debate about accessibility and affordability.
  • Body Paragraph 1: Providing free college education can ensure equal opportunities for all, regardless of socioeconomic backgrounds.
  • Body Paragraph 2: Free college education can lead to a more educated society, benefiting the economy and promoting social mobility.
  • Body Paragraph 3: Critics argue that free education would result in oversaturation of the job market and devalue the worth of a college degree.
  • Refutation: Strict admission criteria and high-quality education can maintain the value of a college degree while ensuring broader access.
  • Conclusion: By making college education free, societies can break down barriers to education and create a more equitable and prosperous future.

Example 5: Is the death penalty an effective form of punishment?

  • Introduction: The death penalty has long been a topic of ethical and moral debate.
  • Body Paragraph 1: Supporters argue that the death penalty deters potential criminals and ensures justice for the most heinous crimes.
  • Body Paragraph 2: The death penalty is irreversible and carries the risk of executing innocent individuals, making it ethically unacceptable.
  • Body Paragraph 3: Alternative punishments, such as life imprisonment, can achieve the same objectives without the risk of wrongful execution.
  • Counterargument: Some claim that the death penalty is a necessary retribution for the most severe crimes.
  • Refutation: Life imprisonment can serve as a just punishment, allowing for potential reformation and avoiding the irreversible loss of innocent lives.
  • Conclusion: Abolishing the death penalty is a crucial step towards a more humane and just criminal justice system.

Example 6: Should genetically modified organisms (GMOs) be labeled?

  • Introduction: The use of genetically modified organisms in food production has become a topic of public concern, raising questions about transparency and consumer choice.
  • Body Paragraph 1: Labeling GMOs allows consumers to make informed decisions about their food choices based on personal preferences and health considerations.
  • Body Paragraph 2: The potential risks and long-term effects of GMOs on human health and the environment necessitate transparent labeling.
  • Body Paragraph 3: Opponents argue that mandatory labeling of GMOs would increase food prices and stigmatize biotechnology.
  • Refutation: Proper regulation and accurate labeling can provide necessary information without significantly impacting food prices or stigmatizing GMOs.
  • Conclusion: Labeling GMOs is a matter of consumer rights, allowing individuals to make informed choices and promoting transparency in the food industry.

Example 7: Should plastic bags be banned?

  • Introduction: Single-use plastic bags have emerged as a major environmental concern, prompting discussions about their impact and the need for regulation.
  • Body Paragraph 1: Banning plastic bags can reduce plastic pollution, protect wildlife, and mitigate the harmful effects of plastic waste on ecosystems.
  • Body Paragraph 2: Alternatives to plastic bags, such as reusable bags, are readily available and provide a more sustainable option for consumers.
  • Body Paragraph 3: Critics argue that banning plastic bags would inconvenience consumers and negatively impact businesses.
  • Refutation: Encouraging the use of reusable bags and providing alternative solutions can address these concerns without compromising the environment.
  • Conclusion: Banning plastic bags is a necessary step towards reducing plastic pollution and promoting a more sustainable future.

Example 8: Should the voting age be lowered to 16?

  • Introduction: The debate surrounding the voting age hinges on the question of youth political engagement and civic participation.
  • Body Paragraph 1: Lowering the voting age to 16 can promote youth involvement in local, national, and global issues.
  • Body Paragraph 2: Today's youth are well-informed and actively engaged in social and political matters, justifying their right to vote.
  • Body Paragraph 3: Critics argue that 16-year-olds lack the necessary maturity and life experience to make informed voting decisions.
  • Refutation: Many 16-year-olds contribute to society, work, pay taxes, and drive, indicating a level of responsibility and ability to make informed decisions.
  • Conclusion: Lowering the voting age to 16 can empower the youth, thereby fostering a more democratic and inclusive political landscape.

Example 9: Should schools implement mandatory dress codes?

  • Introduction: The issue of school dress codes often sparks contentious debates regarding self-expression, professionalism, and fostering a suitable learning environment.
  • Body Paragraph 1: Implementing mandatory dress codes can promote a sense of unity, reduce peer pressure related to fashion, and minimize distractions.
  • Body Paragraph 2: Dress codes can prepare students for future professional settings and teach them the importance of appropriate attire.
  • Body Paragraph 3: Critics argue that dress codes limit individual expression and can perpetuate gender stereotypes.
  • Refutation: Dress codes can be flexible and inclusive, allowing for self-expression within certain guidelines while still maintaining a suitable environment for learning.
  • Conclusion: Implementing dress codes, when thoughtfully designed, can strike a balance between individual expression and maintaining a conducive learning environment.

Example 10: Is online learning as effective as traditional classroom learning?

  • Introduction: The rapid growth of online learning has initiated discussions about the efficacy and widespread adoption of this educational format.
  • Body Paragraph 1: Online learning provides flexibility, accessibility, and the opportunity for self-paced learning, catering to diverse student needs.
  • Body Paragraph 2: Traditional classroom learning promotes face-to-face interactions, immediate feedback, and a sense of community among students.
  • Body Paragraph 3: The integration of technology and interactive platforms in online learning can replicate the benefits of classroom settings.
  • Counterargument: Critics argue that online learning lacks the social and collaborative aspects of traditional classroom learning.
  • Refutation: Online learning can be augmented with virtual discussions, group projects, and video conferencing to foster similar collaborative experiences.
  • Conclusion: Online learning, when combined with interactive and collaborative features, can be just as effective, if not more, than traditional classroom learning.

In conclusion, argumentative essays provide opportunities to explore various perspectives on contentious topics and present evidence-based arguments. By examining different viewpoints, rebutting counterarguments, and offering refutations, these essays can contribute to critical thinking and effective communication.

Best 10+ Argumentative Essay Examples for Effective Writing

[Review] Myth of Sisyphus and Other Essays (Albert Camus) Summarized

[Review] Myth of Sisyphus and Other Essays (Albert Camus) Summarized

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The book information. Buy on Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/dp/B09Y3F37D2?tag=9natree-20 Read more: https://mybook.top/read/B09Y3F37D2/ #Absurdism #Existentialism #AlbertCamus #PhilosophyofMeaning #HumanCondition #ExistentialAngst #PersonalRebellion #Sisyphus These are takeaways from this book. Firstly, The Concept of the Absurd,...

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  1. FREE 19+ Argumentative Essay Samples & Templates in PDF, MS Word

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  2. What Is an Argumentative Essay? Simple Examples To Guide You

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  3. FREE 19+ Argumentative Essay Samples & Templates in PDF, MS Word

    free response argumentative essay

  4. FREE 16+ Argumentative Writing Samples & Templates in PDF

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  5. How to Write an Argumentative Essay

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  6. Argumentative Essay Examples 6Th Grade Pdf / 10 Easy Argumentative

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COMMENTS

  1. AP English Language and Composition Exam Questions

    Download free-response questions from this year's exam and past exams along with scoring guidelines, sample responses from exam takers, and scoring distributions. If you are using assistive technology and need help accessing these PDFs in another format, contact Services for Students with Disabilities at 212-713-8333 or by email at ssd@info ...

  2. How to Write an Argumentative Essay

    An argumentative essay presents a complete argument backed up by evidence and analysis. It is the most common essay type at university. ... all the prompts below imply an argumentative essay as the appropriate response. ... and paste the citation or click the "Cite this Scribbr article" button to automatically add the citation to our free ...

  3. PDF AP English Language and Composition Free-Response Questions Scoring

    AP English Language Scoring Rubric, Free-Response Question 1-3 | SG 1 Scoring Rubric for Question 1: Synthesis Essay 6 points Reporting Category Scoring Criteria Row A Thesis (0-1 points) 4.B 0 points For any of the following: • There is no defensible thesis. • The intended thesis only restates the prompt.

  4. PDF AP English Language and Composition

    Free Response Question 3 ... Argument Essay 6 points . Many people spend long hours trying to achieve perfection in their personal or professional lives. Similarly, people often deman d perfection from others, creating expectations that may be challenging to live up to. In contrast, some people think perfection is not attainable or desirable.

  5. How to Write the AP Lang Argument Essay + Examples

    Section 2: Three free response questions to be completed in the remaining two hours and 15 minutes. This section counts for 55% of your score. These essay questions include the synthesis essay, the rhetorical essay, and the argumentative essay. Synthesis essay: Read 6-7 sources and create an argument using at least three of the sources.

  6. How to Get a 6 on Argument FRQ in AP® English Language

    Pick an opinion and stick to it. Choose one side of the argument and one clear claim to support all the way through. Craft a thesis statement. Your thesis should be clear, concise, and introduce the content of your essay. Craft a chronological argument. Make an argument that builds on its prior points.

  7. The Complete Guide to AP US Government FRQs

    Argument Essay (6 raw points) The free-response questions will ask you to integrate your knowledge of the various content areas covered by the course. This includes analyzing political events in the US, discussing examples, and demonstrating your understanding of general principles of US government and politics.

  8. AP U.S. Government and Politics: Argument Essay

    The Argument Essay differs substantially from the other free-response questions on the AP U.S. Government and Politics exam, but you can and should still follow the Kaplan Method (AP-AP). It is recommended that you take 40 minutes to plan and write your Argument Essay (as opposed to 20 minutes each for the other free-response questions), so ...

  9. AP free response tips (article)

    Free-response questions are available through the Advanced Placement Program® in numerous formats. One of the easiest ways to find sample essays is to go to the AP Exam Practice page for U.S. Government and Politics. Learn for free about math, art, computer programming, economics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, finance, history, and more.

  10. How to Write an Argumentative Essay

    An argumentative essay is a structured, compelling piece of writing where an author clearly defines their stance on a specific topic. This is a very popular style of writing assigned to students at schools, colleges, and universities. Learn the steps to researching, structuring, and writing an effective argumentative essay below. Requirements ...

  11. AP Gov Free Response Questions (FRQ)

    The AP Gov essays (or all written portions) are 50% of the exam including short-answer questions (SAQs) and an Argument Essay. It's important that you understand the rubrics and question styles going into the exam. Use this list to practice! By practicing with previously released free response questions (FRQs), you'll build critical ...

  12. How to Write the AP Lang Synthesis Essay + Example

    The second section contains three free-response questions to be finished in under two hours and 15 minutes. This section counts for 55% of your score and includes the synthesis essay, the rhetorical essay, and the argumentative essay. The synthesis essay requires you to read 6-7 sources and create an argument using at least three sources.

  13. How to effectively practice AP Gov sample FRQs?

    Practicing with sample AP Gov Free Response Questions (FRQs) is a great way to prepare for the exam. ... This is particularly important for the Argument Essay, where you'll need to present a clear and persuasive argument. 6. Write your response: After outlining your answer, write your response using clear and concise language. Be sure to use ...

  14. Argumentative Essay Examples to Inspire You (+ Free Formula)

    Argumentative essay formula & example. In the image below, you can see a recommended structure for argumentative essays. It starts with the topic sentence, which establishes the main idea of the essay. Next, this hypothesis is developed in the development stage. Then, the rebuttal, or the refutal of the main counter argument or arguments.

  15. 3 Strong Argumentative Essay Examples, Analyzed

    Argumentative Essay Example 2. Malaria is an infectious disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through female Anopheles mosquitoes. Each year, over half a billion people will become infected with malaria, with roughly 80% of them living in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. How to Write an A+ Argumentative Essay

    Remember the differences between a persuasive essay and an argumentative one, make sure your thesis is clear, and double-check that your supporting evidence is both relevant to your point and well-sourced. Pick your topic, do your research, make your outline, and fill in the gaps. Before you know it, you'll have yourself an A+ argumentative ...

  17. Argumentative essay

    Learn for free about math, art, computer programming, economics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, finance, history, and more. ... A 4 essay demonstrates competence in response to the assignment. ... Going back to college after 15 years and need minor practice on persuasive essay for TSI exam.

  18. How to Write an Argumentative Essay (Examples Included)

    Developing an argument requires a significant understanding of the subject matter from all angles. Let's take a look at the steps to writing an argumentative essay: 1. Choose appropriate argumentative essay topics. Although topics for an argumentative essay are highly diverse, they are based on a controversial stance.

  19. AP U.S. Government and Politics Exam Questions

    The 2020 free-response questions are available in the AP Classroom question bank. 2019: Free-Response Questions 2019: Free-Response Questions; Questions. Scoring. Samples and Commentary. Free-Response Questions. Scoring Guidelines. Chief Reader Report. Scoring Statistics. Scoring Distributions.

  20. Free Argumentative Essay Generator

    🔥 How to Write an Argumentative Essay. Writing an argumentative essay may initially seem complicated, but knowing the specifics makes it much easier. Here you'll find a small step-by-step guide that will help you ace your task. 1. Answer the Question from the Topic. An argumentative essay requires you to present a clear opinion.

  21. How to Approach AP® English Literature Free-Response Questions

    It is comprised of three free-response essays and 55 multiple-choice questions. The free-response section accounts to 55% of your score. You will be given two hours to complete three free-response essays. The first will correspond to a given poem. The second will be regarding an excerpt from prose fiction or drama.

  22. PDF 2009 AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS

    Adversity has the effect of eliciting talents which in prosperous circumstances would have lain dormant. —Horace. Consider this quotation about adversity from the Roman poet Horace. Then write an essay that defends, challenges, or qualifies Horace's assertion about the role that adversity (financial or political hardship, danger, misfortune ...

  23. 12.7: Essay as Argument

    Consider your conclusion or claim and the premises of your argument and imagine someone who denies each of them. For example, if you argued, "Cats make the best pets. This is because they are clean and independent," you might imagine someone saying, "Cats do not make the best pets. They are dirty and needy.".

  24. Argumentative Writing

    Argumentative writing is the process of writing an essay wherein you pick a stand about a certain issue, and discuss such stand as opposed to another stand on the same issue. Also known as persuasive writing, argumentative writing is a writing style which intends to persuade the readers to believe or consider a certain stand about a certain issue.

  25. Expert Guide to the AP Language and Composition Exam

    Example (from 2022 free response questions): This doesn't look like a very well-constructed argument. How The AP Language and Composition Exam Is Scored. The multiple-choice section of the exam is worth 45% of your score, and the free-response section is worth the other 55%. So each of the three free-response essays is worth about 18% of your ...

  26. Counterarguments

    A counterargument involves acknowledging standpoints that go against your argument and then re-affirming your argument. This is typically done by stating the opposing side's argument, and then ultimately presenting your argument as the most logical solution. The counterargument is a standard academic move that is used in argumentative essays ...

  27. Best 10+ Argumentative Essay Examples for Effective Writing

    In an argumentative essay, the writer presents evidence, supports claims with facts, and provides counterarguments to address opposing views. This type of essay relies heavily on logical reasoning and critical thinking skills. Types of Argumentative Essays: Classical Argument: This type of essay presents a clear argument, supports it with ...

  28. [Review] Myth of Sisyphus and Other Essays (Albert Camus ...

    Camus interprets Sisyphus's endless labor as a reflection of the absurd life, but crucially, he finds a measure of heroism in Sisyphus's plight. By embracing his fruitless task without hope for escape or reward, Sisyphus embodies a defiant acceptance of the absurd. This essay underscores the power of mindset and the potential for humans to ...

  29. Rethinking the 5-Paragraph Essay in the ChatGPT Era

    Joanna Andreasson/DALL-E4. Will AI kill the five-paragraph essay? To find out, I asked my ninth grade English teacher. The five-paragraph essay is a mainstay of high school writing instruction ...

  30. The End of History and the Last Man

    Samuel P. Huntington wrote a 1993 essay, The Clash of Civilizations, in direct response to The End of History; he then expanded the essay into a 1996 book, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. In the essay and book, Huntington argued that the temporary conflict between ideologies is being replaced by the ancient conflict ...