30 Fully Funded Ph.D. Programs

These fully funded Ph.D. programs are in fields like business, computer science, education and nursing.

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Many Ph.D. programs are fully funded.

Students interested in graduate research in various fields, from public health and English to computer science and engineering, have numerous options for Ph.D. programs that offer full funding. These programs typically provide waived tuition and fees and an annual stipend. Some also offer health insurance and other benefits. Gaining admittance into these small cohorts can be highly competitive, and the programs can be time-consuming . Here are 30 fully funded Ph.D. programs at U.S. colleges and universities. Keep in mind this is not a comprehensive list – there are others out there.

A man handling papers from the Hulton Archives, wearing white gloves.

  • Ph.D. in anthropology at the University of Chicago

Anthropology Ph.D. students at the University of Chicago can receive funding for up to eight years of study, assuming they are in good standing at the university. During that time, they will receive a full-tuition scholarship plus health insurance and a living stipend – which equated to $33,000 for the 2022-2023 school year – and can apply for external fellowships.

Radcliffe Quad undergrad housing at Harvard University in Fall in Cambridge, MA, USA on November 2, 2013.

Ph.D. in biological sciences in public health at Harvard University (MA)

Harvard University's T.H. Chan School of Public Health in Boston offers a Ph.D. in biological sciences in public health that aims to provide students with expertise in disease prevention and treatment. This program includes tuition, a stipend and health insurance for five years as long as the student maintains satisfactory academic progress. International students receive the same benefits. Current research in the school's laboratories involves diseases like AIDS, cancer, diabetes, kidney disease, malaria and tuberculosis.

MIT, a private university

(Dominick Reuter)

  • Ph.D. in business at Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Students enrolled in the Sloan School of Management at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology can study a range of fields like organization studies, accounting and information technology. Those pursuing a Ph.D. will receive a full-tuition scholarship plus a monthly stipend of $4,267, capped at $51,204. They will also receive medical insurance, new laptops at the beginning of their first and fourth years of study and $4,500 over five years for conference travel expenses.

Rice University

(Tommy Lavergne/Rice University)

Ph.D. in business at Rice University (TX)

At the Rice University Jones Graduate School of Business in Texas, students enjoy full financial assistance upon admission to the Ph.D. program. Aiming to prepare students to teach in fields like accounting, finance, organizational behavior and strategic management, the program provides students with a research or teaching assistantship. Students receive a tuition waiver and a $40,000 annual stipend contingent on making satisfactory academic progress and maintaining full-time student status.

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Office of Strategic Communication/University of Iowa

  • Ph.D. in business at the University of Iowa

The University of Iowa's Tippie College of Business offers Ph.D. degrees in fields such as accounting, economics, business analytics and marketing. The college says it provides full funding to "virtually all admitted students." This includes tuition and fees, a minimum nine-month stipend of about $20,000 with annual adjustments and comprehensive health insurance covered at 90%. Some departments offer funding for research presentations at major conferences, summer fellowships and paid time off for independent research.

Cornell University buildings viewed from McGraw Tower

Ph.D. in chemical engineering at Cornell University (NY)

According to Cornell University 's website, all students admitted to the chemical engineering Ph.D. program at the New York school receive a full tuition waiver, health insurance and a stipend. This funding can come from a teaching assistantship, research assistantship or fellowship, and full stipends are granted for nine months with the likelihood of additional aid in the summer.

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Chris Taggart/Columbia University

Ph.D. in clinical psychology at Columbia University (NY)

Students enrolled in Columbia University 's Ph.D. program in clinical psychology at the Teachers College in New York receive fully funded tuition and a $25,000 stipend annually for three years. The stipend also carries into a student's fourth year. These doctoral fellows "may be expected to serve" as graduate teaching or research assistants. Students typically complete the mentor-matched program, which includes a full-year internship, in five to seven years.

Unidentified individuals, and University Hall  on the campus of Brown University.

Ph.D. in computer science at Brown University (RI)

Brown University 's Ph.D. students in computer science have access to "full financial support while completing the degree," plus the option to take classes at nearby schools without incurring additional costs, according to the school's website. In fact, doctoral students in any program at the Rhode Island university are guaranteed five years of financial support, which includes tuition remission, a stipend, health services fees and a subsidy for health insurance.

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Georgetown University

Ph.D. in computer science at Georgetown University (DC)

Georgetown University 's Ph.D. program in computer science provides scholarships and assistantships that cover full tuition at the Washington, D.C., school and include a stipend and health insurance for the first five years. Once enrolled in the program, students must complete the Apprenticeship in Teaching Program and ultimately write and defend a full research dissertation in a seminar open to the public.

Cherry trees in bloom in the campus of Washington university in springtime

Ph.D. in computer science at Washington University in St. Louis

Ph.D. students in the computer science or computer engineering program at Washington University in St. Louis receive full tuition support and health insurance. According to the university's website: "As a doctoral candidate, you will also receive a generous stipend to cover living expenses and a new, high-end Apple laptop computer. This support is guaranteed as you continue to make satisfactory progress towards your degree." Doctoral students may also qualify for one of three fellowships.

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  • Ph.D. in counseling psychology at the University of Wisconsin—Madison

Incoming Ph.D. students at the School of Education at the University of Wisconsin—Madison are guaranteed full funding for the duration of the time that they are expected on campus, according to the university's department of counseling psychology website. Doctoral students also receive a benefits package that includes health insurance. Funding may come from financial aid, fellowships, assistantships and/or traineeships.

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Emory University

Ph.D. in economics at Emory University (GA)

Students enrolled in the economics Ph.D. program at Emory University typically receive full funding, according to the Georgia university's website. The stipend provided to students is $36,376 per year for five years, starting in fall 2023, and the full tuition scholarship is worth $70,200 per year. Funding for admitted students also includes a $4,370 annual subsidy that covers 100% of a student's cost of health insurance. First-year students have no stipend-related work requirements.

New York City, New York, USA - September 13, 2013: Street view of New York University NYU in Greenwich Village Manhattan. There are people visible in this image.

  • Ph.D. in education at New York University

New York University's Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development offers more than 30 degree programs. Many can be pursued on campus or online. Ph.D. degrees are offered in areas like developmental psychology, educational leadership and childhood education. Full-time NYU Steinhardt Ph.D. students are eligible for a funding package that includes an annual stipend – $32,000 for the 2022-2023 academic year – tuition coverage for required coursework and student health insurance for five years.

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L.A. Cicero, Stanford News Service

Ph.D. in education at Stanford University (CA)

Stanford University's Graduate School of Education allows students numerous fellowship and assistantship opportunities at the California school, along with a "five-year funding guarantee that provides tuition aid, fellowship stipend, and assistantship salary, and covers the standard cost of attendance," the program website reads. At the Graduate School of Education, doctoral students can choose from a range of academic areas like curriculum studies and teacher education, and developmental and psychological sciences.

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  • Ph.D. in education at the University of Pennsylvania

The University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education provides full funding to Ph.D. students as part of a fellowship and research apprenticeship package. This funding includes a living stipend, health insurance and coverage of tuition and fees for up to four years if the student maintains full-time enrollment. Some students may also qualify for additional summer funding.

Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA - November, 20 2010: The Computer Science and Engineering Building on the University of Michigan's North Campus has an eco-friendly design.

  • Ph.D. in engineering at the University of Michigan—Ann Arbor

Doctoral students in engineering at the University of Michigan—Ann Arbor can choose from numerous areas of specialization under umbrella categories like aerospace engineering, biomedical engineering, macromolecular science and engineering, and robotics. All engineering doctoral students are guaranteed full funding, a monthly living stipend and health insurance. The exact amount can vary, according to the program's website, and funding comes from a range of sources, including graduate student instructor positions and fellowships.

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Boston University Photography

  • Ph.D. in English at Boston University

Annually, doctoral students studying English at Boston University receive a stipend plus full tuition, fees and basic health insurance. This funding is guaranteed for at least five years, with two of those years typically free from teaching requirements. Funding can sometimes be extended up to seven years, according to the university's website, but it's not guaranteed. Students may also apply for various prizes, fellowships and short-term research and travel grants.

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(Stephanie Diani)

  • Ph.D. in English at the University of California—Los Angeles

Applicants to the Ph.D. in English program at the University of California—Los Angeles are automatically considered for various funding options. A six-year funding package includes "a minimum of two years of full fellowship, four years of summer stipend support and up to four years of teaching assistantships," according to the school website. Beyond tuition, fees and health insurance are also covered.

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Ph.D. in international relations at American University (DC)

American University offers doctoral students in its international relations program who do not have external funding a renewable four-year Dean's Fellowship that is contingent on making satisfactory academic progress. The fellowship includes the cost of tuition, fees and a stipend that must be earned via a part-time role as a teaching or research assistant. Students also must "demonstrate competency in a modern foreign language" before graduating.

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  • Ph.D. in management at Binghamton University—SUNY

All students admitted to the interdisciplinary management Ph.D. program at the Binghamton University—SUNY School of Management in New York receive a combination of a full-tuition scholarship and a teaching or research assistantship for each academic year, up to four years. This STEM-designated business doctoral degree prepares students for careers in academia and work in the public and private sectors, and has a student-faculty ratio of 1-to-1, according to the university's website.

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Duke University Communications

Ph.D. in materials science and engineering at Duke University (NC)

Doctoral students at Duke University in North Carolina studying materials science and engineering generally receive full tuition, a stipend and fee support for the first five years. Students also receive up to six years of health insurance if they are on the university's student medical insurance plan. The doctoral program aims to help students publish with a faculty adviser and develop research skills, with the opportunity to present research at professional conferences.

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Ph.D. in nursing at Johns Hopkins University (MD)

The School of Nursing at Johns Hopkins University in Maryland provides most doctoral students with three fully funded years of study. Available financial aid includes graduate assistantships, targeted fellowships and nursing-specific funding. The university aims to "advance the theoretical foundation of nursing practice and healthcare delivery" with the degree, its website reads. "By graduation, most Hopkins nurse scholars have been awarded grants that continue their research and set them well on their way to a successful career."

"The Lawn in late afternoon at the historic University of Virginia campus in Charlottesville, Virginia. The lawn was part of Thomas Jefferson's campus design."

  • Ph.D. in nursing at the University of Virginia

All students admitted to the University of Virginia 's Ph.D. in Nursing program are eligible for four years of scholarship funding to cover tuition, insurance and fees, as well as annual stipends. To receive certain aid, students must work 10 hours per week as a graduate teaching assistant. With a heavy research focus, students can expect courses in qualitative, quantitative and historical research, and will have to submit a research proposal for peer review.

Yale University

Ph.D. in nursing at Yale University (CT)

At Yale University in Connecticut, the School of Nursing offers full funding to its Ph.D. students. They receive a monthly stipend for four years in addition to paid tuition and health care. The program allows students to gain in-depth knowledge in a particular area of study. Every incoming Ph.D. student gets paired with a faculty adviser "whose area of expertise and active research most closely matches with the student’s scholarly interest," according to the school's website.

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University of Minnesota

  • Ph.D. in psychology at the University of Minnesota—Twin Cities

Students admitted to the Ph.D. program to study psychology at the University of Minnesota—Twin Cities are guaranteed full funding for five years as long as they maintain satisfactory performance and degree progress. This funding includes full-time tuition, a nine-month stipend and subsidized health insurance. Funding comes from some combination of teaching assistantships, traineeships, research assistantships and fellowships. Students in the program can specialize in areas like cognitive and brain sciences, industrial-organizational psychology and social psychology.

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Matt Cashore/University of Notre Dame

Ph.D. within the Romance languages and literatures department at the University of Notre Dame (IN)

University of Notre Dame doctoral students who focus on French and Francophone studies, Iberian and Latin American studies or Italian studies are guaranteed five years of funding. Funding includes a full scholarship, including tuition and fees, plus a stipend and health insurance. Anyone who completes the Ph.D. degree requirements at the Indiana university within five years will automatically receive a one-year postdoctoral fellowship via the university's 5+1 Program. Fellows will have a teaching load limited to one course per semester.

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Ph.D. in social work at Bryn Mawr College (PA)

Students admitted to Bryn Mawr College 's Ph.D. program in social work receive full tuition waivers and "substantial stipends" toward living expenses. The Pennsylvania college's website says: "Consistent with our model, all Ph.D. students are funded equally, and do not compete for basic financial support during coursework." The program's cohorts typically include only three or four students each year. According to the college, it awarded the first Ph.D. degree in social work in the U.S. in 1920.

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Vanderbilt University

Ph.D. in special education at Vanderbilt University (TN)

Funding is guaranteed for all admitted doctoral students enrolled in the special education Ph.D. program at the Peabody College of Education and Human Development at Vanderbilt University in Tennessee. This includes full tuition, a "competitive" monthly stipend and health insurance for up to four years. Students may also be nominated for additional honor scholarships and fellowships. Areas of focus within the Ph.D. program include high-incidence disabilities and early childhood education.

Chicago, Illinois in the United States. Entrance to Northwestern University - School of Law.

Ph.D. in theatre and drama at Northwestern University (IL)

This interdisciplinary Ph.D. program at Northwestern University in Illinois combines coursework in humanities, social science and the visual arts. The program's students receive a five-year full-tuition scholarship plus an annual living stipend. Ph.D students enrolling at this program in fall 2022 will receive a living stipend of at least $36,960 during the 2023-2024 school year. Stipend amounts may change from year to year. Students can apply for subsidies to facilitate conference travel and summer language study.

COLLEGE PARK, MD - OCTOBER 4:   Testudo is pictured on the University of Maryland Campus. The University of Maryland announced a transformative investment of $219486,000 in the university on October 4. In a first of its kind announcement, university and government officials unveiled the investment in a celebration event for the campus community.

(Photo by Sarah L. Voisin/The Washington Post via Getty Images)

  • Ph.D. in women, gender and sexuality studies at University of Maryland

At the University of Maryland 's Harriet Tubman Department of Women, Gender and Sexuality Studies, Ph.D. students without a master's degree usually have five years of guaranteed funding. Those with a master's degree usually are funded four years, with awards stemming from a mix of departmental fellowships and graduate teaching assistantships. Since the program's establishment in 1999, the department has granted 36 Ph.Ds, according to UMD's website.

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Learn more about paying for graduate school.

Finding a fully funded program isn't the only option to offset the costs of graduate school. See these seven strategies to pay for graduate school to learn more. Check out the latest Best Graduate Schools rankings to see the country's top business, medicine and law programs – and more. For additional grad school tips, follow U.S. News Education on Facebook , Twitter and LinkedIn .

Locust Walk with students in fall, University of Pennsylvania, University City area, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Ph.D. programs that are fully funded

  • Ph.D. in biological sciences in public health at Harvard University
  • Ph.D. in business at Rice University
  • Ph.D. in chemical engineering at Cornell University
  • Ph.D. in clinical psychology at Columbia University
  • Ph.D. in computer science at Brown University
  • Ph.D. in computer science at Georgetown University
  • Ph.D. in computer science at Washington University—St. Louis
  • Ph.D. in economics at Emory University
  • Ph.D. in education at Stanford University
  • Ph.D. in international relations at American University
  • Ph.D. in materials science and engineering at Duke University
  • Ph.D. in nursing at Johns Hopkins University
  • Ph.D. in nursing at Yale University
  • Ph.D. within the romance languages and literatures department at the University of Notre Dame
  • Ph.D. in social work at Bryn Mawr College
  • Ph.D. in special education at Vanderbilt University
  • Ph.D. in theatre and drama at Northwestern University

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Doctor of Philosophy in Education

Ph.D. Commencement robing Martin West and Christopher Cleveland

Additional Information

  • Download the Doctoral Viewbook
  • Admissions & Aid

The Harvard Ph.D. in Education trains cutting-edge researchers who work across disciplines to generate knowledge and translate discoveries into transformative policy and practice.

Offered jointly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education and the Harvard Kenneth C. Griffin Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the PhD in Education provides you with full access to the extraordinary resources of Harvard University and prepares you to assume meaningful roles as university faculty, researchers, senior-level education leaders, and policymakers.

As a Ph.D. candidate, you will collaborate with scholars across all Harvard graduate schools on original interdisciplinary research. In the process, you will help forge new fields of inquiry that will impact the way we teach and learn. The program’s required coursework will develop your knowledge of education and your expertise in a range of quantitative and qualitative methods needed to conduct high-quality research. Guided by the goal of making a transformative impact on education research, policy, and practice, you will focus on independent research in various domains, including human development, learning and teaching, policy analysis and evaluation, institutions and society, and instructional practice.   

Curriculum Information

The Ph.D. in Education requires five years of full-time study to complete. You will choose your individual coursework and design your original research in close consultation with your HGSE faculty adviser and dissertation committee. The requirements listed below include the three Ph.D. concentrations: Culture, Institutions, and Society; Education Policy and Program Evaluation; and Human Development, Learning and Teaching . 

We invite you to review an example course list, which is provided in two formats — one as the full list by course number and one by broad course category . These lists are subject to modification. 

Ph.D. Concentrations and Examples

Summary of Ph.D. Program

Doctoral Colloquia  In year one and two you are required to attend. The colloquia convenes weekly and features presentations of work-in-progress and completed work by Harvard faculty, faculty and researchers from outside Harvard, and Harvard doctoral students. Ph.D. students present once in the colloquia over the course of their career.

Research Apprenticeship The Research Apprenticeship is designed to provide ongoing training and mentoring to develop your research skills throughout the entire program.

Teaching Fellowships The Teaching Fellowship is an opportunity to enhance students' teaching skills, promote learning consolidation, and provide opportunities to collaborate with faculty on pedagogical development.

Comprehensive Exams  The Written Exam (year 2, spring) tests you on both general and concentration-specific knowledge. The Oral Exam (year 3, fall/winter) tests your command of your chosen field of study and your ability to design, develop, and implement an original research project.

Dissertation  Based on your original research, the dissertation process consists of three parts: the Dissertation Proposal, the writing, and an oral defense before the members of your dissertation committee.

Culture, Institutions, and Society (CIS) Concentration

In CIS, you will examine the broader cultural, institutional, organizational, and social contexts relevant to education across the lifespan. What is the value and purpose of education? How do cultural, institutional, and social factors shape educational processes and outcomes? How effective are social movements and community action in education reform? How do we measure stratification and institutional inequality? In CIS, your work will be informed by theories and methods from sociology, history, political science, organizational behavior and management, philosophy, and anthropology. You can examine contexts as diverse as classrooms, families, neighborhoods, schools, colleges and universities, religious institutions, nonprofits, government agencies, and more.

Education Policy and Program Evaluation (EPPE) Concentration

In EPPE, you will research the design, implementation, and evaluation of education policy affecting early childhood, K–12, and postsecondary education in the U.S. and internationally. You will evaluate and assess individual programs and policies related to critical issues like access to education, teacher effectiveness, school finance, testing and accountability systems, school choice, financial aid, college enrollment and persistence, and more. Your work will be informed by theories and methods from economics, political science, public policy, and sociology, history, philosophy, and statistics. This concentration shares some themes with CIS, but your work with EPPE will focus on public policy and large-scale reforms.

Human Development, Learning and Teaching (HDLT) Concentration

In HDLT, you will work to advance the role of scientific research in education policy, reform, and practice. New discoveries in the science of learning and development — the integration of biological, cognitive, and social processes; the relationships between technology and learning; or the factors that influence individual variations in learning — are transforming the practice of teaching and learning in both formal and informal settings. Whether studying behavioral, cognitive, or social-emotional development in children or the design of learning technologies to maximize understanding, you will gain a strong background in human development, the science of learning, and sociocultural factors that explain variation in learning and developmental pathways. Your research will be informed by theories and methods from psychology, cognitive science, sociology and linguistics, philosophy, the biological sciences and mathematics, and organizational behavior.

Program Faculty

The most remarkable thing about the Ph.D. in Education is open access to faculty from all Harvard graduate and professional schools, including the Harvard Graduate School of Education, the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, the Harvard Kennedy School, the Harvard Law School, Harvard Medical School, and the Harvard School of Public Health. Learn about the full Ph.D. Faculty.

Jarvis Givens

Jarvis R. Givens

Jarvis Givens studies the history of American education, African American history, and the relationship between race and power in schools.

Paul Harris

Paul L. Harris

Paul Harris is interested in the early development of cognition, emotion, and imagination in children.

Meira Levinson

Meira Levinson

Meira Levinson is a normative political philosopher who works at the intersection of civic education, youth empowerment, racial justice, and educational ethics. 

Luke Miratrix

Luke W. Miratrix

Luke Miratrix is a statistician who explores how to best use modern statistical methods in applied social science contexts.

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Eric Taylor

Eric Taylor studies the economics of education, with a particular interest in employer-employee interactions between schools and teachers — hiring and firing decisions, job design, training, and performance evaluation.

Paola Uccelli

Paola Uccelli

Paola Ucelli studies socio-cultural and individual differences in the language development of multilingual and monolingual students.

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View Ph.D. Faculty

Dissertations.

The following is a complete listing of successful Ph.D. in Education dissertations to-date. Dissertations from November 2014 onward are publicly available in the Digital Access to Scholarship at Harvard (DASH) , the online repository for Harvard scholarship.

  • 2022 Graduate Dissertations (265 KB pdf)
  • 2021 Graduate Dissertations (177 KB pdf)
  • 2020 Graduate Dissertations (121 KB pdf)
  • 2019 Graduate Dissertations (68.3 KB pdf)

Student Directory

An opt-in listing of current Ph.D. students with information about their interests, research, personal web pages, and contact information:

Doctor of Philosophy in Education Student Directory

Introduce Yourself

Tell us about yourself so that we can tailor our communication to best fit your interests and provide you with relevant information about our programs, events, and other opportunities to connect with us.

Program Highlights

Explore examples of the Doctor of Philosophy in Education experience and the impact its community is making on the field:

E-Book Animation

Using E-Books to Get Young Readers Talking

New research shows how parents can help kids — and themselves — use e-books as a tool to improve early childhood development

Avriel Epps

Exploring Structural Oppression in Digital Spaces

Ph.D. student Avriel Epps studies how bias in the digital world impacts users across diverse backgrounds

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What is a PhD?

As the highest degree level achievable at university, completing a PhD shows that you've made a meaningful new contribution to your chosen research field

PhDs at a glance

  • Involves three or four years of full-time study, or up to seven part time.
  • Typically undertaken after achieving a Masters degree.
  • Can either be funded or self-funded.
  • Assessed through a written thesis and oral exam.
  • Many Doctoral graduates choose to pursue an academic or research career.

What is the meaning of PhD?

The term PhD or Doctorate of Philosophy is an abbreviation of the Latin phrase 'philosophiae doctor'.

A PhD degree typically involves students independently conducting original and significant research in a specific field or subject, before producing a publication-worthy thesis.

While some Doctorates include taught components, PhD students are almost always assessed on the quality and originality of the argument presented in their independent research project.

How long is a PhD in the UK?

Full-time PhDs usually last for three or four years, while part-time PhDs can take up to six or seven. However, the thesis deadline can be extended by up to four years at the institution's discretion. Indeed, many students who enrol on three-year PhDs only finish their thesis in their fourth year.

While most PhD studentships begin in September or October, both funded and self-funded PhDs can be undertaken at any point during the year.

If you're planning on studying for a PhD abroad, take a look at our individual country profiles .

Do I need a Masters to do a PhD?

The majority of institutions require PhD candidates to possess a Masters degree , plus a Bachelors degree at 2:1 or above. However, some universities demand only the latter, while self-funded PhD students or those with significant professional experience may also be accepted with lower grades.

You may need to initially register for a one or two-year Master of Philosophy (MPhil) or Master of Research (MRes) degree rather than a PhD. If you make sufficient progress, you and your work will then be 'upgraded' to a PhD programme. If not, you may be able to graduate with a Masters degree.

If you need an MPhil or MRes before enrolling on your PhD, search Masters degrees .

What does a PhD involve?

A standard PhD degree is typically split into three stages. A three-year PhD may follow this pattern:

  • First year - You'll meet with your supervisor to discuss your research proposal and agree an action plan with deadlines. You'll then complete your literature review, in which you'll evaluate and critique existing works to inform the direction of your project and ensure that your research will be original.
  • Second year - Your focus will shift to gathering results and developing your thesis, and potentially begin writing chapters of your thesis. You may also present your results and ideas at academic conferences, gain teaching experience, collaborate with other students on similar projects, communicate the benefits of your research to the general public through workshops, lectures and presentations, or submit work for publication in an academic journal or book.
  • Third year - Primarily involves writing your thesis, though your research may still be in progress. After your supervisor gives their approval, you'll submit your thesis before undertaking a one to three-hour oral exam ( viva voce ) in which you'll discuss and defend your thesis in the presence of at least one internal and external examiner.

How do I find a PhD?

As a PhD is different to other degrees, you're committing to more than simply an advanced qualification. You've chosen to engage in a large-scale independent research project and so you'll need to take into account a range of factors that will drive your search.

A methodical approach to the process is required and you'll need to consider the subject you're interested in carrying out research in and the type of Doctorate you're looking for, making sure this is the right project for you. Only when you're fully prepared and have a good idea of your research proposal should you search for PhD opportunities .

What other types of Doctorate are there?

Alternative types of PhD include:

  • Higher Doctorate - These are usually granted on the recommendation of a committee of internal and external examiners, which assesses a portfolio of published, peer-reviewed research you've undertaken over the course of many years. This type of Doctorate is usually for those with several years of academic experience. Common award titles include the Doctor of Civil Law (DCL), Doctor of Divinity (DD), Doctor of Literature/Letters (DLit/DLitt/LitD/LittD), Doctor of Music (DMus/MusD), Doctor of Science (DS/SD/DSc/ScD) and Doctor of Law (LLD).
  • Integrated/New Route PhD - This four-year PhD course is offered by over 30 universities and involves taking a one-year MRes before studying a three-year PhD. It combines taught elements with independent research, allowing students to learn different methodologies while building their transferable skills.
  • Professional Doctorate - Geared towards students of vocational subjects such as medicine, education and engineering, professional Doctorates are focused on teaching and so normally involve smaller research projects and thesis component. They're often favoured by those aiming for a career outside of academia and are usually supported by employers.

How much does a PhD cost?

Tuition fees vary, but usually fall between £3,000 and £6,000 per year for UK students and those from the European Union (EU) with settled status. UK Research Councils pay universities £4,596 per year (from 2022/23) on behalf of each funded PhD student, so this gives a good indication of the average figure.

For EU students looking to pursue a Doctorate in 2022/23, you'll need to have gained settled or pre-settled status to be eligible for student finance - see PhD loans .

Non-EU students may pay considerably more for their tuition fees.

Despite this, many PhD students are now part or fully funded - scholarships and bursaries are widely available, and particular attention should be paid to Research Council grants .

PhD studentships and assistantships involving a mixture of research and teaching are also common, with scientific studentships usually paid at a higher rate.

How do I apply for a PhD?

Some students propose their own research area and apply for funding, while in some cases a supervisor may already have funding for a project and advertise it like a job. When making a PhD application, you'll typically be asked to submit:

  • an academic CV
  • your academic transcripts
  • two or three academic references
  • a personal statement
  • a research proposal.

International students without settled UK status looking to study certain courses in medicine, mathematics, engineering and material sciences are required to comply with the Academic Technology Approval Scheme (ATAS) . This involves undergoing a security clearance process with the Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office. International students may also have to prove their English proficiency.

What can I do next?

Your ability to critically analyse, display intellectual maturity, and research independently and honestly is highly valued within academia and the workplace.

Many students who undertake a PhD get an academic job or become an industry researcher, possibly following the PhD with postdoctoral study, then a fellowship or lectureship.

Other career options will depend on your study area.

Discover what a PhD degree can lead to at your PhD, what next?

Find out more

  • Consider your PhD options at 5 routes to getting a Doctorate .
  • Get help with choosing your PhD supervisor .
  • Explore funding postgraduate study .

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Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

What is a phd.

A PhD is a Doctorate of Philosophy, a prestigious qualification which is the highest level of degree that a student can achieve, demonstrating talent, academic excellence and a thirst for knowledge. In a modern knowledge-based economy, highly educated and skilled people such as doctoral graduates, are in great demand. They form the most highly educated and skilled group in the UK and internationally. Many will go on to use their skills within academia or in research-intensive occupations in industry. However, there will be others who will draw on their research background and the skills gained through a doctoral degree in a wide variety of other occupations. Examples of the type of employment opportunities taken up by PhD holders can be found at Vitae: researcher careers .

What will I get from a PhD?

You will get a huge sense of personal achievement. Our doctoral training programme will help you develop transferable skills that will be invaluable in your subsequent career. The research techniques and methodologies you master will enable you to make a direct contribution to the advancement of knowledge in your particular subject area.

Successful candidates are awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and are permitted to use the title ‘Dr’.

How does it work?

The maximum registration for a PhD programme is four years with full-time study, or eight years with part-time study.

All PhD students are initially registered for a Master of Philosophy (MPhil), and the PhD registration is confirmed after the successful completion of an upgrade assessment (at the end of year 1 for full-time students and year 2 for part-time study). You will be registered for a PhD when you pass this upgrade. Your academic progress will be monitored throughout your degree studies, via formal progress reports and regular meetings with your supervisors.

You complete a body of primary, novel research and submit a doctoral thesis of up to 100,000 words, which you then defend via an oral examination (the viva) to the satisfaction of the examiners. Your thesis must meet the expectations specified in the QAA Framework for Higher Education Qualifications .

Entry requirements

Entry requirements vary according to the research topic and/or specific studentships. The normal minimum entrance requirement is an upper second class honours degree or masters degree, relevant to the proposed area of study, from a recognised higher education institution in the UK or other recognised degree-awarding body. The comparability of qualifications from outside the UK with The Open University requirements will be determined through reference to UK ENIC .

The research topic pages (within research areas ) give details of specific entry requirements, and provide contact details to discuss your suitability for the PhD.

English language proficiency

To study with us, you will need to have a good command of English. If your first language is not English, you will need to demonstrate your competence in the English Language in all four elements (reading, writing, listening and speaking). The University requires a minimum IELTS score of 6.5 with no less than 6.0 in any of the four categories (or approved equivalent). If you are an overseas student, you must have your level of proficiency certified through a provider approved by UK Visas and Immigration and provide your certificate and grade with your application.

Application closing dates

Entry may be permitted for direct registration with The Open University at the following points of year: October and February. This ensures that students benefit from development and training in peer groups. For further information on how to apply, see our Application process section. Application deadlines may differ between research topics and studentships; full details of topic application period is detailed in the topic page (within research areas ).

OU PhD student, Hannah Sargeant.

PhD student, Hannah Sargeant. Her research is focussed on water production from Moon rocks as part of the ProSPA instrument that will be flown to the Moon in 2025.

My PhD journey so far has been a wonderful learning experience that made me reflect upon my beliefs and stretch my thinking.

research only phd

The sweetest thing about the PhD is that you’ve worked hard for it. It is an opportunity to make an original contribution to an academic area I have always found fascinating.

research only phd

Your questions

For advice about applying for a research degree, or sponsoring a research student, email the Graduate School or call +44 (0)1908 653806.

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Research Doctorate Programs in the United States: Continuity and Change

VIEW LARGER COVER

Research Doctorate Programs in the United States

Continuity and change (1995).

Doctoral programs at U.S. universities play a critical role in the development of human resources both in the United States and abroad. This volume reports the results of an extensive study of U.S. research-doctorate programs in five broad fields: physical sciences and mathematics, engineering, social and behavioral sciences, biological sciences, and the humanities.

Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States documents changes that have taken place in the size, structure, and quality of doctoral education since the widely used 1982 editions. This update provides selected information on nearly 4,000 doctoral programs in 41 subdisciplines at 274 doctorate-granting institutions.

This volume also reports the results of the National Survey of Graduate Faculty, which polled a sample of faculty for their views on the scholarly quality of program faculty and the effectiveness of doctoral programs in preparing research scholars/scientists.

This much-anticipated update of such an essential reference will be useful to education administrators, university faculty, and students seeking authoritative information on doctoral programs.

  • Education — Higher Education

Suggested Citation

National Research Council. 1995. Research Doctorate Programs in the United States: Continuity and Change . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/4915. Import this citation to: Bibtex EndNote Reference Manager

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eBook files are now available for a large number of reports on the NAP.edu website. If an eBook is available, you'll see the option to purchase it on the book page.

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research only phd

  • Find Your Perfect PhD
  • Finding a PhD

Find Your PhD, Fast Finding a PhD has never been this easy – search for a PhD by keyword, location or academic area of interest. Search Now

  • When looking for PhD research projects, a great place to start is with our comprehensive and up-to-date database .
  • Speak with lecturers within your area of interest about potential PhD opportunities they may have.
  • Attend Postgraduate Events . Whilst there, speak to current PhD students and career advisors to get an awareness of what PhD projects are on offer.
  • Visit the postgraduate section of university websites and the PhD Research Council section of the GOV.UK website

Finding A PhD

Searching for PhD research projects can sometimes feel like daunting process. Often, it’s difficult to know where to find a PhD position or where to even start.

To make this searching process as easy as possible for you, we’ve curated a collection of the best places to search for PhD projects. By using our recommended collection, you should hopefully gain a greater insight into where your interests lie and which programme is best suited for you.

Our Comprehensive and Up-To-Date Directory

We can’t create a list of great resources and not include ourselves! At DiscoverPhDs, our primary aim is to connect great students to great PhD projects. To enable this, we provide a comprehensive database of PhD projects offered from universities all across the UK.

We regularly add to our database to ensure you’re getting the latest opportunities and the most relevant information and programme details. On top of this, we’ve created our database to be as easy to use as possible; all our PhD listings provide a direct ‘apply’ link or contact email address of the lead supervisor. This enables you to:

  • Request further information about any aspect of the position,
  • Enquire about the specific applications process,
  • Connect directly with the supervisor

Universities Websites

Search on the website of the universities you are interested in as some many only be listing PhD research projects internally or may link you to other opportunities such as Professional Doctorate Programmes. As examples, have a look at the research pages of The University of Cambridge , Cardiff University , University of Leicester , Sheffield University and The University of Glasgow .

Your Current Supervisor

If you’re currently undertaking a research project or dissertation as part of your undergraduate or master’s degree, it would be a good idea to speak to your current supervisor. Not only would you have already built a good rapport with them, but having worked with you they will have a good idea on what PhD positions would utilise your strengths or best interest you. In fact, a noticeable percentage of past and current PhD students came into their PhD programme because of being recommended by their undergraduate supervisor. Your supervisor will be well-connected – make sure you take advantage of these opportunities.

Tip: Don’t just limit your discussion to your own personal supervisor. All supervisors are within their field of work because they have a natural passion for research and teaching. As such, most supervisors will be more than happy to help any student who wishes to follow in their footsteps and make their own impact.

Postgraduate Events

Nearly all universities hold regular Postgraduate Fairs and Open Days. As part of these events, current postgraduate students may be on hand to share their experiences of their projects and university. This is a fantastic opportunity to not only find out what PhDs the university is offering but to find out more about their facilities, research labs and library collection, etc. Given that you will be heavily relying on these resources during your PhD, it’s important that you know what’s provided by each university. Hearing student stories about what PhD life is really like, what to expect from supervisors and some of the challenges that current students have encountered can be really useful in your decision making process.

Besides the above, career advisers may also be available at these events. Speaking to them will help you understand what you can do with a PhD, whether a PhD is right for you, what degree class you’re expected to hold and how best to prepare for research projects. Seeing as they would have helped many PhD candidates through the decision-making process before, they will provide you with some invaluable insight that you would otherwise be oblivious to.

To help bring all Postgraduate Fairs and Open Days offered across all universities together, we’ve created a helpful Postgraduate Events page which we highly recommend you check out.

Research Councils

Research councils are nationally funded agencies which offer sponsored PhD research projects (also known as a PhD studentship). Different research councils cover different areas of research, these include:

  • The Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC),
  • The Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC),
  • Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC),
  • The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC),
  • Natural Environment Research Council (NERC).

The GOV.UK website has a full list of nationally-funded research councils available online. You can find further details on these councils on the GOV.UK website.

Although our database includes PhD programmes offered by these research councils, it would be a good idea to regularly browse the website of the ones you are particularly interested in case they list some internal only. These councils play an important role in supporting and encouraging doctoral researchers and they regularly hold calls for applications for PhD funding. If you or your potential supervisor have a PhD project proposal defined but need funding, then applying to these calls may become a key first milestone in your postgraduate research journey.

For example, the EPSRC offers a Doctoral Training Partnership programme in which a research student is given funding to pursue postgraduate study with a research question that aligns with the Councils core engineering and physical sciences themes. These awards often have eligibility criteria linked to them, impacting which postgraduate research students can apply; an international student, for example, may not be able to apply to a certain UK based scholarship scheme but there are several other options that can still help you fund your doctoral research; this may involve taking out a postgraduate loan (or more specifically a postgraduate doctoral loan).

To make this searching process as easy as possible for you, we’ve curated a collection of the best places to search for a PhD. By using our recommended collection, you should hopefully gain a greater insight into where your interests lie and which programme is best suited for you.

Further Resources

As you continue your search of PhD research projects, be sure to check our our PhD advice articles, including how to prepare for your PhD application, and interviews with current and past doctoral students. Many of the people we’ve interviewed have completed degrees within a STEM discipline; they offer a wide range of advice on their individual approaches to applied research and independent study, as well as sharing some the impact their work has had. Many have continued the research of their projects within academia after finishing, whilst some have developed successful careers in industry and business sectors.

It’s worth noting that when you apply to undertake doctoral study, you may first be registered as an MPhil researcher, depending on the specific doctoral programme you apply for, officially become a full PhD student after passing an upgrade viva. At the upgrade stage, some students do decide to graduate with an MPhil research degree rather than pursuing further PhD study however this is less common.

We hope the above list will help you find the perfect PhD position and earn your doctoral degree.

If you have any recommendations besides these resources, please let us know at [email protected] so we can look to add it.

If you’re ready to start your search for your PhD, start now with our  PhD database .

Browse PhDs Now

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Join thousands of other students and stay up to date with the latest PhD programmes, funding opportunities and advice.

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Philosophy Doctor (Ph.D) Degree by Research via distance learning

research only phd

Create value for your life and career

A PhD by Research via Distance Learning perfectly adjusts to adult students’ needs, that is to people having work and family commitments yet willing to go through alternative academic path. Selinus University is an independent private international university that helps adult international students achieving their academic goals. Over the years, several surveys have shown that via Distance Learning PhDs by research can be as useful as those earned by traditional academic systems. Clearly, it has to be granted that the private institution is highly reputable. In this regard, Selinus University has acquired a respectable and trustworthy reputation, always giving personal skills and professionalism the deserved emphasis. Nowadays, Selinus University represents an important alternative to traditional studies, above all if we consider the digital era and the global village we live in. Our study system is geared towards busy people pacing today world rhythms. As a matter of fact, it is efficiently transmitted among computer devices anywhere in the world. Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), in Latin: Philosophiae Doctor or Doctor Philosophiae, is the highest academic degree awarded. It usually covers all academic programs. As graduate researchers, PhD students are usually required to show competence, master their topic research but also carry out an original thesis so as to foster new academic contributions in their knowledge field. A PhD via distance learning is an original academic research in a specific branch of human knowledge. The candidate works autonomously and his/her project culminates in a final doctoral thesis. Unlike any other traditional campus based PhD, Selinus PhD by Research does not have semesters splitting; it rather consists in an independent and autonomous theoretical research on a specific academic area. This research is implemented in a final thesis that students shall complete within 24 months. Stress is given on independence during study and research; reason why students’ supervisors will not actually be tutor as in common understanding, but rather specialised consultants for students’ assistance. The student can use both textbooks and the Internet for research purpose besides having access to the online library. Working freely and independently on their research, students will grow highly specialized knowledge and specific expertise to display in their doctoral thesis defense. The Distance Learning PhD is earned after successfully completing and defending the final doctoral thesis in the academic major that has been chosen. The "Doctor of Philosophy" is the only PhD that can be obtained via Distance Learning. It should be quite clear that any laboratory method or professional practice cannot occur online or through any distance learning system. The main requirement for a distance learning PhD by Research is to submit and defend the final thesis whose minimum length have to be 90/100 pages. That will be reviewed and evaluated by an academic committee of the Selinus Unversity. In some cases, previous candidates’ publications may be relevant for PhD purposes. In case the thesis credits are not sufficient, in order to have all the required doctoral credits, additional in-depth reports (about 15-20 pages each) based on textbooks may also be requested. A PhD is often a very popular job requirement in many work areas. Especially in developing countries, with lack of basic job training, the Doctor of Philosophy gets more and more required not only for highly qualified professions, but also for multinationals, non-governmental organizations and private companies’ employments. Employees are asked for an academic "certification" higher than a Bachelor's or a Master's degree. A Master's degree is usually sufficient for most professions. The Ph.D., however, is the highest educational qualification. Only the best-qualified professionals have a Ph.D. To access the program, students need to possess a Master's degree or equivalent and be at least 30 years old. The Ph.D. program requires a minimum of 65 academic credits (about 1000 hours of study) that will be achieved through the final thesis. Distance learning Selinus PhD admission requirements are: Master Degree possession and suitable CV. There is no race, colour, sex, beliefs and/or religion discrimination. APEL (Accreditation Prior Experiential Learning) professional credits validation may contribute to the final evaluation of the thesis.

The cost of a PhD by research via Distance Learning is obviously much lower than a campus based doctorate.

(View Accreditation Certificates)

  • Distance Learning
  • Program outline
  • Tuition fees
  • Thesis defence

research only phd

Study from anywhere in the world, any time during the year

Selinus University offers several distance learning degree programs. These programs are highly affordable and cover more than 200 disciplines including management, communications, humanities, arts, psychology, natural health, therapies, computers, sciences, engineering, and others.

See the PhD study programs via Distance Learning that we offer for each faculty: Faculty of Arts & Humanities - Faculty of Business & Media - Faculty of Computer Science -  Faculty of Engineering & Technology - Faculty of Life & Earth Sciences - Faculty of Psychology -  Faculty of Natural Health Science

research only phd

  • 65 academic credits besides a Master's program.
  • Max Average Duration: 18 months + six months further on demand.
  • Admission is open for adults over 30 years of age. Master's degree or international equivalent is required for admission.
  • All-inclusive price: supervisor’s support, evaluation and assessment, diploma certificate  and transcript.

research only phd

The cost of a PhD by research via Distance Learning is obviously much lower than a campus based doctorate. Cost for 1 Uniselinus PhD credit: 35 euros. Transferred credit from previous education and/or professional experience not allowed. 

Final Cost:

  • Europe 2600 Eur (Vat included)
  • USA 2600 Us Dollar
  • Rest of The World  2275 Eur

Payment plans are available upon request up to:

1)    Single payment at enrolment: 10% of discount 2)    2   monthly instalments 3)    4   monthly instalments 4)    6   monthly installments

research only phd

Considering that Selinus students come from all over the world, often miles away from the university headquarters, the Doctor PhD degree via distance learning thesis can be defended in three different ways:

1) Written defense: the student develops his/her defense in a 5 pages report;

2) Oral Defense: (recommended) the student sends an audio or video file (at least 30 minutes duration) containing his/her defense;

Send registration application

Download and fill in the application ( file: Application ) by attaching the required documents specified in the application and send by email to: [email protected]

If your application is successful you will receive confirmation of your registration, the Certificate of Enrollment, the Payment Plan according to the choice made in the application and the necessary information to start your PhD program. We would like to remind you that the admission requirement for a PhD is a Master's Degree or international equivalent title.

Files to download and read before sending the enrollment request:

Doctorate enrollment

I'm interested in pursuing a Doctor (Ph.D) degree program. I would like to receive information about the following programme:

Majors can be found on the home page www.uniselinus.education by clicking on the single faculty you can access the available disciplines.

Contact info

Registered offices.

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América latina um encontro necessário, la maca delle ande.

Top 18 Most Affordable No GRE Online PhD Degree Programs

research only phd

Are you interested in an affordable online PhD doctorate degree, but hope to avoid the GRE? We rank the most affordable programs with no GRE.

Key Takeaways

  • Many graduate schools are changing their admissions process and eliminating the GRE requirement, especially encouraging if you are seeking a doctoral degree.
  • Contrary to common knowledge, online doctoral degree programs are very credible, something that is closely tied to the school’s accreditation status.
  • It is possible to find an affordable online PhD doctoral degree program that doesn’t require a GRE for admission.

Positions with the most leadership authority and the highest income are usually reserved for the most demanding careers. This is true for businesses, government agencies, and non-government organizations. These positions are often occupied by doctoral degree holders.

Earning a doctorate degree through an online PhD program is no mean feat. One must be financially, mentally, and physically ready to complete an online PhD. Thankfully, more and more online PhD doctorate degree programs no longer require a GRE as an admission requirement.

And even better, there a numerous top-ranked doctorate degree programs that not only do not require a GRE, but are also very affordable.

Featured Programs

The online phd: a research-oriented doctorate degree.

The doctorate degree is the highest degree you can earn in most fields of study in the US. People who have earned this degree demonstrate a mastery of a specific area of study.

Students who complete an online doctoral degree must have researched a topic or subject thoroughly, conducted research and analysis, and provided a better solution and interpretation of the field.

Research doctorate programs are popularly known as Doctor of Philosophy (PhDs). Common doctorate degrees include:

  • Doctor of Arts (DA)
  • Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
  • Doctor of Business Administration (DBA)
  • Doctor of Education (EdD)
  • Doctor of Theology (ThD)
  • Doctor of Public Health (DPH)

“Philosophy” here refers to the pursuit of knowledge and the concept of research, and not the actual subject of philosophy. A major component of this type of doctorate is the dissertation process.

Doctoral Student Dissertations

In most cases, the central component of your online PhD program will be the completion of your dissertation. After being accepted as an online PhD candidate, most doctorate students will develop an original research question.

This research question forms the basis of the dissertation—an ongoing project designed to address this research question through applied research. A doctoral student will work closely with an advisor or mentor, although much of the dissertation will be rooted in independent research. This is especially true for students pursuing an online PhD.

Upon completion of the written portion of the dissertation you will be expected to defend their findings. This “oral defense” will typically be conducted by a commission of professors and experts in your field. PhD candidates in some online degree programs may be able to conduct this defense via teleconferencing.

Bottom Line: The main component of affordable online doctorate degrees is the dissertation. It will be a central part of your online doctoral degree program.

Reasons to Earn a PhD Through an Affordable Online Doctorate Degree Program

These are the two major reasons doctoral students pursue a PhD in their field of choice:

Better Earning Potential and More Career Options

A doctorate opens more career opportunities in terms of higher salaries and better job positions. According to the US Census Bureau, the annual salary (average) of those with professional doctorates in the US is $152,703. This includes the annual salary of people holding professional degrees like lawyers (JD) and medical doctors (MD).

Build Expertise and Contribute

Enrolling in an online doctoral degree program provides you with the training and time to become an expert in a specific subject matter. Think of earning your doctorate degree as a way to build a deeper specialization that can jumpstart your plan to make original contributions.

Group of students smiling on laptop outside

Why the GRE May NOT be Necessary in Graduate School

Today, many schools no longer require GRE test scores. Why are graduate schools dropping GRE test scores from their admission standards? What’s the reason behind this change in online PhD programs?

Limited connection between GRE Test Score and Success

The GRE score is not a feasible success predictor because any student can just retake the test several times to get a better score. The qualifying GRE score for admission also changed in most schools to show the changing expectations of graduate students.

When assessing whether students of online doctorate programs qualify or not, other factors like letters of recommendation, undergraduate grades, and research experience are considered.

Inapplicable to field of study

The field of study in many doctoral programs plays a role in why GRE test scores are no longer necessary. The average score by major and school widely differ based on the student’s interests.

The better news is, some of today’s best schools with the most affordable online doctorate degrees are rolling out the no-GRE policy!

How can I make an online PhD degree program as affordable as possible?

A growing number of highly reputable universities have hybrid or fully online doctorate degrees. These programs are perfect for busy graduate students trying to manage their time and balancing coursework, career, and family demands. This makes an affordable online PhD programs especially attractive.

Luckily, there are several ways to ensure that online doctorate degrees are as affordable as possible.

In-state Tuition

Many affordable PhD online doctoral programs may charge a higher tuition rate for non-state residents, but there are affordable online doctoral programs that charge a flat tuition rate regardless of graduate student state residency.

Other Expenses

Earning an online PhD as opposed to a traditional on-campus doctorate degree makes it possible to save money on expenses like housing, transportation, and certain campus fees.

Continue Working

Online PhD doctoral programs also make it possible to continue working in your field, which means you can complete your degree program while still earning a living. This can ultimately reduce your dependence on student loan debt.

Financial Aid

If affordability is a particular concern, and it is making you reluctant to pursue a PhD online doctoral degree program, you may be able to take advantage of financial aid, including grants, scholarships, and loans.

For more information on financial aid, visit the Federal Student Aid website. It is especially important that you choose an online program that is accredited in order to qualify for financial aid.

Assistantships

Many schools offering an online PhD also have assistantship opportunities for their graduate students. Assistantships may give teaching opportunities in exchange for tuition waivers and a stipend. Each school is different, so you will need to check into the online doctorate degree program you are interested in.

Bottom Line: Affordable online PhD degree programs are possible when you factor in things like in-state tuition, financial aid, grants, and assistantships.

The Most Affordable No GRE Online PhD Degree Programs

University of wisconsin–madison.

  • #17 Best Universities in the US Ranked for Prospective Students in 2024
  • #25 50 Best Graduate Schools Ranked for Prospective Students in 2024
  • #1 Best Public Colleges in Wisconsin 2024
  • #1 The Most Influential Universities and Colleges Ranked by State 2024
  • #1 Best Grad Schools in Wisconsin 2024
  • #1 Most Affordable Colleges in Wisconsin 2024
  • #1 Best Research Universities in Wisconsin 2024
  • #1 Best Colleges in Wisconsin 2024
  • #15 Best Research Universities for Social Work Degrees
  • #21 Best Research Universities for Nursing Degrees
  • #1 20 Best Online Master's of Speech Pathology Degree Programs
  • #1 Best Online Master's Programs in Wisconsin 2024
  • #1 Best Online Colleges in Wisconsin 2024
  • #5 Top 5 Best Online Sociology PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates) 2024
  • #6 Best Online MBA Programs in Wisconsin
  • #20 20 Fastest Accelerated Online English Doctorates (PhDs) 2024

Tuition + fees

Student body

Median SAT/ACT

Career Outlook for degree at University of Wisconsin–Madison

University of Wisconsin–Madison’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:

  • Earth Sciences
  • Mathematics
  • Anthropology
  • Computer Science

Most Influential Alumni

  • Frank Lloyd Wright
  • Carl Rogers
  • Edward Witten
  • John Bardeen
  • Charles Lindbergh
  • Abraham Maslow
  • Joshua Lederberg
  • Warren Weaver
  • C. Wright Mills
  • Jayaprakash Narayan

The University of Wisconsin-Madison has always been a channel for the extraordinary. As a major research institution and public-grant university, its faculty, staff, and students engage in a world-class education while dealing with real-world problems. The Wisconsin Idea serves as its guiding principle, creating a better future for everybody.

The University of Wisconsin E-Campus offers nearly 60 graduate degrees in a wide range of academic fields, such as the Education Specialist in Educational Administration- Superintendent District Administrator Online . All these programs meet the same high standards that made UW a world-class leader in higher education.

  • Required Credits: 30
  • Completion Time: 18 months
  • Format: Online

What we love about the University of Wisconsin-Madison

Depending on your degree path, tuition ranges from $600 to $700 per credit hour. What’s great about UW-Madison Online is the flat tuition rate for all students, regardless of whether or not they are Wisconsin residents.

The University of Wisconsin-Madison is great for students who:

Seek to socialize with fellow learners. The university is home to a multitude of clubs and organizations.

The University of Wisconsin-Madison might not be a great fit for students who:

Can get distracted easily, as there are so many activities and opportunities in school. Concentrating is always a challenge.

Female student studying at the library

University of Southern California

  • #4 Best Research Universities in California 2024
  • #4 Best Colleges in California 2024
  • #4 Best Grad Schools California 2024
  • #5 The Most Influential Universities and Colleges Ranked by State 2024
  • #5 Best Research Universities for Education Degrees
  • #9 Best Research Universities for Communications Degrees
  • #13 Best Research Universities for Engineering Degrees
  • #15 Best Research Universities for Computer Science Degrees
  • #16 Best Research Universities for English Degrees
  • #16 Best Research Universities for Psychology Degrees
  • #17 Best Research Universities for Sociology Degrees
  • #17 Best Research Universities for Religious Studies Degrees
  • #17 Best Research Universities for Political Science Degrees
  • #17 Best Research Universities for Earth Sciences Degrees
  • #19 Best Research Universities for Anthropology Degrees
  • #19 Best Research Universities for Biology Degrees
  • #20 Best Research Universities for History Degrees
  • #20 Best Research Universities for Chemistry Degrees
  • #20 Best Research Universities for Physics Degrees
  • #20 Best Research Universities for Economics Degrees
  • #21 Best Research Universities for Philosophy Degrees
  • #22 Best Research Universities for Math Degrees
  • #1 Best Online Master’s in Human Resources
  • #1 Best Research Universities with Online Doctorates (PhDs) 2024
  • #1 Best Online Doctorate in Organizational Leadership Degree Programs
  • #1 Best Online Master's in Social Work MSW
  • #1 Top 5 Best Online Social Work PhDs (DSW Programs) 2024
  • #1 Best Online Master’s in Communications
  • #1 Best Online Master's in Project Management
  • #1 Best Data Science Online Master’s Programs
  • #1 Best Online Master's in Computer Science Degree Programs
  • #1 Top 20 Best Online Accredited Doctorate Degree Programs (PhDs) 2024
  • #1 Top 8 Best Online Applied Behavioral Analysis PhDs (Doctorates)
  • #1 Best Online Master's in Cybersecurity
  • #1 Best Online Master's in Hospitality and Tourism Degree Programs
  • #1 Best Online Doctorate of Physical Therapy Programs (PhDs)
  • #1 Best Online MBA Degree Programs for 2024 with No GMAT Required
  • #1 The Best Online MBA Degree Programs in 2024 Ranked for Students
  • #1 Top 10 Best Online Master's of Public Relations Ranked 2024
  • #1 Best Online Doctorate in Education Degree Programs Ranked for Students
  • #1 Best Online Master’s in Finance
  • #2 Best Online Master’s in Sustainability and Green Technologies
  • #2 Best Online Master’s in Health Informatics
  • #2 Top 5 Best Online Social Work PhDs (DSW Programs) 2024
  • #2 Best Online Master's Programs in California 2024
  • #2 Best Online Master's in Public Administration Degree Programs
  • #2 Best Online MBA Programs in California
  • #2 Best Online Master's in Criminal Justice
  • #2 Fastest Online Doctoral Degree Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
  • #2 Best Online Master’s in Engineering Management
  • #2 Best Online Master’s in Engineering
  • #3 Best Online Master's in Management
  • #3 Best Online Master's in Nursing MSN
  • #4 Best Online Master's Programs 2024
  • #5 Top 10 Best Online Communications PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
  • #5 Fastest Accelerated Online Computer Science Doctorates (PhDs)
  • #5 Top 15 Most Affordable Online Social Work PhDs (Doctorates)
  • #5 Fastest Online Master's Degrees Ranked for Students in 2024
  • #6 Top 50 Best No GRE Online PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
  • #12 The Best Traditional MBA Programs Ranked for Students in 2024

Career Outlook for degree at University of Southern California

University of Southern California’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:

  • Social Work
  • Engineering
  • Criminal Justice
  • Communications
  • Political Science
  • Frank Gehry
  • Neil Armstrong
  • Jack L. Warner
  • John Mearsheimer
  • Boris Podolsky
  • Michael D. Griffin
  • Maulana Karenga
  • O. J. Simpson
  • Robert Ballard

The University of Southern California is home to the College of Letters, Arts, and Sciences, as well as 22 academic schools and units. This leading private research university is located in Los Angeles, California, and is a global center for arts, technology, and international business.

The Online Doctor of Education in Organizational Change and Leadership prepares students to facilitate conditions that make efficient, competitive, and adaptable organizations across industries, including private firms, colleges and universities, nonprofits, and government organizations.

  • Required Credits: 43
  • Completion Time: 3 years

What we love about the University of Southern California

The University of California’s cost of tuition is on the higher end of the college tuition prices. However, many tuition assistance programs can help students attend this prestigious school at a more affordable price. In fact, USC’s Financial Aid office spends more than $773 million in financial aid programs every year.

The University of California is great for students who:

Love and enjoy a fun atmosphere with a lot of spirit, especially during the football season. This is also great for those who want to learn and like a huge campus where everything is always going on.

The University of California might not be the best fit for students who:

Cannot handle a heavy workload. The school’s workload is heavy, and some students can’t seem to balance academic time and fun time.

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

  • #1 Best Public Colleges in Illinois 2024
  • #1 Most Affordable Colleges in Illinois Ranked for Students in 2024
  • #3 The Most Influential Universities and Colleges Ranked by State 2024
  • #3 Best Colleges in Illinois 2024
  • #3 Best Research Universities in Illinois 2024
  • #3 Best Grad Schools Illinois 2024
  • #24 Best Research Universities for Social Work Degrees
  • #2 11 Fastest Accelerated Online Master’s of Computer Science
  • #2 Top 10 Best Online Master's of Public Relations Ranked 2024
  • #3 Top 20 Most Affordable Online Doctorate of Education (PhDs)
  • #3 Online Colleges That Start Anytime and the Benefits of a Self-Paced Education
  • #4 Top 20 Best Online MBA Programs that Can Be Completed in One Year 2024
  • #4 Best Online MBA Degree Programs for 2024 with No GMAT Required
  • #21 The Best Traditional MBA Programs Ranked for Students in 2024

Career Outlook for degree at University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:

  • Paul Halmos
  • Eugenio Calabi
  • Richard Hamming
  • James Tobin
  • Steven Best
  • Roger Ebert
  • Jerome Lettvin
  • Irving Azoff
  • Temple Grandin
  • Hamilton O. Smith
  • Brendan Eich

The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign is the pioneer in innovative research that covers global problems and expands the human experience. The school’s transformative learning experiences, out and in the classroom, are designed to produce students who plan to make a significant, societal impact.

The Online Doctor of Education of the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign consists of online video synchronous sessions that meet once a week. These sessions are designed for students to interact with the course instructors and peers synchronously for an enriched learning experience.

  • Required Credits: 64
  • Completion Time: 2 years

What we love about the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

The tuition rates at the University of Illinois set during the student’s freshman year are guaranteed for four years at all their universities, in Urbana-Champaign, Springfield, and Chicago. More than half of the University of Illinois System students pay less than the full cost of tuition because of federal and state grant programs, as well as need and merit-based aid provided by the university.

The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign is best for students who:

Are both hard-working, social, and good time managers.

The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign may not be ideal for students who:

Do not care about their grades. The school parties a lot but the academics are extremely challenging. If you’re not going to fight until graduation, this school is not for you.

University of Arizona

  • #1 Most Affordable Colleges in Arizona 2024
  • #1 Best Public Colleges in Arizona 2024
  • #1 Best Grad Schools in Arizona 2024
  • #1 Best Research Universities in Arizona 2024
  • #23 Best Research Universities for Criminal Justice Degrees
  • #1 The Best Online Colleges Ranked for Students in 2024
  • #1 Best Online Bachelor's in Cybersecurity
  • #1 Best Online Bachelor’s of History Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
  • #1 Best Online Bachelor's in Law and Legal Studies Degree Programs for 2024
  • #1 Best Online Bachelor’s in Business Administration Degree Programs
  • #1 Best Online Bachelor's in Philosophy Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
  • #1 Best Online Colleges in Arizona 2024
  • #1 Best Online Bachelor's in Cybersecurity in Arizona
  • #1 Best Online Bachelor's in Accounting
  • #1 Best Online Bachelor's of Economics Degree Programs for 2024
  • #1 Best Online Master's in Behavior Analysis Degree Programs
  • #1 Best Online Master's in Agriculture and Agribusiness Degree Programs
  • #1 Best Online Bachelor's in Organizational Leadership Degree Programs
  • #1 Best Online Bachelor's in Psychology Degree Programs for Students
  • #1 Best Online Bachelor’s in Child Development Degree Programs for 2024
  • #1 Best Online Master's Programs in Arizona 2024
  • #1 Best Online Bachelor’s of Electrical and Computer Engineering Degree Programs for 2024
  • #1 Top 10 Best Online Bachelor's of Web Design Degree Programs 2024
  • #2 Best Research Universities with Online Doctorates (PhDs) 2024
  • #2 Best Online MBA in Entrepreneurship Ranked for Students in 2024
  • #2 Top 20 Best Online Accredited Doctorate Degree Programs (PhDs) 2024
  • #2 Best Online Bachelor’s of Early Childhood Education Degree Programs for 2024
  • #2 Best Online Bachelor's in Biology
  • #2 Best Online MBA Programs in Arizona
  • #2 Top 20 Most Affordable Online Master's of Nursing Programs
  • #2 Best Online MBA in Business Analytics Ranked for Students in 2024
  • #2 Best Online MBA in Marketing Degree Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
  • #2 Best Online MBAs in Finance
  • #3 Top 20 Most Affordable Online Bachelor's of Cybersecurity
  • #3 Best Online Bachelor’s of Digital Media for 2024
  • #3 Best Online Master's in Cybersecurity
  • #3 Best Online Bachelor’s of Communications Degree Programs for 2024
  • #3 Best Online Doctorate in Education Degree Programs Ranked for Students
  • #4 Best Online Master’s in Sustainability and Green Technologies
  • #4 Best Online Master's Degrees in Accounting
  • #4 Best Online Master's in Marketing and Advertising
  • #4 Best Online Master's in Special Education
  • #4 Best Online Master's in Economics
  • #4 Best Online Master’s in Engineering Management
  • #4 Top 15 Most Affordable Online Economics PhD Programs (Doctorates) 2024
  • #5 Best Online Bachelor’s of Human Services Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
  • #5 Best Online Bachelor's in Public Health Degree Programs for Students
  • #6 Best Online Master's in Criminal Justice
  • #7 The Best Online MBA Degree Programs in 2024 Ranked for Students
  • #7 Best Online Master’s in Engineering
  • #8 Top 50 Best No GRE Online PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
  • #8 Most Affordable Online Criminology Doctorate Programs (PhDs)
  • #10 Best Online Master's Programs 2024
  • #11 Most Affordable Online Sociology Doctorate Programs (PhDs)
  • #12 Fastest Online Bachelor's Degrees Ranked for 2024
  • #13 Most Affordable Online Criminal Justice PhDs (Doctorates)
  • #16 Best Online Master's in Management
  • #20 Most Affordable Online Bachelor's Degree Programs Ranked for 2024

Career Outlook for degree at University of Arizona

University of Arizona’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:

  • Geraldo Rivera
  • Clifford Stoll
  • Garry Shandling
  • Brian Schmidt
  • Henry Eyring
  • Michael McClure
  • Barbara Kingsolver
  • George H. Smith
  • Allen Buchanan
  • Frank Press

The University of Arizona is a top-global university constantly recognized for its impressive academic programs and exceptional value. Whether it’s finding out ways to feed the planet or leading space missions with NASA, the University of Arizona prepares its students for the rapidly changing world via hands-on approaches to learning.

The online Doctorate of Education - Educational Leadership at the University of Arizona will enhance a student’s ability to improve outcomes in an organization. They will be taught how to tackle challenging educational problems through simulations, case studies, group activities, and individual projects.

  • Required Credits : 36
  • Completion Time : 3 years
  • Format : Online

What we love about the University of Arizona

The University of Arizona offers a lot of financial aid and support. Typically, undergraduate students receive different amounts in grants or scholarships. Students living in Arizona are offered a 64.3% discount for tuition and fees. First-year students also receive financial aid totaling $12,569. Students from low-income families also receive $16,855 (average) during their first year.

The University of Arizona is great for students who:

Like Greek life, love warm weather, and a friendly environment. The school is also perfect for those interested in astronomy, health sciences, or business administration—some of the top programs of the school.

The University of Arizona might not be a good fit for students who:

Are not fans of big schools. It is a very big school, and if you are scared to get out there and make friends, you might just end up hiding in your room.

George Washington University

  • #2 Best Colleges in DC 2024
  • #6 Best Research Universities for Criminal Justice Degrees
  • #9 Best Research Universities for Social Work Degrees
  • #16 Best Research Universities for Communications Degrees
  • #20 Best Research Universities for Nursing Degrees
  • #21 Best Research Universities for Business Degrees
  • #1 Best Online MBA Programs in DC
  • #2 Best Online Master's Programs in DC 2024
  • #3 Best Research Universities with Online Doctorates (PhDs) 2024
  • #3 Top 10 Best Online Master's of Public Relations Ranked 2024
  • #6 Most Unusual Doctoral Degrees You Can Earn Online (PhDs)
  • #6 Best Online MBA Degree Programs for 2024 with No GMAT Required
  • #9 Top 10 Fastest Accelerated Online Psychology Doctorates (PhDs)
  • #10 Top 50 Best No GRE Online PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)

Career Outlook for degree at George Washington University

George Washington University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:

  • J. Edgar Hoover
  • L. Ron Hubbard
  • Glenn Greenwald
  • Bob Woodward
  • Allen Dulles
  • George Armitage Miller
  • Juan Guaidó
  • Roger Stone
  • James E. Webb
  • Lester Frank Ward
  • Brian Williams

George Washington University , a private, federally chartered research school in Washington, D.C, was chartered in 1821. As the biggest institution of higher education in the capital, GWU offers a multitude of degree programs in 71 disciplines. A variety of student life programs, 450 student organizations, and a strong Greek culture are strong features of GWU.

The Online Ph.D. in Systems Engineering at George Washington University teaches learners to demonstrate mastery of broad-based knowledge in systems engineering, as well as in specific areas of knowledge relevant to their research interests, including methodologies and theories.

  • Required Credits: 54

What we love about George Washington University

Being a leading research institution, George Washington University promotes the advancement of knowledge across different fields throughout its libraries, research centers, and schools. The school also offers a dynamic community where students can exchange ideas and diversity is highly valued.

George Washington University is great for students who:

Work hard and play hard, students with political ambitions, and those who enjoy an urban environment but think New York is a bit too much.

George Washington University might not be the best fit for students who:

Prefer to enjoy dorm life without a roommate. Especially among freshmen, getting a single room is next to impossible.

Man and woman working in an office

University of Missouri

  • #2 Best Research Universities in Missouri 2024
  • #2 Best Colleges in Missouri 2024
  • #1 Best Online Master's Programs in Missouri 2024
  • #1 Best Online Bachelor's in Sociology Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
  • #1 Best Online Bachelor’s of Early Childhood Education Degree Programs for 2024
  • #1 Best Online Bachelor's in Interdisciplinary Studies Degree Programs for 2024
  • #1 Best Online Bachelor’s of Communications Degree Programs for 2024
  • #1 Top 15 Most Affordable Online Information Technology PhD Programs
  • #1 Top 20 Most Affordable Online Business Administration Doctorates
  • #1 Best Online Master's in Biology
  • #1 Most Affordable Online Bachelor's of Business Degree Programs
  • #1 Best Online Bachelor's of English Degree Programs for 2024
  • #2 Best Online Bachelor’s of Health Science Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
  • #2 Best Online Bachelor’s in Business Administration Degree Programs
  • #2 Best Online Master's in Agriculture and Agribusiness Degree Programs
  • #2 Best Online Bachelor's in Psychology Degree Programs for Students
  • #2 Best Online Master's in Special Education
  • #2 Best Online Bachelor’s of Education Degree Programs for 2024
  • #2 Best Online Colleges in Missouri 2024
  • #3 Top 20 Most Affordable Online Master's of Nursing Programs
  • #3 Best Online Bachelor’s in Information Technology Degree Programs for 2024
  • #3 Best Online Master's in Economics
  • #3 Best Online Bachelor's in Public Health Degree Programs for Students
  • #3 Best Online Degree Completion Programs for Returning Students
  • #4 The Best Online Colleges Ranked for Students in 2024
  • #5 Best Research Universities with Online Doctorates (PhDs) 2024
  • #5 Best Online Master's Degrees in Accounting
  • #5 Top 20 Best Online Accredited Doctorate Degree Programs (PhDs) 2024
  • #6 Top 20 Most Affordable Online Doctorate of Education (PhDs)
  • #6 Best RN to BSN Online
  • #6 Best Online Master’s in Finance
  • #9 Best Online MBA Degree Programs for 2024 with No GMAT Required
  • #10 Best Data Science Online Master’s Programs
  • #10 The Best Online MBA Degree Programs in 2024 Ranked for Students
  • #12 Top 20 Easiest Online Degrees from Accredited Schools in 2024
  • #12 Most Affordable Online Sociology Doctorate Programs (PhDs)
  • #14 Top 50 Best No GRE Online PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
  • #16 Fastest Online Bachelor's Degrees Ranked for 2024
  • #16 Best Online Master's Programs 2024
  • #16 Best Online Master’s in Engineering
  • #17 Best Online Master's in Management
  • #18 Best Online Master's in Social Work MSW

Career Outlook for degree at University of Missouri

University of Missouri’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:

  • Tennessee Williams
  • Barbara McClintock
  • Harlow Shapley
  • David McClelland
  • Richard Matheson
  • Eugenie Scott
  • Suisheng Zhao
  • Robert W. McChesney
  • Charles Stark Draper
  • William Manchester
  • Margaret Weis

The University of Missouri , a Columbia-based public land-grant research school, is the largest in the state. It is the flagship institution of University of Missouri System. Popularly called Mizzou, the school has more than 600 clubs and organizations, nearly 280 majors (70 can be completed online).

The online doctor of education (EdD) lets students continue their careers while also earning skills that they can use immediately. The program is designed for practicing educational leaders who are ready to improve their leadership skills and career opportunities.

  • Completion Time: 2-3 years

What we love about the University of Missouri

The University of Missouri is a decently expensive college, but they do an amazing job with financial aid. It makes sure that students have the financial support they need.

The University of Missouri is great for students who:

Can balance well and want the full college experience. There are so many things to do at Mizzou—the constant activity and friendships, parties, and more; all these while focusing on your academics.

The University of Missouri might not be a good fit for students who:

Lack good study and organizational skills. The school offers a lot of frills and thrills, and sometimes, it’s hard to study and focus.

Oregon State University

  • #2 Most Affordable Colleges in Oregon 2024
  • #3 Best Colleges in Oregon 2024
  • #4 The Most Influential Universities and Colleges Ranked by State 2024
  • #1 10 Fastest Accelerated Online Bachelor's of Computer Science
  • #1 Best Online MBA Programs in Oregon
  • #1 Top 15 Fastest Accelerated Online Counseling Doctorates (PhDs)
  • #2 Best Online Master's Programs in Oregon 2024
  • #3 Best Online MBA Programs in Nevada
  • #8 Top 16 Most Affordable Online Counseling PhDs (Doctorates)
  • #10 Best Online Bachelor's in Construction Management Degree Programs
  • #17 Top 50 Best No GRE Online PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)

Career Outlook for degree at Oregon State University

Oregon State University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:

  • Linus Pauling
  • Douglas Engelbart
  • Michael Waterman
  • Katharine Jefferts Schori
  • Derald Wing Sue
  • Gary Payton
  • George Andrews
  • Paul Hugh Emmett
  • Jerald Ericksen
  • Philip Emeagwali
  • William J. Ripple
  • George I. Mavrodes

Located at Corvallis, Oregon, Oregon State University is a public land-grant research university that offers more than 200 undergraduate degree programs plus a variety of graduate and doctoral degrees. Also called OSU, Oregon State is the largest public research university in the state and specializes in studies of marine science, sustainable food systems, forestry, and more.

OSU’s Online Ph.D. in Counselling program prepares students to work as clinical supervisors, advanced practitioners, and counselor educators in both academic and clinical settings. This program also emphasizes student contribution to the counseling profession through research while addressing and understanding the societal changes in today’s communities.

  • Required Credits: 150
  • Completion Time: 4-6 years
  • Format: Hybrid

Why We Love Oregon State University

OSU is bent on removing financial barriers so students can get access to education. Grants, scholarships, student work experiences, and loans are offered at OSU to help students achieve their ultimate goal of receiving a college education.

Oregon State University is great for students who:

Are not big city people or those who wish to be in a calmer town. The town may seem small, but it offers so many interesting things.

Oregon State University might not be the best fit for students who:

Are out-of-state enrollees. However, there are summer classes when students can get in-state tuition rates.

Concordia University Chicago

  • #24 Best Online Colleges in Illinois 2024

Career Outlook for degree at Concordia University Chicago

Concordia University Chicago’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:

  • Religious Studies
  • Carl Schalk

Concordia University Chicago is a private university located in River Forest, Illinois. The school was once a college exclusively for parochial teacher education. Today, it now offers more than 100 undergraduate and postgraduate degrees, with more than 5,000 students.

Concordia University Chicago offers an online PhD program in Leadership . The program focuses on enlightened perspectives and knowledge about innovative leadership practices, decision-making, knowledge management, conflict and change management, and unique approaches to leadership.

  • Required Credits: 67

What we love about Concordia University Chicago

At CUC, students will experience a faith that uplifts, learning that enriches and leaders that will take them to places. All the distinctive academic programs are created to meet the needs of the world in which we serve, live, and work.

Concordia University Chicago is best for students who:

Love a quiet campus where everybody is friendly. If you are a shy type of student, this school will work well for you.

Concordia University Chicago might not be a great option for students who:

Cannot have control of their time. There is so much to do, and managing one’s time proved to be a challenge.

University of South Dakota

  • #1 Best Public Colleges in South Dakota 2024
  • #1 Best Colleges in South Dakota 2024
  • #1 Best Online Associate Degrees in South Dakota 2024
  • #1 Best Online Master's Programs in South Dakota 2024
  • #1 Best Online MBA Programs in South Dakota
  • #1 Best Online Colleges in South Dakota 2024
  • #2 Best Online Master's Programs in Wyoming 2024
  • #3 Best Online MBA Programs in Wyoming
  • #5 Best Online MBA Programs in Montana
  • #10 Most Affordable Online Computer Science PhDs (Doctorates) 2024

Career Outlook for degree at University of South Dakota

University of South Dakota’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:

  • Ernest Lawrence
  • David Rumelhart
  • Herbert J. Davenport
  • Anna Johnson Pell Wheeler
  • Pat O'Brien
  • Robert Legvold
  • John H. Lawrence
  • Elizabeth Cook-Lynn
  • Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart

The University of South Dakota in Vermillion is a public research institution, and the state’s flagship university. It is home to the only medical and law school in the state, as well as the National Music Museum. USD also has seven colleges offering 205 undergraduate and 75 graduate programs.

The online Adult and Higher Education Ph.D. develop education leaders to become efficient school administrators by cultivating change for the future. This CAEP-accredited program is designed for school district superintendents, elementary and secondary principals, special education directors, curriculum directors, and higher education administrators.

  • Required Credits: 90-95

What we love about the University of South Dakota

The school is very affordable and has lots of great professors.

The University of South Dakota is great for students who:

Want a wonderful education in a big yet still small college. The school is big enough for many opportunities but not so large as to not be able to feel part of the community.

The University of South Dakota may not be a good fit for students who:

Are looking for student events, house parties, and the like.

Woman with glasses reading a book at the bus stop

Duquesne University

  • #9 Best Grad Schools in Pennsylvania 2024
  • #9 Best Private Colleges in Pennsylvania 2024
  • #2 Best Online Master’s in Forensics Degree Programs
  • #4 Best Online MBA Programs in Pennsylvania
  • #4 Best Online Colleges in Pennsylvania 2024
  • #5 Best Online Master's Programs in Pennsylvania 2024
  • #6 Best Online Master’s in Educational Administration
  • #8 Best Online Bachelor's in Organizational Leadership Degree Programs
  • #12 Best Online Christian Colleges and Universities for Master's Degrees
  • #13 Best Online Master’s in Health Informatics
  • #15 Best Research Universities with Online Doctorates (PhDs) 2024
  • #17 Top 20 Best Online Accredited Doctorate Degree Programs (PhDs) 2024
  • #20 Best Online Doctorate in Education Degree Programs Ranked for Students

Career Outlook for degree at Duquesne University

Duquesne University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:

  • Michael Hayden
  • Derrick Bell
  • Richard E. Nisbett
  • Thomas L. Thompson
  • George Yancy
  • Daniel A. Helminiak
  • Thomas Hopko
  • Samuel John Hazo
  • Jerome Loving
  • George Delahunty
  • John Clayton

Duquesne University is a private Catholic research university located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It is composed of nine schools that offer degree programs at the baccalaureate, professional, master’s, and doctoral levels in 189 academic programs. The school is the only online Spiritan institution of higher education globally, and hosts international students from more than 80 different countries.

Duquesne University offers an online Philosophy PhD program that specializes in continental philosophy and the history of philosophy. The aim is to provide advanced philosophical training to students with demonstrated outstanding scholarly competence so that they can pursue high-quality independent research.

  • Required Credits: 56

What we love about Duquesne University

Duquesne University is a very beautiful and small campus. Students can walk the entire length of the school in just 20 minutes. Class sizes are relatively small, and professors are always willing to help struggling students.

Duquesne University is great for students who:

PhD assistantships are available to doctoral students and include $18,000 per year stipends and full tuition waivers.The tuition waivers cover all tuition expenses associated with required coursework and dissertation credits.

Duquesne University might not be a good fit for students who:

Are not into the dorm life or campus residentcy that abides by strict rules.

University of Idaho

  • #1 Best Public Colleges in Idaho 2024
  • #1 Best Colleges in Idaho 2024
  • #1 Top 10 Best Online Master's of Psychology Degree Programs 2024
  • #1 Best Online Master's Programs in Idaho 2024
  • #1 Best Online Colleges in Idaho 2024
  • #5 Best Online Bachelor’s of History Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
  • #10 Best Online Master's in Organizational Leadership
  • #12 Best Online Bachelor's in Organizational Leadership Degree Programs
  • #16 Best Online Bachelor's in Psychology Degree Programs for Students
  • #16 Best Online Master’s in Engineering Management
  • #17 Best Online Master's in Computer Science Degree Programs
  • #19 Best Online Doctorate in Education Degree Programs Ranked for Students
  • #20 Most Affordable Online Computer Science PhDs (Doctorates) 2024
  • #20 Best Online Master's in Special Education
  • #22 Best Online Master’s in Education
  • #25 The Best Online Colleges Ranked for Students in 2024

Career Outlook for degree at University of Idaho

University of Idaho’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:

  • Sarah Palin
  • Harry Huskey
  • Douglas Wilson
  • Jeffrey L. Whitten
  • Leonard J. Arrington
  • Guy McPherson
  • E. E. Smith
  • D. Mark Hegsted
  • C. Scott Green
  • Arden L. Bement Jr.

The University of Idaho in Moscow, Idaho, is a public land-grant research university, and the lead university in the Idaho Space Grant Consortium. Sprawled on a 1,585-acre of land in the rolling hills of the Palouse region, the school offers 142 degree programs, from accountancy to wildlife resources, including bachelor’s, master’s, doctoral, and specialist degrees.

The online Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Idaho prepares students as faculty, researchers, or discipline-based scholars who contribute to the knowledge base of their chosen field. This program is primarily designed for students who wish to have research/teaching careers in higher education.

  • Required Credits: 78
  • Completion Time: 24-36 months

What we love about the University of Idaho

Despite the school’s large size, the University of Idaho still manages to create a personalized learning experience for all undergrads. The school also provides numerous network opportunities for its students.

The University of Idaho is great for students who:

are looking for ways to save some money, and for those who prefer a small-town atmosphere, since it is in a small town.

The University of Idaho might not be the best fit for students who:

Are not into constant parties and Greek life, as the Greek community is active in the school, and parties are somehow normal in this school.

Gonzaga University

  • #5 Best Colleges in Washington 2024
  • #4 Best Online Master's Programs in Washington 2024
  • #7 Best Online MBA Programs in Washington
  • #7 Most Unusual Doctoral Degrees You Can Earn Online (PhDs)

Career Outlook for degree at Gonzaga University

Gonzaga University is a private Jesuit school in Spokane. The school offers bachelor’s degrees, master’s degrees, and doctorate degree programs through its college and six schools. It has 92 fields and 26 graduate programs.

The online Doctor of Educational Leadership at Gonzaga University provides advanced preparation for educational leaders in different school settings across the world. This is designed for those who are currently working in a Pre-K-12 setting.

What we love about Gonzaga University

The school’s mission is to help every student reach their full potential, and that can only be achieved by giving them opportunities through financial aid and scholarships to make Gonzaga’s education more accessible.

Gonzaga University is great for students who:

Truly care about their education and are willing to sacrifice a little fun to pursue their career aspirations and life goals.

Gonzaga University might not be a great fit for students who:

are not up for a challenge. Professors will expect a lot from the students, so it’s expected students work extra hard.

Clarkson University

Career outlook for degree at clarkson university.

Clarkson University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:

  • Kevin Granata
  • Thomas Zacharia
  • Sanjeev Kulkarni
  • Bernard F. Schutz
  • Rajkumar Chellaraj
  • Brenda Romero
  • Jarmo Kekäläinen
  • Gregory C. Farrington
  • Randy Sexton
  • Annie Selden
  • M. Emmet Walsh

Clarkson University is a private school in Potsdam, New York, roughly a 90-minute drive from Ottawa. The school has 50 academic programs, and graduates also have options including those in the schools of business and engineering.

The online PhD in Computer Science curriculum is designed to improve the basic knowledge of learners and to give them guidance and experience in research. This can be achieved by taking advanced courses, joining seminars, and reporting on a research project.

  • Required Credits: 36

What we love about Clarkson University

Although the price is overwhelming at first, the college does its best to help with financial aid to help minimize the costs of going there.

Clarkson University is great for students who:

Want to avoid the big city and are ready to step up their game and be challenged to do their best.

Clarkson University might not be a good option for students who:

Are always procrastinating. The academic challenges in this school are overwhelming, and the last thing you want to happen is to study or do your homework until the last minute.

Smiling student on laptop in the library

Liberty University

  • #3 Best Private Colleges in Virginia 2024
  • #7 Best Research Universities in Virginia 2024
  • #7 Best Grad Schools in Virginia 2024
  • #9 Best Colleges in Virginia 2024
  • #19 Best Research Universities for Criminal Justice Degrees
  • #21 Best Research Universities for Social Work Degrees
  • #1 Best Online Colleges in Virginia 2024
  • #1 Top 10 Best Online Counseling PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
  • #1 Accelerated Online Business Administration PhD Programs (Doctorates)
  • #1 Best Online Bachelor's in Music Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
  • #1 Best Online Associate in Education
  • #1 Top 16 Most Affordable Online Counseling PhDs (Doctorates)
  • #1 Best Online Associate in Economics
  • #1 Best Online Associate Degrees in Virginia 2024
  • #1 Top 15 Most Affordable Online Economics PhD Programs (Doctorates) 2024
  • #1 Best Online Bachelor's in Math Degree Programs Ranked for Students
  • #1 Best Online Bachelor's in Christian Counseling Degree Programs
  • #1 Best Online Associate in Philosophy
  • #1 Most Affordable Online PhDs in Psychology Ranked for 2024
  • #1 Best Online Associate in Mathematics
  • #1 Top 10 Best Online Bachelor's of Nursing (BSN) Programs
  • #2 Top 10 Best Online Master's of Psychology Degree Programs 2024
  • #2 Best Online Bachelor’s in Public Administration Degree Programs for 2024
  • #2 How To Get an Online Master’s Degree in Biblical Studies
  • #2 Best Online Bachelor's in Religious Studies Degree Programs for 2024
  • #2 Best Online Associate in Early Childhood Education
  • #2 Best Online Associate in Biblical Studies
  • #2 Top 3 Best Online Economics PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
  • #2 Fastest Accelerated Online Bachelor's of Information Technology
  • #2 10 Best Online Bachelor's of Forensic Psychology Programs
  • #2 Online Colleges That Start Anytime and the Benefits of a Self-Paced Education
  • #3 Best Online History Doctorate Degree Programs (PhDs) 2024
  • #3 Best Online Bachelor's in Cybersecurity in Virginia
  • #3 Best Online Degrees for a Career in Teaching Ranked 2024
  • #3 Top 5 Best Online Criminal Justice Doctorates (PhDs) 2024
  • #3 Fastest Accelerated Online Healthcare Administration Masters
  • #3 Best Online Associate in Paralegal Studies
  • #3 Best Online Bachelor’s of Christian Ministry Degree Programs for 2024
  • #3 Best Online Master's in Theology
  • #3 Best Online Bachelor's in Cybersecurity in District Of Columbia
  • #3 Most Affordable Online Criminal Justice PhDs (Doctorates)
  • #4 Best Online Bachelor's in Cybersecurity in Illinois
  • #4 Best Online MBA Programs in Virginia
  • #4 Best Online Doctorate in Organizational Leadership Degree Programs
  • #4 Best Online Associate in Accounting
  • #4 Top 20 Best Online Accredited Doctorate Degree Programs (PhDs) 2024
  • #4 Top 15 Most Affordable Online Information Technology PhD Programs
  • #4 10 Fastest Accelerated Online Bachelor's of English
  • #4 15 Fastest Accelerated Online Master's of Psychology Programs
  • #4 Top 15 Fastest Accelerated Online Counseling Doctorates (PhDs)
  • #4 Most Affordable Online PhD Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
  • #4 Best Online Associate in Psychology
  • #4 Best Online Bachelor’s of Elementary Education Degree Programs for 2024
  • #5 Best Online Master's Programs in Virginia 2024
  • #5 Top 10 Fastest Accelerated Online PhD in Criminal Justice (Doctorates)
  • #5 Top 20 Easiest Online Degrees from Accredited Schools in 2024
  • #5 Top 10 Fastest Accelerated Online Psychology Doctorates (PhDs)
  • #5 Best Online Bachelor’s in Biblical Studies
  • #5 Fastest Accelerated Online Doctorate of Information Technology
  • #6 Best Online Master’s in Biblical Studies
  • #6 Best Online Bachelor’s of Graphic Arts Degree Programs for 2024
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  • #6 Best Online Bachelor's of English Degree Programs for 2024
  • #7 10 Fastest Accelerated Online Master's of Accounting Programs
  • #7 The Best Online Christian Colleges and Universities for Bachelor's Degrees
  • #7 Best Online Doctorate of Educational Psychology (PhDs) 2024
  • #8 Best Online Associate in History Degrees
  • #8 Top 20 Most Affordable Online Bachelor's of Cybersecurity
  • #8 Top 10 Best Online Communications PhD Degree Programs (Doctorates)
  • #8 Top 20 Most Affordable Online Business Administration Doctorates
  • #9 Best Online Bachelor's in Law and Legal Studies Degree Programs for 2024
  • #9 Best Online Bachelor’s of Data Science and Analytics Degree Programs for 2024
  • #9 Most Unusual Doctoral Degrees You Can Earn Online (PhDs)
  • #9 Best Online Bachelor’s of Early Childhood Education Degree Programs for 2024
  • #9 Best Online Master's in Biology
  • #9 Best Online Associate in Business Administration
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  • #10 Best Online Bachelor's in Social Work Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
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  • #12 Best Online Bachelor’s of History Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
  • #12 Best Online Master's in Project Management
  • #12 Best Online Master's in Sports Management
  • #12 Most Affordable Online Applied Behavioral Analysis PhD Programs
  • #13 Best Online Bachelor’s of Homeland Security Degree Programs for 2024
  • #13 20 Fastest Accelerated Online English Doctorates (PhDs) 2024
  • #14 Best Online Bachelor's in Sports Management Degree Programs for 2024
  • #14 Best Online Bachelor's of Healthcare Administration Degree Programs for 2024
  • #15 Best Online Christian Colleges and Universities for Master's Degrees
  • #16 Best Online Associate in Criminal Justice
  • #17 Best Online Bachelor’s in Marketing and Advertising Degree Programs for 2024
  • #17 Most Affordable Online Criminology Doctorate Programs (PhDs)
  • #18 Top 20 Most Affordable Online Doctorate of Education (PhDs)
  • #18 Best Online Bachelor's in Computer Science Degree Programs
  • #18 Most Affordable Online Master's Degree Programs Ranked for Students
  • #18 Best Online Master’s in Finance
  • #20 Best Online Bachelor's in Accounting
  • #21 Best Online Bachelor's in Cybersecurity
  • #23 Best Online Master’s in Counseling
  • #25 Best Online Associate in Christian Ministry
  • #25 Best Online Bachelor's of Economics Degree Programs for 2024
  • #5 How to Earn Your Master's Degree Without Your Bachelor's Degree
  • #6 Best College Majors that Offer Accelerated Degree Programs

Career Outlook for degree at Liberty University

Liberty University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:

  • Ravi Zacharias
  • Susan Wise Bauer
  • Michael R. Licona
  • Robert H. Smith
  • Michael Tait
  • Jerry Falwell Jr.

Liberty University is in Lynchburg, Virginia. This private Baptist university is affiliated with the Southern Baptist Conservatives of Virginia. It consists of 17 colleges, including a school of law, a school of osteopathic medicine, and a seminary. Most of the school’s enrollment is in online courses.

Liberty University offers the online Doctor of Philosophy in Applied Apologetics . This program provides students the opportunity to research a topic related to the defense of the Christian faith. Students will produce a written dissertation and contribute to the base of knowledge in the fields of religion and apologetics.

  • Required Credits: 51

What we love about Liberty University

The university offers high-quality, Christ-centered education, with incredibly kind and supportive faculty.

Liberty University is great for students who:

Want to grow in Christ and get a great education while doing it.

Liberty University might not be the best fit for students who:

Cannot balance studying and relaxing. If you study too much without relaxing, it can be very stressful.

Ball State University

  • #4 Best Research Universities in Indiana 2024
  • #2 Best Online Bachelor's in Cybersecurity in Indiana
  • #2 Best Online Colleges in Indiana 2024
  • #2 Best Online Master's Programs in Indiana 2024
  • #3 Best Online Associate Degrees in Indiana 2024
  • #3 Best Online MBA Programs in Indiana
  • #5 15 Fastest Accelerated Online Master's of Psychology Programs
  • #5 Top 10 Best Online Master's of Public Relations Ranked 2024
  • #6 Best Online Degree Completion Programs for Returning Students
  • #10 Fastest Accelerated Online Master's of Information Technology

Career Outlook for degree at Ball State University

Ball State University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:

  • David Letterman
  • Shirley Brice Heath
  • Swanee Hunt
  • William Benoit
  • Juleen Zierath
  • Eugene Habecker
  • Melvin N. Johnson
  • Philip F. Deaver

Ball State University , located in Muncie, Indiana, is a public research university with two satellite facilities in Fishers and Indianapolis. Students can choose from about 180 undergraduate majors and more than 100 master’s and doctorate programs.

The EdD in Adult and Community Education prepares you for a broader span of careers, you will learn critical skills and conduct research in program planning, teaching and learning, leadership, community organizing, and continuing education using a social justice framework.

  • Required Credits: 91

What we love about Ball State University

Ball State University has the lowest total increase in 20 years. The university is the leader in the Mid-American Conference for the lowest tuition rate among all other universities.

Ball State University is great for students who:

Are very sociable. The school has Greek fraternities and sororities, but you don’t have to be in them just to have a good time.

Ball State University might not be the best fit for students who:

Hate taking the bus. If you don’t have your car by your dorm, you will have to take the bus regularly, and the waiting time is long.

Quinnipiac University

  • #2 Best Online MBA Programs in Connecticut
  • #2 Best Online Master's Programs in Connecticut 2024
  • #12 Best Online Bachelor’s of Health Science Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
  • #17 Best Online Master's in Organizational Leadership
  • #25 Best Online Master's in Cybersecurity

Career Outlook for degree at Quinnipiac University

Quinnipiac University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:

  • Vikki Ziegler
  • Turk Wendell
  • Freddy Hall
  • Triston Henry

Quinnipiac University is located in Hamden, Connecticut. This private university offers 58 undergraduate majors, 20 graduate programs, and a Juris Doctor program. It also offers several media outlets, including a professionally run commercial radio station, WATX.

Quinnipiac University offers the online post-master’s Doctor of Nursing Practice Care of Population . This 100% online program exposes experienced nurses to the the gaps in care that impact population on the local, national, and global fronts.

What we love about Quinnipiac University

Quinnipiac University is an expensive school, but it awards non-need-based scholarships or grants awarded to first-year students. The school, however, meets 61% of its students’ financial aid needs.

Quinnipiac University is great for students who:

Want to be challenged, have fun, and have social college experiences.

Quinnipiac University might not be the best fit for students who:

Cannot afford this expensive but amazing school, although there are lots of academic scholarships and financial aid available.

Nova Southeastern University

  • #1 Best Online Master’s in Forensics Degree Programs
  • #1 Top 3 Best Online MBA in Real Estate Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
  • #3 Top 10 Fastest Accelerated Online PhD in Criminal Justice (Doctorates)
  • #3 Top 10 Best Online Master's of Psychology Degree Programs 2024
  • #3 Best Online Doctorate in Organizational Leadership Degree Programs
  • #3 Best Online Master's in Artificial Intelligence Degree Programs
  • #3 Best Online Master’s in Forensics Degree Programs
  • #4 Top 5 Best Online Criminal Justice Doctorates (PhDs) 2024
  • #4 Best Online Master’s in Human Services
  • #5 Best Online Master's in Kinesiology Degree Programs
  • #5 Best Online Doctorate of Physical Therapy Programs (PhDs)
  • #5 Best Online Master's in Biology
  • #6 Best Online Master’s in Emergency Management
  • #6 Best Online MBA in Entrepreneurship Ranked for Students in 2024
  • #6 Best Online Master's in Behavior Analysis Degree Programs
  • #6 Best Online MBA in Supply Chain Management Ranked for Students in 2024
  • #6 Best Online Bachelor’s of Elementary Education Degree Programs for 2024
  • #7 Best Online Bachelor’s of Health Science Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
  • #7 Best Online Master’s in Health Science
  • #7 Best Online Colleges in Florida 2024
  • #8 Best Online MBA Programs in Florida
  • #9 Best Online Bachelor's in Psychology Degree Programs for Students
  • #9 Best Online Master's Programs in Florida 2024
  • #9 Fastest Accelerated Online Doctorate of Information Technology
  • #9 Most Affordable Online Criminal Justice PhDs (Doctorates)
  • #10 Best Online Bachelor’s of Human Services Degree Programs Ranked for 2024
  • #11 Best Online Bachelor’s of Education Degree Programs for 2024
  • #14 Best Online Master's in Healthcare Administration
  • #15 Best Online Master’s in Counseling
  • #15 Most Affordable Online Computer Science PhDs (Doctorates) 2024
  • #16 Best Online Master's in Cybersecurity
  • #17 Best Online Master’s in Information Technology
  • #18 Best Online Master's in Organizational Leadership
  • #18 Best Online MBAs in Finance
  • #20 Best Research Universities with Online Doctorates (PhDs) 2024
  • #20 Best Online Bachelor's in Criminal Justice
  • #21 Best Online Master’s in Human Resources
  • #22 Best Online Master’s in Health Informatics
  • #22 Best Online Master's in Computer Science Degree Programs
  • #24 Best Online Master's in Criminal Justice

Career Outlook for degree at Nova Southeastern University

Nova Southeastern University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:

  • John E. Douglas
  • Megan Squire
  • Tyler Cymet
  • Charles Morin
  • Andia Chaves Fonnegra
  • Laurie J. Patterson

Nova Southeastern University consists of 14 colleges, centers, and schools that offer more than 150 programs of study. Located in Davie, Florida, this private nonprofit research university also offers professional degrees in the social sciences, business, law, osteopathic medicine, allied health, allopathic medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, optometry, physical therapy, education, and nursing.

Nova Southeatern Unviersity’s Abraham S. Fischler College of Education and School of Criminal Justice offers an online Doctor of Education program . This is designed with the student’s needs in mind, so they can further advance their careers while completing their education.

  • Required Credits: 55

What we love about Nova Southeastern University

The campus is very beautiful and the people are very nice. NSU is the perfect choice to go to college also because of its small class sizes.

Nova Southeastern University is ideal for students who:

Need extra attention, thanks to its small class sizes.

Nova Southeastern University might not be a good choice for students who:

Cannot commit to working hard and knowing how to balance. Academics and fun can be hard to balance.

Bradley University

  • #5 Best Online Master's Programs in Illinois 2024
  • #12 Fastest Online Doctoral Degree Programs Ranked for Students in 2024
  • #17 Best Online Master’s in Counseling

Career Outlook for degree at Bradley University

Bradley University’s faculty and alumni have been influential in:

  • Philip José Farmer
  • Aldon Morris
  • Morris Kleiner
  • Anthony Parker
  • Danny Granger
  • Laura Kelly
  • Paul Powell
  • Daniel J. Crowley
  • Jerry Hadley
  • Stan Albeck

Bradley University is located in Peoria, Illinois, and enrolls students who are pursuing degrees in more than 100 undergraduate programs. Graduate students also have options, with around 40 programs available. Outside of the classroom, 30% of the students at Bradley join in Greek life, while others enjoy clubs, volunteer groups, and other campus organizations.

The Online Doctorate in Education at Bradley University offers a focus on higher education administration. This is designed for students who are interested in community college leadership or higher education.

  • Required Credits: 60-61
  • Completion Time: 28 months

What we love about Bradley University

Although there is no tuition reduction for Illinois students, about 99.8% of freshmen students get to enjoy some form of financial aid, averaging about $20,000.

Bradley University is great for students who:

Are looking for a warm and inviting classroom atmosphere. The professors are always ready and willing to sit with their students.

Bradley University might not be the best fit for students who:

Are not into Greek life. The university talks about and promotes Greek life heavily.

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Research Only PhD's

Discussion in ' General Distance Learning Discussions ' started by jimnagrom , Sep 16, 2004 .

jimnagrom

jimnagrom New Member

I've been asked if there are any research-only PhD programs (preferably with an education focus). Low residency is a major plus - person is retired and loves to travle anyway I'm pretty sure there are not any in the US - but perhaps in Europe or the British Commonwealth? TIA  

Anthony Pina

Anthony Pina Active Member

The latest edition of Bears' Guide to Earning Degrees by Distance Learning (15th Ed.) lists over 50 such programs--none are based in the U.S. Tony  
Originally posted by Anthony Pina The latest edition of Bears' Guide to Earning Degrees by Distance Learning (15th Ed.) lists over 50 such programs--none are based in the U.S. Click to expand...

:)

bullet New Member

Check it out www.vanguard-university.info they have research degrees.  

sulla

sulla New Member

sniff, sniff...hmmm, Vanguard-University. Smells like a mill to me. Is this creature legit anyone? -S  

Jack Tracey

Jack Tracey New Member

Originally posted by jimnagrom Tony, If this site has a business relationship with John Bear - please say so up front. Click to expand...
Originally posted by Jack Tracey A search of the archives will also yield useful information. Jack Click to expand...

;)

Stanislav Well-Known Member

Originally posted by jimnagrom And your answer did not And life will go on... Click to expand...
sniff and smell? How do degree mills smell? Good one!  

Guest

Guest Guest

:(

rdward New Member

He was responding in kind to Jack, who was condescending and dismissive. I am sure by the way that he will have something to say to me after reading this. In addition to pointing out how smug and self-important the older members of this forum sound. I also have a piece of useful information... For info on Vanguard University of Science and Technology (which is not the same as Vanguard University) See the following thread: http://forums.degreeinfo.com/showthread.php?s=&threadid=15749  

RFValve

RFValve Well-Known Member

Originally posted by jimnagrom I've been asked if there are any research-only PhD programs (preferably with an education focus). Low residency is a major plus - person is retired and loves to travle anyway I'm pretty sure there are not any in the US - but perhaps in Europe or the British Commonwealth? TIA Click to expand...
It was not my intention to be condscending or dismissive and I apologise if I came off that way. What I was trying to say is that there are so many programs of the type described (low residency or zero residency research-only doctoral programs that they can not all be listed. Having more information (such as the general area of interest - Economics, Physics, English Lit., Sociology , etc) as well as any financial constraints would go a long way toward reducing the list to a managable size. I continue to be willing to assist in identifying schools for Jim if he could help me by providing some additional information such as that described above. rdward - I believe that if you were to actually read my last 100 postings, or take any random selection of 100 postings, you would notice that there are few, if any, regular contributors who do more to provide basic DL information to newbies. The majority of my postings involve pointing newbies in the direction of relevant DL programs. I occasionally slip and post a comment, like yours, that is a bit caustic. My first posting in this thread was not of that sort but as you proceed through those 100 postings of mine you will likely find some comments that I might wish to retract, if I could. Jack  
Originally posted by rdward He was responding in kind to Jack, who was condescending and dismissive. Click to expand...

Bill Grover

Bill Grover New Member

:D

BillDayson New Member

Originally posted by Jack Tracey Beyond that, the primary source of research-only doctoral degrees is the UK, OZ and ZA. Few of these schools will allow a 100% non-residential degree program. Click to expand...
Originally posted by Stanislav No he was not. The guy appears and asks very nebulous rookie question that is impossible to answer specificly. When one member points that out, referencing authoritative DL guide, and other member asks for additional info, he acts offended and accuses the very people who try to help him of rudeness. This is borderline troll behaviour. Yet people do give this guy the benefit of doubt and try to be helpful. Click to expand...
Re: sniff and smell? Originally posted by bullet How do degree mills smell? Good one! Click to expand...
Originally posted by rdward I am sure by the way that he will have something to say to me after reading this. Click to expand...

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  • Published: 03 January 2024

Public health and research ethics education: the experience of developing a new cadre of bioethicists at a Ugandan institution

  • Gertrude N. Kiwanuka 1 ,
  • Francis Bajunirwe 1 ,
  • Paul E. Alele 1 ,
  • Joseph Oloro 1 ,
  • Arnold Mindra 1 ,
  • Patricia Marshall 2 &
  • Sana Loue 2  

BMC Medical Education volume  24 , Article number:  1 ( 2024 ) Cite this article

Metrics details

Research ethics education is critical to developing a culture of responsible conduct of research. Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have a high burden of infectious diseases like HIV and malaria; some, like Uganda, have recurring outbreaks. Coupled with the increase in non-communicable diseases, researchers have access to large populations to test new medications and vaccines. The need to develop multi-level capacity in research ethics in Uganda is still huge, being compounded by the high burden of disease and challenging public health issues. Only a few institutions in the SSA offer graduate training in research ethics, implying that the proposed ideal of each high-volume research ethics committee having at least one member with in-depth training in ethics is far from reality. Finding best practices for comparable situations and training requirements is challenging because there is currently no “gold standard” for teaching research ethics and little published information on curriculum and implementation strategies. The purpose of this paper is to describe a model of research ethics (RE) education as a track in an existing 2-year Master of Public Health (MPH) to provide training for developing specific applied learning skills to address contemporary and emerging needs for biomedical and public health research in a highly disease-burdened country. We describe our five-year experience in successful implementation of the MPH-RE program by the Mbarara University Research Ethics Education Program at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in southwestern Uganda. We used curriculum materials, applications to the program, post-training and external evaluations, and annual reports for this work. This model can be adapted and used elsewhere in developing countries with similar contexts. Establishing an interface between public health and research ethics requires integration of the two early in the delivery of the MPH-RE program to prevent a disconnect in knowledge between research methods provided by the MPH component of the MPH-RE program and for research in ethics that MPH-RE students are expected to perform for their dissertation. Promoting bioethics education, which is multi-disciplinary, in institutions where it is still “foreign” is challenging and necessitates supportive leadership at all institutional levels.

Peer Review reports

Introduction

Education on conducting ethical research seeks to increase the number and quality of bioethicists to undertake ethically sound and innovative investigations, equip them with skills for training and mentoring a new generation of scientists and bioethicists, support regulatory structures, and contribute to research policy [ 1 ]. In the context of Africa, bioethics education is an emerging field; it is not yet as institutionalized in mainstream academia as it is in Western universities [ 2 ]. Consequently, there is less recognition by African institutions and governments, as such, it is mainly funded by international agencies. While the establishment of bioethics education in the West is solid, with higher degree programs and centers making it an academic and professional discipline, and as such, providing insight into international research ethics curricula, we know little about curricula being implemented in SSA, especially in resource-limited settings where the burden of disease is high, providing an environment for research.

Bioethics training programs for Africa started as, and have generally been, internationalized undertakings. The controversial studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-vertical transmission in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), which could not be implemented in the West [ 3 , 4 ], revealed an urgent need to develop research ethics in developing countries to international standards [ 5 ]. The US National Institutes of Health Fogarty International Centre (NIH FIC) responded by providing grants to develop international research ethics curricula for in-depth training for professionals and academicians from LMICs [ 1 ]. The first institutions to receive these grants were Johns Hopkins University (JHU) in Baltimore, Maryland, USA; Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) in Cleveland, Ohio, USA; the University of Toronto in Canada; and three South African universities – the University of Cape Town and an initial collaboration between the Universities of Pretoria and KwaZulu Natal in association with JHU [ 6 , 7 ]. Uganda was a beneficiary of all of them, possibly because of the HIV-transmission prevention clinical trials which were considered unethical at the time [ 8 , 9 ].

Oftentimes, innovative ideas and implementation plans for research ethics training programs flow from experts in high-income countries (HIC) [ 10 ] to LMIC. While this allows trainees to acquire skills to function as globally-informed citizens of international standards, there are challenges that have been reported on employability for bioethics graduates [ 11 ], limited capacity development in governance [ 12 ], the contextualization of research ethics to local needs, and sustainability over the mid-term to long-term [ 6 , 13 ].

Historical shaping of bioethics education for Africa

Formal instruction in bioethics focusing on responsible conduct of research (RCR) with a component of scientific integrity commenced in 1989 following a US policy release that mandated the inclusion in every institutional training grant application competing for federal funds a description of formal training in RCR [ 14 ]. In line with the Fogarty International Center’s (FIC) strategic plan to strengthen research bioethics expertise in LMIC, the International Bioethics Education and Career Development Award program was released in March 2000. Between 1993 and 2013, UNESCO provided support for the development of national bioethics committees training materials to develop the capacity of their members [ 15 ]. The Wellcome Trust of the United Kingdom has also been instrumental in funding training in ethics of biomedical research in developing countries [ 16 ], while the European and Developing Countries Clinical Trial Partnership has supported capacity development in research ethics governance, ethical review of clinical research, policy development, and use of medicinal products and technologies in humans since 2015 [ 17 ]. The Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED) mapped and provided capacity development for many research ethics committees (RECs) in different countries [ 18 ].

The first five bioethics education programs training Africans

From 2000 to 2017, the Fogarty African Bioethics Training Program (FABTP) at Johns Hopkins University in the USA focused on individuals and offered non-degree training opportunities to researchers, members of RECs, and professionals involved in research from Africa [ 19 ]. In 2010, the FABTP shifted its focus to developing institutional research ethics capacity through selected institution partnerships [ 13 ]. By 2012, 30 trainees from 14 African countries had completed the JH FABTP [ 13 ]. The FABTP evolved into the African Bioethics Consortium, a network of US institutions and three others in Africa, namely: Makerere University, College of Health Sciences in Uganda; the University of Botswana, Office of Research and Development; and the University of Zambia, School of Medicine [ 20 ].

The training of African bioethics scholars at CWRU started in 2001, but there was already an ongoing Uganda-CWRU Research Collaboration, established in 1988 with funding from the US NIH, to build capacity and provide training through HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis research to improve care. Between 2001 and 2007, 11 African scholars, mostly physicians (six from Uganda, affiliated with Makerere University, and five from Nigeria), were trained at CWRU (M. Norris, personal communication, March 30, 2023) under the International Research Ethics Training Program (IRETP). The program also supported the development of faculty from collaborating countries to teach research ethics. Faculty members traveled to CWRU to be exposed to teaching contemporary issues in research ethics, mentoring, and to discuss program implementation. In 2008, the program stopped receiving trainees from Africa, given the establishment of bioethics training programs on the continent.

The University of Toronto Masters of Health Sciences in Bioethics (MHSc), International Stream, UTMBIS (2000–2012) focused on capacity-building efforts in international research ethics. African trainees were mainly from Ghana and Nigeria. By 2008, the program had graduated 32 fellows with MHSc degrees [ 21 ], including those from India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.

The International Research Ethics Networks for Southern Africa (IRENSA) at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, offered postgraduate diploma training in international research ethics. By 2011, the program had trained 97 mid-career professionals from South Africa and eight other low-income African countries [ 6 ]. Between 2012 and 2015, the program admitted 43 trainees under the Advancing Research Ethics Training in Southern Africa (ARESA) program at Stellenbosch University [ 22 ].

The Universities of Pretoria and KwaZulu-Natal were the first African institutions to collaboratively offer a Master’s degree in Health Research Ethics under the South African Ethics Training Initiative (SARETI) [ 6 ]. Between 2000 and 2017, the SARETI provided long-term training to trainees from 17 African countries [ 6 ] leading to the award of certificates and three Master’s degrees with a track in research ethics (Masters in Public Health, MPH; Master in Philosophy, MPhil; and Masters in Social Sciences, MSocSc). Although the focus of SARETI was on studies at the Masters level, by 2012 the program had graduated one PhD [ 7 ]. The MPH program was discontinued in 2013, but more students were registered for the MSocSc. Over 17 years, SARETI produced 22 fellows with certificates: 14 MPH, 2 MPhil, and 36 MSocSc (C. Pettit, personal communication, April 18, 2023), making it a very productive research ethics education program on the African continent.

Former trainees of these bioethics education programs have been instrumental in shaping research ethics in their home countries with notable individual and collective success. Some programs have reported their former trainees supporting the development of national policies and research regulation guidelines, winning bioethics-related grants, and establishing institutional review boards [ 19 ], leading and serving on RECs, authoring and coauthoring publications on research ethics [ 23 ], developing of curriculum of new programs and teaching [ 19 ]. However, there is still a critical need for expertise to teach research ethics [ 6 ]. Besides, some former trainees found it difficult integrating their newly acquired knowledge in their home institutions [ 24 ]. This is suggestive of the importance of beneficiary institutions in LMIC assuming a rightful place and space to determine research ethics training strategies that address local needs for sustainable development.

Internationalization of bioethics or research ethics programs is premised on the need to integrate an international, intercultural, and global dimension in the training of future bioethicists. The advantage of this is raising awareness of global issues, and helping students develop global perspectives and attitudes. The pitfall is over dependence on faculty and mentors from HIC and developing strategies that may not be contextualized to local examples and needs [ 11 , 25 ].

Theoretical background and purpose

The volume of international research conducted in SSA by investigators from HIC is high. Many countries in SSA, including Uganda, have a high burden of infectious diseases like HIV and malaria, providing researchers with access to large sample size for drug trials and behavioral studies [ 26 ]. Africa continues to face emerging global health problems, like outbreaks of Ebola and Marburg viruses [ 27 ], which require testing new medications and vaccines, but many ethical issues related to such studies remain unresolved [ 28 ]. In Uganda, the western and southwestern regions have experienced outbreaks of yellow fever [ 29 ], rift valley fever [ 30 ], measles [ 31 ], and the Ebola virus disease from border crossing with the neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo [ 32 ], creating a perfect environment that requires responses from public health experts and researchers. Furthermore, Uganda is facing an epidemiological transition in disease burden from communicable to non-communicable diseases [ 33 ]. While there are ethical dilemmas that health professionals face in decision-making during practice, necessitating training in bioethics in clinical, biomedical, and health sciences, the need to develop capacity in research ethics in Uganda is still huge, being compounded by the high burden of disease and challenging public health issues. A study in Uganda revealed disturbing proportions of REC members with low competence to review studies on controlled human infection models, reverse pharmacology design, and new technology and digital health interventions [ 34 ]. With only a few institutions in Africa offering higher-degree training in research ethics, the proposed ideal of each high-volume REC having at least one member with in-depth training in ethics [ 35 ] is far from reality. Despite the fact that some training programs are more popular than others and have significant in-country expertise, there is no “gold standard” curriculum for teaching research ethics [ 1 , 36 ] nor concrete best practices for implementation [ 37 ]. Indeed, the US NIH FIC Bioethics Program does not endorse any particular instructional program but encourages experimentation with different models [ 1 ]. Thus, bioethics training programs are diverse, as are the courses covered and the duration. Despite the increase in the number of training programs in LMIC and the demonstrated success of some [ 6 , 24 ], there is a paucity of curriculum content and detailed methods for implementation in resource-limited contexts. Two decades have passed since the first NIH FIC research ethics training awards for African scholars and professionals, but there is still a dire need for more programs that are tailored to unique local needs [ 38 ]; the employability of bioethics graduates is a challenge in some countries [ 11 ]; and individuals with the capacity to teach research ethics are lacking. Two primary questions emerge: 1) What models are available for long-term training to address emerging needs of research ethics capacity for biomedical and public health research in disease-burdened LMICs? 2) How do we balance the necessary training for dual specialization in public health and research ethics, necessary for graduates to be competitive on the job market without crowding the curriculum? The Mbarara University Research Ethics Education Program (MUREEP) at Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST) in southwestern Uganda sought to respond to these challenges. In 2018, we developed a research ethics track and combined it with an existing 2-year public health master’s degree program (MPH-RE) in the Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine at MUST.. The purpose of this paper is to describe this MPH-RE program and our five-year experience of implementation. We hope that the details of the model shared in this paper will be useful to training programs that have related strategies or those that may consider adapting it to their contexts, and will also stimulate discussion on enriching such strategies in similar settings.

A PubMed search was made using “research ethics training”, bioethics, and Africa, generating 117 articles. From these, we searched for literature on long-term training of African scholars to develop research ethics capacity, the priority areas, and best practices of bioethics or research ethics education programs. Long-term training was defined as postgraduate training in bioethics or research ethics education program with a duration of at least 3 months culminating in the award of a certificate, diploma, or degree [ 39 ]. Our analysis was from 2000 to 2017, spanning the time before the MUREEP, to identify existing training programs meeting our local needs, namely to develop research ethics capacity in a region with a high disease burden that is attracting biomedical and public health research. The Strengthening Bioethics Capacity and Justice in Health program, a collaboration between the University of North Carolina and the University of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo, implemented a MPH curriculum with a concentration in research ethics for francophone countries in Africa [ 6 ], but we did not find detailed literature about the program. Of particular interest were the first five institutions that received the NIH FIC’s grants for research ethics education and curriculum development programs for LMICs in 2001 as they shaped bioethics education in Africa. For the five institutions, we used two other sources of data in addition to what is published: the NIH RePORTER and program websites. Relevant missing information about the program at CWRU and the SARETI was obtained via email to the official contacts.

Data about MUREEP are for 5 years (April 2018 to January 2023). We used curriculum materials, trainees’ post-training evaluations, applications to the program, annual reports, and the external evaluation for this paper. The MPH-RE curriculum described in this paper was accredited by the National Council for Higher Education in Uganda. We use the term “curriculum” broadly in view of the purpose of this paper to refer to the academic courses and activities of a program in an institution and the key inputs to guide teaching for students to gain proficiency in the expected knowledge and applied learning skills. Additional information was gathered from the MUREEP records and annual reports.

Description of the Mbarara University research ethics education program (MUREEP)

With funding from the National Human Genome Research Institute and the Fogarty International Center (FIC) of the US National Institutes of Health in 2018, MUST in southwestern Uganda, collaborating with Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), Cleveland, Ohio, in the USA rolled out the MUREEP. The main aim of the MUREEP is to build multi-level research ethics capacity in Uganda, specifically by: 1) developing and implementing a curriculum for research ethics education and training, leading to (a) a Master of Public Health degree with a focus on research ethics and (b) a repertoire of short courses to build research ethics capacity of Ugandan investigators, REC members and administrators; 2) create a critical mass of teachers and mentors for sustainable research ethics training in southwestern Uganda; and 3) strengthen the expertise and functioning of Research Ethics Committees (RECs) at MUST and other local institutions. Implementation of aim 1 (a) would produce 12 students, and a minimum of 525 short course trainees for aims 2 and 3. The collaboration covered strategic planning, program leadership, with MUST being the primary awardee, curriculum development and implementation, faculty, and mentoring.

MUREEP MPH-research ethics curriculum

We are implementing a well-structured curriculum designed to lead to the award of a Master’s degree in Public Health with a concentration in Research Ethics (MPH RE). Specifically, MUREEP added a new track, Research Ethics, to an existing Master of Public Health program offered in the Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine at MUST.

The MPH research ethics program structure

Our two-year MPH-RE curriculum is broadly structured into five major components: 1) MPH core courses; 2) MPH-Research Ethics courses; 3) non-degree short courses; 4) practicum and externships, and 5) research and dissertation.

MPH core courses

The curriculum has 9 core MPH courses of 60 contact hours each and fundamentals of clinical trials of 45 contact hours (Table  1 ) to develop the competences of public health bioethicists for a high-disease burdened country (Table 1 ). The goal is, first, to equip students with knowledge, skills, and attitudes to be sensitive and responsive to health inequalities among populations, and secondly, to bring to light the reasons underlying research, especially in rural communities.

To equip students with skills to design epidemiological studies, we begin by introducing the fundamental concepts of epidemiology and the scientific methods of investigation and problem-solving that are used to get to the root problem of disease in populations. Students learn how to critically appraise study designs (research methods; 60 contact hours); how to use statistical software to analyze the generated data, interpret it, and make practical recommendations. In biostatistics (60 contact hours), emphasis is put on various forms of data, scales of measurement, and data conversion between different scales. Research methods and biostatistics courses, which are covered in semester 1, provide a strong foundation for the development of research proposals. Students have a ‘skills application’ one-week residential placement in the community for health promotion and community involvement.

The second year of study is a practical immersion experience, working with RECs, practicing teaching research ethics, developing skills for grantsmanship, and conducting mentored research in research ethics.

Mode of delivery

In keeping with the inter-professional education approach in the Faculty of Medicine at MUST, MPH-RE students study epidemiology, biostatistics, research methods and survey design with other health profession students (Master of Medicine, Master of Nursing in Critical Nursing, Master of Pharmacy in Clinical Pharmacy Practice, and Master of Medical Laboratory Sciences). This combined class provides a unique setting for learning. Given the diversity of education backgrounds for ‘traditional MPH’ and MPH-RE students, sufficient time is dedicated to lectures, self-reading, journal clubs, small group discussions, and presentations.

MPH research ethics courses

The courses carry three credits (45 contact hours) each. Course material is adapted for local context and culture, and for -resource-limited settings. We begin with the philosophical foundations of research ethics. Given the increasing genetic/genomic and infectious disease research on the African continent, ethical issues are extensively covered under public health research ethics, regulation of genomic research, and controversial ethical issues in biomedical and biotechnology research. We use case scenarios from ongoing local and published investigations in addition to didactic lectures, pre-recorded videos, and group discussions.

Foundations of research ethics

The course introduces students to philosophical theories, fundamental ethical principles and theoretical approaches to bioethics, and their application in clinical, biomedical, and public health research. Relevant international guidelines pertaining to ethical issues and legal aspects in the context of Uganda are covered. To have a connection between theories and practice, we use readings and cases to explore professionalism, ethical challenges associated with review of research protocols by RECs, informed consent, notions of risks and benefits, the distribution of health resources nationally and internationally, and justice in global health research. Trainees in the health science professions discuss scenarios for group discussions, to learn how to balance physician expertise and respect for patient autonomy and ethical clinical decision-making among vulnerable populations. Cultural underpinnings of ethical principles are addressed with special attention to both western and non-western approaches to conceptualizations of ethical theory. As noted by others, applying bioethics in sub-Saharan Africa still remains challenging given the diverse cultural values, beliefs, indigenous faiths, different religions with those of the Christian faith residing in the same settings as Muslims, and the conflicting perception of the international principle of identity and authenticity [ 2 ] and healthcare practices. Our method is to contextualize the case studies to settings and cultural values and incorporate the essential two dimensions of bioethics (western and non-western) so that ethical values are not viewed as paternalistic but also avoid the extremes of community and solidarity ethics, the ubuntu ethics [ 40 ].

Public health research ethics

The course (45 contact hours) builds on the concepts covered in the MPH core courses of first semester. This course puts emphasis on ethical issues in infectious disease research, which is our biggest challenge; genomics and genetic studies among populations in resource-limited settings who often have a limited understanding of the concept of research; and vaccine research from the community point of view. Ethical challenges in maternal and child health research, and research ethics with sexual minorities are covered. One of the senior MPH-RE student’s research focused on understanding the community’s and research participants’ perceptions and knowledge of vulnerability in research – in the Ugandan context. Ethical challenges in community engagement for public health research, and research conducted during outbreaks, which are recurring in Uganda [ 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 ] are covered while emphasizing a social justice approach.

Critical reasoning in research ethics

For the MPH-RE graduate, the ability to think clearly and reason well about ethical issues is a fundamental aspect of training to be able to deal with ethical dilemmas and arrive at morally acceptable answers and decisions. This course examines three important aspects of critical thinking: namely, the ability to understand and evaluate arguments; the ability to make well-reasoned decisions; and the ability to be open-minded. The goal is to develop students’ skills for critical reasoning applied to theoretical and empirical literature addressing ethical concerns in scientific research, with particular interest in genomics and biotechnology.

Non-degree short courses

The MUREEP offers four short courses for faculty, graduate students, research staff, REC members, and administrators at MUST and other institutions, mostly in southwestern Uganda. The short courses (regulation of research and policy, responsible conduct of research, skills for teaching research ethics, and grant writing) are mandatory for MPH-RE students, each covering at least 30 hours. A previous evaluation of the curricula of 13 Fogarty research ethics training programs showed that similar topics are covered, although in some cases not as courses, while for some, like grant writing and teaching skills, the duration is not specified [ 37 ]. At the time of writing this paper, 609 trainees had completed various short-term research ethics courses offered by the MUREEP (Table  2 ). The majority of trainees (382, 62.7%) attended the Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) course, followed by regulation of research and policy (68, 11.2%).

Regulation of research and policy

This is primarily important for the promotion of ethical research and the protection of research participants, and it details the roles and responsibilities of various committees and bodies involved in research oversight and regulation. MPH-RE students critique international and national guidelines for ethical conduct in research with human subjects to identify gaps that need policy development or revision. The course is also open to REC members, administrators, graduate students, and other interested persons. Trainees role-play ethics committee deliberations and discuss case scenarios.

Skills for teaching research ethics

This course targets those involved in teaching research ethics or bioethics at MUST and other local institutions of higher education as science faculty transition from an ethics compliance mindset to promoting an ethics learning to enhance and advance science [ 41 ]. The course is mandatory to MPH-RE trainees. Participants are introduced to methods and resources for teaching bioethics as well as teaching trends, challenges, and opportunities in that field [ 42 ]. Trainees are first introduced to the theories that influence teaching and learning [ 43 ] before tackling the learning environment, planning and teaching sessions, teaching skills, forms of teaching, and assessment. As a practicum experience, MPH-RE trainees participate in teaching research ethics at MUST and other institutions and make presentations in seminars and research ethics conferences.

Responsible conduct of research

The course is open to graduate students, investigators, faculty, REC members, staff, and anyone involved in research at MUST and other institutions in south western Uganda. It builds on other courses in research ethics with additional modules on bioethics in the Ugandan and sub-Saharan African (SSA) contexts. The course covers 16 broad areas including the mandatory topics provided in the NIH guidelines on instruction in RCR [ 44 ]. Didactic lectures are complemented with case study discussions, education videos, and field visits to research institutions and laboratories, clinical research sites, the MUST Animal Research Facility, and the MUST REC Office.

Grant writing

This 5-day course provides an overview of the core elements of grant writing as part of the overall research enterprise. The expected learning outcome is the preparation of a standard and competitive grant proposal for submission to a funder. It is an inclusive inter-professional education activity that promotes student-initiated collaborations among themselves and with faculty.

Practicum and externship

The MPH-RE students take part in three types of practical and externships to apply the knowledge obtained from the foundational bioethics and research ethics courses to develop skills needed to serve on RECs. First, students join the MUST REC to observe meetings and participate in mentored reviews of research protocols. Human research participant issues in resource-limited settings are unique in many ways including working with illiterate, poor populations which increase their vulnerability. We believe that the “public health research ethics” and “clinical trials” courses of the program will enable students develop capacity to review protocols of international research, and genomic and genetic studies because of issues such as complexity of genetic concepts and implications of study findings for family members and communities [ 45 ]. Second, students undertake externships either with a high-load REC or at national regulatory offices. Third, students participate in study site monitoring visits. Fourth, the students have online observership of CWRU Institution Research Board deliberations. The approach is to build their competence to lead and serve on RECs [ 34 ].

Research project and dissertation

Research proposal development begins in the recess of the first year, followed by a mentor-guided research project in research ethics in the second year. Students must write a dissertation for examination and publish or present their findings at a conference relevant to the field of research ethics. The Program provides the students with a research stipend and ethics review fees, in addition to a laptop to support their journey in becoming responsible research ethics experts.

Research seminar

One important component of a research project is the successful defense of the dissertation. This is mandatory for all postgraduate students and is assessed. The research seminar for the MPH RE students aims at imparting methods and techniques for how information obtained from literature review, research project and dissertation is condensed and written in PowerPoint and manuscript.

MPH-RE students

Trainees who are awarded the MUREEP fellowship are competitively selected to ensure that the knowledge and acquired skills are quickly put to use for the early success of the program. We selected applicants using pre-determined scoring criteria. Between October 2018 and November 2022, 20 trainees (14 full scholarships, 04 partial scholarships, and 02 self-sponsored) with diverse professional backgrounds were admitted to the MUST MPH-RE program (Table  3 ). The targeted number of enrolled students was 12 over the five-year period of funding. As of the writing of this paper, MUREEP has graduated 3 Masters students, while 4 submitted dissertations for examination; the rest are at different stages of their mentored research projects (Table 3 ). One alumnus and two MPH-RE students are serving on institutional RECs; six are faculty members in four institutions; others are in clinical and public health research and community work. While the MUREEP MPH-RE program does not have any drop-outs, the completion rate has been low in the first 5 years of program implementation. However, existing literature shows that evaluations of bioethics training programs have been, on average, after 12 years [ 1 , 6 , 37 ], so it may be premature to draw conclusions on the training outcomes of MUREEP in the first 5 years. The pioneer MPH-RE class and one student of cohort 2 graduated in 2021, following the reopening of institutions, and were met with high demand on the job market. They either received new appointments or were promoted and assigned higher-level tasks at their places of work (on REC, university faculty, leadership positions on a clinical trial, and in a research collaborative in Uganda). All were supported to present their research findings at international conferences, and their manuscripts are undergoing peer review in international journals. With disruptions of training and suspension of research activities 14 months after the commencement of the program to contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it is difficult to determine what more would have been achieved by individual students or by the program.

The interdisciplinary nature of the public health and research ethics curriculum demands faculty from different disciplines. In addition to the existing human resources for the MPH program, the MUREEP faculty in Uganda and our collaborators at CWRU have specializations in the fields of bioethics, medicine, social sciences, law, similar to other programs in HIC and LMIC [ 37 ] in addition to biochemistry, epidemiology, pharmacology, pharmacy, biotechnology, genetics and genomics, anthropology, divinity, psychology, and education.

Other training activities

Journal club.

This is the single most important academic activity that provides regular interaction between students, alumni, and faculty. Every 2 weeks during semester time, students have a hybrid journal club lasting 60 to 90 minutes. Three-month schedules are drawn for the journal club to allow students to look for relevant articles, either in line with their research project or a topic of interest. The journal clubs are intended to sharpen students’ critiquing skills, appraise research in research ethics, and improve presentation and communication skills.

Mentorship and career development workshop

While this is not part of the research ethics education curriculum at MUST, MUREEP conducts a five-day mentorship and career development workshop to improve the skills of MUST faculty to mentor colleagues and students while achieving professional success. There is demand for the workshop, but attendance is capped. Forty-three individuals have attended the two workshops that have been conducted.

Research ethics education keeps evolving to adapt itself to contemporary ethical dilemmas. With the new challenges in public health like the double burden of malnutrition [ 33 ], the occasional outbreaks of health emergencies and emerging and re-emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases [ 46 , 47 ], which necessitate having specific skills for One Health approaches, the complex multi-country clinical trials [ 34 ], and some unique ethical issues with sexual minorities in Uganda with implications for public health and bioethics [ 48 ], the MUREEP was started to build multi-level research ethics capacity at MUST and in three neighboring institutions (Bishop Stuart University, BSU in Mbarara district; Kampala International University-Western Campus, KIU-WC, Ishaka in Bushenyi district; and Kabale University, KAB in Kabale district, southwestern Uganda).

With the new trends in biotechnology and emerging health technologies such as artificial intelligence and data science [ 49 , 50 ], there is a need to develop competence for quality scientific and ethics review of complex protocols in Uganda [ 34 ], and for every high-volume REC in LMIC [ 35 ]. Bioethics education programs in SSA should broaden the scope of eligibility for higher-degree training in research ethics to keep up with the global demands of bioethics graduates.

The MPH-RE program is different from “bioethics”, which is a distinct academic and professional discipline in Western universities [ 2 ], like at CWRU, JHU, and the University of Toronto. Bioethics provides strong philosophical foundations for navigating different ethical dilemmas in different fields, such as clinical ethics, environmental ethics, population ethics, and research ethics. Our program focuses on the “research ethics” component of bioethics, given the high volume of research being conducted in SSA by investigators from HIC and the ethical challenges that come with it. However, the philosophical theories ethics, fundamental ethical principles and theoretical approaches to bioethics, and their application in clinical and public health research covered in the Foundations of Ethics course prepare students apply knowledge to healthcare practice.

Similar to successful research ethics training programs out of Africa, such as the International Research Ethics Training Program (IRETP) at CWRU (2000–2016) and the University of Toronto Masters of Health Sciences in Bioethics, International Stream, UTMBIS (2000–2012), the MUREEP offers training in international research ethics to professionals from a variety of disciplines, all with a course on pedagogy and mentored research in research ethics. However, the three programs differed in the main focus of the program, duration, and cumulative number of trained individuals to address the need for research ethics capacity in LMIC. Both the IRETP and the UTMBIS focused on bioethics, whereas the MUREEP focuses on public health and research ethics. Similar to the UTMBIS, the MUREEP MPH-RE program is for 24 months, while the Master of Bioethics CWRU program was for 1 year. Both IRETP and the UTMBIS received trainees from at least four different countries, contributing immensely to the establishment of research ethics frameworks in their home institutions. The MUREEP offers multi-level research ethics training through its Master’s program and non-degree short courses, fostering local capacity development for students, REC members, investigators, and staff.

The MUREEP MPH-RE model is similar to what the SARETI at the Universities of Pretoria and KwaZulu Natal offered from 2001 to 2013. In addition to implementing a 1-year MPH program, SARETI has had experience in diversifying the teaching of research ethics in other graduate programs, including doctoral level, possibly to address the evolving training needs in Africa. The discontinuation of SARETI’s MPH program in 2013, followed by the remarkable enrolment and completion of training for trainees on the MSc. Social Sciences (14 for MPH; 36 for MSc. SocSc over 17 years) suggest that programs should have awareness of evolving training needs, and respond by designing and implementing appropriate curricula. Unfortunately, we did not find in the existing literature detailed reviews comparing SARETI’s MPH and MSc. SocSc. programs to identify areas for improvement of MPH RE programs. Nevertheless, having a rich social perspective is likely to help graduates understand the more complex cultural and social factors that still pose a challenge to teaching bioethics in Africa. The SARETI program offered two modules on culture and morality [ 6 ]; the MUREEP MPH-RE curriculum does not cover them as distinct courses, but indigenous and cultural issues in research are covered in case studies, in the critical analysis of bioethical issues (critical reasoning in research ethics course), and during the residential community placement to prepare them as future members of RECs and regulatory bodies. We address ethical issues, such as who is authorized to provide consent and those associated with giving blood or other biological samples. We are, however, careful not to overload the research ethics curriculum.

As long as there is ongoing student interest, adequate promotion of the MPH-RE track, and ongoing support from the department of community health leadership, the integration of research ethics education into the current MPH program through the creation of an MPH-RE track is a formula for sustainability. We believe that the MUREEP 2-year MPH-RE model can be adapted and used elsewhere in developing countries to increase the relevance of research ethics education for sustainable development. Importantly, our research ethics education curriculum is addressing the challenge of career path and employability that has been reported by some training programs offering a Master of Arts in bioethics or a Master of Science in health research ethics alone [ 11 ]. Like in many other research ethics or bioethics education programs in and outside Africa, the MUREEP MPH-RE students are taught and empowered to become leaders in research ethics; equipped to teach research ethics, and conduct empirical research [ 37 ]. Since 2021, the MPH-RE students (particularly cohorts 1 and 2) have been involved as trainers alongside MUREEP faculty in a number of RCR trainings in different venues and with different audiences, a model worth reproducing. The alumni are currently serving as instructors of some research ethics courses in the program, a capacity-building approach for academia. While MUREEP has so far graduated a few students, with some awaiting the completion of their dissertation examinations, the new job appointments and/or promotions of the alumni are evidence of the employability of our graduates. The graduates are qualified to serve as leaders and members of RECs, as public health experts and perform duties such as research coordination, advocacy, project management, community engagement, and monitoring and evaluation. We think that the MPH-RE approach has the potential to serve similar contexts in Africa with a high disease burden and complex clinical trials to promote responsible conduct of research while supporting the workforce in other areas of health research and public health emergencies [ 51 ]. At an appropriate time, it will be necessary to evaluate this strategy at MUST in Uganda together with similar programs like the Johns Hopkins University-Addis Ababa University Research Ethics Training Program in Ethiopia and the United States-Mali Research Ethics Training Program in Mali, which started in 2020.

Interdisciplinary approaches are being promoted in academia, and many research teams consist of experts from different disciplines, ranging from applied sciences and technology to life sciences, social sciences, and the humanities. Integrating research ethics education in a range of health, behavioral, and natural sciences should be considered [ 42 ] to prepare scholars for multidisciplinary research with its demands for integrity, compliance with regulations, rigor [ 52 ], and to serve on high-volume RECs reviewing complex studies. We think that it is attainable, particularly if research ethics is added to a curriculum as an optional track. It leverages existing infrastructure, provides on-going opportunities to examine ethical issues contextualized in commonly known disciplines for future professional roles, and helps students exploit the synergies of the disciplinary content of the curricula.

Creating and maintaining a culture of mutual trust and commitment to responsible research in institutions requires that all stakeholders at different levels (Table 2 ) receive some form of training [ 53 ]. DuBois and Antes discussed five dimensions of research ethics: “(1) normative ethics, which includes meta-ethical questions; (2) compliance with regulations, statutes, and institutional policies; (3) the rigor and reproducibility of science; (4) social value; and (5) workplace relationships”, each with unique stakeholders that need research ethics training to create a climate of research integrity in an institution [ 54 ]. This climate is a culture of responsible conduct of research and compliance with acceptable research practices in an institution [ 55 ]. MUREEP has established itself as a premier program offering RCR training in southwestern Uganda (Table 2 ). The impact of this is yet to be established.

Our non-degree short courses are open to all postgraduate students, REC members, researchers, faculty, administrators, and regulators. Despite the disruptions of the COVID-19 pandemic that affected the delivery of courses, the large number of trained individuals (609) and an additional 43 participants who attended the mentoring and career development workshops are way above what we originally anticipated (525 trainees). We do not provide the figures of trainees as heuristic implication of the effectiveness of the program but, rather as an initial indicator that there is increased awareness and a huge need to develop research ethics capacity in institutions in southwestern Uganda.

Having a good curriculum is good, but ensuring that there is sustained cognitive and affective learning is another thing and challenging. We observed that, in addition to practical externships with RECs and other regulators, and in the community, affective student learning is enhanced by well-coordinated field visits to exemplary researchers and research organizations, particularly those who have succeeded in collaborative work and research involving vulnerable populations. Post-training evaluations by our trainees show that field trips increased their interest in research ethics and provided meaningful engagement with individuals who encounter ethical issues in authentic environments. We believe that it is an important approach for developing scientific virtues [ 56 ], as trainees can recall those experiences and their novel discoveries and observations long after the visits.

While our original method of delivering short courses in five-day blocks, which was used elsewhere [ 7 ], was justified at the beginning of the program because of the need for foreign expertise, it proved to be physically straining for both students and the local faculty. In one of the evaluations of the program conducted in 2022, students reported that the volume of information in the courses during the 5 days was often burdensome, making retention and comprehension difficult. This revealed a weakness in the structure of the MPH-RE curriculum, which was addressed with a spread-out of courses over several months except RCR attended by diverse groups of people from different institutions in the region. We also observed that certain assessments can be compromised due to time constraints [ 57 ] or are assessed discretely rather than as integrated learning. However, some programs in developed countries have reported successful block teaching models [ 58 ]. For training programs that plan to integrate research ethics courses into other high-degree curricula, we suggest careful planning of the delivery of the courses with minimal deviation from the system of teaching used in the institution.

Our spiral MPH-RE curriculum recognizes the importance of in-depth training in research methods and biostatistics. The importance of a biostatistician on RECs has been discussed before [ 59 ], and bioethics education programs should intentionally prepare their graduates for this task. We are using a spiral training approach to deepen and reinforce what has been taught in previous encounters and to ensure knowledge and skill retention in these two important courses. The concepts and applications of research methods and data analysis are integrated into several courses. Students are expected to appraise research methods in RCR, critical reasoning, when reviewing protocols during REC externships, in research seminars and grant writing. They apply statistical methods to public health, behavioral, and clinical research, and interpret statistical output resulting from data analyses.

Bioethics students should acquire advocacy skills, appreciate the importance of working with multiple stakeholders, and have the ability to identify a policy solution. A research ethics graduate should have skills for ethical engagement over controversial issues and social justice. Some authors have argued that public health advocacy is necessary to foster research integrity by ensuring the disclosure of important results and their dissemination by all parties, including national governments [ 60 ]. Indeed, health system advocacy and science advocacy are thought to play a synergistic role in informing policy on systems that impact clinical and community-based research [ 61 ]. An early evaluation of 13 Fogarty-funded bioethics programs that offered at least 1 year of training reported that 2/13 were not offering instruction in health policy, while 4/13 covered it in less than 1 hour [ 37 ]. We recommend that that instruction in health policy and advocacy should be included in research ethics programs because advocacy skills are necessary for developing strong health research governance structures in Africa [ 62 ] and may be important drivers of sustainable development goals.

We think it prudent for students to be introduced to disease burdens and risk in populations and communities, and how it fuels research before they consider ethical issues in public health research in Year 2.

We use a flipped classroom approach for the delivery of the critical reasoning course for students to realize that managing ethical dilemmas goes beyond knowledge, to analytical reflection, reasoning [ 63 ], and critiquing one another’s opinions. Students are able to ask more questions in class and to practice interpersonal skills as they consider different points of view of complex situations.

Conclusions

It is not the intention of this paper to provide the impact of the MUREEP or the MPH Research Ethics degree program but rather to share a model that can be reproduced or adapted to develop bioethicists with specific applied learning skills in countries with a high burden of disease, like in much of SSA. Given that there is no “gold standard” for teaching bioethics, it is important to define best practices, which necessitate sharing methods of implementation in similar contexts. The comprehensive MPH component of our program seems to be an added advantage that opens up more job opportunities for the graduates and a breadth of fields for specialization with a component of research. We believe that this exemplar for teaching research ethics can be modified for other specialties, to meet specific institutional or national needs, or even to implement innovative teaching philosophies and approaches.

Lessons learned

There should be continuous and systematic internal evaluation of the program to inform MUREEP’s direction over time. In the first 5 years, we used various mechanisms such as short courses, workshops, online classes and in-person training. Our experience shows that in-person courses delivered gradually over a few months is the best option as it provides students more time to digest novel and large volumes of information. Programs that have or plan to develop curricula with research ethics as a track in another academic program ought to “integrate” it into the teaching early in the first semester and perhaps add relevant research methods, especially for qualitative studies, in the second semester. In our case, it means teaching some core MPH courses and MPH-RE courses at the same time for students to make immediate connections between public health practice/research and research ethics. This requires careful balancing of the semester credit load so as not to overload the curriculum. While infrastructure may be a challenge for many institutions in resource-limited settings like ours, programs must be developed with adults in mind to achieve their goals and be effective. Adult learning requires space, and so do highly participative activities like case studies and small group discussions. The venue for training matters a lot, especially for professionals and university administrators.

The first challenge was the initial scarcity of educational resources, which did not come from Europe or the United States and were relevant to the Ugandan context. This was mitigated by the use of Africa-focused case studies. Trainees are encouraged to share their working experiences. We also use cases from researchers and clinicians working in Uganda. Students also develop case studies as practicum in the skills for teaching course. Promoting bioethics in institutions where the program is not well understood is difficult and requires supportive institution leadership and the department hosting the program. There may be a disconnect between knowledge about research provided by the MPH component of the MPH-RE program and the research that MPH-RE students are expected to perform for their dissertation in the department and among students in their first year. As already mentioned, it may be because of the delay to introduce the research ethics courses. However, the biweekly journal club that was started in 2020 is helping students identify research gaps, critique published work in the field of research ethics, learn how to respond to questions, and test the limits of their knowledge. As elsewhere, COVID-19 pandemic disruptions affected the timely delivery of courses, the mobility of foreign faculty to MUST, and caused unprecedented delays in the ethics and scientific review process of students’ research proposals. However, it provided the opportunity to develop online teaching materials and pre-recorded lecture videos, increasing flexibility in teaching and learning. Later, these platforms became students’ helplines to support learning and mentoring–a challenge turned into opportunity and resilience. We recommend that continuing and new bioethics training programs in Africa should develop and/or strengthen their contingency plans based on scenarios of emergency situations and catastrophes to minimize disruptions in teaching and learning.

Formalizing mentoring with specific pre-outlined goals for career development is still a new concept in many institutions in sub-Saharan Africa and is commonly attached to internationally funded programs. Programs with a small pool of competent local mentors need to support senior students and recent bioethics graduates to serve as peer mentors.

Continuous improvement and future directions

We plan to review and revise the curriculum in 2024 for the long-term direction of the program in fulfillment of the requirement by the National Council for Higher Education, the regulating body in Uganda. We shall work towards the complete integration of research ethics into the core MPH courses early in the program. As the only training program for research ethics in southwestern Uganda, we have a responsibility to prepare the next generation of professionals ready to tackle the anticipated challenges related to new technologies. We plan to broaden the multidisciplinary nature of the program. Previously, some Fogarty-funded programs were in favor of candidates from the health and social sciences [ 37 ]. Our focus is to extend and consolidate the delivery of research ethics education in Uganda, work towards integrating mentoring into MUST, establish a research ethics advisory center, and develop a PhD program.

Availability of data and materials

All data generated in this study are included in this published article.

Abbreviations

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

Advancing Research Ethics Training in Southern Africa

Bishop Stuart University

Council on Health Research for Development

Case Western Reserve University

Fogarty African Bioethics Training Program

Fogarty International Center

High income countries

Human immunodeficiency virus

The International Research Ethics Networks for Southern Africa

International Research Ethics Training ProgramJHU

John Hopkins University

Kabale University

Kampala International University-Western Campus

Low-and-Middle income countries

Master of Health Sciences

Master of Public Health

Master of Philosophy

Master of Social Sciences

Mbarara University Research Ethics Education Program

Mbarara University of Science and Technology

National Institutes of Health

Responsible Conduct of Research

Research Ethics

Research Ethics Committee

South African Ethics Training Initiative

Sub-Saharan Africa

University of Toronto Masters of Health Sciences in Bioethics, International Stream

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Acknowledgements

We are grateful to all the stakeholders involved in the MUREEP. Special thanks to the local RECs, the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology, research sites, and organizations that have supported students’ practicum placement.

The Mbarara University Research Ethics Education Program reported in this publication was supported by the Fogarty International Center, National Human Genome Research Institute of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R25TW010507. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

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Contributions

GNK, FB, PEA, and JO conceived and designed the work; SL and PM contributed significantly to the study design. AM coordinated the work. GNK and AM extracted and analyzed the data. GNK wrote the first draft of the manuscript and contributed to its revision. FB, SL, GNK, PM, PEA, AM, and JO contributed significantly to the revisions. All authors reviewed and approved the final version of the manuscript.

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GNK (PhD) is an Associate Professor in the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST). She is the Program Director of the Mbarara University Research Ethics Education Program (MUREEP). She was involved in the development and implementation of the MUREEP as a faculty member, and mentor of MPH-RE students. She served as Vice Chairperson of the MUST Research Ethics Committee (REC) (2011–2022). Her focus is on molecular studies of infectious diseases, ethical issues in genomic studies, research regulation, and responsible conduct of research.

FB (MBChB, MSc, PhD) is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine at MUST. He has extensive experience in the field of public health, with special interest in HIV research and non-communicable diseases. He was involved in the development and implementation of the MUREEP. He is the MPH-RE program coordinator; a faculty member and mentor on the MUREEP. His focus is on epidemiology, public health research ethics, and the regulation of research. He served as the Chairperson of the MUST REC for more than 8 years.

PEA (MBChB, PhD) is an Associate Professor in the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, MUST. He was involved in the development and implementation of the MUREEP. He is the chairperson of the MUST REC. On the MUREEP, he teaches critical reasoning in research ethics, and instruction in responsible conduct of research. He coordinates the MPH-RE mentoring program. His focus is on animal research: neuropharmacology, addiction research, and natural products.

JO (MSc) is a pharmacologist and lecturer in the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. He coordinated the development and accreditation process of the MPH-RE curriculum. He is a faculty member on the MUREEP. He is the chairperson of the Research and Ethics Committee of the Uganda Pharmacological Society. His interest is in animal research ethics and toxicological research aiming at drug discovery from natural products.

AM (MSc) is a program planning and management specialist with a Master’s degree in Development Economics. He was involved in the implementation of the MUREEP, the development of teaching materials, and the evaluation of the program. He is the training coordinator of the MUREEP.

PM (PhD) is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Bioethics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and the immediate former Director of the NIH-funded Center for Genetic Research Ethics and Law. She was the Co-Program Director of MUREEP (2018–2020). She was involved in the development and implementation of the program and is faculty member on the MUREEP. She previously served on the executive boards of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities, and the Fogarty International Center at the NIH. She consulted for the President’s National Bioethics Advisory Commission on its initiative to examine ethical issues in international health research (1998–2000).

SL (J.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., M.S.S.A., M.A) is a Professor in the Department of Bioethics, and has secondary faculty appointments in Psychiatry and Global Health, Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences, School of Medicine at CWRU. She is the Co-Program Director of the MUREEP, a faculty and mentor. She was the Program Director of a Fogarty International Center-funded training program in international research ethics at CWRU (2000–2016) and the Vice Dean for Faculty Development and Diversity at the School of Medicine (2012–2020). She is particularly interested in the substance and application of the concept of vulnerability in research and issues related to informed consent, mentoring and career development.

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GNK and SL are directors of the MUREEP receiving financial support from the US National Institutes of Health to implement the program. None of the other authors have competing interests that could have influenced the work described here.

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Kiwanuka, G.N., Bajunirwe, F., Alele, P.E. et al. Public health and research ethics education: the experience of developing a new cadre of bioethicists at a Ugandan institution. BMC Med Educ 24 , 1 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-023-04974-y

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ISSN: 1472-6920

research only phd

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  1. How to Write A Research Proposal for PhD

    research only phd

  2. How to get a PhD: Steps and Requirements Explained

    research only phd

  3. Apply for a PhD

    research only phd

  4. Introduction to PhD Research

    research only phd

  5. (PDF) How to Make the Research Synopsis as Ph.D. and PG. level

    research only phd

  6. How to write a research statement when applying for a PhD?

    research only phd

VIDEO

  1. What is a Research

  2. How I Completed My PHD In 3 Years!

  3. Outrider 16

  4. All About PhD Admission👈🏻 Find Answers to Doubts #Phd #ResearchProposal #ResarchTopic #PhdInterview

  5. Want to pursue research without a PhD? Then MS by Research In Your Answer

  6. Only PhD dwarfs [DRG]

COMMENTS

  1. What is the difference between PhD by research only Or PhD by taught

    For some countries and in some disciplines, esp. in the humanities, a PhD by research only is often considered to be too narrow a qualification for an academic position that involves...

  2. PhD by Research

    PhD in Development Studies by Research Realise y O ur potential to transform the world. Study with the world leaders in development studies and realise your potential to transform the world with our PhD by Research. The PhD in Development Studies by Research is IDS's advanced research degree.

  3. 5 routes to getting a Doctorate

    Professional Doctorate Geared primarily towards current professionals in vocational sectors such as healthcare, teaching and education, and engineering and manufacturing, this type of Doctorate degree includes a significant taught component and a smaller research project. 40 fully-funded EPSRC PhDs

  4. Doctorate Degrees & PhD Programs 2024+

    Doctor of Philosophy, or PhD degrees, are research-based academic degrees which are awarded in many fields. A PhD degree is granted to students who have conducted publishable, original research in a peer-reviewed academic publication. Additionally, to get to that research, doctoral candidates have to complete a substantial amount of coursework ...

  5. What is a PhD?

    A PhD is a doctoral research degree and the highest level of academic qualification you can achieve. The degree normally takes between three and four years of full-time work towards a thesis offering an original contribution to your subject.

  6. 30 Fully Funded Ph.D. Programs

    Here are 30 fully funded Ph.D. programs at U.S. colleges and universities. Keep in mind this is not a comprehensive list - there are others out there. Next: Ph.D. in anthropology at the University...

  7. Master's vs PhD

    The two most common types of graduate degrees are master's and doctoral degrees: A master's is a 1-2 year degree that can prepare you for a multitude of careers. A PhD, or doctoral degree, takes 3-7 years to complete (depending on the country) and prepares you for a career in academic research. A master's is also the necessary first ...

  8. PHD by Research

    PhD by Research Duration: 18 to 36 monthsFEES: 18 000 Euros per year (non-subject to VAT)Full-time or part-time online Retention rate: TBDPlacement rate: TBD Introduction When the mentor is satisfied that the work is ready for examination, a report is given to the Research Committee for their recommendation and for external moderation. External moderation will […]

  9. Doctor of Philosophy in Education

    The Harvard Ph.D. in Education trains cutting-edge researchers who work across disciplines to generate knowledge and translate discoveries into transformative policy and practice. Offered jointly by the Harvard Graduate School of Education and the Harvard Kenneth C. Griffin Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the PhD in Education provides you ...

  10. What is a PhD?

    The term PhD or Doctorate of Philosophy is an abbreviation of the Latin phrase 'philosophiae doctor'. A PhD degree typically involves students independently conducting original and significant research in a specific field or subject, before producing a publication-worthy thesis. While some Doctorates include taught components, PhD students are ...

  11. PhD

    You complete a body of primary, novel research and submit a doctoral thesis of up to 100,000 words, which you then defend via an oral examination (the viva) to the satisfaction of the examiners. Your thesis must meet the expectations specified in the QAA Framework for Higher Education Qualifications. Entry requirements

  12. PhDs: the tortuous truth

    Nature 's survey of more than 6,000 graduate students reveals the turbulent nature of doctoral research. Getting a PhD is never easy, but it's fair to say that Marina Kovačević had it ...

  13. Research Doctorate Programs in the United States

    Doctoral programs at U.S. universities play a critical role in the development of human resources both in the United States and abroad. This volume reports the results of an extensive study of U.S. research-doctorate programs in five broad fields: physical sciences and mathematics, engineering, social and behavioral sciences, biological sciences, and the humanities.

  14. Online Doctoral Programs

    26 doctoral degree programs and more than 125 specializations available to support your goals. BE SUPPORTED AT EACH STEP The Walden Doctoral Degree Coach ™ helps you find the right support when you need it and stay on track throughout your journey. PERSONALIZED STUDENT SUPPORT

  15. PhD Study in the USA

    Guides Topic: Discipline: Location: PhD Study in the USA - 2023 Over one million international students choose the USA as their study abroad destination, making it the most popular international study destination in the world!

  16. The Importance of Research for Your PhD

    Conducting research in a PhD program is one of the most defining and important aspects of pursuing a Doctor of Philosophy. A PhD is a research degree that provides the challenging but rewarding opportunity to contribute to and expand your field of study. One of the most difficult parts of PhD research projects is figuring out what research ...

  17. Easiest PhD and Shortest Doctoral Programs Online 2024

    page navigation Doctorate Degree vs PhD 1 Year Ph.D. Programs Online 15-18 Month Doctorate Programs Without Dissertation 24 Month Doctorate Programs Shortest Ph.D. Programs Online and On-campus Easiest Ph.D. Programs Online & On-Campus

  18. Find Your Perfect PhD

    When looking for PhD research projects, a great place to start is with our comprehensive and up-to-date database. Speak with lecturers within your area of interest about potential PhD opportunities they may have. ... Not only would you have already built a good rapport with them, but having worked with you they will have a good idea on what PhD ...

  19. Full article: The values and self‐efficacy beliefs of postgraduate

    Results A series of 3 (Domain) × 3 (Program) mixed factorial analysis of variances were conducted to explore postgraduates' social influences, task values, and self‐efficacy beliefs towards theory, research, and communication.

  20. Philosophy Doctor (Ph.D) Degree by Research via distance learning

    Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), in Latin: Philosophiae Doctor or Doctor Philosophiae, is the highest academic degree awarded. It usually covers all academic programs.

  21. Top 18 Most Affordable No GRE Online PhD Degree Programs

    The Online PhD: A Research-Oriented Doctorate Degree. The doctorate degree is the highest degree you can earn in most fields of study in the US. People who have earned this degree demonstrate a mastery of a specific area of study. ... The school is the only online Spiritan institution of higher education globally, and hosts international ...

  22. 40 Shortest Doctoral Programs Online in 2024

    In this article, we only list down the shotest PhD programs online accredited by institutions. This should help you make an informed decision if you opt to take the first step toward academic and career advancement. Shortest Doctoral Program Online Table of Contents One-Year Online Doctoral Programs Two-Year Online Doctoral Programs

  23. Research Only PhD's

    Research Only PhD's Discussion in ' General Distance Learning Discussions ' started by jimnagrom, Sep 16, 2004 . Page 1 of 2 1 2 Next > jimnagrom New Member I've been asked if there are any research-only PhD programs (preferably with an education focus). Low residency is a major plus - person is retired and loves to travle anyway

  24. Public health and research ethics education: the experience of

    Research ethics education is critical to developing a culture of responsible conduct of research. Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have a high burden of infectious diseases like HIV and malaria; some, like Uganda, have recurring outbreaks. Coupled with the increase in non-communicable diseases, researchers have access to large populations to test new medications and vaccines.

  25. Stop scamming PhD graduates

    Stop scamming PhD graduates. Online boards and social networks are teeming with reports of white-collar free-labour scams, particularly where a large and international pool of talented individuals ...

  26. Franklyn G. Prendergast, MD, PhD: In Memoriam (1945-2023)

    On October 12, 2023, Franklyn G. Prendergast, MD, PhD, died of pancreatic cancer. He was a force in science and medicine and a trailblazer in civil rights. He rose from humble beginnings in Jamaica to be a distinguished physician/scientist and a very successful administrator in one of the nation's most distinguished medical centers.Along the way, he became an idol to young minorities and women ...