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How to use the PhD title and all the little doctorate “rules”

There are many conventions in the academic world that can make it difficult to navigate the PhD title. The PhD title is awarded to those who have completed a doctoral degree but, not many people know how to use it once they have it.

This article will go through everything you need to know about using the PhD title and when you can start using it.

The “rules” are relatively simple and can be broken as they are not officially set in stone – other than when you can officially call yourself a doctor.

There is no one correct answer but it may be misleading if you use the PhD title incorrectly. Here are the recommendations for effective communication.

It very much depends on the setting. Here are some examples of how I would use my PhD titles awarded to me after my PhD degree.

How do you Write PhD correctly after a name? Is it ph d or phd?

It can be confusing to know exactly how to write PhD after your name. Which bits are capitalised? Is there a ‘.’ In the middle?

When writing a name with a PhD after it, the correct way to do so is to use “PhD” or “Ph.D. or Ph.D”

Depending on the preference of the individual, either form can be used.

However, if the individual has a business card that states their degree in full, then the more formal “Doctor of Philosophy” should be used.

It is important to note that using “PhD” without any periods is incorrect; this abbreviation should only be used in informal contexts such as emails or text messages. I tend to use PhD in my YouTube videos and some people have pointed out that this is incorrect…

Following the individual’s preferred format will ensure that their name and credentials are properly represented.

Should you use Dr as well as PhD?

Some people like to use Dr and PhD in their official titles. There are a couple of important points that you need to know about markers and academic titles.

  • A person can have more than one marker in their name. For example my full title is Dr Andrew Stapleton, PhD, MChem.
  • The doctor title at the front can be used as a variant to the PhD at the end.

It can be a little bit ambiguous if I was to use Dr Andrew Stapleton, PhD as there are two markers. This could mean that I have two PhD’s, it could mean that I have a PhD and a medical doctorate, or it could just be that I want to use both the doctor and the PhD tags for the one degree.

However, in my experience, I still like to use the doctor title at the front and the PhD tag at the end of my name for official purposes.

Academics would rarely use the PhD suffix in everyday communication. They would much rather just use the doctor title.

What is the proper title for a PhD?

The proper title for a PhD is Doctor of Philosophy. However, some teachers and professors like to be referred to without their official title.

If you are not sure about how your professor, lecturer, or friend with a PhD wishes to be officially addressed you can ask them.

Most of the time, I like to refer to my colleagues with their doctor title for official purposes, but I do not include the PhD at the end of their name. That is much better suited to a business card.

Your lecture may wish to be referred to as:

  • Dr [last name]
  • Dr [first name]

Asking them in the early stages of your relationship is the best way to work out which one they prefer.

If in doubt, always go for the more formal name and nomenclature.

When can you start to use your PhD title after your doctorate?

When you have earned your PhD, you can start using your title immediately. Although, it can be a little bit confusing as to when you have actually passed your PhD. Is it when you have submitted your dissertation? Is it when you have received the comments back?

The University of Adelaide says that you can use it from your conferral date:

Students can be conferred on one of five dates during the year and for PhD students the conferral date will be the first available following the completion of all the academic requirements of your degree, including final thesis lodgement and the disbursement of any outstanding financial obligations to the University.

I started using my PhD title as soon as my confirmation letter arrived at my house. It was the first letter from the University that referred to me as Dr Stapleton. It was incredibly excited.

Generally, it is acceptable to use the title “Dr.” both professionally and socially but socially, people very rarely use it – at least in Australia. But you should never use it if you are a PhD student, PhD candidate or enrolled in a PhD program without a previous PhD qualification. 

I do use it in professional settings but it always makes me feel a little bit awkward.

However, there may be some restrictions for certain settings. For example, if have a research degree resulting in a doctor title and you are working in a medical setting – some institutions do not like you to use Dr as it can confuse patients into thinking that you have a medical degree. 

Instead, they ask that you use the PhD tag at the end of your name rather than the doctoral title for official and professional communications.

What is the correct way to write PhD?

When writing about someone’s PhD, the correct way is to write the term in full and capitalize each letter.

This should be done for all academic degrees, not just PhDs.

For example, it would be “Doctor of Philosophy” or “PhD” instead of “Ph.D.”, “Dr.”, or “DPhil”.

Additionally, it is common to mention the field of study in which the degree was earned if known, such as “Doctor of Philosophy in Mathematics”. It is also good practice to include the institution that granted the degree if it is a recognized one.

When writing about someone’s PhD, use proper capitalization and include relevant information like field of study and institution if known to ensure accuracy.

How do you put a PhD in a title?

Putting a PhD in a title is not as complicated as it may sound.

Generally speaking, the proper way to list a PhD in an academic or professional setting is by writing “Dr.” before the name, followed by the person’s full name and the appropriate abbreviations for their degree.

For example, if John Smith has earned a doctorate in psychology, his credentials would be listed as “Dr. John Smith, Ph.D.”

In some cases, such as when addressing someone formally in speech or on a business card, it may also be acceptable to list their credentials as “John Smith, Ph.D.”

Depending on context and personal preference, some people may also choose to list their higher degrees after their names by writing out the entire degree instead of just its abbreviation.

For example, John Smith could choose to write his full title as “John Smith, Doctor of Psychology”

However, I have not seen this in real academic life.

Should the font size of Ph.D. be the same as someone’s name?

The question of whether the font size of a Ph.D. should be the same as someone’s name is an interesting one.

On one hand, it could be argued that the Ph.D. deserves to be highlighted and therefore should be given a larger font size than someone’s name to denote its importance.

On the other, it could be argued that this would not be necessary or appropriate, and that treating everyone equally regardless of their title or degree is more important.

It depends on context and usage – if both names appear in the same document then they should likely have the same font size; however, if one appears in a formal setting such as a diploma or certificate, then it may make sense to give it a larger font size than someone’s name to emphasize its importance and significance.

Ph.Ds (or PhDs) are an important academic achievement and should be respected accordingly but without going overboard by giving them overly large fonts sizes which can take away from rather than add to their importance.

Wrapping up – doctoral title rules

this article has been over everything you need to know that using the PhD title properly and effectively.

The doctor title can be used in place of the PhD and for incredibly formal communications, such as a business email or card, you can use both.

However, sometimes using both can cause confusion as to whether or not there is a reason first using both the doctor and PhD tags. Nonetheless, many people still use both.

how write phd

Dr Andrew Stapleton has a Masters and PhD in Chemistry from the UK and Australia. He has many years of research experience and has worked as a Postdoctoral Fellow and Associate at a number of Universities. Although having secured funding for his own research, he left academia to help others with his YouTube channel all about the inner workings of academia and how to make it work for you.

Thank you for visiting Academia Insider.

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how write phd


Should I Write Ph.D. or PhD? (Complete Guide)

As some of you are probably aware, the kind of English used on my side of the pond (England) is sometimes a bit different to the English used in the land of burgers and Trump.

Some words are spelt differently. But others just have a few bits of grammar difference.

Today, I want to look at the difference between Ph.D. and PhD. We’ll look at which one is correct, what it stands for, and why it’s a bit odd that it stands for that.

Should I Write Ph.D. Or PhD?

It is correct to write both Ph.D. and PhD. Which one is best to use depends on where you are in the world. In Great Britain, they tend to use Ph.D. In the United States of America, they prefer to use Ph.D.

Should I Write Ph.D. Or PhD?

What Does Ph.D. Or PhD Stand For?

Let’s try to understand what Ph.D. stands for.

It stands for two things. And it doesn’t stand for one or the other, it stands for both of them at the same time.

The first thing is “Doctor of Philosophy” and the second is “Philosophiae Doctor”. As the eagle-eyed among you may have noticed, “Philosophiae” is not English. It’s in Latin.

This goes back to the days when the only people who needed university were high thinkers and philosophers.

Why Americans And Brits Disagree On Ph.D. Or PhD

This could help us to understand why Brits prefer PhD but Americans prefer Ph.D.

Perhaps, according to the Brits, it stands for “Philosophiae Doctor”. But, according to the Americans, it stands for “Doctor or Philosophy”.

After all, the Brits do have a habit of trying to sound smarter. But, whichever one you use, people on both sides should know what you’re saying.

Why Ph.D. Or PhD Is A Bit Strange

Now, I want you all to understand how strange it is to call anyone with a PhD a “doctor of Philosophy”.

Let’s say someone gets a Ph.D. in history.

Well, first of all, is she really a doctor? If you break your leg, she’s not the first person you’ll go to for help.

But not only that, she studied history, not philosophy. So, she’s called a doctor of philosophy despite not being a doctor and not having studied history.

Yet, for some reason, we still call her a “Doctor of philosophy”.

Where Does The Word “Doctor” Come From?

When most of us hear the word “Doctor”, we think of someone who makes us better when we’re sick. And there may be a few of you who think of a skinny man who travels through time in a Police Box.

But originally, “Doctor” was Latin for teacher. Through time, you were able to get a “PhD” in more things than just philosophy.

And, if you wanted to become what we think of as a “Doctor”, you would need to have a “doctorate” in medicine.

Technically, “Doctor” would be the wrong word . But it’s become so common, it’s managed to “common” itself enough to become the right word.

How To Get A Ph.D. Or PhD

Now I’m afraid you can’t just walk into a university and walk out with a PhD. There are steps you need to take before you get there.

First of all, you will need to do a Bachelor’s degree. This is the degree you do when you first enter university. There are some jobs where a bachelors is enough.

Let’s be honest here, most of the time you spend doing a bachelor is just having fun.

If you want to, you can then progress onto doing a master’s degree. This is a bit more high level, and you tend to need to work for it.

Once you have your bachelors you may decide to go on to get a PhD. If you go for this, you will be officially able to call yourself an intellectual.

What Kind Of Word Is Ph.D. Or PhD?

There are three ideas for what kind of word Ph.D. is. I’ll tell you all of them and let you make up your own mind.

A PhD is something you have. You work towards it, and once you’ve handed in all of your papers, you get a PhD.

A PhD is also something you are. If you have a PhD, you might say “I’m a PhD.”

It can also be a title, similar to “Sir” or “OBE”.

If your name is James Smith, and you are PhD, your name and title could be, Mr James Smith PhD.

How To Address Someone With A Ph.D. Or PhD

Talking of this man called James Smith, there are several ways to address and introduce him.

  • If you have a Ph.D., you are allowed to call yourself “Doctor” even if you don’t have a PhD in medicine. Therefore, if he wants, James could be called Dr Smith.
  • Maybe he doesn’t want to be confused for a medical doctor but still wants to show off his Ph.D. In that case, we can call him James Smith PhD.
  • But, like many with a Ph.D., he may not want to mention it unless it’s important. If he’s one of these people, we should just call him Mr Smith.

Ph.D. Or PhD Vs Doctorate

Asking “What’s the difference between a PhD and a doctorate?” is a bit like asking what the difference is between an apple and a fruit.

Just like an apple is a kind of fruit, a PhD is a kind of doctorate. However, it’s not the only doctorate there is.

Here are some forms of doctorate you may want to know.

Doctor of philosophy. But now also means Doctor of something there isn’t a doctorate for.

Doctorate in business.

Doctorate in engineering.

Doctorate in education

Doctor of medicine.

If you were wondering whether you should write “PhD” or “Ph.D.”, you can write either, both are grammatically correct, and both are very common terms that mean the same thing.

The only slight difference is that “PhD” is more common in England and “Ph.D.” is more common in America. This is perhaps because the British believe it stands for “philosophiae doctor” but Americans see it as “Doctor of Philosophy”.

But, no matter whether you use “PhD” or “Ph.D.”, to have one, you neither need to be a doctor nor study philosophy. All you need to do is stay in university for long enough to be able to get yourself a PhD. Then, you can become a PhD, and your title will be PhD.

You may also like: DSc Degree vs. PhD Degree – What’s the Difference? 9 Correct Ways to Write PhD Title on a Business Card

martin lassen dam grammarhow

Martin holds a Master’s degree in Finance and International Business. He has six years of experience in professional communication with clients, executives, and colleagues. Furthermore, he has teaching experience from Aarhus University. Martin has been featured as an expert in communication and teaching on Forbes and Shopify. Read more about Martin here .

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how write phd

The PhD Proofreaders

How to plan, structure and write every chapter in your PhD

In this collection, we’ll walk you through each chapter of your thesis. You’ll learn what goes where and how it fits together. 

The PhD Discussion Chapter: What It Is & How To Write It

The PhD Discussion Chapter: What It Is & How To Write It

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Everything you wanted to know about structuring your PhD but were too afraid to ask

Understanding how to structure your PhD is tough. It helps to break it down into four distinct sections. In this guide, we explain how.

How to find the thread that runs through your PhD thesis

How to find the thread that runs through your PhD thesis

You probably worry about finding the thread that runs through the PhD thesis. In this guide we walk you through what’s required.

How to edit a PhD thesis (without going mad)

How to edit a PhD thesis (without going mad)

Your thesis takes a lot of time to research, ideate, and write. Here’s how to properly edit a PhD thesis such that you impress your examiners and achieve even greater success.

The 9 most effective ways to achieve PhD success

The 9 most effective ways to achieve PhD success

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How To Structure A PhD Thesis

Struggling to understand what goes where? Let us walk you through a non-nonsense guide that’ll teach you how to structure a PhD thesis.

The difference between empirical and discussion chapters (and how to write them)

The difference between empirical and discussion chapters (and how to write them)

There is a very important distinction that needs to be made between the empirical and discussion sections/chapters. It is a common misconception that the empirical chapters are the place for your analysis. Often this confuses the reader.

Five tips to improve your PhD thesis

Five tips to improve your PhD thesis

Regardless of what stage of the writing process you are at, there are five overarching tips you need to keep in mind if you want to improve your PhD thesis.

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What are you doing and how are you doing it? Articulating your aims and objectives.

How long does it take the person reading your thesis to understand what you’re doing and how you’re doing it? If the answer is anything other than ’in the the opening lines of the thesis’, keep reading.

Learn how to write a PhD proposal that will stand out from the rest

Learn how to write a PhD proposal that will stand out from the rest

When stripped down to its basic components, the PhD proposal explains the what and the why of your research. What it will be about and why it will be important.

Easily understand how to write a PhD thesis introduction

Easily understand how to write a PhD thesis introduction

Get the introduction right and the rest of your dissertation will follow. Mess it up and you’ll be struggling to catch up. The introduction is the place to factually recount what it is you will be discussing in the thesis. Learn more in this detailed guide.

Last impressions count – writing your PhD thesis conclusion

Last impressions count – writing your PhD thesis conclusion

The conclusion is the last thing your examiner will read before they write their viva report. You need to make sure it stands out.

What is a dissertation abstract and how do I write one for my PhD?

What is a dissertation abstract and how do I write one for my PhD?

Don’t underestimate how hard it is to write a PhD thesis abstract. When I wrote mine I though it’d be straightforward. Far from it. It’s tricky. You have to condense hundred of pages and years of work into a few hundred words.

Russian (dolls) to the rescue – how to structure an argument in your PhD

Russian (dolls) to the rescue – how to structure an argument in your PhD

At the core of the PhD are arguments. Lots of them. Some more important and some very specific. When you understand how to structure an argument, your thesis reads clearly and logically. If you don’t the reader ends up confused and your thesis suffers.

Drowning in a sea of authors – How to be critical in a PhD literature review.

Drowning in a sea of authors – How to be critical in a PhD literature review.

Don’t get lost in a sea of authors when you write your PhD literature review. Instead be critical. In this guide we explain how.

Wrestling an elephant into a cupboard: how to write a PhD literature review in nine easy steps

Wrestling an elephant into a cupboard: how to write a PhD literature review in nine easy steps

When I was writing my PhD I hated the literature review. I was scared of it. I thought it would be impossible to grapple. So much so that it used to keep me up at night. Now I know how easy it can be and I’m sharing my top tips with you today.

A Template To Help You Structure Your PhD’s Theoretical Framework Chapter

A Template To Help You Structure Your PhD’s Theoretical Framework Chapter

In this guide, I explain how to use the theory framework template. The focus is on the practical things to consider when you’re working with the template and how you can give your theory framework the rockstar treatment.

How To Structure A PhD With Our PhD Writing Template

How To Structure A PhD With Our PhD Writing Template

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Eureka! When I learnt how to write a theoretical framework

Eureka! When I learnt how to write a theoretical framework

The theoretical framework is so important, but so misunderstood. Here we explain it is in simple terms: as a toolbox.

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The Classroom | Empowering Students in Their College Journey

How to Correctly Use the Titles Dr. & PhD With a Name

How to Reference a Person With a PhD

How to Reference a Person With a PhD

When someone has earned a Doctor of Philosophy, or Ph.D., degree, that person is subsequently referred to as “doctor” in formal speech. The same is true of a person who is a medical doctor, psychologist, dentist or veterinarian. In formal speech, that person should be referred to as “doctor.” However, the rules are different in written form when addressing someone who is called “doctor” in formal speech. In written form, the titles “Dr.” and “Ph.D.” are not interchangeable.

Determine the Type of Doctor

First, you should identify what type of doctor you are addressing. Doctors of medicine and psychology, doctors of dentistry and doctors of veterinary medicine must be addressed differently in comparison to academic doctors who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy doctoral degree. Be advised that there are different types of doctoral degrees. A Doctor of Philosophy degree is just one kind of doctoral degree. There’s also, for example, a Doctor of Education doctoral degree and a Doctor of Psychology doctoral degree. The titles associated with the various doctoral degrees are not interchangeable. Only a person who has earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree should be addressed as Ph.D.

Addressing a Doctor in Writing

Place the title of “Dr.” before the name of a person who is a doctor of medicine or psychology, doctor of dentistry, or doctor of veterinary medicine. For example Dr. George Ross. Always write the word “doctor” in its abbreviated form when it goes before the person’s name. Never write, for example, Doctor George Ross. Do not combine the title of “Dr.” with any other title even if the person could appropriately be addressed by a different title. Never write, for example, “Dr. George Ross, Ph.D.,” even if the person is a medical doctor who has also earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree. Pick one title. Do not use the “Dr.” title when referring to someone who is solely an academic doctor.

Put a comma followed by the title “Ph.D.” after the name of a person who has earned a Doctor of Philosophy doctoral degree. For example Stacey Childs, Ph.D. Do not combine the title of “Ph.D.” with any other title even if the person could appropriately be addressed by a different title. For instance, even if the person being addressed is a doctor of medicine who has also earned a Ph.D., never write, for example, Dr. Stacey Childs, Ph.D. Pick one title. Do not use the “Ph.D.” title when referring to someone who not earned a Doctor of Philosophy doctoral degree.

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Maya Austen began freelance writing in 2009. She has written for many online publications on a wide variety of topics ranging from physical fitness to amateur astronomy. She's also an author and e-book publisher. Austen has a Bachelor of Arts in communications from the New England Institute of Art and currently lives in Boston, Mass.

From admission to dissertation. Tips on making the PhD journey happy, productive and successful

how to write phd

How To Write PhD? Is it ph d or phd

How do you write phd correctly after a name is it ph d or phd, here are the steps to write phd correctly:.

  • Firstly, “P” must be in a capital case.
  • Secondly, “h” is in small case with no space after “P”
  • Thirdly, use period/full-stop after “h”
  • Fourthly, Write “D” in capital case.
  • Fifthly, keep Period after “D”
  • Finally, the correct way to write is Ph.D .
  • Or, It can be also written as PhD in a sentence.
  • As per APA style, write Ph. D
  • As per Chicago style, write PhD
  • As per MLA style, write it as Ph. D.

For example this is how to write PhD title after your name: Dr.John Mathew, Ph.D. You can write PhD after name on your business cards, resumes, CV’s or identity cards or on nameplates etc. Some have confusion with the use of comma and full stops while writing PhD title after name. Here is my indepth review how to write out properly PhD.

Writing a PhD title after name

Use capital “p” and “d” in the word ph.d..

You must write ‘P’ as capital and ‘D’ as capital letters. Though there is no strict rule on how to use capital and small letters, many of them do this way. Both letters which I have just mentioned must be written in Capital because those letters are the heart of the abbreviationPh.D. There is no other way of writing. Even if you search the whole world and ask many people and read many books, this is how PhD title is written.  Sometimes there are possibilities that both letters are written in small letters by mistake. You need to correct instantly if such is the case. Otherwise, it looks awkward when someone looks at it or reads it.  Usually, mistaken words are clearly observed than that of rightly written ones.

Use small letter ‘h’ in the word Ph.D.

The letter ‘h’ is what written small letter in this 3 letter word is.  We write it in a small letter after name because this letter ‘h’ is in the middle of the word Ph.D.  Here also don’t write mistake by using capital letters. This is the reason why many people write a PhD title after the name wrongly. They are confused about where to use capital letters and were not to use small letters. I suggest you practice all the letters in one or other way.

Why do we write a PhD title after the name?

We write a PhD title after the name to know that one has completed his doctoral studies and it is a sign of knowledge and status.  We write a Ph.D. even for other purposes. For example, if someone is working in a university, it is mandatory that his qualification must be known to all the students and as well as the staff. This is why we write the Ph.D. title after the name. Not only in the university but also to the competent authorities who come for an inspection to the university must know the status of the faculty profiles.  So the title Ph.D. is written after every faculty name as a title.

Should we use bold letters

I say a big no. You cannot write bold and fashioned way while writing PhD title after your name. As you write you must make it look similar along with the name without any difference. There is no way that you must write the Ph.D. title in bold fonts. This way, it looks very odd for those who look. Instead of reading your name, they will read Ph.D. firstly. So there is a chance of not remembering your name. So never use bold fonts while writing PhD title after your name.

Should we use Italic Letters

Again it is a big no. Do be too creative while writing a Ph.D. after your name. The use of italics is a big mistake. Do not use such writing in italics. Every time you use italic, again it looks very different from the original name adjacent to it.

Is Ph.D. a title after your name?

Do you think it is a PhD title or just a status?  It is both status and title.  Though in my personal opinion it is not a title, many call it as a title. But if you ask me I would tell it is a status word that is symbolically represented a matter of qualification. This is only my personal opinion about the title of Ph.D. So if at all you have some doubts about how this title arose as a part of history, you must read a vast number of history books about the Ph.D. title. It all requires for you to understand that a Ph.D. is not a title finally and just a resemblance of qualification.

Is it good to put PhD after title in your identity cards?

No, you must not use the title Ph.D. after your name in any type of identity card. These cards are existing irrespective of your qualification. This is meant to identify you as you are. There is no necessity what you have achieved. There is no need for knowing your qualifications. So in any type of identity card which is issued by the government like passport and voter card etc, you cannot use such title after your name. But there is one exception that the identity card at university or college or at job area must be given with Ph.D. title. If you ever need expert help with writing your Doctoral level papers, go to WriteMyPaperHub and send your request to  write my PhD thesis for me .

Should we use the subject name when using a Ph.D. with the name?

This thought is quite awkward. But I must still mention this. There are some who use the subject name after the Ph.D. title along with the name. Like for example Dr. Luke, Ph.D. in Linguistics. Using this way is quite reasonable if there are some important debates or international meetups. Otherwise, I don’t suggest such type of writing after your name.

What happens if you don’t use a Ph.D. after your name?

If you do not use the Ph.D. title after your name, people around you won’t know that you are a doctoral research fellow. So it is very important to let them know it. You can only use this if at all there are some students around you or any known people. If there are unknown people around you, then there is no way that it is mandatory to use a Ph.D. after your name. Anyhow, I say that there is no danger of not using Ph.D. after your name.

Should comma be addded before or after PhD

Yes, a comma is a mandatory thing to be added after Ph.D. This is a rule. Otherwise, it is mixed combined with your original name. It will become part of your name. So comma is good after your name. I have already given the example above on how to put a comma after your name. But let me give here one more example as a matter of understanding.  Dr.Mohima, Ph.D. If you see the name, for example, there is a comma used after the name to separate Ph.D. from it. So try to put a comma. But never use another punctuation mark as such full stop or colon after your name. I have seen people using other punctuation marks like semicolon after name and then they write the title Ph.D. Some don’t use at all. All such things are mistakes. Use the only comma after your name always.

Can we write Dr instead of Ph.D. after the name?

Writing a doctor instead of a Ph.D. means a different thing. So you cannot use such way. As this is not the right format. ‘Dr’ is used at the beginning of the name as another title. But after the name, it must be a Ph.D. and not ‘Dr’

Should we write a Ph.D. at all after one’s name that is too long?

Sometimes it so happens that your name is too long to write Ph.D. after it. During this trouble, you must cut out some part of the name and type PhD as a title after your name. There is no other way to do it.  Usually, longs name are common in some countries like Germany and India. But in the USA we have shorter names. Whatever may be the length, you must try to use the most used name and eliminate the rest of the name. This way you can use the title Ph.D. comfortable after your name. Always try to use the same name. Don’t change the name or cut your name in different ways on different days. These will again a problem to your recognition.

Should we write phd or ph d on business card, welcome banners during functions?

On welcome banners and business cards, it is very important to mention the title Ph.D. This will be more serious if you do not use the Ph.D. title after the name. There are many people watching that public banner. If you do not write the title after the name, you are disrespecting the guest totally. So be aware of using the title ofPh.D. whenever you have public functions or welcome banners or during some important meetings.  This is a sign that others should treat the guest better than the other out there.

Should the font size of Ph.D. be the same as someone’s name?

The name and the title Ph.D. must be in the same size. There must not be unusual differences. Font sizes matter a lot. Don’t use wrong font size or awkward fonts while using your title Ph.D. after your name. The best font could be like Ariel, Lato, Times New Roman, etc. These fonts will look better as a Ph.D. title after your name. Initially, there is some confusion about using the right font. But once you learn the size usage, you are comfortable using them rightly. Even when you write manually, you can easily write with similar size throughout. This requires a good amount of practice to write the Ph.D. title after your name with good font limitations.

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Syam Prasad Reddy T

Hello, My name is Syam, Asst. Professor of English and Mentor for Ph.D. students worldwide. I have worked years to give you these amazing tips to complete your Ph.D. successfully. Having put a lot of efforts means to make your Ph.D. journey easier. Thank you for visiting my Ph.D. blog.

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  • Manuscript Preparation

Know How to Structure Your PhD Thesis

  • 4 minute read

Table of Contents

In your academic career, few projects are more important than your PhD thesis. Unfortunately, many university professors and advisors assume that their students know how to structure a PhD. Books have literally been written on the subject, but there’s no need to read a book in order to know about PhD thesis paper format and structure. With that said, however, it’s important to understand that your PhD thesis format requirement may not be the same as another student’s. The bottom line is that how to structure a PhD thesis often depends on your university and department guidelines.

But, let’s take a look at a general PhD thesis format. We’ll look at the main sections, and how to connect them to each other. We’ll also examine different hints and tips for each of the sections. As you read through this toolkit, compare it to published PhD theses in your area of study to see how a real-life example looks.

Main Sections of a PhD Thesis

In almost every PhD thesis or dissertation, there are standard sections. Of course, some of these may differ, depending on your university or department requirements, as well as your topic of study, but this will give you a good idea of the basic components of a PhD thesis format.

  • Abstract : The abstract is a brief summary that quickly outlines your research, touches on each of the main sections of your thesis, and clearly outlines your contribution to the field by way of your PhD thesis. Even though the abstract is very short, similar to what you’ve seen in published research articles, its impact shouldn’t be underestimated. The abstract is there to answer the most important question to the reviewer. “Why is this important?”
  • Introduction : In this section, you help the reviewer understand your entire dissertation, including what your paper is about, why it’s important to the field, a brief description of your methodology, and how your research and the thesis are laid out. Think of your introduction as an expansion of your abstract.
  • Literature Review : Within the literature review, you are making a case for your new research by telling the story of the work that’s already been done. You’ll cover a bit about the history of the topic at hand, and how your study fits into the present and future.
  • Theory Framework : Here, you explain assumptions related to your study. Here you’re explaining to the review what theoretical concepts you might have used in your research, how it relates to existing knowledge and ideas.
  • Methods : This section of a PhD thesis is typically the most detailed and descriptive, depending of course on your research design. Here you’ll discuss the specific techniques you used to get the information you were looking for, in addition to how those methods are relevant and appropriate, as well as how you specifically used each method described.
  • Results : Here you present your empirical findings. This section is sometimes also called the “empiracles” chapter. This section is usually pretty straightforward and technical, and full of details. Don’t shortcut this chapter.
  • Discussion : This can be a tricky chapter, because it’s where you want to show the reviewer that you know what you’re talking about. You need to speak as a PhD versus a student. The discussion chapter is similar to the empirical/results chapter, but you’re building on those results to push the new information that you learned, prior to making your conclusion.
  • Conclusion : Here, you take a step back and reflect on what your original goals and intentions for the research were. You’ll outline them in context of your new findings and expertise.

Tips for your PhD Thesis Format

As you put together your PhD thesis, it’s easy to get a little overwhelmed. Here are some tips that might keep you on track.

  • Don’t try to write your PhD as a first-draft. Every great masterwork has typically been edited, and edited, and…edited.
  • Work with your thesis supervisor to plan the structure and format of your PhD thesis. Be prepared to rewrite each section, as you work out rough drafts. Don’t get discouraged by this process. It’s typical.
  • Make your writing interesting. Academic writing has a reputation of being very dry.
  • You don’t have to necessarily work on the chapters and sections outlined above in chronological order. Work on each section as things come up, and while your work on that section is relevant to what you’re doing.
  • Don’t rush things. Write a first draft, and leave it for a few days, so you can come back to it with a more critical take. Look at it objectively and carefully grammatical errors, clarity, logic and flow.
  • Know what style your references need to be in, and utilize tools out there to organize them in the required format.
  • It’s easier to accidentally plagiarize than you think. Make sure you’re referencing appropriately, and check your document for inadvertent plagiarism throughout your writing process.

PhD Thesis Editing Plus

Want some support during your PhD writing process? Our PhD Thesis Editing Plus service includes extensive and detailed editing of your thesis to improve the flow and quality of your writing. Unlimited editing support for guaranteed results. Learn more here , and get started today!

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How to tackle the PhD dissertation

Finding time to write can be a challenge for graduate students who often juggle multiple roles and responsibilities. Mabel Ho provides some tips to make the process less daunting

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Writing helps you share your work with the wider community. Your scholarship is important and you are making a valuable contribution to the field. While it might be intimidating to face a blank screen, remember, your first draft is not your final draft! The difficult part is getting something on the page to begin with. 

As the adage goes, a good dissertation is a done dissertation, and the goal is for you to find balance in your writing and establish the steps you can take to make the process smoother. Here are some practical strategies for tackling the PhD dissertation.

Write daily

This is a time to have honest conversations with yourself about your writing and work habits. Do you tackle the most challenging work in the morning? Or do you usually start with emails? Knowing your work routine will help you set parameters for the writing process, which includes various elements, from brainstorming ideas to setting outlines and editing. Once you are aware of your energy and focus levels, you’ll be ready to dedicate those times to writing.

While it might be tempting to block a substantial chunk of time to write and assume anything shorter is not useful, that is not the case. Writing daily, whether it’s a paragraph or several pages, keeps you in conversation with your writing practice. If you schedule two hours to write, remember to take a break during that time and reset. You can try:

  • The Pomodoro Technique: a time management technique that breaks down your work into intervals
  • Taking breaks: go outside for a walk or have a snack so you can come back to your writing rejuvenated
  • Focus apps: it is easy to get distracted by devices and lose direction. Here are some app suggestions: Focus Bear (no free version); Forest (free version available); Cold Turkey website blocker (free version available) and Serene (no free version). 

This is a valuable opportunity to hone your time management and task prioritisation skills. Find out what works for you and put systems in place to support your practice. 

  • Resources on academic writing for higher education professionals
  • Stretch your work further by ‘triple writing’
  • What is your academic writing temperament?

Create a community

While writing can be an isolating endeavour, there are ways to start forming a community (in-person or virtual) to help you set goals and stay accountable. There might be someone in your cohort who is also at the writing stage with whom you can set up a weekly check-in. Alternatively, explore your university’s resources and centres because there may be units and departments on campus that offer helpful opportunities, such as a writing week or retreat. Taking advantage of these opportunities helps combat isolation, foster accountability and grow networks. They can even lead to collaborations further down the line.

  • Check in with your advisers and mentors. Reach out to your networks to find out about other people’s writing processes and additional resources.
  • Don’t be afraid to share your work. Writing requires constant revisions and edits and finding people who you trust with feedback will help you grow as a writer. Plus, you can also read their work and help them with their editing process.
  • Your community does not have to be just about writing!  If you enjoy going on hikes or trying new coffee shops, make that part of your weekly habit.  Sharing your work in different environments will help clarify your thoughts and ideas.

Address the why

The PhD dissertation writing process is often lengthy and it is sometimes easy to forget why you started. In these moments, it can be helpful to think back to what got you excited about your research and scholarship in the first place. Remember it is not just the work but also the people who propelled you forward. One idea is to start writing your “acknowledgements” section. Here are questions to get you started:

  • Do you want to dedicate your work to someone? 
  • What ideas sparked your interest in this journey? 
  • Who cheered you on? 

This practice can help build momentum, as well as serve as a good reminder to carve out time to spend with your community. 

You got this!

Writing is a process. Give yourself grace, as you might not feel motivated all the time. Be consistent in your approach and reward yourself along the way. There is no single strategy when it comes to writing or maintaining motivation, so experiment and find out what works for you. 

Suggested readings

  • Thriving as a Graduate Writer by Rachel Cayley (2023)
  • Destination Dissertation by Sonja K. Foss and William Waters (2015)
  • The PhD Writing Handbook by Desmond Thomas (2016).

Mabel Ho is director of professional development and student engagement at Dalhousie University.

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Dissertation Structure & Layout 101: How to structure your dissertation, thesis or research project.

By: Derek Jansen (MBA) Reviewed By: David Phair (PhD) | July 2019

So, you’ve got a decent understanding of what a dissertation is , you’ve chosen your topic and hopefully you’ve received approval for your research proposal . Awesome! Now its time to start the actual dissertation or thesis writing journey.

To craft a high-quality document, the very first thing you need to understand is dissertation structure . In this post, we’ll walk you through the generic dissertation structure and layout, step by step. We’ll start with the big picture, and then zoom into each chapter to briefly discuss the core contents. If you’re just starting out on your research journey, you should start with this post, which covers the big-picture process of how to write a dissertation or thesis .

Dissertation structure and layout - the basics

*The Caveat *

In this post, we’ll be discussing a traditional dissertation/thesis structure and layout, which is generally used for social science research across universities, whether in the US, UK, Europe or Australia. However, some universities may have small variations on this structure (extra chapters, merged chapters, slightly different ordering, etc).

So, always check with your university if they have a prescribed structure or layout that they expect you to work with. If not, it’s safe to assume the structure we’ll discuss here is suitable. And even if they do have a prescribed structure, you’ll still get value from this post as we’ll explain the core contents of each section.  

Overview: S tructuring a dissertation or thesis

  • Acknowledgements page
  • Abstract (or executive summary)
  • Table of contents , list of figures and tables
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
  • Chapter 2: Literature review
  • Chapter 3: Methodology
  • Chapter 4: Results
  • Chapter 5: Discussion
  • Chapter 6: Conclusion
  • Reference list

As I mentioned, some universities will have slight variations on this structure. For example, they want an additional “personal reflection chapter”, or they might prefer the results and discussion chapter to be merged into one. Regardless, the overarching flow will always be the same, as this flow reflects the research process , which we discussed here – i.e.:

  • The introduction chapter presents the core research question and aims .
  • The literature review chapter assesses what the current research says about this question.
  • The methodology, results and discussion chapters go about undertaking new research about this question.
  • The conclusion chapter (attempts to) answer the core research question .

In other words, the dissertation structure and layout reflect the research process of asking a well-defined question(s), investigating, and then answering the question – see below.

A dissertation's structure reflect the research process

To restate that – the structure and layout of a dissertation reflect the flow of the overall research process . This is essential to understand, as each chapter will make a lot more sense if you “get” this concept. If you’re not familiar with the research process, read this post before going further.

Right. Now that we’ve covered the big picture, let’s dive a little deeper into the details of each section and chapter. Oh and by the way, you can also grab our free dissertation/thesis template here to help speed things up.

The title page of your dissertation is the very first impression the marker will get of your work, so it pays to invest some time thinking about your title. But what makes for a good title? A strong title needs to be 3 things:

  • Succinct (not overly lengthy or verbose)
  • Specific (not vague or ambiguous)
  • Representative of the research you’re undertaking (clearly linked to your research questions)

Typically, a good title includes mention of the following:

  • The broader area of the research (i.e. the overarching topic)
  • The specific focus of your research (i.e. your specific context)
  • Indication of research design (e.g. quantitative , qualitative , or  mixed methods ).

For example:

A quantitative investigation [research design] into the antecedents of organisational trust [broader area] in the UK retail forex trading market [specific context/area of focus].

Again, some universities may have specific requirements regarding the format and structure of the title, so it’s worth double-checking expectations with your institution (if there’s no mention in the brief or study material).

Dissertations stacked up


This page provides you with an opportunity to say thank you to those who helped you along your research journey. Generally, it’s optional (and won’t count towards your marks), but it is academic best practice to include this.

So, who do you say thanks to? Well, there’s no prescribed requirements, but it’s common to mention the following people:

  • Your dissertation supervisor or committee.
  • Any professors, lecturers or academics that helped you understand the topic or methodologies.
  • Any tutors, mentors or advisors.
  • Your family and friends, especially spouse (for adult learners studying part-time).

There’s no need for lengthy rambling. Just state who you’re thankful to and for what (e.g. thank you to my supervisor, John Doe, for his endless patience and attentiveness) – be sincere. In terms of length, you should keep this to a page or less.

Abstract or executive summary

The dissertation abstract (or executive summary for some degrees) serves to provide the first-time reader (and marker or moderator) with a big-picture view of your research project. It should give them an understanding of the key insights and findings from the research, without them needing to read the rest of the report – in other words, it should be able to stand alone .

For it to stand alone, your abstract should cover the following key points (at a minimum):

  • Your research questions and aims – what key question(s) did your research aim to answer?
  • Your methodology – how did you go about investigating the topic and finding answers to your research question(s)?
  • Your findings – following your own research, what did do you discover?
  • Your conclusions – based on your findings, what conclusions did you draw? What answers did you find to your research question(s)?

So, in much the same way the dissertation structure mimics the research process, your abstract or executive summary should reflect the research process, from the initial stage of asking the original question to the final stage of answering that question.

In practical terms, it’s a good idea to write this section up last , once all your core chapters are complete. Otherwise, you’ll end up writing and rewriting this section multiple times (just wasting time). For a step by step guide on how to write a strong executive summary, check out this post .

Need a helping hand?

how write phd

Table of contents

This section is straightforward. You’ll typically present your table of contents (TOC) first, followed by the two lists – figures and tables. I recommend that you use Microsoft Word’s automatic table of contents generator to generate your TOC. If you’re not familiar with this functionality, the video below explains it simply:

If you find that your table of contents is overly lengthy, consider removing one level of depth. Oftentimes, this can be done without detracting from the usefulness of the TOC.

Right, now that the “admin” sections are out of the way, its time to move on to your core chapters. These chapters are the heart of your dissertation and are where you’ll earn the marks. The first chapter is the introduction chapter – as you would expect, this is the time to introduce your research…

It’s important to understand that even though you’ve provided an overview of your research in your abstract, your introduction needs to be written as if the reader has not read that (remember, the abstract is essentially a standalone document). So, your introduction chapter needs to start from the very beginning, and should address the following questions:

  • What will you be investigating (in plain-language, big picture-level)?
  • Why is that worth investigating? How is it important to academia or business? How is it sufficiently original?
  • What are your research aims and research question(s)? Note that the research questions can sometimes be presented at the end of the literature review (next chapter).
  • What is the scope of your study? In other words, what will and won’t you cover ?
  • How will you approach your research? In other words, what methodology will you adopt?
  • How will you structure your dissertation? What are the core chapters and what will you do in each of them?

These are just the bare basic requirements for your intro chapter. Some universities will want additional bells and whistles in the intro chapter, so be sure to carefully read your brief or consult your research supervisor.

If done right, your introduction chapter will set a clear direction for the rest of your dissertation. Specifically, it will make it clear to the reader (and marker) exactly what you’ll be investigating, why that’s important, and how you’ll be going about the investigation. Conversely, if your introduction chapter leaves a first-time reader wondering what exactly you’ll be researching, you’ve still got some work to do.

Now that you’ve set a clear direction with your introduction chapter, the next step is the literature review . In this section, you will analyse the existing research (typically academic journal articles and high-quality industry publications), with a view to understanding the following questions:

  • What does the literature currently say about the topic you’re investigating?
  • Is the literature lacking or well established? Is it divided or in disagreement?
  • How does your research fit into the bigger picture?
  • How does your research contribute something original?
  • How does the methodology of previous studies help you develop your own?

Depending on the nature of your study, you may also present a conceptual framework towards the end of your literature review, which you will then test in your actual research.

Again, some universities will want you to focus on some of these areas more than others, some will have additional or fewer requirements, and so on. Therefore, as always, its important to review your brief and/or discuss with your supervisor, so that you know exactly what’s expected of your literature review chapter.

Dissertation writing

Now that you’ve investigated the current state of knowledge in your literature review chapter and are familiar with the existing key theories, models and frameworks, its time to design your own research. Enter the methodology chapter – the most “science-ey” of the chapters…

In this chapter, you need to address two critical questions:

  • Exactly HOW will you carry out your research (i.e. what is your intended research design)?
  • Exactly WHY have you chosen to do things this way (i.e. how do you justify your design)?

Remember, the dissertation part of your degree is first and foremost about developing and demonstrating research skills . Therefore, the markers want to see that you know which methods to use, can clearly articulate why you’ve chosen then, and know how to deploy them effectively.

Importantly, this chapter requires detail – don’t hold back on the specifics. State exactly what you’ll be doing, with who, when, for how long, etc. Moreover, for every design choice you make, make sure you justify it.

In practice, you will likely end up coming back to this chapter once you’ve undertaken all your data collection and analysis, and revise it based on changes you made during the analysis phase. This is perfectly fine. Its natural for you to add an additional analysis technique, scrap an old one, etc based on where your data lead you. Of course, I’m talking about small changes here – not a fundamental switch from qualitative to quantitative, which will likely send your supervisor in a spin!

You’ve now collected your data and undertaken your analysis, whether qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods. In this chapter, you’ll present the raw results of your analysis . For example, in the case of a quant study, you’ll present the demographic data, descriptive statistics, inferential statistics , etc.

Typically, Chapter 4 is simply a presentation and description of the data, not a discussion of the meaning of the data. In other words, it’s descriptive, rather than analytical – the meaning is discussed in Chapter 5. However, some universities will want you to combine chapters 4 and 5, so that you both present and interpret the meaning of the data at the same time. Check with your institution what their preference is.

Now that you’ve presented the data analysis results, its time to interpret and analyse them. In other words, its time to discuss what they mean, especially in relation to your research question(s).

What you discuss here will depend largely on your chosen methodology. For example, if you’ve gone the quantitative route, you might discuss the relationships between variables . If you’ve gone the qualitative route, you might discuss key themes and the meanings thereof. It all depends on what your research design choices were.

Most importantly, you need to discuss your results in relation to your research questions and aims, as well as the existing literature. What do the results tell you about your research questions? Are they aligned with the existing research or at odds? If so, why might this be? Dig deep into your findings and explain what the findings suggest, in plain English.

The final chapter – you’ve made it! Now that you’ve discussed your interpretation of the results, its time to bring it back to the beginning with the conclusion chapter . In other words, its time to (attempt to) answer your original research question s (from way back in chapter 1). Clearly state what your conclusions are in terms of your research questions. This might feel a bit repetitive, as you would have touched on this in the previous chapter, but its important to bring the discussion full circle and explicitly state your answer(s) to the research question(s).

Dissertation and thesis prep

Next, you’ll typically discuss the implications of your findings? In other words, you’ve answered your research questions – but what does this mean for the real world (or even for academia)? What should now be done differently, given the new insight you’ve generated?

Lastly, you should discuss the limitations of your research, as well as what this means for future research in the area. No study is perfect, especially not a Masters-level. Discuss the shortcomings of your research. Perhaps your methodology was limited, perhaps your sample size was small or not representative, etc, etc. Don’t be afraid to critique your work – the markers want to see that you can identify the limitations of your work. This is a strength, not a weakness. Be brutal!

This marks the end of your core chapters – woohoo! From here on out, it’s pretty smooth sailing.

The reference list is straightforward. It should contain a list of all resources cited in your dissertation, in the required format, e.g. APA , Harvard, etc.

It’s essential that you use reference management software for your dissertation. Do NOT try handle your referencing manually – its far too error prone. On a reference list of multiple pages, you’re going to make mistake. To this end, I suggest considering either Mendeley or Zotero. Both are free and provide a very straightforward interface to ensure that your referencing is 100% on point. I’ve included a simple how-to video for the Mendeley software (my personal favourite) below:

Some universities may ask you to include a bibliography, as opposed to a reference list. These two things are not the same . A bibliography is similar to a reference list, except that it also includes resources which informed your thinking but were not directly cited in your dissertation. So, double-check your brief and make sure you use the right one.

The very last piece of the puzzle is the appendix or set of appendices. This is where you’ll include any supporting data and evidence. Importantly, supporting is the keyword here.

Your appendices should provide additional “nice to know”, depth-adding information, which is not critical to the core analysis. Appendices should not be used as a way to cut down word count (see this post which covers how to reduce word count ). In other words, don’t place content that is critical to the core analysis here, just to save word count. You will not earn marks on any content in the appendices, so don’t try to play the system!

Time to recap…

And there you have it – the traditional dissertation structure and layout, from A-Z. To recap, the core structure for a dissertation or thesis is (typically) as follows:

  • Acknowledgments page

Most importantly, the core chapters should reflect the research process (asking, investigating and answering your research question). Moreover, the research question(s) should form the golden thread throughout your dissertation structure. Everything should revolve around the research questions, and as you’ve seen, they should form both the start point (i.e. introduction chapter) and the endpoint (i.e. conclusion chapter).

I hope this post has provided you with clarity about the traditional dissertation/thesis structure and layout. If you have any questions or comments, please leave a comment below, or feel free to get in touch with us. Also, be sure to check out the rest of the  Grad Coach Blog .

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many thanks i found it very useful

Derek Jansen

Glad to hear that, Arun. Good luck writing your dissertation.


Such clear practical logical advice. I very much needed to read this to keep me focused in stead of fretting.. Perfect now ready to start my research!


what about scientific fields like computer or engineering thesis what is the difference in the structure? thank you very much


Thanks so much this helped me a lot!

Ade Adeniyi

Very helpful and accessible. What I like most is how practical the advice is along with helpful tools/ links.

Thanks Ade!


Thank you so much sir.. It was really helpful..

You’re welcome!

Jp Raimundo

Hi! How many words maximum should contain the abstract?

Karmelia Renatee

Thank you so much 😊 Find this at the right moment

You’re most welcome. Good luck with your dissertation.


best ever benefit i got on right time thank you

Krishnan iyer

Many times Clarity and vision of destination of dissertation is what makes the difference between good ,average and great researchers the same way a great automobile driver is fast with clarity of address and Clear weather conditions .

I guess Great researcher = great ideas + knowledge + great and fast data collection and modeling + great writing + high clarity on all these

You have given immense clarity from start to end.

Alwyn Malan

Morning. Where will I write the definitions of what I’m referring to in my report?


Thank you so much Derek, I was almost lost! Thanks a tonnnn! Have a great day!

yemi Amos

Thanks ! so concise and valuable

Kgomotso Siwelane

This was very helpful. Clear and concise. I know exactly what to do now.

dauda sesay

Thank you for allowing me to go through briefly. I hope to find time to continue.

Patrick Mwathi

Really useful to me. Thanks a thousand times

Adao Bundi

Very interesting! It will definitely set me and many more for success. highly recommended.


Thank you soo much sir, for the opportunity to express my skills

mwepu Ilunga

Usefull, thanks a lot. Really clear


Very nice and easy to understand. Thank you .

Chrisogonas Odhiambo

That was incredibly useful. Thanks Grad Coach Crew!


My stress level just dropped at least 15 points after watching this. Just starting my thesis for my grad program and I feel a lot more capable now! Thanks for such a clear and helpful video, Emma and the GradCoach team!


Do we need to mention the number of words the dissertation contains in the main document?

It depends on your university’s requirements, so it would be best to check with them 🙂


Such a helpful post to help me get started with structuring my masters dissertation, thank you!

Simon Le

Great video; I appreciate that helpful information

Brhane Kidane

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Doctoral students are required to fill out the National Research Council’s Survey of Earned Doctorates

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how write phd

How to Write a PhD Research Proposal

  • Applying to a PhD
  • A research proposal summarises your intended research.
  • Your research proposal is used to confirm you understand the topic, and that the university has the expertise to support your study.
  • The length of a research proposal varies. It is usually specified by either the programme requirements or the supervisor upon request. 1500 to 3500 words is common.
  • The typical research proposal structure consists of: Title, Abstract, Background and Rationale, Research Aims and Objectives, Research Design and Methodology, Timetable, and a Bibliography.

What is a Research Proposal?

A research proposal is a supporting document that may be required when applying to a research degree. It summarises your intended research by outlining what your research questions are, why they’re important to your field and what knowledge gaps surround your topic. It also outlines your research in terms of your aims, methods and proposed timetable .

What Is It Used for and Why Is It Important?

A research proposal will be used to:

  • Confirm whether you understand the topic and can communicate complex ideas.
  • Confirm whether the university has adequate expertise to support you in your research topic.
  • Apply for funding or research grants to external bodies.

How Long Should a PhD Research Proposal Be?

Some universities will specify a word count all students will need to adhere to. You will typically find these in the description of the PhD listing. If they haven’t stated a word count limit, you should contact the potential supervisor to clarify whether there are any requirements. If not, aim for 1500 to 3500 words (3 to 7 pages).

Your title should indicate clearly what your research question is. It needs to be simple and to the point; if the reader needs to read further into your proposal to understand your question, your working title isn’t clear enough.

Directly below your title, state the topic your research question relates to. Whether you include this information at the top of your proposal or insert a dedicated title page is your choice and will come down to personal preference.

2. Abstract

If your research proposal is over 2000 words, consider providing an abstract. Your abstract should summarise your question, why it’s important to your field and how you intend to answer it; in other words, explain your research context.

Only include crucial information in this section – 250 words should be sufficient to get across your main points.

3. Background & Rationale

First, specify which subject area your research problem falls in. This will help set the context of your study and will help the reader anticipate the direction of your proposed research.

Following this, include a literature review . A literature review summarises the existing knowledge which surrounds your research topic. This should include a discussion of the theories, models and bodies of text which directly relate to your research problem. As well as discussing the information available, discuss those which aren’t. In other words, identify what the current gaps in knowledge are and discuss how this will influence your research. Your aim here is to convince the potential supervisor and funding providers of why your intended research is worth investing time and money into.

Last, discuss the key debates and developments currently at the centre of your research area.

4. Research Aims & Objectives

Identify the aims and objectives of your research. The aims are the problems your project intends to solve; the objectives are the measurable steps and outcomes required to achieve the aim.

In outlining your aims and objectives, you will need to explain why your proposed research is worth exploring. Consider these aspects:

  • Will your research solve a problem?
  • Will your research address a current gap in knowledge?
  • Will your research have any social or practical benefits?

If you fail to address the above questions, it’s unlikely they will accept your proposal – all PhD research projects must show originality and value to be considered.

5. Research Design and Methodology

The following structure is recommended when discussing your research design:

  • Sample/Population – Discuss your sample size, target populations, specimen types etc.
  • Methods – What research methods have you considered, how did you evaluate them and how did you decide on your chosen one?
  • Data Collection – How are you going to collect and validate your data? Are there any limitations?
  • Data Analysis – How are you going to interpret your results and obtain a meaningful conclusion from them?
  • Ethical Considerations – Are there any potential implications associated with your research approach? This could either be to research participants or to your field as a whole on the outcome of your findings (i.e. if you’re researching a particularly controversial area). How are you going to monitor for these implications and what types of preventive steps will you need to put into place?

6. Timetable

PhD Project Plan - PhD research proposal

We’ve outlined the various stages of a PhD and the approximate duration of a PhD programme which you can refer to when designing your own research study.

7. Bibliography

Plagiarism is taken seriously across all academic levels, but even more so for doctorates. Therefore, ensure you reference the existing literature you have used in writing your PhD proposal. Besides this, try to adopt the same referencing style as the University you’re applying to uses. You can easily find this information in the PhD Thesis formatting guidelines published on the University’s website.

Finding a PhD has never been this easy – search for a PhD by keyword, location or academic area of interest.

Questions & Answers

Here are answers to some of the most common questions we’re asked about the Research Proposal:

Can You Change a Research Proposal?

Yes, your PhD research proposal outlines the start of your project only. It’s well accepted that the direction of your research will develop with time, therefore, you can revise it at later dates.

Can the Potential Supervisor Review My Draft Proposal?

Whether the potential supervisor will review your draft will depend on the individual. However, it is highly advisable that you at least attempt to discuss your draft with them. Even if they can’t review it, they may provide you with useful information regarding their department’s expertise which could help shape your PhD proposal. For example, you may amend your methodology should you come to learn that their laboratory is better equipped for an alternative method.

How Should I Structure and Format My Proposal?

Ensure you follow the same order as the headings given above. This is the most logical structure and will be the order your proposed supervisor will expect.

Most universities don’t provide formatting requirements for research proposals on the basis that they are a supporting document only, however, we recommend that you follow the same format they require for their PhD thesis submissions. This will give your reader familiarity and their guidelines should be readily available on their website.

Last, try to have someone within the same academic field or discipline area to review your proposal. The key is to confirm that they understand the importance of your work and how you intend to execute it. If they don’t, it’s likely a sign you need to rewrite some of your sections to be more coherent.

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How to write a PhD in Biological Sciences: a guide for the uninitiated

John Measey

Published by CRC Press, Bota Raton, USA.

how write phd

Cover illustration : Saint George and the Dragon was adapted by the author from an original work by Paolo Uccello (~1470). While the student (St George), supported by their laboratory (White Horse), is attempting to bring about the end of their PhD (Dragon) using this Fool’s Guide (lance), the advisor (Princess) is leading the PhD by a leash from the darkness into the community towards the Scientific Project (town).

You can order your own copy on the CRC Press website , on Amazon , at Barns & Noble , and at other good book sellers.

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How to Write a Good Introduction Section

A strong narrative is as integral a part of science writing as it is for any other form of communication..

Nathan Ni, PhD Headshot

Nathan Ni holds a PhD from Queens University. He is a science editor for The Scientist’s Creative Services Team who strives to better understand and communicate the relationships between health and disease.

View full profile.

Learn about our editorial policies.

A person sitting at a laboratory bench, typing on a laptop while looking at notes on a clipboard.

First impressions are important. Scientists need to make their work stand out among a sea of others. However, many mistakenly believe that first impressions are formed based only on titles and abstracts. In actuality, the introduction section is critical to making a real impression on the audience. The introduction is where authors outline their research topic and describe their study. It is where they provide background information and showcase their writing and argumentation styles. For these reasons, the introduction engages the audience in a deeper way than the formalities and rigidities of the title and abstract can afford. To use a fishing analogy: if the title and the abstract serve as the hook and the bait, then the introduction is the process of actually reeling the fish into the boat.

Good Introductions Are Important Guides

In contrast to the constraints placed on the title and abstract, the introduction is the first real opportunity for the scientist to engage with their audience and showcase and convey their passions and motivations for the study in question. This opportunity is somewhat of a double-edged sword. Study authors inevitably have a treasure trove of knowledge and expertise when it comes to their projects and their fields. However, they must remember that the audience does not necessarily have this background information—and that they are only engaging with their audience for a finite amount of time. Despite the urge to excitedly write about all of the different aspects and intricacies of the project, it is very important that authors keep their introductions simple and well organized. 

Therefore, the introduction should move from broad scopes to narrow focuses as the audience reads further. The author should direct the reader along this journey, focusing on topics with direct relevance to what was investigated in the study. A broad fact introduced early on should be linked or paired with a more specific fact along the same lines of thought, eventually culminating in how this information led to the motivation behind the study itself. It is vital to not go off on tangents or talk about things that are too esoteric. A confused audience is an audience that tends not to read further.

Applying Common Principles Across Well-Known and Niche Subjects

Writers can apply these principles in more specialized manuscripts focusing on a single entity rather than a well-known pathology. Consider the following example from a manuscript by cell biologist Luis R. Cruz-Vera’s research team from the University of Alabama in Huntsville, published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1

Here, they divide the opening paragraph of their introduction into four distinct sections. First, they explain what ribosome arresting peptides (RAPs) are and what they do.

Ribosome arresting peptides (RAPs) are nascent polypeptides that act in cis on the translating ribosome to control the expression of genes by inducing ribosome arrest during translation elongation or termination. RAPs commonly sense external forces or low molecular weight compounds in the environment that spatially and temporally contribute to the expression of genes. 

Then they introduce the two different types of RAPs.

RAPs such as SecM that sense external forces on the ribosome are typically large, because these nascent peptides have a domain that functions outside of the ribosome. In contrast, those that sense small molecules inside of the ribosome, such as TnaC are smaller. 

They describe how each type works via a different mechanism.

Typically, larger RAPs interact with cellular factors that can control their capacity for arresting ribosomes. Because of their size and proximity to ribosomal components, large RAPs clearly show two structural domains, a sensor domain and an arresting domain. At the moment of the arrest for the large RAPs, the sensor domain is located outside the ribosome exit tunnel, whereas the arresting domain remains inside the tunnel. The short RAPs currently characterized interact with the compounds that they sense by using the ribosome exit tunnel as a binding surface. For these short RAPs, it has been determined that conserved amino acid residues are necessary to induce arrest by either directly binding the effector molecule or by acting at the peptidyl-transferase center (PTC) during ribosome arrest. 

And finally, they conclude by highlighting a knowledge gap in how small RAPs operate versus what is already known about large RAPs.

However, because the size of short RAPs ranges from only a few to a couple of dozen amino acids, as in the case of TnaC, it has remained unclear whether short RAPs are constituted by the two independent sensor and stalling domains, as it has been observed with larger RAPs.

In this way, the authors make a natural progression from “why this topic is important” to “what is known about this topic,” setting the stage for “what is unknown about this topic and why it should be studied.” 

Gradually Moving from Broad to Narrow

A three-step funnel explaining how the introduction guides the reader from summary to specific. The first phase should lay out the question that needs to be answered. The second phase should delve deeper into that question, and the final phase should tie what is already known with what is explored in this study.

These principles can be further transferred towards the introductory section as a whole. The first paragraph should serve as an introduction to the field and the topic. The middle paragraph(s) provide exposition and detail regarding what is known and unknown, and what has already been done and still remains to do, and the final paragraph outlines the study and its principle findings, providing a transition into either the materials and methods or the results section. 

For example, this work by radiation oncologist Eric Deutsch’s group at Université Paris-Saclay, published in PLoS One , 2 opens by succinctly explaining a scientific problem: “ the threat of extensive dispersion of radioactive isotopes within populated areas that would have an unfortunate effect on human health has increased drastically .” It then offers the call to action necessitated by this problem: “ the development of a decorporating agent capable of effectively mitigating the effects of a wide range of isotopes is critical .”

In the next two paragraphs, the study authors provide information on how and why dispersion of radioactive isotopes are a problem—“ the FDA has approved only three compounds (only one of which is used as a preventative therapy) for the treatment of exposure to specific radioactive elements ”—and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of what is currently available. They then introduce the focal point of their own work, chitosan@DOTAGA, within this context, explaining its potential as a solution to the problem they previously introduced: “ After oral administration to rodents over several days, no signs of acute or chronic toxicity were observed, and DOTAGA did not enter the blood stream and was fully eliminated from the gastrointestinal tract within 24 hours of administration. ”

Finally, the introduction concludes by listing the study objective—“ explore the potential of this polymer for use in the decorporation of a wide range of radioactive isotopes ”—and the motivations and rationale behind the study objective—“ there are no suitable countermeasures available for uranium poisoning. […] This innovative approach aims to directly chelate the radioactive cations, specifically uranium, within the gastrointestinal tract prior to their systemic absorption, which ensures their prompt elimination and mitigation of the associated toxicities. ”

The Introduction Engages with the Reader

The introduction section is often overlooked in favor of the title and the abstract, but it serves two important functions. First, it gives the audience all of the information that it needs to contextualize the yet-to-be-presented data within the context of the problem that needs to be solved or the scientific question that needs to be addressed. Second, and more importantly, it justifies the importance of the study, of its initiative, rationale, and purpose. The introduction is the author’s best—and arguably only real—opportunity to convince the audience that their study is worth reading.  

Looking for more information on scientific writing? Check out  The Scientist’s   TS SciComm  section. Looking for some help putting together a manuscript, a figure, a poster, or anything else?    The Scientist’s   Scientific Services  may have the professional help that you need.

  • Judd HNG, et al. Functional domains of a ribosome arresting peptide are affected by surrounding nonconserved residues . J Biol Chem . 2024;300(3):105780.
  • Durand A, et al. Enhancing radioprotection: A chitosan-based chelating polymer is a versatile radioprotective agent for prophylactic and therapeutic interventions against radionuclide contamination . PLoS One . 2024;19(4):e0292414.

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The Fundamentals of Academic Science Writing

What Can You Do with a PhD in Psychology?

how write phd

Key Takeaways

  • A PhD in psychology will open career opportunities in the fields of research psychology, psychotherapy, forensic psychology, neuropsychology, and even management consultancy.
  • Psychology positions have a projected job growth of 6% over the next decade.
  • Those who earn a PhD in psychology work in medical settings, government agencies, educational institutions, or in private practice.

If you’re passionate about building a successful career in psychology, earning a doctorate in psychology could get you there. For those who are passionate about the subject but wonder, “What can you do with a PhD in psychology?“, we’ll help you explore your options so you can decide whether a PhD in psychology is worth the shot. 

Woman writing down notes as she talks to her patient during a therapy session

Featured Programs

With a PhD in psychology, you can pursue various career paths, including research psychology, psychotherapy, forensic psychology, neuropsychology, and even management consultancy. Alternatively, a doctorate also helps you pursue different areas of specialization within the field of psychology.

If you are considering a PhD degree in psychology, you’ve likely already earned your bachelor’s and master’s degrees. However, to progress further into the roles of research, academia, authorship, or lectureship, you have to take the next step. If you’re already employed in a field of psychology, earning a PhD helps you level up.

While a doctoral degree gears you up to become a licensed clinical psychologist, there are plenty of other career options to explore. Here’s a list of the most popular career pathways you can pursue with a PhD in psychology, along with their salaries and growth statistics.

Psychological Researcher

Psychological researchers, or research psychologists, deeply understand the human mind. Their primary duties include conducting experiments to test procedures to explore various aspects of psychology. This includes selecting candidates for clinical trials, administering tests, and carefully observing and documenting the outcomes of their research.

By the time they are done with PhD, psychological researchers are capable enough to review existing literature and contribute to scholarly discussions. Some may serve at universities, while others may work for hospitals or government agencies. If you’re passionate about research and writing, this might be a pretty lucrative field with tons of career opportunities.

  • National average salary: $99,577 per year
  • Growth: Projected to grow 14% from 2018 to 2028

Clinical Director or Supervisor

The clinical director is one of the most highly paid yet growing careers in psychology . Clinical supervisors monitor psychologists and other mental health professionals to oversee the quality of clinical care provided. They establish best practices for the workplace and check whether the institution complies with regulations in the mental health field.

As a clinical director, you’ll serve in various settings, including mental health clinics, hospitals, universities, or even private practices. Also, these professionals arrange development opportunities for staff members, gather feedback from patients, and delegate cases to team members.

  • National average salary: $120,761 per year
  • Growth: Projected to grow 28% from 2021 to 2031

Woman writing down on her clipboard as a woman in her couch talks during a therapy session


Like clinical psychologists, psychotherapists support individuals with mental health conditions and help them live a fulfilling life. Unlike clinical psychologists, psychotherapists diagnose more general mental health issues. They closely monitor their client’s behaviors, emotions, and thoughts to develop specific treatment plans for them.

Additionally, they use different tools and therapeutic techniques to develop coping strategies for their patients and improve the way they regulate emotions. A PhD in psychology potentially makes you a perfect fit to deal with the complexity involved in psychotherapy. Ultimately, you understand your clients better to know where they’re coming from.

  • National average salary: $115,281 per year
  • Growth: Projected to grow 6% from 2022 to 2032  

Psychometrics Specialist

A psychometric specialist looks at assessments to gather information about a patient’s personality, symptoms, and cognitive abilities. They often join hands with mental health specialists to facilitate research or diagnose and treat patients. On top of that, these professionals play a key role in collecting data for research and ensuring its accuracy.

They use a combination of interviews, examinations, and standardized tests to gather data about a patient’s psychological state and decode it to help clinicians and researchers reach conclusions. As a psychometric specialist, you’ll work in research or educational institutions, clinics, government agencies, or independently as a consultant.

  • National average salary: $62,264 per year
  • Growth: Projected to grow 6% from 2018 to 2028 

Human Resource Director

If you would rather work in an organizational setting, a PhD in psychology also helps build a mindset that prepares you to work in HR. HR directors are highly paid individuals responsible for shaping the recruitment and selection process in an organization. They create and implement corporate policies in areas like talent management, employee relations, and workplace culture.

With a PhD in psychology, you bring a deep understanding of human behavior, emotions, and motivation to the role. Plus, as an HR director, you can use the knowledge from your doctorate to develop thoughtful policies, systems, and resources to support employee well-being.

  • National average salary: $116,601 per year
  • Growth: Projected to grow 7% from 2021 to 2031

Marketing Director

With a PhD in psychology, you can also serve as a business or marketing director and build a fruitful career. Marketing directors use the knowledge of psychology to bridge the gap between relevant products and customers. Serving at multiple profit or non-profit sectors, these graduates contribute to public relations, management, and technical services.

As a marketing director, your background in psychology equips you with the right knowledge of consumer behavior and effective ways to communicate with them. This, in turn, helps you develop successful marketing campaigns that resonate perfectly with your audience.

  • National average salary: $120,014 per year
  • Growth: Expected to grow 10% from 2018 to 2028

Woman explaining with the help of a whiteboard while a man listens intently, while sitting down

Management Consultant

Management consultancy is another productive career path you can choose after a doctorate in psychology. Management consultants improve an organization’s efficiency, productivity, and performance. With a deep understanding of psychology, you can easily identify and deal with the underlying issues and patterns within your company.

Plus, management consultants provide feedback and recommendations on addressing employee and business management problems. They might also join hands with top-level management to devise practical solutions that align with the company’s core values.

  • National average salary: $108,555 per year 
  • Growth: Projected to grow 10% from 2022 to 2032

Forensic Psychologist

Forensic psychology is a rapidly growing field  that requires individual practitioners to obtain a state license. Psychologists in this field work closely with law enforcement to investigate crimes. For a license, you need to complete a doctoral degree from an APA-approved program and have clinically-supervised work experience.

Licensed forensic psychologists assist legal professionals with addressing the psychological aspects of the cases they’re dealing with. For instance, they conduct evaluations, assessments, and psychological testing to understand the case. Once they have come up with logical reasons, they present their findings and opinions to judges and juries.

  • National average salary: $87,877 per year
  • Growth: Expected to grow 6% between 2021 and 2031

Behavioral Health Specialist

As the name suggests, behavioral health specialists counsel and support individuals with behavioral or mental health problems. They use therapeutic techniques to help patients develop new behaviors and cope with their existing condition. Most importantly, they use their psychological knowledge to identify the root causes of their patient’s behaviors.

If you have a PhD in behavioral health, you can work with patients who have severe mental illness or developmental disorders like autism. The advanced degree helps you set developmental goals for your patients and implement evidence-based treatment plans to guard their well-being.

  • National average salary: $54,663 per year
  • Growth: Projected to grow 9% between 2018 and 2028

Addiction Counselor

PhD in psychology also enables you to serve as an addiction counselor, where you support patients on their journey to recovery from addictive behaviors. Typically, addiction counselors guide through the rehabilitation process and help manage withdrawal symptoms. They often work together with medical professionals to effectively detoxify clients from drugs and alcohol.

In addition to one-on-one counseling sessions, addiction counselors arrange group therapy sessions. This provides clients with peer support and learning about new experiences and coping mechanisms. They monitor clients throughout the rehabilitation process till they finally achieve sobriety.

  • National average salary: $65,310 per year
  • Growth: Projected to grow 18% from 2022 to 2032

Prerequisites for Earning a PhD in Psychology

If you’ve made up your mind and want to earn a PhD in psychology, you’ll generally need at least a bachelor’s degree to get in. While some institutions may also require a master’s degree as a prerequisite, it largely depends on the program you’re opting for. Some universities offer combined master’s and doctoral degrees, so you get both degrees at once.

However, the most integral part of your PhD program is the area you’ve chosen. When applying, it’s recommended to thoroughly research the specialties the universities on your radar are offering. This isn’t just about coursework since the topics of your dissertation will also depend on your chosen concentration.

Plus, to make sure you quickly get through the admission process, it’s important to prepare for it beforehand. While the specific requirements depend on your university, here’s a list of some basic prerequisites when applying for a PhD in psychology:

  • A bachelor’s degree in psychology or a related field
  • A master’s degree (depending on the institution)
  • Strong academic record
  • Letters of recommendation
  • Relevant research experience or coursework
  • Statement of Purpose (SoP)
  • Interview (as a part of the application process)

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Benefits of Earning a PhD in Psychology

Even if you’re sure about earning a PhD in psychology, it’s best to take a look at the benefits to check whether they align with your future goals. While the time required to complete a PhD may be significant, the benefits you reap make it worthwhile. Here’s an overview of the pros of getting a PhD in psychology:

Obtaining a License

Earning a doctorate in psychology is the only path to practice independently as a licensed psychologist. A license allows you to diagnose and treat mental disorders and provide therapy sessions to clients.

Better Employment Opportunities

Many employers, including those in the educational sector, prefer PhD holders over candidates with a master’s in psychology . This is due to years of experience and practice acquired through a doctoral program. For instance, PhD holders are often preferred for faculty positions, research roles, and leadership positions.

Skill Development

PhD holders are seen as authorities in the field of psychology  and research. Through extensive training and coursework, PhD students develop advanced knowledge and skills in areas like research methodology, statistical analysis, and clinical assessments.

High Paying Positions

Doctoral degree holders in psychology are paid way higher than those with bachelor’s degrees. The difference in salary reflects the higher earning potential that comes with advanced degrees in psychology. For instance, candidates with a PhD may easily qualify for higher paying positions in academia, clinical practice, research, or consulting.

Related Questions

What do you learn in a doctorate program for psychology.

In a doctorate program in psychology, you dig deeper into the field of psychology. For instance, you study research theories and methods and do your own research for a dissertation. Most PhD programs also allow you to gain hands-on experience in real clinical settings through an internship program.

Where can you work with a doctorate in psychology?

Fortunately, you can choose from plenty of workplace options once you get your PhD in psychology. You may work as a psychologist in a clinic or even begin practicing privately. Some individuals with a doctorate serve at government agencies, hospitals, and even educational institutions.

How long does it take to get a PhD in psychology?

Generally, getting a PhD in psychology takes around 5-8 years , including some hands-on experience and a year-long internship. However, it’s worth noting that PhD programs are highly competitive. So, the earlier you prepare for your dream university for your psychology degree , the sooner you can secure a spot.

We hope we’ve adequately answered the question “What can you do with a PhD in psychology?” for you and you have more clarity about whether this is the right path for you. Whether you’re into clinical practice, research, or social service, a doctorate in psychology can accommodate your personal preferences if you pick the right area for yourself.

how write phd

The Best PhD Research Proposal Writing Service in 2024

W riting a research proposal is a crucial part of education worldwide. It involves PhD students summarizing their proposed research in a concise yet organized manner. This process not only demonstrates the student's understanding of the subject matter but also serves as a roadmap for the research journey ahead. 

In a well-crafted research proposal, students outline where their research fits into the bigger picture and what's already been debated or discovered on the topic. Despite the varying rules worldwide, a PhD proposal needs to convey a clear rationale for the chosen research area and establish the relevance of the proposed study. It's not just about sharing your idea; it's about showing you're ready for serious investigation. Can you tackle complex ideas and express yourself clearly? That's the question this type of work aims to answer through a systematic examination of the research questions, objectives, and methodologies.

Typically, a research proposal for PhD is around 2,500 to 3,000 words. However, word counts vary across universities, so always remember to check your guidelines. Moreover, make sure your work contains the following components:

  • A working title that can be refined later.
  • An abstract summarizing the problem you're addressing and your main question.
  • Background information to contextualize your investigation.
  • Your research questions.
  • The methods you'll employ in your study.
  • The significance of your research.
  • A bibliography.

In case you get stuck and need a helping hand with your PhD research proposal, the two services below are your best bet, and now we'll explain why. —Best Research Proposal Writing Service stands out as a trusted and established platform, offering confidential assistance to PhD students seeking expert support with their complex research projects. Operating as a registered business since 2012, the platform accumulated over a decade of expertise in delivering professional research proposal writing services. Unlike "all-in-one" services, this platform focuses exclusively on crafting tailored proposals for PhD students, catering specifically to the unique demands of doctoral-level research. 

Key Benefits:

  • Wide Range of Specialized Services

The platform's experts offer assistance with various aspects, including choosing a topic, creating any chapter of your PhD project (e.g., methodology, results), crafting the entire paper based on your material or their findings, and editing or formatting your final draft. PhD-level samples on their website provide insights into the expected quality.

  • Experienced Research Proposal Writers

The platform employs solely writers with PhD credentials specializing in popular subjects like Health Sciences, Nursing, Business and Management, Law, and various other disciplines. Proficient in qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods analysis, their expertise ensures the delivery of high-quality PhD-level work with quick approval.

  • Access to All Scholarly Databases 

From Scopus to ProQuest, the service has extensive access to a variety of databases. This ensures writers incorporate only relevant sources related to your research area into the completed work.

  • Original, Human-Written Content

According to CTN News The platform's experts craft all content from scratch, adhering to the specific requirements of your PhD program. Their dedicated Quality Assurance Department meticulously checks final drafts for plagiarism, source credibility, and generated content. Furthermore, they provide originality reports upon request.

The only drawback we've noticed with this research proposal writing service so far is the necessity to pay extra when selecting top and premium PhD experts.

This is what recent clients are saying about them on platforms like Sitejabber and

“I'm glad that I ordered a PhD proposal on this site. The writer explained in depth what methods I have to use in my research and what steps I need to take. I'm sure that the committee will agree with that." – Sutton T.

"I was stuck on my PhD paper before I decided to use the platform. Their writers really came through in a clutch with quality work that met my instructions." – Cree K. 

In light of the above, stands out as a legitimate and reliable service for PhD proposals. However, what truly sets them apart as the best research proposal writing service is their commitment to customer satisfaction. They provide a 14-day window for unlimited free revisions to guarantee the approval of your PhD project. Moreover, if any issues arise, they promptly refund your money. —#1 Research Proposal Writing Service for Rare Subjects

The next best option to obtain quality help with writing a PhD research proposal is The platform has been ranked #1 for student satisfaction for three consecutive years. It also focuses on assistance with complex academic projects and offers comprehensive help with PhD proposals at any project stage. The consistently positive feedback attests to the excellence of their services.

  • Skilled, qualified PhD specialists across 80 fields.
  • 100% report-validated uniqueness and absence of AI-generated content.
  • Complete confidentiality of all interactions.
  • Free adjustments until you're satisfied, plus a follow-up quality check.
  • Access to the major online databases.
  • Adherence to instructions.
  • Strong refund policy.
  • You need to pay extra for additional services like an added plagiarism report, initial draft, etc.
  • Response time via email can take time, so it's better to contact them through chat.

Here's what the company's customers are sharing on popular review platforms:

"After placing an order, I realized that I messed up instructions a little and ordered a slightly different work. But even though the writer started working on the order, we managed to settle down the updated requirements easily, and he was still able to deliver the work on time. The writer was responsive, and we had productive communication throughout the process" – Brendan H.

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While offering a broader range of services and being less specialized in PhD proposal writing, is another decent option for students seeking a trustworthy writing service that delivers on its promises and offers strong satisfaction guarantees.

What Is the Structure of a Research Proposal PhD? 

The structure of a PhD proposal typically includes the following sections:

  • Abstract (usually around 200-300 words)
  • Introduction
  • Literature Review
  • Methodology
  • Significance and Contribution of the Study
  • Ethical Considerations
  • Budget (if applicable)

Note that the specific requirements for a research proposal PhD may vary depending on the field of study and program. Always check with your advisor or the guidelines provided by your institution.

How Important Is It to Write a PhD Proposal for Research?

Research proposal writing is crucial for several reasons:

  • It helps you articulate and clarify the focus of your study and ensures a clear understanding of your research objectives.
  • It aids in identifying the necessary time and materials required for your PhD project.
  • It helps demonstrate the significance of your study and how it fills a gap in current knowledge.
  • It enables a thorough evaluation of the feasibility of your PhD project.
  • It increases the likelihood of successfully obtaining grants or financial support.
  • It showcases your interests in the field, background, and ability to formulate a coherent and impactful work plan.

Follow also this useful link to learn more about the evolution of writing a research proposal.

Can I Pay Someone for Writing a Research Proposal?

Yes, you can, especially if you find yourself stuck, have limited access to credible sources on the topic, or lack the time for in-depth study and producing a well-organized PhD-level copy. However, make sure that the service you choose is reliable and employs qualified writers capable of delivering quality work. Click for more information about reputable services you can trust.

Who Writes Proposals in a PhD Research Proposal Writing Service?

If speaking about top services like the ones described above, the individuals writing PhD proposals are typically qualified, hand-selected experts with 5-8 years of hands-on expertise in the field and hundreds of positive reviews from satisfied clients. 

Is Every PhD Research Proposal Writing Service Listed Legit?

Yes, the above PhD research proposal writing services are all legit and have over a decade of experience crafting proposals for domestic and international students from different PhD programs.

In Conclusion

Considering the challenges most students encounter in determining suitable methodologies, it becomes quite demanding to allocate sufficient time and energy to craft an impeccable PhD proposal. This is where the support of a specialized PhD research proposal writing service, such as, becomes invaluable.

The service's focused approach ensures that its writers comprehend the nuances of the process and the challenges you face, enabling them to efficiently assist you in resolving them. Therefore, if you find yourself overwhelmed with the complexities of PhD proposal writing, consider seeking help from reputable professionals. With proper assistance, you can confidently present a compelling PhD proposal that meets the highest standards and achieves the desired result.

Writing a research proposal is a crucial part of education worldwide. It involves PhD students summarizing their prop

RIT graduate pursues Ph.D. across time zones

Nastaran Nagshineh is shown with other faculty in a small room where she defended her thesis.

Nastaran Nagshineh, center, defended her Ph.D. thesis at RIT in April. Faculty from RIT’s Rochester and Dubai campuses served on her thesis committee and include, from left to right, Kathleen Lamkin-Kennard, Steven Weinstein, Nathaniel Barlow, and David Kofke (a professor at the University at Buffalo). Mohamed Samaha participated remotely and appears on the video screen behind the group and alongside Nagshineh’s picture.

Nastaran Nagshineh is one of the first Ph.D. candidates to bridge RIT’s Rochester and Dubai campuses. Her accomplishment creates a path for future students at the university’s international campuses.

Nagshineh completed her Ph.D. in mathematical modeling while working full time as a mathematics lecturer at RIT Dubai in the United Arab Emirates, teaching as many as five classes a semester. She described her Ph.D. journey as “an exercise in perseverance” due to competing demands and long days. Rochester is eight hours behind Dubai, and the time difference meant many late-night classes and meetings.

“I saw this collaboration as an opportunity, rather than as a challenge, because my primary adviser, Dr. Steven Weinstein (RIT professor of chemical engineering), and my co-adviser, Dr. Mohamed Samaha (RIT Dubai associate professor of mechanical engineering), both have the same area of research interest,” she said. “They both worked toward my success.”

Nagshineh is one of 67 RIT Ph.D. students who defended their thesis this academic year and who will earn their doctorate. RIT awarded 63 Ph.D. degrees in 2023.

In 2020-2021, RIT’s Graduate School met and surpassed the university’s goal of conferring 50 Ph.D. degrees during an academic year. That number will continue to grow as students cycle through the seven new Ph.D. programs that RIT has added since 2017, said Diane Slusarski , dean of RIT’s Graduate School.

Meeting these goals puts RIT on a path toward achieving an “R1,” or research-intensive designation, from the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Learning. RIT is currently ranked as an R2 institution . Many factors go into changing a university’s status, including research investment and maintaining a three-year average of 70 Ph.D. degrees awarded per year, according to Slusarski.

“We have met the goals of the strategic plan, and now we look forward to contributing to the research innovation in the future,” Slusarski said. “We want to help the new programs thrive and win national research awards.”

RIT’s emphasis on high-level research is seen in Nagshineh’s Ph.D. work. She applies mathematical modeling to the field of fluid dynamics. Her research has been published in top-tier journals and has gained notice, said Weinstein, her thesis adviser.

Weinstein describes Nagshineh’s accomplishments as “a testament to a fantastic work ethic and commitment” and is inspirational to younger students at Rochester and Dubai.

“The collaboration between RIT Dubai/Rochester has continued,” he said. “Another paper was submitted a few weeks ago with Mohamed Samaha and Nate Barlow (RIT associate professor in the School of Mathematics and Statistics) as co-authors, as well as Cade Reinberger, a younger Ph.D. student in my research group.”

Mathematical modeling is one of RIT’s newer Ph.D. degree programs, and Nagshineh is among its earliest graduates. The program has doubled in size since it began accepting students in 2017, Slusarski said. This past fall, the mathematical modeling program had 35 students, with two graduating this year.

Altogether, RIT has 13 Ph.D. degree programs currently enrolling 438 students, with computing and information sciences accounting for the largest with 117 students. RIT’s other Ph.D. programs include astrophysical sciences and technology , biomedical and chemical engineering , business administration , color science , electrical and computer engineering, imaging science , mechanical and industrial engineering , microsystems engineering , and sustainability .

New programs in cognitive science and physics will launch in the fall.

The growth in RIT graduate education—with more than 3,000 master’s and doctoral students—reflects a demographic change in the student population, Slusarski said. “We have a higher percentage of women in the graduate programs than we have for RIT undergraduate programs.”

RIT’s graduate programs enroll 42 percent women, according to Christie Leone , assistant dean for the Graduate School.

Nagshineh, who also holds an MS in electrical engineering from RIT Dubai, welcomes her role as a mentor to other women students on both campuses.

“As a young woman in an Arabic country, the power of women is often underestimated and undervalued, and I hope to serve as a role model to female students, especially those that question their path,” Nagshineh said.

She plans to continue in her career as a professor and a researcher. “I would like to pursue a research program where I can advise my own students and teach them more deeply.”

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  1. How to Write A PhD. Proposal?

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  4. How To Write a Better PhD Thesis/Dissertation?

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  1. abbreviations

    49. Actually both are correct. I could easily find both on my NOAD, and there are plenty of pages on the net where you find it written as "PhD". The OALD gives an interesting distinction, stating that Ph.D. is especially North American English. Now, being a non-native speaker, I can only rely on official sources to state who uses what, but ...

  2. How to use the PhD title and all the little doctorate "rules"

    When writing a name with a PhD after it, the correct way to do so is to use "PhD" or "Ph.D. or Ph.D". Depending on the preference of the individual, either form can be used. However, if the individual has a business card that states their degree in full, then the more formal "Doctor of Philosophy" should be used.

  3. Should I Write Ph.D. or PhD? (Complete Guide)

    The only slight difference is that "PhD" is more common in England and "Ph.D." is more common in America. This is perhaps because the British believe it stands for "philosophiae doctor" but Americans see it as "Doctor of Philosophy". But, no matter whether you use "PhD" or "Ph.D.", to have one, you neither need to be a ...

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  5. PhD vs Ph.D.

    Capitalizing "PhD" or "Ph.D." within sentences. Name titles or honorifics belong capitalized by default when they precede the name about the per and are not used as an descriptive element stylish a sentence, such how in "Mr. Doe." PhD, or PhD.D In English, PhD can be write with or without periodicities; both exist correct.

  6. PDF Guidelines for The PhD Dissertation

    3 sample title page for a phd dissertation copyright notice abstract sample abstract formatting errors front and back matter supplemental material tables and figures visual material acknowledging the work of others page 19 references footnotes bibliography citation & style guides use of copyrighted material page 20 services and information page 22 proquest publishing orders and payments

  7. Mastering Your Ph.D.: Writing Your Doctoral Thesis With Style

    Most importantly, while writing your thesis, be sure to take care of yourself. Eat well, exercise, and get plenty of sleep so you're at your best when you sit down every day to write. This is the home stretch of your Ph.D., and you want to make sure you cross the finish line energized and ready for the next step.

  8. What Is a Dissertation?

    A dissertation is a long-form piece of academic writing based on original research conducted by you. It is usually submitted as the final step in order to finish a PhD program. Your dissertation is probably the longest piece of writing you've ever completed. It requires solid research, writing, and analysis skills, and it can be intimidating ...

  9. A Guide to Writing a PhD Thesis

    A Guide to Writing a PhD Thesis. A PhD thesis is a work of original research all students are requiured to submit in order to succesfully complete their PhD. The thesis details the research that you carried out during the course of your doctoral degree and highlights the outcomes and conclusions reached. The PhD thesis is the most important ...

  10. Tips for writing a PhD dissertation: FAQs answered

    Embarking on a PhD is "probably the most challenging task that a young scholar attempts to do", write Mark Stephan Felix and Ian Smith in their practical guide to dissertation and thesis writing. After years of reading and research to answer a specific question or proposition, the candidate will submit about 80,000 words that explain their methods and results and demonstrate their unique ...

  11. How to Correctly Use the Titles Dr. & PhD With a Name

    Addressing a Doctor in Writing. Place the title of "Dr." before the name of a person who is a doctor of medicine or psychology, doctor of dentistry, or doctor of veterinary medicine. For example Dr. George Ross. Always write the word "doctor" in its abbreviated form when it goes before the person's name. Never write, for example ...

  12. How To Write PhD? Is it ph d or phd

    As per Chicago style, write PhD; As per MLA style, write it as Ph. D. For example this is how to write PhD title after your name: Dr.John Mathew, Ph.D. You can write PhD after name on your business cards, resumes, CV's or identity cards or on nameplates etc. Some have confusion with the use of comma and full stops while writing PhD title ...

  13. 10 tips for writing a PhD thesis

    Writing up a PhD can often take place in a frenzy of activity in the last few months of your degree study, after years of hard work. But there are some steps that you can take to increase your chances of success. Do not be daunted by the task of "writing up". Work on the text as your PhD takes shape, remember that all writers need editing ...

  14. Doctor of Philosophy

    A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin: philosophiae doctor or doctor philosophiae) is the most common degree at the highest academic level, awarded following a course of study and research. The degree is abbreviated PhD and sometimes, especially in the U.S., as Ph.D. It is derived from the Latin Philosophiae Doctor, pronounced as three separate letters (/ p iː eɪ tʃ ˈ d iː ...

  15. Know How to Structure Your PhD Thesis

    Work with your thesis supervisor to plan the structure and format of your PhD thesis. Be prepared to rewrite each section, as you work out rough drafts. Don't get discouraged by this process. It's typical. Make your writing interesting. Academic writing has a reputation of being very dry.

  16. How to tackle the PhD dissertation

    The PhD dissertation writing process is often lengthy and it is sometimes easy to forget why you started. In these moments, it can be helpful to think back to what got you excited about your research and scholarship in the first place. Remember it is not just the work but also the people who propelled you forward.

  17. How to Write a Great PhD Research Proposal

    Written by Mark Bennett. You'll need to write a research proposal if you're submitting your own project plan as part of a PhD application. A good PhD proposal outlines the scope and significance of your topic and explains how you plan to research it. It's helpful to think about the proposal like this: if the rest of your application explains ...

  18. Dissertation Structure & Layout 101 (+ Examples)

    Time to recap…. And there you have it - the traditional dissertation structure and layout, from A-Z. To recap, the core structure for a dissertation or thesis is (typically) as follows: Title page. Acknowledgments page. Abstract (or executive summary) Table of contents, list of figures and tables.

  19. How to nail your PhD proposal and get accepted

    When writing your PhD proposal you need to show that your PhD is worth it, achievable, and that you have the ability to do it at your chosen university. With all of that in mind, let's take a closer look at each section of a standard PhD research proposal and the overall structure. 1. Front matter.

  20. How to Write a PhD Research Proposal

    1. Title. Your title should indicate clearly what your research question is. It needs to be simple and to the point; if the reader needs to read further into your proposal to understand your question, your working title isn't clear enough. Directly below your title, state the topic your research question relates to.

  21. How to write a PhD in Biological Sciences: a guide for the uninitiated

    This book is a guide specifically for writing a PhD in the biological sciences. It will guide you from deciding whether or not you should actually do a PhD, provide practical, up-to-the-minute guides to getting started with planning and writing, and consolidate this with the nuts and bolts of writing for the biological sciences. The book guides ...

  22. How to Write a Research Proposal

    A PhD, which is short for philosophiae doctor (doctor of philosophy in Latin), is the highest university degree that can be obtained. In a PhD, students spend 3-5 years writing a dissertation, which aims to make a significant, original contribution to current knowledge.

  23. PDF A Guide to Writing your PhD Proposal

    Writing a PhD research proposal: A 6‐step general guide for prospective PhD researchers Introduction This short guide is aimed at helping you to write a good research proposal. It is intended to help you to think about your proposed PhD research in a clear, structured and meaningful way.

  24. How to Write a Good Introduction Section

    Nathan Ni holds a PhD from Queens University. He is a science editor for The Scientist's Creative Services Team who strives to better understand and communicate the relationships between health and disease. View full profile. Learn about our editorial policies. First impressions are important ...

  25. What Can You Do with a PhD in Psychology?

    This is due to years of experience and practice acquired through a doctoral program. For instance, PhD holders are often preferred for faculty positions, research roles, and leadership positions. Skill Development. PhD holders are seen as authorities in the field of psychology and research. Through extensive training and coursework, PhD ...

  26. The Best PhD Research Proposal Writing Service in 2024

    Writing a research proposal is a crucial part of education worldwide. It involves PhD students summarizing their proposed research in a concise yet organized manner. This process not only ...

  27. RIT graduate pursues Ph.D. across time zones

    Provided. Nastaran Nagshineh, center, defended her Ph.D. thesis at RIT in April. Faculty from RIT's Rochester and Dubai campuses served on her thesis committee and include, from left to right, Kathleen Lamkin-Kennard, Steven Weinstein, Nathaniel Barlow, and David Kofke (a professor at the University at Buffalo).