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12 Key Project Management Principles & How to Use Them


Project management is a highly complex field. There are many things that a project manager must understand to be successful such as the methodologies, reports and tools that exist.

To help you simplify things, we’ve listed the top 12 project management principles that any project manager should know. These principles are a great starting point as you go through the journey of becoming a successful project manager.

Once you learn about the key project management principles, you’ll need a robust tool with the features needed to keep track of your project plan, budget and schedule. ProjectManager offers Gantt charts, kanban boards, project calendars and other project management tools to help you and your team achieve more. Get started for free today.

ProjectManager's Gantt chart

What Are the Principles of Project Management?

These project management principles cover the major areas when managing a project. At ProjectManager, we have tons of project management templates , blogs, tools and other resources to help you manage your projects better.

1. Define a Project Organization Structure

This is the first thing you’ll have to think about when managing a project. The project organization structure is the framework that facilitates the planning, execution and tracking of project activities. To set up your structure, you’ll need to create a project organization chart that specifies the roles and hierarchy of every team member. Then, think about the procedures and guidelines that will be followed by them.

2. Set Clear Project Goals & Objectives

Before you can start the project planning phase, you’ll need to define the main goals and objectives of your project. The project goals define the expected benefits of the project while the project objectives are the steps that you’ll need to take to achieve them. Defining your goals and objectives will set the stage to plan your project scope, schedule and budget.

3. Create a Communication Plan

While reporting to the various participants in the project is key, there must be a primary communication plan to regulate communications between yourself and the project sponsor. This is the only way to ensure those project decisions are properly implemented.

Without having a singular way to disseminate what the sponsor wants to the project manager, you’re not being effective in administrating the project. Even if there are multiple sponsors, they must speak with one voice or risk sending the project into chaos.

You have the responsibility to set this line of communication in place. This entails finding the right person with the right skills, experience, authority and commitment in the executive team to facilitate this important task.

4. Define Roles & Responsibilities

To move forward, a project must have well-defined roles, policies and procedures in place. That means everyone must know what they’re responsible for and to whom they answer. There needs a delegation of authority for any project to function.

It also means that you must know how you’re going to manage the scope of work , maintain the quality of the project, define its schedule and cost, etc. Without these things sorted from the jump, you’re putting the project at risk.

principles of project management assignment

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RACI Chart Template

Use this free RACI Chart Template for Excel to manage your projects better.

5. Create a Risk Management Plan

Risk is part of life, and it’s certainly a part of any project. Before the project even starts, figure out the potential risks inherent in the work ahead. Identifying them is not an exact science, of course, but you can use historic data and knowledge from your team and sponsors to uncover where the risk lies. Using a risk register template helps you capture all of this information.

It’s not enough to know that risk might rise at certain points in a project; you also should put in place a plan to resolve the issue before it becomes a problem. That means giving each risk a specific team member who’s responsible for watching for it, identifying it and working towards its resolution.

Naturally, you’re not going to foresee every risk, but hopefully, you’ll have at least identified the big ones. That’s why you must keep an eye out for any irregularities and train your team to keep an eye out for risks.  The sooner you identify a risk, whether expected or not, the faster you can mitigate it and keep the project on track.

6. Set a Project Performance Baseline

As you progress through your project, you’ll need project performance metrics to measure success. This is how you can hold your team and yourself accountable, so you should always have ways to measure the various aspects of your project and determine if the actual figures reported are in line with the ones you planned.

The great thing about accountability in a project is that it gives you the means to identify team members who are top performers and reward them accordingly. Other team members may require more training or direction to improve their performance.

7. Create a Change Management Plan

As a project manager, you’ll need to know that project plans will likely change as your team starts the project execution phase. Delays, issues, and risks might make it necessary to make changes to your project scope, budget or schedule.

Keeping track of these changes and establishing an approval process it’s called change management, a critical facet to project success as it helps to avoid scope creep and other issues. The change management process is simple. You’ll simply need to create a change management plan , a document where you specify how changes will be handled.

This will guarantee that whenever a stakeholder or a member of the project management team wishes to make a change to the project plan, there will be a change management process in place. In most projects a change request must be created, filed and approved.

8. Focus on Value Delivery

In any project, it’s always important to focus on your clients’ and stakeholders’ expectations and meet their project requirements . As a project manager, you need to make sure that the project goals and objectives are realistic and agreed upon by the project team and project stakeholders.

Then once you’ve reached an agreement with clients and stakeholders you can think about your value chain, supply chain, milestones, deliverables and quality standards and evaluate whether you’re delivering the expected value. During the project life cycle, you’ll be constantly making decisions that could either increase or hinder the value you deliver with your project.

Some examples of decisions that increase value can be creating a quality management plan  or choosing a methodology that allows constant customer feedback and communication for value delivery such as agile or scrum.

Free Project Management Templates

We have dozens of templates to help you implement the project management principles that we just learned about. Our project management templates will help you at every stage of the project management life cycle, speeding up the process and helping you achieve more.

Project Plan Template

Our project plan template is a great place to start planning your projects. Simply download the file and start putting together your project plan. Then you can start using our many project management features such as our Gantt charts, kanban boards and project calendars to keep track of your project scope, schedule and budget.

Project Budget Template

Your project budget must cover all project costs, otherwise, you won’t be able to execute the work that was planned. It’s important to estimate costs as accurately as possible and document them all. Our project budget template for Excel is the perfect tool for that. However, if you need advanced project budgeting features, give ProjectManager a try.

Gantt Chart Template

Gantt charts are the most versatile project management tools there are. They’re helpful for project planning, scheduling, resource management, task management and more. Our Gantt chart template for Excel is ideal to get familiarized with this tool. Then you can import your data into ProjectManager’s Gantt chart, which allows you to identify the critical path, set task dependencies, set milestones and collaborate with your team in real time.

Put Principles Into Action with ProjectManager

Now that you know the principles, it’s time to get the tools that turn those principles into reality. But the last thing you want is to shuffle through a multitude of apps. ProjectManager is an all-in-one project management software that can help you control projects from initiation to close.

Balance Your Resources

Once the project is executed, it can quickly get out of hand if you don’t have resource planning tools . ProjectManager automates much of your resource management with a workload page that is color-coded, allowing you to see resources at a glance and make adjustments accordingly. There are also task management and collaboration tools to empower teams to work more productively together.

ProjectManager's workload chart

Get Live Progress Updates

Progress is the name of the game, of course, but if you’re not able to track progress as it happens, then you’re behind before you’ve even started. ProjectManager is cloud-based software with a real-time dashboard that automatically updates to reflect task progress, costs and other metrics. These numbers are automatically calculated and shown in colorful graphs and charts that make great visuals for stakeholder presentations.

ProjectManager’s dashboard view, which shows six key metrics on a project

There are more principles to project management. The list might even be endless, but these give you a roadmap to success. But you can’t get there without the right tools for the job. The cloud-based software of ProjectManager has the features you need to implement these principles through every phase of the project’s life cycle. Try it out yourself for free with this 30-day trial, and see how it can help make your job easier and increase project productivity.

Click here to browse ProjectManager's free templates

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12 vital project management principles

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Successful project management is a critical activity at every company. Every major business activity is made up of one or more projects.

To deliver maximum business value and user satisfaction, project management requires much more than a spreadsheet, a RACI chart , or occasional meetings. All phases of every project must be supported by a clear, consistent, and transparent decision-making process and effective, efficient collaboration across multiple roles and teams. 

The best project management efforts are built upon a core set of governing principles. This guide describes 12 critical principles of project management that provide a structured yet flexible framework and foundation for collaboration. These principles promote effective planning and execution of projects and ensure consistent project management success. 

What are the 12 essential principles of project management?

A successful project management plan provides all the information needed to carry out a project from inception through completion and evaluation.

Regardless of your methodology, your approach must successfully address project requirements, stakeholder expectations, and business needs and goals. Adhering to the following 12 essential project management concepts can help assure your project’s success.

Establish the project structure

A project is larger in scope than a typical task or activity. Structure your project in a manageable, understandable way that is easy for the project management team and stakeholders to evaluate.

Define project goals and objectives

Defining the goals and objectives of your project is essential to establishing its structure and gaining support from project management team members and stakeholders. Articulate the goals and specific objectives of the project clearly, and ensure these align with the company's overall objectives.

Identify a project sponsor

Sponsor support is crucial to the success of a project. A project sponsor can provide enthusiastic assistance and helpful guidance for the project. Sponsors also can garner additional support and resources from multiple stakeholders and teams as necessary.

Form roles and responsibilities

Roles and responsibilities will vary depending on business requirements, stakeholder expectations, available people and resources, and other factors. Define these roles clearly to ensure effective collaboration and avoid duplication of efforts and unaddressed project needs.

Ensure team accountability

Foster a culture of accountability within your team. Implement ways to track and measure individual and collective responsibility.

Manage project scope and changes

Adaptability is key throughout a project’s life cycle. Goals, needs, expectations, available people, and resources are subject to change at any time throughout a project’s life cycle. Every project management plan must include a robust strategy and clearly defined processes for managing project scope and dealing with changes.

Create a risk management plan

Risks can quickly threaten the project, if not the business itself. Project management plans must include comprehensive steps for identifying, assessing, and mitigating project risks. Regularly review and update the risk management plan as the project progresses.

Monitor progress

The project management team should monitor progress at every stage of every project. Establish key performance indicators (KPIs) to help measure progress toward established goals. Your project management plan must also include a system for regularly tracking, assessing, and reporting project progress.

Focus on effective value delivery

The goal of every project is to deliver value to stakeholders and to the business as a whole. Give the highest priority to tasks that contribute to the project's success. Include methods and tools that enable your team to continuously assess and adjust priorities based on stakeholder needs and project objectives.

Establish a performance management baseline

Effective performance management is key to project management success. Establish a performance management baseline to evaluate and track team and project performance. Use performance metrics to identify areas for improvement and recognize achievements.

Finalize the project

To close out your project successfully, complete all the necessary tasks defined in your project plan . Ensure that all deliverables meet quality standards. Obtain necessary stakeholder and management approvals.

Examine successes

Reflect on the project’s successes, and highlight the key factors that contribute to positive outcomes. It’s equally important to document lessons learned to inform future projects and sustain continuous improvement .

Turn project management principles into project success with Confluence

Effective collaboration is essential for unified adherence to project management principles. Collaboration, communication, and documentation are critical elements of every project management effort, from ideation to execution and assessment.

Confluence brings everyone together in a connected workspace to move projects forward. Teams can create, edit, share, and collaborate on project plans seamlessly, keeping everyone on the same page. Confluence can improve project management team performance and lead to more efficient project execution. It can also deliver greater value to team members, stakeholders, and the business. Try Confluence

Project management principles: Frequently asked questions

What is agile project management.

The Agile project management methodology combines the sprints of Scrum with the continuous information sharing and feedback of Kanban. It focuses project management teams on continuous improvement and delivering value to stakeholders. It's flexibility and cross-functional team support make Agile highly effective for managing projects subject to change.

What are common challenges in project management?

All project management efforts face similar challenges, such as:

  • Scope creep. As a project proceeds, needs, requirements, stakeholder desires, and external influences can also change. These changes can cause deviations from the original plan. They can also lead to budget overruns, delays, and disappointed stakeholders. A detailed plan with a well-defined project timeline and regular communication with stakeholders can help minimize or eliminate scope creep. 
  • Unrealistic deadlines. Overly ambitious deadlines can lead to missed milestones. Project managers must balance what stakeholders want and what is achievable with the available resources. 
  • Insufficient resources. Every project must deal with limited availability of money, time, and talent. Realistic, conservative budgets and accurate cost estimates can help, but teams should expect to face resource constraints beyond their plans and forecasts.
  • Poor communication. Ineffective communication can lead to misunderstandings, unclear and unmet expectations, additional work, and missed deadlines. Consistent communication can help you avoid scope creep and manage stakeholder expectations.
  • Change and risk management. Project management plans must include well-documented risk identification and mitigation processes and adaptation to sudden changes. This can help minimize project disruptions and delays.
  • Monitoring, evaluating, and documenting progress. Consistent monitoring and evaluation can keep projects on track and identify challenges before they become problems. Documentation of monitoring efforts and evaluations can help keep team members and stakeholders informed and engaged.

What are the different project management methodologies?

Here are some of the methodologies most widely used for project management.

  • Kanban: Kanban focuses on the visualization of tasks and progress. It relies on a shared physical or digital whiteboard typically divided into columns, each labeled with a stage of the workflow —To Do, In Progress, and Completed, for example. Kanban’s visual approach means everyone can see and follow the work as a project progresses. This keeps everyone informed and aligned with each other and the project objectives. Kanban can also help teams be more adaptable and flexible in the face of changing needs or priorities.
  • Waterfall: Waterfall project management is more linear and sequential than other methods. Waterfall projects typically have well-defined requirements for planning, design, development, testing, and deployment. Waterfall projects demand strict adherence to plans and close alignment with declared requirements and objectives.
  • Scrum:  The Scrum methodology includes a highly structured framework. It defines specific team member roles and the length of each work cycle or sprint. Teams hold daily meetings to review progress and map upcoming sprints. This methodology is well-suited for complex projects and active stakeholder involvement.

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Project Management

12 key project management principles (essential guide).

Content Manager

January 15, 2021

There’s a  lot  that goes into  managing projects .

Budgeting, gaining approval from your project stakeholders , creating your team, monitoring progress, drafting reports….

And that’s just the tip of the iceberg!

If you’re screaming internally, don’t worry! 

Here’s something to help you out:

Project management principles act as a trusty compass while you’re navigating the entire project management process.

In this article, we’ll explain what these basic project management principles are, their advantages, and how you can use them to manage successful projects.

Principle 1: Must be a project

Principle 2: a clear project structure, principle 3: identifying project deliverables, principle 4: allocation of project budgets, principle 5: clear strategy for execution, principle 6: ownership by a project manager or project sponsor, principle 7: assigned team roles and responsibilities, principle 8: clear communication between team members, principle 9: alignment across the organization, principle 10: transparency and accountability, principle 11: risk management and detection, principle 12: measurement of project progress.

Let’s get started.

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What Are The Principles Of Project Management?

Project management principles are fundamental concepts that you can use for successful project management.

Pretty simple, right?

So what are the basic principles of project management that  every  project manager  should swear by? 

We’ve grouped these 12 into 3 buckets.

Let’s take a look:

Defining a Project

The most basic principle is that there must be a project.

Let’s take the definition of a project by the Project Management Institute: to qualify as a project, the work must be a temporary endeavor and its goal is to create value.

Since project management is a tool used to effectively manage a project, the principles of project management should apply to this definition.

Activities such as responding to tickets or editing content, therefore, do not count as a project.

A key principle in a  project management plan  during the definition phase is the project structure.

Without it, your project will fall apart faster than a Jenga tower!

jenga blocks falling on boy

Here are three components that need to be defined:

A. Project goals

How do you start something, if you don’t know what you want to do in the first place?

Determining a goal will set things in motion, and will help you create the project structure. Start by asking yourself what the project requirements are, what needs to be done  and  why.

As a project manager, you need to clarify the project goal and make it universally understood by  everyone  involved in it.

But how do you set  project goals?  And what’s the difference between  goals and objectives ?

Free project management tools  like ClickUp make setting goals and objectives a piece of cake.

B. Project timeline

No one gets an unlimited time frame to finish a project.

(unless you can reverse time like Dr. Strange)

dr strange doing a spell

For quick project completion, you need to have a  clear  project timeline . 

It contains the tasks that need to be done, and their start and end dates. 

It also indicates the order in which tasks need to be tackled.

C. Milestones

You should first define milestones and then divide your timeline into these important milestones.

What’s that?

Milestones are indicators  that help you understand when the project has entered a new phase.

For example, if your team is moving from milestone to milestone in just a few days; you know they’re working faster than The Flash on caffeine!

And if there is a long gap between two milestones, you’ll need to make sure they move into high gear.

With this approach, you’ll be able to stick to the project schedule.  Always. 

woman showing relief

Here’s another thing: milestones boost team morale. 

Because remember,  everybody  likes visible progress.

The next project management principle is defining project deliverables .

Deliverables refer to any unique result or product that’s related to a particular process or phase of the project.

So how do you define project deliverables?

Start by asking yourself the correct questions such as:

  • What is the project objective ?
  • What do you need in order to achieve that objective?
  • How long will this take and how much will it cost ?

These types of questions will help you determine the project deliverables and project requirements.

Here are a few examples of deliverables your team might have to work on: 

  • For a web design project, deliverables might include developing a mockup
  • For a marketing project, a deliverable might be a zany commercial

tide man dancing funny

Looks like things are finally looking up for Jim from ‘Stranger Things!’ 

There’s another benefit of having well-defined deliverables in advance.

You won’t have to scramble to add new deliverables midway through the project.

Not only will this stop you from spending too much time on it, you also won’t need to work overtime to meet the deadlines.

This way, you won’t need to cut down on binge-watching true crime shows on Netflix.

Wouldn’t it be wonderful if you had a limitless budget?

Unfortunately, unless you’ve got a genie granting you these wishes, you’ll need to work with a strict project budget .

With limited resources, you need to be very mindful of your expenses. 

Remember, you don’t want to be shocked when you find your expenses are off the charts!

So here’s what you can do:

  • consider the possible areas where you can save or eliminate spending
  • ensure that each phase of your project is accounted for
  • reserve a portion of the budget for emergency expenses

Budgeting and accounting can be a lot of work and can need different tools.

But why get several tools when project management software like ClickUp can help you balance the books? 

With ClickUp’s premade  Accounting Template , you can manage your sales records, project expenses, invoices and more, all  within  your Workspace.

Before execution phase , you need a project charter and project plan in place. These play a major role in the success of large projects.

What should be included?

The planning phase should have a clear definition of key performance indicators (KPIs), project management software used, and risk factors that may affect the outcome .

You should also identify potential problems that could cause scope creep or derail your progress.

Identifying Team Roles and Responsibilities

The next fundamental principle is that one person, the project manager, needs to own responsibility for the project success. This person needs to act as a spokesperson and get on the same page as the executive team.

As such, project managers guide project stakeholders through their decision-making process , define team responsibilities, initiate the project plan, and measure success.

Because of the cross-functional nature of a this role, project managers need to have great interpersonal skills, knowledge of business and technology, and experience in the work breakdown structure.

Just knowing your project objective and setting goals isn’t enough. 

You must also determine  what  each member should do.

If you don’t do this, you can start preparing for a funeral: because your project’s dead, even before you started work on it!

When you define roles and responsibilities, each team member becomes accountable for their tasks. 

And since your team members know exactly what to do, they won’t waste time trying to gain clarity on the project.

man pointing to his head meme

Establishing Values

Poor team communication = bad results.

When managing projects, strong communication from day one should be your  prime objective.

You don’t want your project communication to turn into a game of he said-she said.

Because that would spell disaster.

Clear communication with your team is key to avoid mishaps. Every member knows what they’re working on and what others are working on, which creates a streamlined workflow.

Additionally, having clear communication allows you to identify and celebrate team member achievements.

This is an important principle to avoid problems later on when a project progresses.

Stakeholders and the project manager work together so that all the components of the organization support one another. This includes the company’s mission, structure, and systems.

Establishing a performance management baseline with three basic components – cost, schedule, and project scope – is important when aligning with company values and setting the scope of a larger project.

After clear expectations are set with management and a project manager is designated to own project activities, that person should be given the freedom to make project decisions.

Moving on to the next project management principle.

Project transparency .

Unless you’re a rogue spy on the run, hiding is a  bad idea.

When you obscure project data or statuses from your stakeholders and sponsors, it’s going to haunt you in the future.

And this might  diminish trust  between your team and the stakeholders.

man saying he made a mistake

However, this wouldn’t happen if you and your team always maintain transparency. 

If everyone can access relevant information regarding the project, including statuses, milestones, and the timeline, things will be much smoother.

The result?

Your team’s engagement levels would be through the roof, and they’ll be much happier and satisfied with their work too.

With ClickUp’s  Guests feature , you can collaborate with people outside their team, like stakeholders or clients.

Every project will have certain risks attached to them. This is especially true when juggling multiple complex pieces in  enterprise project management .

Try out these enterprise project management software tools !

When you assess these risks  before  the project begins, you’ll be prepared to face any potential issues that might arise.

And that’s not the only benefit:

  • You would be able to prevent any delays in project execution 
  • Your project team members will have a plan to help them deal with any risks
  • You’ll be able to eliminate or limit the impact any issue can have on your project

With this approach, you could also designate an entire team to focus on the risks that come up during the project life cycle. 

Check out these risk management templates !

(We think ‘Riskbusters’ would be a fitting name for this team. 😉 )

Monitoring and measuring progress is a basic principle that is crucial to the entire project management process.

Imagine if there was no monitoring.

Working from home  would look something like this…

bart working from home funny

With ClickUp’s  Gantt Charts , you can view all the tasks that need to be done, their deadlines, and the team members who are  assigned  to it.

And there you have it.

All the principles to manage successful projects grouped into 3 buckets.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the basic principles of project management.

Though there are differing opinions on the finer points, the basic principles of project management include the following: a clearly defined project through structure, deliverables, and strategy ; clearly identified team roles, including the project manager, and the establishing of values such as organizational alignment, communication, transparency, accountability, risk management , and performance measurement.

How many project management principles are there?

There are 12 principles, which can be grouped into 3 buckets – defining the project, defining roles and responsibilities, and establishing values.

Project management principles are the building blocks of all businesses; no matter how big or small.

Use them wisely, and all your projects will be a smash hit!

However, these principles aren’t going to help you manage an entire project on your own. 

Fortunately, tools like ClickUp were specifically designed to do all the heavy lifting; assisting you with all your tasks, timelines, and team members.

Whether you’re following methodologies such as  Waterfall ,  Agile , or  Lean , ClickUp has all the features you need to organize your work.

So  get ClickUp for free today , and managing your projects will be a piece of cake!

man eating cake

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13 Principles of Project Management and How to Use Them

  • Written by John Terra
  • Updated on January 13, 2023

project management principles

There’s much to do in today’s fast-paced, competitive business world. Smart people break up their workload into a series of projects, which allows them to organize the work and make it more manageable.

But more than splitting the workload into projects is needed. After all, you need professionals to oversee or manage the projects’ progress to ensure the work is done within the allocated timeframe and budget. So, it would be best if you had a project manager. But these leaders need a defined set of project management principles to help them keep things running smoothly and according to plan.

This article explores over a dozen project management principles and practices and touches on structure, putting principles into action, PMP principles, and what defines success.

We begin with a few definitions.

What is Project Management All About?

According to the Project Management Institute (PMI), a project is “a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.” So, a project has a starting point and a finish, and the uniqueness stems from the idea that all parts of the project are meant to contribute to a stated goal that isn’t an ongoing part of the company’s usual operations.

Projects require project management (PM), which involves applying the knowledge, skills, techniques, and tools to the activities necessary to meet the project requirements. Consequently, project management follows specific basic rules and project management principles designed to help managers lead project team members, define the project’s scope, assess risks and roadblocks, deal with changes, and maintain communication with management and stakeholders.

Also Read: Understanding Project Management: A Comprehensive Guide

The 13 Project Management Principles to Follow

Here are 13 project management principles every project manager should follow.

1) Define your objectives and goals. This phase is an intelligent place to start because you should know why this project exists in the first place and what constitutes success or failure. The project manager, their team, and the clients should meet and ensure everyone’s on the same page. Ideally, goals should be:

a) Realistic. Can this goal be met with the available resources and timeframe?

b) Clear. Do all parties understand what’s expected?

c) Measurable. Does the project have a set of criteria in place to judge when the goal is met?

2) Make a risk management plan. Here is another principle that should be carried out before the project even starts. First, the project manager must figure out the project’s potential risks. Although risk assessment isn’t an exact science, managers can use historical data, knowledge, and experience from the team and the stakeholders to discover likely areas where the risk lies. Project managers can use tools like a risk register template to help collect this data. In addition, risk management plans should have responses in place to resolve the issue before it escalates into a problem.

3) Define the structure of the project’s organization. Here’s another PMP principle that needs to be acted on before things get underway. The project organization’s structure is a framework that facilitates project activity planning, execution, and tracking. Project managers must create an organizational chart that spells out the project’s hierarchy and the roles of every team member. Once the organization has been established, consider what procedures and guidelines the team members must follow.

4) Define the project’s deliverables. Deliverables are unique, verifiable products, results, or capabilities to perform a service created to complete a phase, process, or project. For example, a deliverable could be a new software app, an in-house training class, or an overhauling of the organization’s database.

5) Define team roles and responsibilities. Projects succeed when everyone stays in their lane and avoids duplication of effort. Therefore, someone should clarify the roles and responsibilities and establish boundaries.

6) Establish a communication plan. Constant, clear communication keeps everyone informed and on the same page. When everyone’s talking, deviations and issues get spotted early and can be dealt with swiftly. Define who needs to know what, how that information will be relayed (meetings, regular e-mails, texts, or a mix of these) and how often someone will send these updates.

7) Establish performance baselines. Projects require project performance metrics to measure success. Performance baselines hold you and your team accountable. Therefore, you should always have the means to measure the various parts of the project and see if the measurables align with what you expected.

8) Set priorities and milestones. Priorities show you what the team should focus on, and milestones show where they are in the project’s timeline. By establishing priorities and identifying milestones, project managers will know when they’re on course and schedule. Additionally, team morale rises when you recognize milestone achievements. The project team is more motivated if there’s a means of measuring progress.

9) Develop a change management plan. Change is the only constant; this is true in every aspect of life. So, a good project manager comes prepared with a change management plan. This plan keeps track of changes, specifies how changes are handled, and establishes an approval process. A good change management plan covers changes, delays, risks, and issues involving the project’s scope, budget, and schedule.

10) Devise an initiation and execution strategy. Initiation involves the project’s preliminary work that someone must complete before any other project activities can happen. Execution typically starts with a kick-off meeting to get things underway. Project managers use the kick-off meeting to share the project’s plan and vision, delegate assignments to team members, and turn them loose on the project.

11) Be aware of time and budget limitations. Time and money are finite resources. Therefore, project managers should use project scheduling tools to establish a realistic timeline, factoring in variables such as vacations, holidays, corporate events, etc. In the same way, project managers should create a budget, including a margin for unexpected expenses.

12) Develop a process of accountability and responsibility. Great project managers empower their team members with a sense of responsibility and accountability, which pays great dividends in morale. When managers give team members responsibility for their work, it removes the burden of micro-management and allows them to work from their strengths and learn new project management skills. Both results ultimately benefit the project, the organization, and the employee. But managers must set up a means of accountability before giving team members individual responsibility. For example, managers should have tools to track project deadlines and task delegation.

13) Be transparent. Finally, project managers should create a system where all team members and other interested parties can quickly and efficiently access the project’s relevant information. Project managers who want to develop or improve project transparency should make the project’s data available to the entire team, let everyone see the big picture, provide good collaboration tools, and share calendars among relevant parties, including management and outside stakeholders, if appropriate. Project transparency removes guesswork and uncertainty and leads to better team and project results.

If you want a different perspective, look at these agile project management principles and see where the two sets of principles mesh and where they deviate.

Also Read: Understanding KPIs in Project Management

Put Principles into Action Using Templates and Software

Fortunately, many resources are available to help managers implement project management principles and practices. For example, you can employ project budget templates, project plan templates, and Gantt chart templates. The last chart is handy, as it lets you identify critical paths, set milestones, set up task dependencies, and collaborate with your team, all in real-time.

Additionally, project managers can benefit from a good project management software solution such as:

1) Monday.com

2) Smartsheet

3) ProjectManager

All About Project Structure

A good project structure is made up of work packages. These work packages represent enclosed work units assigned to the proper personnel. Therefore, when creating the layout for your project, you must consider three primary factors.

1) The Project’s Goal. Ask yourself, “What is this project trying to accomplish?” When you answer that question, you have a better understanding of what must be done, which then determines your project’s goals.

2) The Project’s Milestones. Milestones help split the project into phases or steps, each with defined demands and results.

3) The Project’s Timeline. The timeline defines the project’s starting and ending points and the order of the work packages. This information is best rendered into a flowchart.

What Constitutes Project Success?

There’s isn’t a single correct answer to this question. Project success means different things depending on who you ask. However, success is best expressed at the start of the project using key and measurable criteria to judge the project’s success or failure. These criteria can include the following:

1) Meeting essential project objectives such as the organization, stakeholder, or user’s business objectives.

2) Creating satisfaction with the entire project management process. This satisfaction can be based on factors such as a complete deliverable that meets the organization’s standards and is completed on time and within budget.

3) The project’s customers and most of the project’s community are satisfied with and accept the project’s deliverables.

Also Read: 5 Essential Project Management Steps You Need to Know

How Would You Like Project Management Certification?

We mentioned building upon your newly gained CAPM certification to improve your project management skill set by taking other certification courses. For example, Simplilearn, in collaboration with the University of Massachusetts, offers a PMP boot camp to boost your project leadership skills and prepare you to take on more significant challenges and better career opportunities.

The boot camp, aligned with PMI-PMP® and IASSC-Lean Six Sigma, covers valuable project management skills such as:

  • Agile Management
  • Customer Experience Design
  • Design Thinking
  • Digital Transformation
  • Leadership Skills
  • Lean Six Sigma Green Belt (LSSGB)
  • Project Risk Management

In addition, the bootcamp helps you earn your 146 Professional Development Units (PDUs) to maintain your continuing certification requirements (CCR) for PMI-related certifications. You will also be offered membership in the UMass Amherst Alumni Association.

Today’s business world needs more qualified project management professionals than ever. So, sign up for this valuable project management bootcamp today, and turbocharge your project manager career while opening more doors and career opportunities.

You might also like to read:

9 Project Management Techniques and Tools That Actually Work in 2023

Project Management Frameworks and Methodologies Explained

Project Management Phases: A Full Breakdown

What is Agile Project Management? A Complete Guide

Essential Project Management Skills to Learn in 2023

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Library Home

Project Management

(16 reviews)

principles of project management assignment

Adrienne Watt

Copyright Year: 2014

ISBN 13: 9781774200131

Publisher: BCcampus

Language: English

Formats Available

Conditions of use.


Learn more about reviews.

Reviewed by Carolyn McGary, Associate Professor, Metropolitan State University of Denver on 10/2/23

From a project management process standpoint, it covers at a high level the majority of what a starting student would need to know. read more

Comprehensiveness rating: 4 see less

From a project management process standpoint, it covers at a high level the majority of what a starting student would need to know.

Content Accuracy rating: 4

Principles are pretty universal, so accuracy still seems good.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 4

A few of the examples in the book are becoming outdated, and could use an update to ensure continued relevancy.

Clarity rating: 5

Written in a straightforward manner, with good separation of topics. Feels clear and provides adequate context.

Consistency rating: 5

Flow was logical, and chapters seem to be consistent.

Modularity rating: 5

Felt the chapters were easily divisible if needed.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

Structure and flow seem to be logical.

Interface rating: 5

Did not see any significant issues with navigation or interface.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

Did not see any significant grammatical errors in the text.

Cultural Relevance rating: 4

I did see a variety of examples for the topics. I did not notice anything insensitive, but I could be biased to that.

Overall the book has good data, I like the flow and the content. I would look at updating some of the examples and if possible update some of the graphics and tables for visual effect. I did like that there have been some improvements in 2019, 2021 and 2022 including some reformatting for accessibility. I have adapted portions of this text for my own Construction Project Management course.

Reviewed by Megan Hamilton, Faculty- Coordinator of Civic Engagement Projects, Emory and Henry College on 6/30/23

It covers all the major points that I want my students to understand when learning about the craft of project management. read more

Comprehensiveness rating: 5 see less

It covers all the major points that I want my students to understand when learning about the craft of project management.

While this book does address that project management is applicable to many sectors and careers, it doesn't provide as much a of a non-profit lens on project management as I would like my students to understand. This text is meant to apply to any type of project management though, which is important for my students to understand even though this specific class is about project management in the non-profit world.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 5

It is very up to date and would be easy to update in the future.

It's very easy to read.

Yes, this text provides consistency in the terminology it uses.

One of the reasons I picked this text besides that it was comprehensive and an easy read was because I could easily divide it up into smaller sections to help support our in class learning sessions.

It is organized well and in a thought out manner.

There were no issues when I read this text.

No major grammatical errors in the text.

Cultural Relevance rating: 5

There is nothing that jumped out at me reading this text that would be culturally sensitive, but I wasn't reading looking for that either.

This book does a good job of covering all the aspects of project management. It keeps things simple and basic, which is great for students who are just now learning about the craft of project management.

Reviewed by Michael Botyarov, Lecturer, Metropolitan State University of Denver on 7/24/22

This textbook provides a comprehensive overview of project management, including associated processes and tools. This introductory text can be an excellent supplement to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBoK) given the flow and structure... read more

This textbook provides a comprehensive overview of project management, including associated processes and tools. This introductory text can be an excellent supplement to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBoK) given the flow and structure of the chapters. That being said, project management has evolved over the last several years where a discussion of new methodologies, such as Agile and Critical Chain, could provide additional benefit to readers.

Content Accuracy rating: 5

The textbook accurately describes project management fundamentals and provides accurate definitions of terms.

The fundamentals of project management are unlikely to shift much given the relevance of traditional waterfall approaches. Given that the purpose of the PMBoK, and other introductory texts such as this, is to provide a set of best practices for the field, the material will stay relevant. That being said, new methodology such as Agile is becoming increasingly common, so readers should keep that in mind and review newer methodologies on their own.

The textbook is very clear, providing definitions of key project management terms where needed. Additionally, case study examples provide insight into practical application(s) of the discussed topic, further elaborating on key terms and providing more clarity.

Throughout the entire textbook, the same terms are used and the formatting of chapters is similar such that the reader can get comfortable with the flow of material.

Modularity rating: 4

The textbook does an excellent job of decomposing project management topics into easy-to-digest sections, which the reader can comfortably read in one sitting. That being said, the textbook could benefit from sample exercises or problems after each chapter so the reader could apply the new knowledge in a practical way to enhance retention.

All topics in the textbook are presented in a logical way, similar to the sequence in an actual project, where you begin with stakeholder analysis and conclude with project completion. This organization further allows the reader to understand the structure of project management processes.

The textbook has clear examples, with graphics as needed, that are free from errors and are clearly displayed.

The textbook does not contain any evident grammatical errors and is therefore easy to read and digest.

Given the nature of the textbook and the way material is presented, it is not culturally insensitive or offensive in any way.

This textbook provides an excellent introduction to project management by decomposing relevant structure and processes. I would highly recommend this textbook to students seeking to learn the fundamentals of a dynamic field. Supplemental material regarding Agile, and other new project management processes, can be provided separately to further guide class discussions.

Reviewed by Smita Singh, Lecturer, Metropolitan State University of Denver on 5/13/22

The textbook is pretty comprehensive and covers all aspects of project management. The book is well - organized and provides power points and audio files in the end of each chapter. However some of the chapters are not much in detail. For... read more

The textbook is pretty comprehensive and covers all aspects of project management. The book is well - organized and provides power points and audio files in the end of each chapter. However some of the chapters are not much in detail. For instance, chapter 3 is pretty basic and should cover topics in detail.

I did not identify any accuracy issues.

The book is recommended for a senior level class. All the topics can be introduced in the junior sections, and thereafter, can be reintroduced in the senior sections.

The book is consistent with industry standards.

Consistency rating: 4

Some of the topics in this book are inconsistent and don't follow PMI standards. For instance, the phases of the project lifecycle can be reframed.

All the chapters can be divided into smaller reading sections and the language is very easy to understand.

No issues with the organization of this book.

I did not find any grammatical errors.

The book provides basic understanding of the project management discipline in a global environment and is politically correct.

Few of the chapters can be updated with the upcoming trends in the project management discipline.

principles of project management assignment

Reviewed by Abdullah Oguz, Visiting College Lecturer, Cleveland State University on 7/4/21

The text covers all project management knowledge areas and process groups. The table of content shows all of the topics in an organized way. However, I think some chapters are short, and therefore they should include more content. For example,... read more

The text covers all project management knowledge areas and process groups. The table of content shows all of the topics in an organized way. However, I think some chapters are short, and therefore they should include more content. For example, Chapter 3 “The Project Life Cycle (Phase)” consists of four main phases with limited information for each of them. This chapter can be considered as a summary. There is a lack of clarification regarding the structure of the text after this chapter. Agile project management is addressed with only the Scrum framework in Chapter 4. One important advantage of this OER is that it provides PowerPoint presentation files and audio files for each chapter.

The content looks accurate. However, some parts need more explanation with exercises and case studies.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 3

The book was published in 2014. There are three updates in 2017 and 2019. However, they are mostly related to the formatting, not the content. Although the book covers the main topics in project management, there have been updates in the primary body of knowledge guide (PMBOK Guide) published by the Project Management Institute (PMI). The sixth edition was published in 2017, and the seventh edition will be released in August 2021. Besides, in the meantime, new and emerging technologies changed the corporate and social environment with new opportunities, and the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the understanding of risk evaluation and mitigation strategies. The content cannot be considered obsolete, but updates are required throughout the chapters.

Clarity rating: 4

The text is well-written, and it can be understood without ambiguity. However, a lack of explanation for some chapters and topics may leave doubts in many students’ minds.

The text is internally consistent in terms of terminology and framework.

The text was structured for modularity with 19 chapters and sections inside each chapter. Therefore, it can be easily and readily divisible into smaller reading sections although some chapters such as Chapter 19 cannot be considered a chapter, but a short conclusion.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 3

The chapter titles emphasize planning. Actually, planning is the most important part for a project manager. However, in project management, project monitoring and control, as well as execution (implementation), should be highlighted separately beside the planning. Therefore, it can create a perception that undermines the importance of other phases and process groups.

Interface rating: 4

Although chapter titles are available in the Table of Content, sections of chapters are not provided. The quality of the images is good in general. However, several figures such as Figure 1.1 don’t have a good resolution.

I did not find any grammatical errors. However, this issue should be addressed by an expert in this field.

In parallel with the global nature of project management discipline and diverse teams, the book provides examples of the implementation of projects in other cultures. For example, the “Project Management Expertise” section in Chapter 2 has a subsection “Understanding the Project Environment”. The last paragraph of this section reads “Project managers in multicultural projects must appreciate the culture dimensions and try to learn relevant customs, courtesies, and business protocols before taking responsibility for managing an international project. A project manager must take into consideration these various cultural influences and how they may affect the project’s completion, schedule, scope, and cost.” This positive approach is implemented throughout the book.

I found this book very helpful and included it in my two summer courses as a supplementary resource.

Reviewed by Debbie Austin, Part Time Faculty, Portland Community College on 1/11/21

This text is a comprehensive overview of the basic functions and processes of project management. It is not an in-depth study in any one area of project management but does a great job of covering the end to end process for a survey or basics course. read more

This text is a comprehensive overview of the basic functions and processes of project management. It is not an in-depth study in any one area of project management but does a great job of covering the end to end process for a survey or basics course.

I found the text to be accurate and sufficient for project management topics.

I like this text for the coverage of project management topics for a basic understanding of project methodology. Because it is a basics book, it does not cover agile methods sufficiently or address non-standard approaches to project management that could make it more relevant for today's project environments.

I really like this book for it's easy to understand language and straightforward layout. Students seem to be able to navigate and understand this book and are able to follow the direction that references the textbook.

This book is very consistent throughout with nicely structured chapters that are easy to digest in a single sitting.

This text has equally weighted chapters that are named appropriately and easy to understand. Within the chapters, there are section headers that make it easy to follow the content progression.

I use this book because it is so well organized. The chapters are clear and follow standard project management practice. They are structured by topic so it is easy to assign chapters that align to the content of the course.

The text is well designed with supporting images and examples that make the content more clear.

I have not found any grammatical issues.

I have not found any issues related to cultural sensitivities.

This is my go-to book for basic project management course needs. It is easy to read, understand, and use and I love the basic coverage of project management practice that it provides. This would not be a text for any specific project management topics that need more depth but it is a great basics book for those just starting out in project management. I highly recommend this text.

Reviewed by Andrea Peterson, Faculty: Lecturer, Metropolitan State University of Denver on 8/5/20

This text is perfect for a beginner's level course in Project Management. read more

This text is perfect for a beginner's level course in Project Management.

The text includes all the standard body of knowledge components making up the traditional framework of project management.

As the text is organized according to this traditional framework, it is readily adaptable to updates of current examples and processes.

The text is definitely easy to read and at a level commensurate with a beginner's course.

The text is consistent in its use of terminology true to the body of knowledge of project management.

The text contains 16 chapters which readily fits the format of most college-level courses of 15-16 weeks of study. Additionally, chapters can be easily combined for a more topical study and/or a compressed delivery.

The text follows the traditional methodology of study of the phases of project management and remains true to the body of knowledge required.

The text includes clickable links for some images and figures making it highly interactive.

No grammatical errors were found in this text as it is written in a very professional manner.

There are no cultural issues within this text.

The examples used in this text for explanation of the difficult subject of precedence planning and diagramming are that of planning a wedding, making this a highly valuable text for the hospitality industry and specifically meeting and event project management.

Reviewed by Keivan Sadeghzadeh, Assistant Professor, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth on 6/27/20

This textbook covers many topics in the area but could include more such as "Communications Management" and ... read more

This textbook covers many topics in the area but could include more such as "Communications Management" and ...

I found the textbook error-free and unbiased ...

The textbook is almost up to date but there are rooms for improvement such as numerical examples and case studies. Using more interested real-word examples id recommended ...

Clarity rating: 2

The textbook lacks adequate context for many technical terminologies and concepts specifically quantitative methods such as CPM and PERT. Many project management techniques are not discussed and explained in details and major improvement in this category (clarity) is required ...

Terminology and framework are almost consistence but minor reorganizing in topics using the order of the project management areas according to the standards and guidelines is suggested ...

More breakdown in chapters is suggested specially in chapters 10 to 16. These chapters require developed structure using different level to make the concept and content clear and easy to understand ...

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 4

As mentioned in "Consistency", using the order of the project management areas according to the standards and guidelines in order to apply minor reorganizing could be effective ...

More graphical presentation and visualization techniques are required. Many areas of project management could benefit table, figures, and charts to present the context in a clear fashion ...

I don't see any errors ...

The textbook is not culturally insensitive or offensive in any way ...

Reviewed by Jonathan de Alderete, Associate Teaching Professor, University of Massachusetts Lowell on 6/10/20

This book is an excellent high level overview perfect for both business majors and engineers who are learning the ropes for staging a project. read more

This book is an excellent high level overview perfect for both business majors and engineers who are learning the ropes for staging a project.

This is a standard overview. I would have liked to see a bit more in depth on the techniques for planning but it is laid out in a similar way to how industry tackles problems.

Luckily barring a major industry overhaul, this is a well established workflow.

The book was written in an approachable non-technical fashion, with minimal use of jargon. Additionally lighthearted graphics increase the engagement.

The table formatting is a bit jarring at times (Colors, styles and fonts) which can be distracting.

The chapters are about the right length for a student to read before class, these would go well with a comprehensive case study.

There is a bit of a jump toward the end of this book (From project development to implementation is a bit glossed in my opinion), and I would have loved to see some implementation case study, but otherwise clear.

While the book does play some service to other cultures, I think a little more expansion on how regions can effect deliverable items as well as expectations is a major player. This won't be an issue to students or to the book, but I would add it as a consideration.

Overall this is a great primer on project management. I plan to use this book with Senior mechanical engineers to drive context on project planning.

Reviewed by Elaine Luther, Professor, Point Park University on 9/5/19

Table of Contents should provide short description of content for each Chapter. Would like to see more Business Examples, since this was listed under Business Area. Missing major projects such as; New Product Development/Acquisition, Capital... read more

Comprehensiveness rating: 3 see less

Table of Contents should provide short description of content for each Chapter. Would like to see more Business Examples, since this was listed under Business Area. Missing major projects such as; New Product Development/Acquisition, Capital Expenditures, Business Plans, Administrative Projects (Health Care Choices, etc.) Also, examples were confusing; some were project types, while others were job types, in C2. The Preface had 5 elements of Project Management, but then C3 only had 4, missing Control. That should be the structure for the textbook, and it should be consistent. Communication Planning should be an earlier Chapter rather than C15. Too late by then. Good coverage of Group Dynamics, Gantt Charts, Budgeting, Quality Conrol, Risk Management, and Implementation. Would like to see links to Excel for NPV calculations. It would also be nice to have a case study of a project that flows through all of the Chapters. ,

As referenced above, there was a discrepancy in steps in Project Management; preface listed 5, C3 only had 4 - dropped Control. I assume this is a country of original difference, but Third Party Contracting is often used over Outsourcing. Same with Charter versus Contract. Not sure. It seemed to be well edited.

It has been around for a long time, but history should be more current/relevant - with examples students could understand. Perhaps steps to develop the iPhone?

Planning a wedding might not be a good example for business. Even planning a vacation or building a tiny home would be more relevant.

I prefer more lists, rather than long paragraphs.

Also, there could be concrete examples.

Have links or examples for finding budget details - trade organizations, franchises, etc.

Chapter 10 and 11 seem to cover the same steps of preparing timelines.

I think there should be an overview chapter that describes the process from start to finish, perhaps with an outline or workbook.

C15 Communication should be up front. Have Overview Chapter.

Interface rating: 2

I could not find the slides. I could not get the audio files to open. Each time I tried, there was no back button, and I had to reopen the PDF and scroll down to the page.

Do PDF's have a find or go to page option?

It was well written. Very clear.

I would skip the wedding example for a business textbook. Event planning could be a substitute.

I was looking for a textbook that I could use with a Capstone course where senior develop a business plan. I wanted a stronger business focus. However, this is close. Thanks.

Reviewed by Micheline Al Harrack, Visiting Faculty, Marymount University on 7/26/19

This book covers all the topics relevant to Project Management. It outlines an overview of Project Management, the Project Life Cycle, and covers all knowledge areas as identified in the PMBOK 5th edition. It does not integrate using a software... read more

This book covers all the topics relevant to Project Management. It outlines an overview of Project Management, the Project Life Cycle, and covers all knowledge areas as identified in the PMBOK 5th edition. It does not integrate using a software like Microsoft Project. The book references Implementation instead of Executing even though it mentions Execution as an alternative. It goes briefly over Integration, and Monitoring and Controlling. It can be used as a textbook to be supplemented with a software package and the changes in the PMBOK 6th edition.

The book is accurate and in line with the PMBOK 5th edition.

The book is relevant and covers the principles of Project Management. It can be used as a basic reference even after the PMBOK 6th edition is out.

This book is clear. The style is simple, easy, and to the point.

The book is consistent in terminology and framework.

The chapters can be easily divided and assigned as readings and reference materials in a course. The chapters are short, to the point, and simple to read and understand.

The book is organized. It starts with the overview, the project life cycle, framework, stakeholder management then moves to the initiation phase and dedicates 9 chapters to planning the different knowledge areas. It covers the Executing phase very briefly in the "Project Implementation Overview" chapter and the Closing phase in the "Project Completion" chapter.

The book interface is clean. It is easy to navigate. Even though the charts are small, they are clear. I did not identify any problems in the display features.

The text is free of grammatical errors.

The text is not culturally insensitive. Most examples are universal. None are offensive, in my opinion.

This book is a good Project Management book. The style is clean and far from verbose. The text can be revised at a certain point to align the terminology with the PMBOK .

Reviewed by Paul Szwed, Professor, Massachusetts Maritime Academy on 4/21/19

The textbook offers a broad look at project management and provides a high-level treatment of most areas of project management. It would be a good introductory book on the subject, but due to its relatively abbreviated length, it does not go into... read more

The textbook offers a broad look at project management and provides a high-level treatment of most areas of project management. It would be a good introductory book on the subject, but due to its relatively abbreviated length, it does not go into uniformly deep coverage of all subjects or techniques.

Like most general texts on the subject, it provides an accurate view of what is commonly referred to as the traditional (or waterfall) framework for project management. There are alternative frameworks (e.g., agile) and other than a short mention in chapter 4, this text does not cover such alternative methods.

Most of the content in this text is useful and will benefit students in courses with introductory project management modules, or even entire introductory courses in project management. However, without additional support, the select tools and techniques described may not be in sufficient detail to enable a student to effectively apply them as a project manager.

The text is narrative in style and will be accessible and approachable from students of virtually any background or discipline. The text is not written for a specific discipline and adopts only jargon / technical terminology used broadly across project management professions.

The text lacked a bit of internal consistency in that the order of presentation of the chapters did not follow the framework for project management that was put forward in chapter 4 at the beginning of the book.

While I found the text to be a bit too abbreviated for my semester-long course, the chapters themselves were sufficiently short to be easily consumed by my undergraduate students. The text lacked any ability to easily decompose chapters further into sections or subsection, such that they might be adopted into specific modules.

Perhaps because I come from a PMI / PMP orientation and bias, I found the order of presentation to be slightly disorienting. It not follow the PMI order (mentioned in chapter 1 and illustrated partially in Table 4.1) nor did it necessarily follow the typical chronology of a project. Instead project phases were interspersed within project knowledge areas. For example, there was an extended section on project selection (NPV, ROI, etc.) in chapter 7 that typically proceeds initiation. Also, there was an extended section on interpersonal skills (e.g., personality, conflict resolution, meeting management, leadership) contained in chapter 11 on resource planning - this is usually separated from the technical skills of project management processes and could have easily been presented in a separate chapter or appendix.

The interface was simple and easy to navigate.

Overall, it was well-written and easily understood.

I think the text is acceptable, however when it is updated, the selection of examples could be more global and varied. There was a chapter devoted to culture that would provide an opportunity for readers to think more deeply about their own perspective and biases.

This is a decent textbook for project management, particularly when it is intended to be introductory. If educators are interested in developing technical project management competencies of its students, it may require supplemental materials. The next edition would also benefit from additional interactivity to further engage readers. Thank you to the authors and contributors for their solid work in putting forward one of the foremost OER texts in the discipline of project management.

Reviewed by Deborah Hommer, Assistant Teaching Professor, Penn State University Altoona on 2/1/18

I feel the book touches upon all the topics of a typical Project Management Book except use of a software tool like Microsoft Project. The book does not go into great detail on many of the project deliverables identified by PMI or PMD. Also... read more

I feel the book touches upon all the topics of a typical Project Management Book except use of a software tool like Microsoft Project. The book does not go into great detail on many of the project deliverables identified by PMI or PMD.

Also recommend: Chapter 12-take slide 8 and add formulas and add to text content.

I believe because it is high level, it will remain relevant. Additionally, the level will negatively impact it use in higher level classes (400-level).

I believe it is well written with nice examples.

I found the book to be consistent within and with industry information.

The chapters are assignable as smaller reading sections. They are in fact very small, high level information which I would augment with case studies.

This books is organized like most other Project Management Books-Project Life Cycle.

I did not experience any issues with the interface when reviewing this text. Limited graphics used had no issues displaying. Might recommend more graphics.

I feel the book is well written with no grammar errors.

I did not note any cultural issues with this text.

I think this would be good for a 100 or 200 level Project Management class. I would like to see some case studies and depth to be added so it could be used for a 400-level course.

Reviewed by Sang-Phil Kim, Assistant Professor, Winona State University on 6/20/17

Project management has soft skills and hard skills. Though the text covers all area and ideas of the subject it seems too concise, especially on hard/quantitative skills, such as critical path method (CPM), earned value analysis (EVA), and risk... read more

Project management has soft skills and hard skills. Though the text covers all area and ideas of the subject it seems too concise, especially on hard/quantitative skills, such as critical path method (CPM), earned value analysis (EVA), and risk analysis.

It can be used a supplementary material.

Content is accurate.I didn't find any error.

Content is up-to-date. The text is written and arranged in such a way that necessary updates will be easy and straightforward to implement.

The text is written in clear, accessible prose. It provides enough explanations for jargons.

The text is consistent in terms of terminology and framework.

The text has 19 chapters. It is easy to divide, to modify, or to rearrange.

The text has a logical structure/organization.

The text has no significant interface issues. The figures and tables are too small, but it can be seen in large version if a reader clicks the figure/table. I reviewed PDF version, but not sure in different formats.

I didn't find any grammatical errors.

The text is not culturally insensitive.

More contents for technical/quantitative skills and examples.

Reviewed by Ziko (Ziad) Rizk, Computer Systems Faculty, LinnBenton Community College (LBCC) on 6/20/17

The book covers the project management topic very well. The author begins the book with why businesses should leverage project management, then moves on to the project definition, the project life cycle, the Project Management Institute (PMI) and... read more

The book covers the project management topic very well. The author begins the book with why businesses should leverage project management, then moves on to the project definition, the project life cycle, the Project Management Institute (PMI) and project methodologies, and finally to each phase of the project life cycle (initiation, planning, implementation, and closing). The book does include an index, a slide set for each chapter, and is available in several different formats (HTML, PDF, etc.)

The book is accurate, up-to-date, and unbiased. The implementation chapter is light. I think a complete chapter on monitoring and controlling would have added much value to the book.

The book content is up-to-date. While the project management field continue to evolve, and core processes and knowledge areas are mature and stable. The book is written in such a way that corrections and revisions will be straightforward to implement. Speaking of revisions, the author covers the five PMI process areas (initiation, planning, executing/implementation, monitoring and controlling, and closing); however, the implementation chapter is light with brief mention of the monitoring and controlling activities. A good chapter on monitoring and controlling would have add much value.

The book is easy to read and follow. While the author used many of the project management technical terminology, she did not go overboard. The majority of the chapters cover the content well.

The book is mostly consistent. The one inconsistent, I think, that requiring refinement is the project management processes. While the author used initiation, planning, implementation, and closing, the PMI uses initiation, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing. I think, it would be best to stay consistent with PMI.

The book is modular. The book consists of 19 different chapters. Each chapter focuses on a different project management topic. 9 of the 19 chapters focus on planning the different project management knowledge areas, which in my opinion, is appropriate.

The book is well organized and structured. The 19 chapters’ flow well. The content of flow of each chapter is also good. I already stated the implementation chapter is light and a separate chapter of monitoring and controlling would have added value.

The book interface is very good. As far as I can tell, there are no interface and navigation problems. The images and charts are clear and readable. A few of the images are busy and still readable.

The book grammar is very good. While I was not focusing much on grammar, no grammatical errors stood out.

The book is politically correct. I think, I would have noticed if the book was culturally insensitive.

I think, this is a good project management book. I think the implementation chapter should be renamed to executing and beefed up. I also think a new chapter on monitoring and controlling should be added. Finally, the planning chapters could be adjusted to align with the PMI knowledge areas.

Reviewed by Dave Amato, Adjunct Instructor, Portland Community College on 6/20/17

I think the book does a pretty good job of this although I think the representative graphics were difficult to view as part of the book content. They are too small and required enlargement if you wanted to try to get anything out of them. read more

I think the book does a pretty good job of this although I think the representative graphics were difficult to view as part of the book content. They are too small and required enlargement if you wanted to try to get anything out of them.

I was pleased with this aspect of the book.

As long as there are projects to manage, this book will be relevant. As an elementary guide to the process of project management it does a good job.

Many text books are pedantic and verbose. This one is not. Basic language drives to the elemental point.

I think the author did a very good job with her organization of the material, sequential steps and references.

The graphics are poor. I think there should be more use of charts and flow charts. The graphics provided are difficult to interpret or even see in the PDF version.

Grammatical Errors rating: 4

Cultural Relevance rating: 3

Very little opportunity in the subject matter to deal with cultural relevance. I found no insensitive or offensive references of any kind.

The graphics provided were frustrating. Given the nature of this subject, I believe more graphics should be provided; flow charts, story boards, scheduling forms, etc. I am a visual learner and find subjects like this are easier to grasp with visual aids and case studies. Some examples were used but I think following an actual, completed project; supported by photos of the product of the project management effort would be helpful in keeping the learners interest.

Table of Contents

  • 1. Project Management: Past and Present
  • 2. Project Management Overview
  • 3. The Project Life Cycle (Phases)
  • 4. Framework for Project Management
  • 5. Stakeholder Management
  • 6. Culture and Project Management
  • 7. Project Initiation
  • 8. Overview of Project Planning
  • 9. Scope Planning
  • 10. Project Schedule Planning
  • 11. Resource Planning
  • 12. Budget Planning
  • 13. Procurement Management
  • 14. Quality Planning
  • 15. Communication Planning
  • 16. Risk Management Planning
  • 17. Project Implementation Overview
  • 18. Project Completion
  • 19. Celebrate!
  • Appendix 1: Project Management PowerPoints
  • Appendix 2: Chapter Questions
  • Appendix 3: Chapter Audio Files
  • About the Author
  • Versioning History

Ancillary Material

About the book.

This book covers the basics of project management. This includes the process of initiation, planning, execution, control and close out that all projects share.

About the Contributors

Adrienne Watt holds a Computer Systems Diploma (BCIT), a Bachelors in Technology (BCIT) and a Master’s in Business Administration (City University).

Since 1989, Adrienne has worked as an educator and gained extensive experience developing and delivering business and technology curriculum to post-secondary students. During that time she ran a successful software development business. In the business she worked as an IT Professional in a variety of senior positions including Project Manager, Database Designer, Administrator and Business Analyst. Recently she has been exploring a wide range of technology related tools and processes to improve delivery methods and enhance learning for her students.

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  • 12 Project Management Principles Explained by Experts

Something big is happening in the world of project management, have you realized? A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) – Seventh Edition is shifting from being process-led to becoming more principle-based.

A principle-based approach isn’t exactly a new concept. We've had guiding principles of project management guiding our practice for many years. The current shift is simply putting the spotlight on the broader roles and approaches to conducting the work, while processes take a back seat.

What is the Meaning of Principle-Driven Project Management?

Principle-driven project management is a way of working that follows fundamental rules or guidelines for leading a project.

It’s different from process-driven project management because there is more emphasis on making your own choices. You lead the project following a set of core concepts which guide and shape the work.

This shift has happened because it’s no longer possible to mandate processes and expect them to work for all projects. Processes need to be drawn from both agile, hybrid, and predictive ways of working, so project managers should be free to choose the best processes for their projects.

As a result, learners can expect to see a change in the structure and emphasis of project management training materials. We are likely to see more about principles and how to use them and less about memorizing processes in a rigid way.

The PM PrepCast course is always updated to the latest version of the relevant exam content outline for the Project Management Professional (PMP)® exam, so you can rest assured that your learning will always prepare you for the current version.

The PMP 2021 Framework

It used to be the case that the PMBOK® Guide focused solely on the processes, process groups, and knowledge areas of waterfall delivery, but that is no longer true.

The shift is a good thing: in the workplace, many teams are using agile and hybrid methodologies, and it’s natural that the guides, templates, and books we use to inform how projects are run reflect that variety. When you study for your PMP exam and do your job, you need an awareness of all the things that affect success - and the principles are part of that.

As a result, the way projects are delivered can no longer be determined by a set of defined processes. Project teams need greater flexibility in how they do their work. The project management principles enable that.

They provide a framework for teams to operate within, and they sit alongside any delivery approach of your choice. Whether you are working in a predictive, iterative, or agile environment, the principles discussed below will be relevant for you. Are you ready to find out what they are?

There are 12 project delivery principles - yes, 12! These are the things that guide project execution and that every project manager should know about.

  • Chapter 1 Stewardship
  • Chapter 2 Team
  • Chapter 3 Stakeholders
  • Chapter 4 Value
  • Chapter 5 Holistic thinking
  • Chapter 6 Leadership
  • Chapter 7 Tailoring
  • Chapter 8 Quality
  • Chapter 9 Complexity
  • Chapter 10 Risk
  • Chapter 11 Adaptability and resilience
  • Chapter 12 Change management

That’s a lot to take in. However, you might notice there are some themes that come up time and time again in PMP exam questions . Suppose you have been working in project management for some time. In that case, topics like leadership, quality management, risk management, stakeholder management, and working with a team will not be new ideas for you.

Even if this list of principles is new to you, don’t worry: we’re going to give you an overview of what each of those principles means in practice.

Let’s dive into the first one now.

1. Stewardship: Be a diligent, respectful, and caring steward

“Being a steward means to take care of something,” says Cornelius Fichtner, PMP, CSM, and Founder of The Project Management Podcast . “In a project environment, that means to look after your project and to act with its best intentions in mind at all times.”

Stewardship should be part of your project management practice. “It matters because the project manager is the person who knows the project better than anyone else,” says Cornelius. “You can steer the project in the right direction and make sure decisions are made that are beneficial to the organization. It’s a way of ensuring that personal politics do not interfere with whatever is the right thing to do.”

An effective steward should demonstrate the following values:

  • Responsibility

“In a stewardship role, project managers need to act with integrity so their decisions are above reproach,” says Cornelius. “Honesty goes without saying. It’s important that stakeholders can trust what you do and that they have confidence they are hearing the truth from you.”

Cornelius also believes that fairness and responsibility are essential values for a project manager taking a stewardship role for his or her project. “As a leader, you need to step up and make sure ethical practices are the norm for the team, however tricky that might be from time to time,” he adds.

In practice, stewardship looks a lot like careful thinking, negotiating conflicting requirements, and considering ethics in your dealings.

  • Standing up for what is right, even if that is the more challenging route to follow;
  • Following the PMI Code of Ethics , and;
  • Paying attention to small details and diligently following through on requests to ensure a quality result.

Use this principle to guide your activities throughout the work. It doesn’t matter what methodology you are following, what processes you use, or how big the project, being a good steward will help your organization get the results it deserves.

2. Team: Build a culture of accountability and respect

Projects are delivered through teams. So as leaders, it’s important to understand how to make the team work as effectively as possible. That starts with a culture of accountability and respect.

Michael Tanner, the founder of the Credible Leadership Group and creator of The Leadership Calculator , defines team accountability like this:

“Team accountability isn't about a single person, leader, project manager, or otherwise, holding every other team member accountable. Team accountability is about every team member holding every other team member accountable. It's a culture of accountability."

Great teams have a positive work culture, and that helps the project progress with less disruption. "Lack of team accountability leads to misalignment,” says Michael. “A misaligned team may eventually achieve their goals, but never as efficiently and effectively as a well-aligned, accountable team."

Michael has a few tips to share that you can easily put into practice to adopt this project management principle. “Hold yourself accountable as the leader,” he says. “Your team must see you doing what you say you will do. Be willing to give and receive constructive criticism that holds team members to a higher standard.”

As many of your exam questions will be scenario-based, expect to get a lot of questions that talk about teams. Practice with an exam simulator that will help you get used to that style of question and how best to answer.

He also recommends the book The Four Disciplines of Execution (Chesney & Covey) as it defines a couple of extra ideas that are useful for team leaders, including using a compelling scoreboard that indicates if the team is winning or losing and conducting regular commitment meetings where each team member reports on prior commitments and makes new commitments to achieve the team goal.

Other than that, accountability also fosters a culture of trust and efficiency. When you hold all members accountable, team members trust one another, as they share an understanding that each one is fulfilling the roles assigned to them.

Aside from this, as a project manager, you’re able to ensure that no energy or time is spent on activities that won’t benefit the project. As a group, you achieve deliverables more efficiently. You probably work in a team already, so you can imagine what a culture of accountability and respect should look like. Here are some examples:

  • Making sure all voices are heard and all opinions considered.
  • Embracing conflict as a positive force that helps you get a better result.
  • Respecting others and calling out moments where that respect is not given to ensure everyone’s experience of the workplace is a positive one.
  • Make it a regular habit to provide constructive feedback about your team members’ strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for improvement.

Unsurprisingly, this is a principle you should stick to throughout the life cycle. It’s something you apply from the moment you are assigned to lead the work through to when you hand over the deliverables to the client or customer.

3. Stakeholders: Engage stakeholders to understand their interests and needs

A stakeholder is someone who is interested in or impacted by the project. Each stakeholder expects something from the project, and it’s important to fully understand their needs so you can tailor the engagement to be most effective.

Your stakeholders will have an active part to play in the work, and you probably want them to take some kind of action. That’s why engagement is important: if you understand their motivations, it is easier to deliver successfully as a team.

Elizabeth Harrin, author of Engaging Stakeholders on Projects: How to Harness People Power , says there are many ways that you can engage stakeholders. “From simple newsletters to gamification, there are many tools you can use to create engagement with the project,” she says. “First, you want to gain clarity on stakeholder involvement and why the project matters to them. Then you can better understand their perspective and build a trusted relationship.”

Elizabeth has a few tips to share. “Make sure you know what you are engaging them in,” she says. “Is it the project management process or the deliverables, or both? Once you know that, you can make sure your communication and interactions share your message in the most appropriate way.”

In practice, engaging stakeholders looks a lot like talking and communicating, but with specific goals in mind that drive the project closer to a successful outcome.

For example, stakeholder engagement in a practical situation could be:

  • Initiating dialogue early during project planning avoids misses that could drain your resources.
  • Facilitating a workshop and making sure all voices are heard.
  • Resolving a conflict between stakeholders who don’t share the same view about what should be in scope.
  • Working with a team to reduce resistance to change.

This principle applies the whole way through the project, from the initial idea through to project close. “Your stakeholder community may change as you go through the project,” Elizabeth says, “so make sure you are continually reviewing your plans and engaging the right people.”

4. Value: Focus on value

Value, in project management, is the balance between benefits gained and resources spent.

The perception of ‘value’ differs between stakeholders, so it’s important to understand what value means to your community. For example, if you are creating a PMP study plan , you’ll put on there the topics that would have the most value for your learning.

Let’s say I’m creating a study plan too: what I include would be different to you. I would get value out of different topics because my past experience is different to yours. We both have different views of what would be most valuable for us to learn in order to pass the exam.

“From an Agile perspective, one of the best ways to focus on value is the benefit,” says Jennie Fowler , MPM, CSM, CSPO. “Don’t overthink this! I’m not talking about a ton of math,” she adds. “It’s simple really. For the program or product roadmap that you are working on, the goal should be one sentence.”

Jennie suggests putting together a sentence in the following format:

"We are moving from X to Y by [date] with a projected benefit of [financial value/other benefit]."

“Pick items from your backlog that help you move the needle toward that benefit -the goal - with a shortest path mindset,” Jennie explains. “All backlog items can be assigned a simple financial benefit.”

As you work on the project, focusing on value means making sure that you take into account what is important for the customer at any given time.

For example, being value-driven could look like:

  • Holding regular meetings with stakeholders to ensure the project will continue to meet their needs.
  • Backlog grooming to prioritize the highest value items for delivery in early iterations.
  • Regularly reviewing the business case to ensure the benefits are going to be delivered.
  • Collaborating with team members to help determine the status of the project, making accurate estimates, and instilling in them the value of looking at these metrics when reaching project milestones.

This principle is something that applies more during the planning and execution phases than other phases because that’s when you will be aligning what you deliver to the customer’s goals. However, agile principles encourage you to be value-driven at all times, so it’s definitely a principle to keep in mind throughout the project.

5. Holistic Thinking: Recognize and respond to systems’ interactions

Systems thinking is the ability to think of the entire system, the individual parts, behavior of the system, and relationships over time, according to Shane Drumm , PMP, PMI-ACP, CSM, CSPO.

“The benefit of utilizing system thinking is it provides a holistic view of the system which can help understand the dynamics within the system,” Shane says. “The opposite of system thinking is approaching a problem from a single point of view, by looking at the individual part instead of the whole.”

Because you're looking from a bird's eye view, you'll be able to raise questions and see opportunities that aren't typically seen when elements of your project are viewed individually. This new perspective ultimately leads to better-designed products, services, and policies.

You can see why that might cause issues on projects: the team could miss essential integration points and data flows.

“Thinking in systems will help project managers reduce waste and save money by foreseeing the impact of decisions on the entire system,” Shane explains. “They can utilize different system thinking techniques depending on the issue at hand.”

Here is a collection of techniques that help solve complex problems during the design phase, according to Shane.

  • Rich Pictures
  • Causal Loop Diagrams
  • Visible Systems
  • CATWOE (which stands for Customers, Actors, Transformation, World view, Owner, and Environment - a technique for stakeholder analysis).

“Methods such as System Mapping, Action Learning, and Systems Dynamics help forecast and identify risks to the plan during the delivery,” adds Shane.

“Next time the team is stuck on a complex problem, try to help them view it from a holistic point of view. Start with positioning themselves as the individual stakeholders to help the team understand the context of the problem they are trying to solve. Then let them be creative by encouraging them to create a rich picture of the problem, so they can visualize the individual parts and how they behave together as a whole. This [method] should help get [everyone’s] creative juices flowing and help the team deliver a solution that has taken the entire system into consideration.”

Here are some situational examples of what holistic systems thinking looks like in practice:

  • Using analysis skills to accurately map business processes.
  • Drawing on technical expertise to understand IT system interactions. Mapping data flows so that everyone is clear on how information moves through the whole system.
  • Listening to your team and accounting for perspectives on how each job is accomplished or each concern is raised about the entire project delivery process.

This principle is something that’s really important during solution design because unless you understand how the business systems link together, you might miss something that could make the solution better.

6. Leadership: Motivate, influence, coach, and learn

“Leadership is absolutely key for project managers,” says Dr Penny Pullan , author of ‘Making Workshops Work: Creative collaboration for our time’ and the bestseller ‘Virtual Leadership’.

“As project managers don’t typically have line management authority over the people in their teams, leadership is different. We need to get things done without line authority, and that means people following our lead of their own volition.”

Leadership in the context of project management is different from leadership in other domains because of the relationship the manager has with the team.

“Effective leaders in this space are much more facilitative, with more use of a servant leadership style than the traditional ‘leader on a pedestal’ style,” Penny says. “It’s much more about influencing and inspiring people. Personally, I think that a facilitative leadership style works really well, especially now in our mix of virtual, hybrid, and in person.”

Leadership in project management is something you do as well as something you experience.

Here are some examples of what leadership in a project context might look like:

  • Helping team members understand the vision and goals and their role in delivery.
  • Leading by example: being the organizational culture you want to see.
  • Mentoring colleagues.

As a project leader, you’ll be ‘doing leadership’ most of the time as you work on the project. From picking up the project to making sure the customer gets what they need as you close it out, leadership is a principle to apply at every step.

Facilitative leadership is a style you can learn and get better at with practice and project management leadership training . “A good thing about more facilitative styles of leadership in project management is that the PM models how the rest of the team can step up,” Penny adds. “With each team member serving each other, success becomes more likely and the project journey more enjoyable, with learning along the way.”

7. Tailoring: Tailor the delivery approach based on context

Tailoring means choosing the right delivery approach based on organizational context, team culture, and maturity, and what you are delivering.

“When we consider an organization and their project management methodology, we usually see an internal evolution or adaptation of a broadly known methodology,” says Bruno Morgante , Head of Digital Transformation Project Performance at ALSTOM. “This adaptation of a ‘ready-made’ system of practices, techniques, procedures, and rules to be used by those working on projects, is already a first step, and an important step, of tailoring.”

However, Bruno believes there is often more an organization could and should do to bring about a tailored solution for project delivery.

“Even when a methodology is tailored to fit the organization’s needs, peculiarities, culture, and maturity, it is important to take a further step and tailor the project management approaches for each project,” he says. “Each project is unique, and not all projects require every process, deliverables, and governance.”

Bruno believes that teams in organizations that prevent tailoring will tailor their projects anyway, but without any control. “What worked well for us at BOMBARDIER was creating a fast-track approach with a simplified governance for particular types of projects with low complexity and low budgets,” he says. The team identified a set of adaptive deliverables that were applicable only to specific projects. “This lowered the burden on project managers and teams, allowing them to focus on delivering and not on creating paperwork,” he explains.

Tailoring is something you do naturally as you gain more experience because it is easier to make those decisions, especially if there is a corporate framework in place that gives you guidance.

If you are just starting out, or haven’t had the opportunity to tailor your processes yet, here are some ways you might do that:

  • Reviewing the change management process to ensure it is fit for purpose for your project and making tweaks to the approach as necessary.
  • Ensuring everyone understands the approach, processes, and methodology in use.
  • Making sure there are regular discussions about how the work is going and listening to improvements for how processes could be improved.
  • Taking note of the lessons learned for the reference of future project managers who may revisit your template.

At the beginning of your project, you will make some tailoring choices about how to do the work, with input from the team. However, that’s not the only time that tailoring is important in practice. As you work through the project, you may learn more about how to improve performance and productivity. That’s when you’d want to do a little more tailoring, switching things up, so the team can continue to perform to the very best of their ability.

8. Quality: Build quality into processes and results

Quality should be built into processes and results because stakeholders expect to get an end result that is fit for purpose and meets their needs.

“Project management is about creating value, and without quality, the project team effort is wasted, and no value is created,” says Gabriele Maussner-Schouten , PMP, MBA, BCAP. “In the most basic sense, quality means that the end product or service meets the customer's needs: not more and not less.”

Gabriele says that, typically, quality standards are defined in the Initiation or latest in the Planning Stage. “Together with the customer, the project team contracts quality standards and discusses how to measure quality throughout the project management process,” she says. “I like to make the quality discussion part of my regular team meetings and use various retrospectives to dig deeper if a quality challenge exists.”

Gabriele recommends measuring in-process quality. “This is critical,” she says, “since it allows the project team to correct course early and avoid a finished product or service that does not meet the customer's quality expectations.”

She has seen first-hand how a focus on the principle of quality makes a difference to project success. “In our fast-moving world, I have also witnessed that quality standards evolve throughout the project life cycle,” she says. “This can be part of a project scope refinement by the customer, key stakeholders, and the project team.”

The other consideration for quality is that it is important to understand how quality is defined. “The notion of quality is becoming more multifaceted and incorporates more often on HOW we achieve project outcomes,” Gabriele explains. “There is more emphasis on team effectiveness and an inclusive team and paying attention to our environmental footprint.”

But what does it look like to act on the principle of quality?

Here are somethings you could look out for or adopt in your own environment:

  • Robust approaches to how quality management will be undertaken and following through on that.
  • Conversing with stakeholders and the team about what quality work is and how it is measured.
  • Ensuring team members have the sufficient tools and resources needed to do the job well and avoid cutting corners.

Quality should be ‘baked in’ to the project from the beginning by making sure ways of working encourage quality results. However, there is typically more of an emphasis on quality as soon as you start producing deliverables, because often for stakeholders, ‘quality’ equates to them being happy with what you are doing for them. Make sure that you plan time to do quality activities and don’t try to deliver earlier by skimping on quality.

9. Complexity: Address complexity using knowledge, experience, and learning

“Complexity is the state or quality of being intricate or complicated,” says Mohit Jain , PgMP, PMP, CSM. “There are many factors which influence the project’s complexity.”

Mohit says the following factors influence the complexity, so these are important areas to understand for your project:

  • Uncertainty about the scope of the project
  • Newer technologies
  • Multiple stakeholders’ involvement
  • Multiple partners involved
  • Inter-dependency on multi-systems
  • New territory or new market

“Understanding complexity helps make a proposal or contract comprehensive with adequate consideration for possible risks and their mitigation, as well as for deciding on the contract type,” says Mohit, who is also a PMI volunteer. “When you address complexity, you can decide on the proper project management methodology, and make the decision to choose waterfall, agile or hybrid.”

Bringing together knowledge of the project, the team’s experience, and any other learning will help you minimize the impact of complex issues. “It helps in deciding the proper governance framework,” says Mohit, “and in identifying the right service providers.”

Here are some situational examples of what the complexity principle of project management looks like in practice.

  • Making sure the right people with good levels of expertise are invited to participate
  • Creating a culture of continuous learning.
  • Looking for and expecting complexity and then making a plan to address it head-on when you find a complex problem.
  • Breaking down a massive project that feels overwhelming into micro-projects that feel manageable.
  • Prioritizing regular team huddles and using collaboration software to ensure smooth communication.

Not all projects are complex, but most organizations are, so it’s highly likely that you will work in a complex environment at some point in your career. Understanding the complexity principle will help you apply it in practice. Take a step back and review the situation as a whole, looking for things that might help you understand the project better.

10. Risk: Optimize risk responses

Risk-related questions come up frequently on exams, so make sure your preparation includes adequate coverage of this topic.

According to Dr David Hillson, risk is ‘uncertainty that matters.’ There’s typically a lot of uncertainty on a project, so it’s important for project managers to be aware of and actively manage project risk to bring a little bit more certainty to the work.

“Project managers typically manage multiple projects containing numerous and diverse stakeholders,” says Harry Hall, creator of ProjectRiskCoach.com . Project risk management helps managers and their teams deal with competing demands and stay focused on the things that matter most.

Optimizing risk responses can also prepare you for the worst-case scenario. When you’re well aware of the risks ahead, you can take steps now to reduce the possibility of encountering threats in the future. Risk analysis essentially helps in the planning stage.

Where do you get started with optimizing risk responses? Harry has this suggestion.

“One powerful priority-setting method for risk analysis is the Probability/Impact Assessment,” he says.

Here is how to use it:

  • Rate the probability of your identified risks using a scale such as 1 to 5, 5 being the highest.
  • Rate the impact of your identified risks using the same scale.
  • Calculate the risk score by multiplying probability times impact (i.e., 4 x 3 = 12).
  • Sort the risks in descending order using the risk score as your primary sort.
  • Use your risk threshold to determine which risks merit a response. For example, all risks with a risk score of 20 or greater are urgent risks that require a risk owner and response plan.

“When developing the habit of concentrating on the risks that matter most, you will start getting more done than any two or three project managers around you,” Harry adds.

You might feel comfortable with the principle of risk because that has been a common theme in project management for many years. This is what it looks like in practice:

  • Carrying out risk analyses using Harry’s process above and making decisions based on the risk profile of the project overall.
  • Helping the team and executives understand what risk is and what risky situations might come upon this particular project.
  • Making smart choices about risk responses to get the best possible results for both positive and negative risks.

Optimizing risk responses are core to this principle. Make sure you understand what options are available to you for risk response and have a process for choosing the best way forward.

11. Adaptability & Resilience: Be adaptable and resilient

The pandemic events of 2020 made many organizations put adaptability and resilience front and center. For project teams, being able to switch paths, deliver faster and bounce back after a setback are crucial for ensuring projects are completed to customer satisfaction.

“PPM practice is evolving all the time,” says Emma-Ruth Arnaz-Pemberton , PMI volunteer and UK-based PMO expert. “Whether you are in delivery or enabling functions, you should be ready to change alongside the organization to continue to add value and deliver successful beneficial change.”

A huge part of being able to adapt to any circumstance comes from resilience: resilience of the individual, the team, and the organization.

If you think you need to work on your team’s ability to respond to change, where should you start? Emma-Ruth has some suggestions. “Developing and fostering resilience and an adaptable mindset takes input from everyone in the team,” she says. “Developed in isolation, values, and culture won’t stick, so ensure that this kind of work is taken seriously, developed in a safe environment, and in a collaborative way. Once it is developed, foster a culture of innovation through events where community members can engage and share, as well as commit to the plan!”

This principle is all about being able to flex with the situation and bounce back when things are tough. These are great skills to have, but what do they actually look like?

Here are a few examples of how you could use these skills in practice:

  • Creating a learning plan for the team, so they have the technical skills required to deliver this project and the next one.
  • Listening to stakeholders and being prepared to change the approach or outcomes if that is the best solution for the client or the organization.
  • Leading by example and modeling resilient behaviors such as taking a lunch break and finishing work on time.
  • Reiterating the value of the project to always remind your team about the value you are trying to build.

Building resilience is quite a personal thing, so the best advice is to consider how well-equipped you feel at the moment with regards to your personal resilience levels and then brainstorm some steps to implement to help you bolster your resilience.

Adaptability is the same: the easiest way to apply this in practice is to be open to change. While change is tough, it is often in the best interest of the project. If you can adapt to changing business needs, you can improve the chances of success.

“Resilience can be taught and should be considered a key skill for the PPM practice of the future,” says Emma-Ruth.

12. Change Management: Enable change to achieve the envisioned future state

“Change management is about setting up people to succeed,” says Bushra Nur , CAPM, “especially those who are going to be impacted by the change.”

Bushra says that project management is all about delivering change, whether that is to a service, product, technology, or process. People are at the heart of these, and that’s why this principle is important to the practice of project management.

“To ensure the change is able to be absorbed and embedded long after the project has completed delivery, change management should be incorporated from the beginning of the project,” Bushra says. “A tip to integrate change management into your project planning activities is to have well-defined responses to common questions at the beginning of your project.”

Bushra recommends answering the following questions at the pre-business case stage and then incorporating them into the business case:

  • What is the change?
  • Why is the change required?
  • How will it impact those affected?
  • What will be the consequences if the change does not go ahead?

It’s also important to consider how people will be supported through the change and after the change? Bushra recommends communications, training, user guides, and change champions as options for making sure your changes ‘stick’.

Let’s look at some situational examples of where change management is an important principle to use in your project. For example:

  • During a time of organizational change or transition, including mergers and acquisitions or office closures.
  • Helping teams understand new processes and software to improve adoption and use of the new ways of working.
  • When your organization is changing something that affects that outside of it, e.g., construction projects near residential housing.
  • Helping team members to easily voice their concerns about the change to give the team reassurance that you’re for and with them through the transition process.

The principle of change management is something you will find useful over and over again. As projects deliver change, you probably are changing something - however small - on your projects. Keep this one of the basic principles of project management in mind, and you’ll find it easier to encourage others to use whatever it was your team delivered.

Drawing it all together

These 12 principles are shifting the practice of project management. It’s becoming more important that teams focus on broad principles and less on the process - although, of course, using the right processes is always going to be essential for smooth delivery. These principles provide another way to frame what is critical for success.

Think about how you use these principles in your work at the moment. If you don’t think you are doing the best job, focus on choosing one principle to work on and adopt. Then go from there and continue to build your skills, layering on the principles as you go.

Note: For now, please do not tie to the PMP exam, exam content outline, or 7th edition PMBOK directly since the latest PMP exam still uses 6th edition PMBOK as one of the primary references.

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What Are the Principles of Project Management?

  • 1.  Project Management Basics
  • 2.  Project Management Methodologies
  • 3.  Project Management Life Cycle
  • 4.  Best Project Management Software
  • 5.  Team Collaboration Tips
  • 6.  Agile Methodology Basics
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Introduction to the Principles of Project Management

Smart management is the cornerstone of successful project execution across diverse industries and sectors. By adhering to a set of well-established principles, project managers can effectively navigate the complexities of planning, organizing, and executing projects, just as an experienced sailor navigates a choppy sea. 

In this article, we delve into the essential principles that guide project management practices, shedding light on their significance and offering valuable insights to both seasoned professionals and those new to the field. 

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What are the principles of project management?

The principles of project management are the fundamental rules that should be followed for the successful management of projects. The Project Management Book of Knowledge (PMBOK) does not currently contain an official list of principles for successful projects. However, PMI’s annual pulse survey highlights the principles that successful project managers and companies are following. Here are the nine principles of project management:

  • Formal project management structure
  • Invested and engaged project sponsor
  • Clear and objective goals and outcomes
  • Documented roles and responsibilities
  • Strong change management
  • Risk management
  • Mature value delivery capabilities
  • Performance management baseline
  • Communication plan

Let’s take a look at each one of these in a bit more detail.

1. Formal structure

Projects need to have a formalized structure, including processes, procedures, and tools. If you’ve ever tried to complete a project without a formalized structure (“off the books”), you know how hard it can be to control it and provide the attention it deserves. A project should have a project charter , project plan , and a designated project team to successfully prioritize and manage the project. 

2. Project sponsor

An effective project sponsor is critical to the success of a project. Sponsors champion your project and act as a spokesperson to other executives. Having an engaged sponsor makes it easier to communicate progress, escalate issues to overcome roadblocks, and guide stakeholders through decision-making processes.

3. Goals and outcomes

Without precise requirements and approval criteria, it will be difficult to measure a project’s success. You may think that your final product does everything requested, only to have the customer or user complain that you left out a critical component. The most common factor behind failed projects is a lack of clear goals. Project requirements and approval criteria should be determined and documented at the beginning of the project. These must be reviewed and approved by all key stakeholders, including the sponsor and customer.

4. Roles and responsibilities

Two forms should be used to document and define the roles and responsibilities of everyone involved with a project. For project team members, RACI or RASCI is used to determine duties and expectations. RASCI stands for: 

  • R: Responsible 
  • A: Accountable 
  • S: Sign-off authority (not always used) 
  • C: Consulted 
  • I: Involved

In a RACI chart , team members are listed along the top, with tasks along the sides. Each member is assigned a letter (R, A, C, and I) according to their role for each job. A stakeholder register documents stakeholders outside the primary team, as well as important information such as the following:

  • Communication preferences (type and frequency)
  • Contact information
  • Level of influence on the project
  • Engagement level with the project
  • Their role within the company
  • Other relevant details or notes

principles of project management assignment

5. Management of project changes

A project needs a well-defined scope to ensure the outcome meets customer expectations. Without strong change management, a project could suffer from scope creep and gradually grow beyond the initial project guidelines. To give an example, team members or stakeholders may want to add additional features to a product. However, if you don’t carefully control changes, you could end up with a great product that costs twice what you expected and is delivered six months late.

6. Risk management

Since we cannot execute projects in a bubble, they all face some risks. Risk can affect your resources, technology, or processes. It’s important to manage risk to minimize or eliminate its impact on your projects. This involves identifying, evaluating, and monitoring risks and deciding upon action plans to implement if they occur. 

principles of project management assignment

7. Value delivery capabilities

Your value delivery capabilities are the project tools, processes, and procedures that help you deliver value to your customers. This can include your project systems, like your scheduling software. It may also include your processes, such as using an Agile project methodology . If you have established and tested approaches for delivering successful projects, you'll be better equipped than if you’re starting from scratch. The more mature your processes and procedures are, the more likely your project will be a success. 

8. Performance management baseline

Projects typically have three basic components: cost, schedule, and scope. Each of these components should have a baseline or plan against which performance can be measured. When these baselines are integrated, it’s called a performance management baseline — then, if you have a change in any one of these components, its impact will be reflected in the others.

Say you have a scope change. With your performance management baseline, you can see how this will impact your project schedule and cost, allowing you to better monitor the overall effect of changes on a project. A performance management baseline improves decision-making, as you can view the whole picture and identify all impacts of potential decisions.

9. Communication

If you’ve worked in project management for a while, you may have heard the saying that project management is 90% communication. A project’s success requires communication of project activities, risks, issues, and status, both within the project team and with other stakeholders. Communication is essential for a variety of reasons, including:

  • Keeping stakeholders engaged
  • Coordinating tasks and schedules
  • Decision-making and problem-solving
  • Identifying and resolving conflicts 
  • Escalating risks and issues

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Wrike offers a wide range of features that align perfectly with the above principles. From project templates to real-time collaboration and resource allocation, Wrike empowers teams to efficiently execute projects while staying true to the fundamental principles that underpin effective project management. 

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Further Reading

  • 3 Tips to Improve Project Management for Creative Teams
  • 5 Principles for Managing Remote Employees
  • How 5 PM Experts Create a Fail-Safe Project Management Plan
  • Don't Forget These 10 Project Management Best Practices (Infographic)

Basic Project Management

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  • Project Management Stakeholders
  • What is a Project?
  • Work Breakdown Structure
  • Project Objectives
  • Project Baseline
  • Project Management Scheduling
  • Project Management Work Packages
  • Project Management Scope
  • Scope Creep

Advanced Project Management

  • What is PERT?
  • Network Diagram
  • Risk Management
  • Cost Estimation
  • Feasibility Study
  • Monte Carlo Analysis
  • Project Integration
  • Cost Management
  • PMI Project Management
  • What To Do With Certification
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  • Gantt Charts

Table of Contents

What is project management about, project structure, definition phase, clear goals, transparency about the project status, risk recognition, managing project disturbances, responsibility of the project manager, project success, the basic principles of project management.

The Basic Principles of Project Management

Project management is a composite activity with multiple dimensions. Depending on the type and class of the project , this management activity can be very complex. In a nutshell, project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing, managing, leading, and controlling resources to achieve specific goals.

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The very basics of project management are as follows: a project is a temporary endeavor with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often constrained by funding or deliverables) that an organization takes to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or add value.

The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while honoring the pre-defined constraints. The primary constraints are scope , time, quality, and budget. The secondary—and more ambitious—challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs and integrate them to meet pre-defined objectives.

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For a successful project, the following project management principles are necessary assets when charting a path to completion. These project management principles can be applied to any level or branch of a project that falls under a different area of responsibility in the overall project organization:

  • Project structure
  • Definition phase
  • Clear goals
  • Transparency about project status
  • Risk recognition
  • Managing project disturbances
  • Responsibility of the project manager
  • Project success

Project management typically revolves around three parameters – Quality, Resources, and Time. A project structure can usually be successfully created by considering:

1. Project Goal

An answer to the question “What has to be done” is usually a good starting point when setting a project goal. This question leads to the project structure plan. This plan consists of work packages which represent enclosed work units that can be assigned to a personnel resource. These work packages and their special relationships represent the project structure.

2. Project Timeline and Order

A flowchart is a powerful tool to visualize the starting point, the endpoint, and the order of work packages in a single chart.

3. Project Milestones

Milestones define certain phases of your project and the corresponding costs and results. Milestones represent decisive steps during the project. They are set after a certain number of work packages that belong together. This series of work packages leads to the achievement of a sub-goal.

The definition phase is where many projects go wrong. This can happen when no clear definition, or when the definition is muddled due to the involvement of too many stakeholders. A successful definition must involve the entire team at every step to facilitate acceptance and commitment to the project.

The project manager is responsible for the achievement of all project goals. These goals should always be defined using the SMART paradigm (specific, measurable, ambitious, realistic, time-bound). With nebulous goals, a project manager can be faced with a daily grind of keeping everything organized. It will work decidedly to your advantage to clearly define goals before the project begins. 

Your flowcharts, structure plan, and milestone plan are useful tools to help you stay on track. As a project manager, you should be able to present a brief report about the status of the project to your principal or stakeholders at each stage of the project. At such meetings, you should be able to give overviews about the costs, the timeline, and the achieved milestones.

It’s the duty of the project manager to evaluate risks regularly. You should come into every project with the knowledge that all projects come with a variety of risks. This is normal. Always keep in mind that your project is a unique endeavor with strict goals concerning costs, appointments, and performance. The sooner you identify these risks, the sooner you can address negative developments.

It’s not very likely that you have enough personal capacity to identify every single risk that may occur. Instead, work to identify the big risks and develop specific strategies to avoid them. Even if you’re no visionary, you should rely on your skill set, knowledge, and instincts in order to react quickly and productively when something goes wrong.

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The Project Manager develops the Project Plan with the team and manages the team’s performance of project tasks. The Project Manager is also responsible for securing acceptance and approval of deliverables from the Project Sponsor and Stakeholders. The Project Manager is responsible for communication, including status reporting, risk management, and escalation of issues that cannot be resolved in the team—and generally ensuring the project is delivered within budget, on schedule, and within scope. 

Project managers of all projects must possess the following attributes along with the other project-related responsibilities: 

  • Knowledge of technology in relation to project products
  • Understanding Management concepts 
  • Interpersonal skills for clear communications that help get things done 
  • Ability to see the project as an open system and understand the external-internal interactions

Project success is a multi-dimensional construct that can mean different things to different people. It is best expressed at the beginning of a project in terms of key and measurable criteria upon which the relative success or failure of the project may be judged. For example, some generally used success criteria include:

  • Meeting key project objectives such as the business objectives of the sponsoring organization, owner or user
  • Eliciting satisfaction with the  project management process , i.e., the deliverable is complete, up to standard, is on time and within budget
  • Reflecting general acceptance and satisfaction with the project’s deliverable on the part of the project’s customer and the majority of the project’s community at some time in the future. 
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Simplilearn offers multiple Project Management training courses and learning paths that can help aspiring project managers get the education they need—not only to pass exams like the PMP certification but also real-world knowledge useful for any project management career.

PMP is a registered mark of the Project Management Institute, Inc.

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An Introduction to Project Management: A Beginner’s Guide

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Project Management Interview Guide

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12 Basic Project Management Principles for Absolute Beginners

Managing projects can be daunting, especially if you find yourself thrown into   project management   with little training or guidance beforehand. Besides the actual work of project management, just sorting out the terminology, tools, and methodologies can be frustrating. But where does one acquire the knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques needed to be a good project manager?

For starters,   what is a   project   means to them? Not everything that happens at your organization is a project. According to   PMI , a project is   “a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.”   By temporary, we mean that a project has a clear beginning and end.

A project’s uniqueness refers to the fact that all the facets of the project are meant to contribute to a specific objective that isn’t a constant part of the organization’s operations.

So then, project management can be defined as   “the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.”   And project management principles are a general guideline for how to operate. They can’t provide all the answers or tell you precisely what to do, but they can give you direction.

12 basic project management principles to follow

The project management principles we’re sharing here aren’t hard and fast rules. You may need to adapt some of our suggestions for your context, but these basic principles of project management should set you on the right path. There’s a lot to learn, far more than we can put in one blog post, but if you keep these twelve principles in mind, you’ll be off to a good start.

project management principles

1. Have well-defined project goals and objectives

This principle is at the top of our list for good reason. The goals you set for your project will play a critical role in its success or failure in projects. When you set your   project objectives   before work begins, you, your client, and your team are all on the same page and future misunderstandings can be avoided.

Good goals are   realistic, clear,   and   measurable.

  • Realistic – Can we accomplish this goal with the allotted time and resources available to us?
  • Clear – Do we know exactly what is being asked of us? Does everyone understand?
  • Measurable – Are there quantifiable indicators with which we can judge each goal?

2. Define your deliverables

The Project Management Institute defines a deliverable as   “any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a service that is produced to complete a process, phase, or project.”

Once the project’s goals and objectives have been established, you can define your   project deliverables . If the customer’s objective is for end-users to manage their own content, for example, the deliverables might be a piece of software that enables users to manage content as well as training materials for employees and end-users on how to use the newly created software.


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3. Work to create and maintain organizational alignment

There are two ways of thinking about organizational alignment:

  • Organization-focused view
  • Employee-focused view.

The organization-focused view   emphasizes several important components of the organization supporting one another. The company’s purpose, strategy, capabilities, structure, and systems should all work together.

The employee-focused view   encourages managers to evaluate how well-matched the employee is in terms of individual role, professional goals, team membership, and organizational vision and mission.

As a project manager, you may not have control over all these factors, but to the extent, you can affect change, you should leverage these organizational alignment concepts for a more successful project.

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4. Have clear team roles and responsibilities

Few things cause more confusion and tension on a team than a lack of clarity around roles and responsibilities. When the   project team   doesn’t know what their roles are or how those roles relate to other people on the team, boundaries are crossed and unnecessary conflicts arise.

As a   project manager , it’s your responsibility to clearly define the role of each team member to help everyone work well together.

5. Create a strategy for initiation and execution

Project initiation   includes all the preliminary work that must be done before any other project activities can take place.   That preliminary work can be broken down into four categories:

  • building a business case for the project
  • conducting feasibility   project reports
  • involving   project stakeholders
  • creating a Project Initiation Document (PID).

Project execution   is what most people have in mind when they think about project management. It usually starts with a   project kickoff meeting   to officially begin the project. This is when you share the vision and plan for the project, delegate tasks to team members, and send everyone on their way to get things done.

During the execution phase, make sure there’s a plan in place to document errors, corrections, and other changes.

6. Know your numbers do careful budgeting and scheduling

Every project and every project manager has limited resources. It almost goes without saying that you need to budget your financial resources carefully, give yourself some margin for unexpected expenses, and take reasonable measures to save costs during the course of your project. Your budget is inextricably linked to your   project schedule ; if your timeline gets wrecked, your   project budget   probably will too.

Make sure to have   project scheduling tools   and see if you’ve accounted not just for how long each project task should take, but also for things like holidays, corporate and stakeholder events, and team member vacations.

7. Identify priorities and milestones ahead of time

Priorities tell you what to focus on, and   project milestones   tell you where you are. When you’re in the midst of a project, it’s easy to sometimes get distracted from essential things by less important details that feel urgent at the moment. When you define your   task priorities   at the outset of your project, you already know where to direct your team’s energy should a conflict arise. It’s also easy to lose track of the big picture when you’re involved in the details of a project.

Identifying milestones in the   project planning   phase will help you know if you’re on course and on schedule. Recognizing milestone achievements is good for morale as well. Your team will be more motivated if there’s a tangible sense of progress on the project.

8. Establish a means of accountability and responsibility

Speaking of motivation, one of the best motivators for team members is empowering them with a sense of responsibility and accountability. By giving individuals responsibility for their own work, you take the burden of micro-management off of yourself and give your employees the ability to work from their strengths and learn new   project management skills , both of which are better for your project and your organization, not to mention the employee, in the long run.

Part of giving team members individual responsibility is setting up a means of accountability. You need a system in which   task delegation   and project deadlines can be tracked and each team member can visualize his or her contribution in the context of the larger project.

9. Create a communication plan

Explain and implement strong communication guidelines from the outset of your project. Whether it’s email, text messaging, a chat service, or some combination of things, make sure everyone on the team understands why   communication in project management   is essential and how to use the technology you’ve selected.

You also need to set clear expectations about the kinds of information that need to be communicated and who needs to be notified in certain circumstances. As a project manager, be sure to model the kind of communication you expect from all stakeholders.

–  Content Calendar Template for Strategic Content Planning

–  Competitive Analysis Template for Strategic Content Planning

10. Be transparent

In the realm of projects, transparency means creating a system in which all team members can access all relevant information about a project easily and efficiently. Creating project transparency is relatively easy, especially if you utilize the right   project management software .

To create or improve   project transparency , let everyone see the big picture, make project data available to your whole team, provide good tools for collaboration, and share calendars among team members and even outside stakeholders. Project transparency leads to better outcomes for both the team and the project itself.

11. Do a risk assessment

A risk assessment is an acknowledgment that something could go wrong. It’s important to identify the   project management risks   and mitigate them at the beginning of your project rather than be caught off guard later. Ask your team members what risks they think you need to consider.

You can’t eliminate all the risks from your project, but being prepared for them can save you from   project failure .

12. Monitor and measure progress

As part of your project planning, you’ll establish key   project management KPIs   in the form of,

  • project timelines   and
  • quality expectations.

During the course of your project, you should regularly keep   track of project progress   and check your KPIs so you can catch issues and make corrections quickly. Don’t forget to celebrate successes when your KPIs tell you the team has achieved a goal!

There’s a lot to learn when it comes to project management, but these twelve principles are a great place to start. If you aim for clarity in every aspect of project management and prioritize the health of your team, you’re well on your way to being a stellar project manager.

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  • Public Health Infrastructure Grant
  • Frequently Asked Questions
  • Health Department Profiles
  • CDC's Public Health Infrastructure Grant (PHIG) is a groundbreaking investment supporting critical public health infrastructure.
  • The goal is to support health departments across the United States.
  • One hundred and seven health departments and three national public health partners received funding through this 5-year grant (12/1/2022 - 11/30/2027)
  • The purpose is to implement activities that strengthen public health outcomes.
  • PHIG is a funding model that gives health departments the flexibility to direct funds towards specific organizational and community needs.

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In January 2024, CDC awarded $4.35 billion through the Public Health Infrastructure Grant ( OE22-2203: Strengthening U.S. Public Health Infrastructure, Workforce, and Data Systems ) to help U.S. health departments promote and protect health in their communities.

The total award includes $4.01 billion for health departments and $340 million for three national public health partners.

CDC expects to award more than $5 billion over the 5-year grant period. This includes $4.01 billion for health departments and $340 million for three national public health partners.

The purpose is to create a stronger, more resilient public health system that is ready to face future health threats.

Recipient Health Department Profiles‎

Funding recipients.

Funding was awarded to:

  • One hundred seven (107) public health departments in all 50 states, Washington D.C., 8 territories/freely associated states, and 48 large localities (cities serving a population of 400,000 or more and counties serving a population of 2,000,000 or more based on the 2020 U.S. Census). Award amounts were based on a funding formula that included population size and community resilience. As of January 2024, a total of $4.01 billion for health departments [$3.685 billion in fiscal year (FY)23 and $325 million in FY24] has been awarded. Recipient-specific information is provided on the Health Department Profiles .
  • Three national partners that support the work of the 107 funded health departments. The Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) , National Network of Public Health Institutes (NNPHI) , and Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB) received a total of $340 million ($155 million in FY23 and $185 million in FY24) . These organizations provide training and technical assistance, evaluate the program, and facilitate coordination and communication across recipients and CDC.

Strategies and outcomes

The three strategies of this grant are Workforce, Foundational Capabilities, and Data Modernization. Recipients are expected to achieve several key outcomes by the end of the 5-year performance period (see image below). Ultimately, this grant will lead to accelerated prevention, preparedness, and response to emerging health threats. Improved outcomes in other public health areas are also anticipated.

All work done as part of this grant is grounded in three key principles:

  • Data and evidence drive planning and implementation.
  • Partnerships play a critical role in grant program success.
  • Resources are directed to support diversity and health equity.

Grant Graphic Strategies Outcomes Table: Strategies: Short-term Outcomes, Long-term Outcomes

Recipient resources

Technical assistance ‎, phig project officer assignments‎, fiscal year 2023 funding‎, fiscal year 2024 funding‎.

CDC's Public Health Infrastructure Grant (PHIG) is a significant investment in America's public health system, directly supporting infrastructure (i.e., people, services, and systems) improvements within health departments.

For Everyone

Public health.


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