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Teachers’ views on effective classroom management: a mixed-methods investigation in Western Australian high schools

  • Original Article
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  • Published: 30 June 2020
  • Volume 20 , pages 107–124, ( 2021 )

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research topics in classroom management

  • Helen Egeberg   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-9907-8593 1 ,
  • Andrew McConney 2 &
  • Anne Price 2  

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Teachers’ views about teaching, learning and school experiences are important considerations in education. As the central participants in classroom interactions, students and teachers naturally have strong views about what it takes to manage learning and surrounding behaviours effectively. With this in mind and because we believe that ignoring the thinking of either of these stakeholders would be to the detriment of teaching and teacher education, we focused on hearing and understanding teachers’ voices about teaching, learning and classroom management. Our aim was to further clarify teachers’ perspectives on how educators create quality learning environments as well as gathering their views of various disciplinary interventions, their perceptions of challenging students and their sense of efficacy for classroom management in order to inform both policy and practice in teacher education. A survey was conducted with 50 secondary school teachers to capture their views on their classroom experiences. Follow up interviews with teachers identified by students as effective in their classroom management provided consistent reports that effective classroom managers build positive relationships with their students, manage their classrooms by establishing clear boundaries and high expectations, and engage students in their learning.

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1 Introduction

Classroom management is universally seen as a key dimension of teachers’ work as reflected in research that places it among the most required teaching skills (Huntly 2008 ; Jones 2006 ; McKenzie et al. 2011 ). Teachers’ skill in classroom management is often cited as the dimension of teachers’ work that is the most challenging and the area of training that many beginning and pre-service teachers feel is lacking (Australian Education Union 2009 ; Evertson and Weinstein 2006 ; Kafman and Moss 2010 ; Peters 2012 ; Putman 2009 ; Ritter and Hancock 2007 ; Romano 2008 ). In order to enhance or transform these skills, as well as inform policy and practice with regard to classroom management it is important to investigate and understand teachers’ views and beliefs, as their “philosophy about the nature of teaching, learning and students determines the type of instruction and discipline we have in schools and classrooms” (Freiberg 1999 , p. 14).

As the central participants in classroom interactions, students and teachers naturally have strong views about what it takes to manage learning and surrounding behaviours effectively (Lewis 2001 ; Lewis et al. 2008 ; Roache and Lewis 2011 ; Sullivan et al. 2014 ; Woolfolk Hoy and Weinstein 2006 ) With this in mind and because we believe that ignoring the thinking of either of these stakeholders would be to the detriment of teaching and teacher education, we focused on hearing and understanding teachers’ voices about teaching, learning and classroom management. Our aim is to further clarify teachers’ perspectives on how educators create quality learning environments as well as gathering their views of various disciplinary interventions, their perceptions of challenging students and their sense of efficacy for classroom management, in order to inform both policy and practice in teacher education.

Students’ perceptions of teachers who create and maintain safe and supportive learning environments, and their classroom experiences, have been previously examined (Egeberg and McConney 2017 ). Despite varying school contexts, students identified effective classroom managers as teachers who meet students’ needs by developing caring relationships and controlling the classroom environment while fostering student responsibility and engaging students in their learning (Egeberg and McConney 2017 ). Few researchers, however, have investigated the views of both students and teachers in the same study, ensuring that setting and context are similar (Woolfolk Hoy and Weinstein 2006 ; Roache and Lewis 2011 ). In the current research, teachers at the same schools as the student participants in our 2017 study were surveyed about their views on classroom management, including those identified by their students as being effective managers. Teachers in this smaller group were also subsequently interviewed. Previous studies have reported teachers’ perceptions about education and teaching practices; the significance of this research, however, is that it examines the views and beliefs of teachers who previously had been identified by their students as effective in creating and maintaining quality learning environments.

2 Literature review

The term classroom management is a conceptual umbrella, one that is often used interchangeably with discipline , but is also seen as distinct from classroom instruction (Egeberg et al. 2016 ). Research in the 1980s, however, argued that teachers’ management and instruction are not separate, but are inextricably interwoven and complex. “Classroom management is certainly concerned with behaviour, but it can also be defined more broadly as involving the planning, organization and control of learners, the learning process and the classroom environment to create and maintain an effective learning experience” (Doyle 1986 , p. 396). It is this definition, as well as the view provided in the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers that we subscribe to here (AITSL 2011 ). Using Woolfolk Hoy and Weinstein’s ( 2006 ) three interwoven aspects of teacher practice: classroom management (actions to create a productive, orderly learning environment); discipline (actions to elicit change in students’ behaviour); and, socialization (actions to help students fulfil their responsibilities) we aimed to examine high school teachers’ views and beliefs to better understand what teachers do to create and maintain safe and supportive learning environments.

Historically, teacher education has relied on scales focused on a narrower concept of discipline (Glickman and Tamashiro 1980 ; Wolfgang and Glickman 1986 ), rather than the broader concept of classroom management that encompasses both behaviour management (BM) and instructional management (IM). “Examination of the literature on teacher knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions indicates that we have potentially valuable scales and inventories that have rarely been used in research” (Woolfolk Hoy and Weinstein 2006 , p. 211). One of the scales that these authors refer to is Martin, Yin and Baldwin’s Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control, which was later revised as the Behavior and Instructional Management Scale (BIMS) (Martin et al. 1998 ; Martin and Sass 2010 ). The BIMS is important in the study of differences that may exist between teachers’ beliefs and their capacity to implement them within the classroom (Martin et al. 1998 , 2007 ; Martin and Sass 2010 ). This, we believe, provides an appropriate starting point from which to examine teachers’ beliefs and perspectives of the more encompassing construct of “classroom management”. Although the BIMS is based on the Beliefs on Discipline Inventory developed by Wolfgang and Glickman ( 1986 ), it nevertheless reflects a broader concept encompassing teachers’ perceptions of their classroom management, in terms of both BM and IM around which Martin and her colleagues developed and validated the BIMS (Martin and Sass 2010 ). Teachers’ efforts aimed at preventing misbehaviour, along with how a teacher responds to misconduct, are related to BM, whereas IM includes the plans, goals, and tactics teachers use to deliver instruction in a classroom.

Research shows that teachers’ interactions with students are often linked to their beliefs about young people and how they develop (Erden and Wolfang 2004 ). Glickman and Tamashiro ( 1980 ) and Wolfgang ( 1995 ) conceptualized a framework to explain teacher beliefs and approaches along a control continuum, with relationship-listening beliefs and non-interventionist approaches at the least controlling end, rules/rewards-punishment beliefs and interventionist approaches at the most controlling end, and confronting-contracting beliefs and interactionalist approaches in the middle. A more recent conceptual framework clusters discipline theories across a similar continuum from autocratic through authoritative and mixed to egalitarian. This continuum also varies according to distribution of power in classrooms, from teacher-centred, to shared, to student-centred, and from a focus on student behaviour only, to a compound focus on behaviour, cognition, emotion and relationships (Porter 2007 ).

In the past, various studies had shown that many teachers and even some policies, reflected very traditional views about discipline (Adey et al. 1991 ; Oswald et al. 1991 , 1994 ). These studies identified four orientations to classroom discipline: traditional, liberal progressive, socially critical, and laissez-faire. Teachers who hold a traditional orientation have many beliefs in common with an interventionist rules-rewards philosophy as depicted in Wolfgang’s ( 1995 ) framework. Teachers with a liberal progressive orientation believe in a democratic approach in which students share power, are part of decision-making, and cooperation and social skills are essential for participation. Teachers who hold a socially critical stance see student misbehaviour as resistance against an unfair system with repressive and at times inappropriate practices. The laissez faire stance is essentially congruent with the non-interventionist, described in Wolfgang’s framework. Although few teachers adhered completely to one type of view, nearly 70% of secondary teachers identified as traditionalist, with the remainder mainly liberal progressive.

In a 2001 study, over 3500 students from years 6, 7, 9 and 11 in Australian schools were asked to complete a questionnaire that documented the extent to which their teachers used various discipline strategies. The students’ responses were used to conceptualise teachers’ classroom discipline behaviour in terms of three styles: influence which includes the use of listening and clarifying techniques to negotiate solutions; group management which includes class meetings, agreed management of behaviour and non-punitive teacher responses to enable students to make better choices; and, control which involves rules, rewards and a clear hierarchy of increasingly severe punishments for misbehaviour (Lewis 2001 ). Secondary students reported that even though some teachers used techniques such as hints and discussion, (aligned with an influence, relationship-based approach), many teachers tended toward the use of punishment. This suggested that most teachers held a controlling or coercive style of management. The study also showed that “students who receive more relationship-based discipline are less disrupted when teachers deal with misbehaviour and generally act more responsibly in that teacher’s class. In contrast, the impact of coercive discipline appears to be more student distraction from work and less responsibility” (Lewis 2001 , p. 315).

In a 2014 study, Sullivan, Johnson, Owens and Conway, asked 1380 Year 12 teachers in South Australia to identify the range and frequency of student behaviours requiring disciplinary response and to explain how they responded. Analysis of responses to the web-based survey showed that low-level disruptive behaviours occurred most frequently with very little aggressive or antisocial behaviour. The study showed that disengaged behaviours were the most prevalent suggesting that these “have more to do with factors within a teacher’s control than with those located within the student” (Sullivan et al. 2014 , p. 53). Instead of using responses that may address the underlying cause of the misbehavior, such as ways to engage students positively in their learning, the study found that teachers tended to implement a “stepped approach” involving increasingly severe coercive techniques. As Maguire et al. ( 2010 ) argued, moving the focus from controlling discipline approaches to ways of engaging students offers opportunities for teachers to preclude or divert unproductive student behaviour and reduce their reliance on punitive intervention strategies.

Thus, it is clear that determining what (typically) is and what is not effective classroom management is a complex issue (De Jong 2005 ). Many researchers have attempted to conceptualise guiding principles and practices that could be used to support the development of appropriate approaches to managing student behaviour (McLeod et al. 2003 ). In essence, “teachers who approach classroom management as a process of establishing and maintaining effective learning environments tend to be more successful than teachers who place more emphasis on their roles as authority figures or disciplinarians” (Brophy 1988 , p. 1). It is the ability of a teacher to know not only what they want to teach, but also how they will organise and structure it for their students and their circumstances that makes all the difference, creating a healthy, caring classroom culture where all students, and teachers, can thrive (Bennett and Smilanich 2012 ).

The current study investigates this broader view of classroom management. It encompasses both behaviour management (BM) which includes pre-planned efforts to prevent misbehavior as well as teachers’ response to it, specifically establishing expectations, monitoring and teaching behaviour and providing opportunities for student input and, instructional management (IM), which addresses teachers’ pedagogical aims and methodologies and includes aspects such as planning and structuring routines as well as the use of various instructional techniques to enable active participation and engagement. Consequently, this research gives voice to the views and experiences of not just teachers, but teachers who have been nominated by their students as being effective in creating and maintaining quality learning environments, centered on effective classroom management. The overarching question that frames the study is, “What are effective teachers’ views of classroom management?” Component research questions include:

What are secondary teachers’ orientations toward classroom management?

To what extent do teachers’ classroom management views differ according to school sector, school socioeconomic status (SES) or gender? and

How do teachers, who have been identified by their students as being effective, manage their classrooms?

3.1 Research design

The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of secondary school teachers about their classroom management, at a variety of high schools in Western Australia. For educational researchers holding a pragmatic worldview, the choice of research design is guided by the research question(s) asked, rather than epistemology, with a view to further understanding the phenomenon being studied and to add value, in a practical sense. In this study, our key aim is to advance our collective understanding of effective classroom management and to broaden the perspective with which it is viewed, thereby facilitating translation into practice. In achieving this, both description and explanation are important. Descriptions involve drawing a picture of what is happening, and “attempting to make complicated things understandable” (Punch 2000 , p. 15). Explanation involves examining the ‘how’, as well as describing the ‘what’ because this has the potential to influence our future practice. An increasingly used research approach to achieving both description and explanation is to employ both quantitative and qualitative perspectives on the phenomenon of interest—in this case teachers’ classroom management. For this reason, a mixed methods research design was chosen—with one type of data collection (e.g., qualitative) offsetting potential limitations or lack of depth in the other, and vice versa. Specifically, this study used a sequential explanatory design, with two distinct phases, quantitative followed by qualitative (Creswell 2014 ). As Greene et al. ( 1989 ) have explained, a mixed methods approach provides depth and detail to a study and potentially uncovers new insights into participant experiences. While a quantitative method allows stronger generalisability and comparability, and better accommodates investigating the ‘what’, a qualitative approach allows deeper examination to build a more complete picture of effective classroom management, and better accommodates answering ‘how’ or ‘why’ questions. In addition to its mixed methods design, the study was also interpretive in that high school teachers described their views through surveys (quantitative) and interviews (qualitative); we summarized, analyzed and interpreted these views to advance our understanding of effective classroom management.

Previously, in an earlier phase of this research, 360 students from a variety of public and private secondary schools had participated in a study that catalogued and examined students’ views of effective classroom management. Students were recruited from metropolitan high schools in Perth, Western Australia (WA), and comprised Year 9 and 10 students (255 males and 105 females) ranging in age between 14 and 16 years. The overarching intention of that study was to better understand, from the perspective of their students, what teachers do to create and sustain safe and supportive learning environments. In this earlier phase, we used the Students Perceptions Survey (SPS) from Cambridge Education and Tripod Survey Assessments that allowed students to characterise what it is that teachers do in effectively managing their classrooms, and to nominate some teachers they believed did this well (Egeberg and McConney 2017 ).

3.2 Participants

In the current study, we invited teacher-participants via email asking them to take part in a survey and follow up interview. Participants comprised 50 secondary school teachers, (23 males and 27 females), working in six schools representing the three school sectors in Western Australia (WA)—the Association of Independent Schools of WA (AISWA), the WA Department of Education (DOE) and Catholic Education (CEWA). Of the 50 teachers who completed the first phase (survey), their students had nominated 25 (10 male and 15 female) as effective classroom managers. Twenty-two of these teachers (9 male and 13 female) were subsequently available for individual interviews. Across the six schools involved, between 3 and 5 teachers were interviewed from each school, ranging in age from 26 to 62 years. Table  1 provides a breakdown of this study’s teacher participants by school characteristics and gender. For the purpose of this study we combined AISWA and CEWA schools into one group and classified these as “Private”. School socioeconomic status (SES) was determined via the Index of Community Socio-Educational Advantage (ICSEA) which uses two data sources: student enrolment records including information relating to parent occupation, school education, non-school education and language background (direct data) and Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) census data (indirect data). ICSEA values range from around 500 (extremely socio-educationally disadvantaged) to about 1300 (very advantaged) (ACARA 2012 ). Any particular school’s ICSEA is the averaged value representing all students in the school. For this study, schools with an average ICSEA above 1100 were considered higher SES , and those with ICSEA values less than 1100 were considered lower SES .

3.3 Instruments

Two instruments were used for data collection: the first was a survey that allowed teachers to describe how frequently they use particular classroom management strategies or techniques. The Behaviour and Instructional Management Survey (BIMS) is a relatively brief, psychometrically validated instrument that measures how frequently teachers report using particular techniques, both behavioural and instructional. Martin and Sass ( 2010 ) used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in validating the BIMS. Analysis of the Behavior Management subscale showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α  = 0.8), with an average inter-item correlation of 0.377 (SD .091). The average corrected item-total correlation for this subscale was 0.5 (SD .071), suggesting good item discrimination. Results for the Instructional Management subscale also showed good internal consistency ( α  = 0.8), with an average inter-item correlation of 0.365 (SD .092). The average corrected item-total correlation for this subscale was also 0.5 (SD .086), again suggesting good item discrimination (Martin and Sass 2010 ). Overall, Martin and Sass’s ( 2010 ) EFA results provided solid evidence of discriminant and convergent validity, good internal consistency and strong item discrimination. Using the BIMS as an inventory, we sought to determine the frequency with which 50 teachers-participants reported engaging in various classroom management behaviours. We emphasize that using the BIMS as a definitive assessment of teachers’ approach to classroom management was not the main purpose; rather, our intention was to “warm up” teacher-participants in articulating or focusing their views about classroom management during individual interviews.

Item 25, the last item on the teacher survey, was an open-ended question that asked teachers what they do that helps to create and maintain safe and supportive learning environments. This aspect of our data collection and analysis, and that of the ensuing teacher-participant interviews, centered on a qualitative approach, enabling further exploration of these teachers’ perspectives. We employed an inductive process of gathering detailed information from participants, in this case teachers, and then formed this into themes (Creswell 2014 ). The data were first coded thematically using NVivo, a qualitative analysis software that provides word frequencies and key words in the context of concepts like classroom management, caring relationships, behaviour and instruction. Using text search and word frequency queries we added annotations to record our insights and this in turn assisted with identifying patterns across the responses to identify connections and themes that informed our development of answers to the research questions posed.

The second phase of data collection comprised individual interviews with 22 selected teacher participants. These participants were chosen from those who had volunteered via the survey and who also had been selected by their students as effective in creating and maintaining safe and supportive learning environments. The interview topics were developed from research into effective classroom management (Ferguson 2010 ; Garza et al. 2010 ; Lewis 2001 ; Lewis et al. 2008 ; Woolfolk Hoy and Weinstein 2006 ). The topics were also used as the basis for further clarifying teachers’ perspectives about effective classroom management as well as their perceptions of the frequency, efficacy and acceptability of various disciplinary interventions. The interviews were semi-structured, audio taped with consent for future transcription, and about 30 min in duration.

4.1 Phase 1: survey

This study posed the following questions:

The BIMS provides a framework that allows characterisation and summarization of the strategies or techniques teachers use in managing their classrooms. On the BIMS, teachers report the frequency with which they use each of 24 briefly described strategies, as shown in Table  2 for the 50 teacher-participants in this study.

In answering research question 1, of the classroom management techniques used by teachers, the four that showed the highest frequency of use, across all teachers, were: I use whole class instruction to ensure a structured classroom (IM #2); I redirect students back to the topic when they get off task (BM #15); I direct the students’ transition from one learning activity to another (IM #16 ) ; and, I use a teaching approach that encourages interaction among students (IM #24). As shown in Table  2 , for these four items, all teachers (100%) reported using the strategy sometimes, often or always. Only one of the 24 strategies suggested a low proportion of teachers using the technique frequently. Specifically, 44% of teachers indicated that when a student talks to a neighbour, they would move the student away from other students (BM #7), sometimes (36%) or often (8%). This type of control or compliance strategy would seem not to be a major aspect of these teachers’ approaches to classroom management. In another example, only a small majority (56%) indicated that if a student’s behaviour is defiant, I demand that they comply with my rules (BM #23) sometimes (20%), often (26%) or always (10%).

Using the scoring system that Martin and Sass designed for the BIMS, with Always allocated a “5” to Never receiving a “1”, and scoring for some items being reversed, we examined responses for items aligned with three key approaches to classroom management: a controlling, interventionist approach; an interactionalist, needs-based approach, and; a less controlling non-interventionist approach. It is important to note that there are no specific cut scores for identifying teachers as interventionist, interactionalist, or non-interventionist, and this was certainly not our intention. It was also the case, however, that we viewed higher scores on the combined scales of the BIMS as indicative of a tendency toward a more controlling approach, lower scores suggestive of a less controlling approach and those centrally located indicative of an interactionalist approach, as had been the case in Martin and Sass’ classroom management research ( 2010 ). In this, we found that all of the 25 teachers identified by students as creating and maintaining effective learning environments most frequently used an interactionalist approach, whereas a more modest 74% of teachers not nominated by students indicated that they most frequently use this approach.

In answering research question 2 (To what extent do teachers’ classroom management views differ according to school sector, school socioeconomic status (SES) or gender?) we compared BIMS response distributions from teachers across school sectors (public and private), school SES (higher and lower ICSEA) and teacher gender. Very little difference was evident between groups of teachers in terms of what techniques they would use frequently in their classrooms. Female teachers comprised 52% of the teachers surveyed and 60% of the teacher cohort identified as effective by students. The largest group-based difference noted was for item BM#3: I limit student chatter in the classroom with 96% of female teachers suggesting they would use this strategy frequently in comparison to 75% of male teachers. Two other items showed a notably higher proportion of female teachers indicating frequent use as compared to males: 96% of female teachers indicated they establish a teaching daily routine in their classroom and stick to it (IM #8) compared to 79% of male teachers; and, 81% of female teachers indicated that they use input from students to create classroom rules (BM #9) compared to 63% of males. In contrast 71% of male teachers said they allow students to get out of their seat without permission (BM #11 ) in comparison to 58% of female teachers.

Similarly, to examine potential differences between teachers nominated by their students as effective classroom managers, and those not, and to answer research question 3 “How do teachers, who have been identified by their students as being effective, manage their classrooms?” we also conducted two statistical tests, the results of which are given in Table  3 . We conservatively used non - parametric statistical tests as the data provided via the BIMS are ordinal data. We used Pearson’s Chi Squared test to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between expected and observed frequencies between teachers “nominated as effective” and those “not nominated”. On the other hand, Mann–Whitney U is a nonparametric test of the null hypothesis that it is equally likely that a randomly selected value from one population will be statistically different than a value from a second population. Mann–Whitney U can be used to investigate whether two samples were selected from populations having the same distribution. As detailed in Table  3 , we found that in no case were teacher-participants nominated as effective classroom managers by their students statistically different from teachers not nominated, in terms of the frequencies with which they used the management strategies reflected in the 24 items of the BIMS.

In further examining BIMS responses from the 25 teachers nominated by students as effective classroom managers, compared against the responses of 25 teachers not nominated however, it was the areas of control and interaction that showed some differences in approach between the two groups. Differences in the frequency with which the teachers frequently use a strategy between those nominated and those not are graphically depicted in Fig.  1 .

figure 1

Differences in percentages of nominated and non-nominated groups of teachers who use BIMS strategies frequently in classroom management. Note : Positive differences (bars to the right) indicate that nominated teachers use a BIMS strategy more frequently; negative differences (bars to the left) mean that non-nominated teachers use the strategy more frequently

As shown in Fig.  1 , for example, 28% of nominated teachers indicated that they would frequently move a child for talking to their neighbor (BM #7), compared to 60% of teachers who were not nominated by their students. (Hence, 28% minus 60% results in a negative difference of 32% suggesting that teachers nominated by their students as effective managers, less frequently use punitive strategies. Nominated teachers more frequently took, it would seem, a flexible approach and less frequently demanded compliance (IM #22 & BM #23). Nominated teachers also more frequently used group work (IM #10), inquiry - based learning (IM #14) and student input when creating projects (IM#12) and also more frequently limited chatter in the classroom (BM #3).

In reviewing the comments made by teachers in response to Question 25 (an open-ended question that asked teachers what they do that helps to create and maintain safe and supportive learning environments), a third construct of classroom management other than the two already determined emerged, that of care . We therefore categorised teachers’ responses into one of three emergent themes—instructional management, behaviour management and care—with some comments appearing in more than one category as shown in Table  4 .

Teachers’ building of positive relationships with their students received the greatest proportion of responses, with nearly 43% of 50 teachers surveyed suggesting this a key strategy. Teachers specified that building positive relationships by showing genuine care and listening to student voices is important in being an effective manager. For example:

Taking the time to get to know your students and build that relationship on a daily basis is, in my opinion, the most important thing a teacher can do.

Coupled with this, the teacher’s ability to listen to students and to confer with them on various elements of their learning and school experience was also seen as important:

Positive accountability; the students knowing that they are valued, that they have a voice that is heard.

4.1.2 Behaviour management

For many of the teachers nominated as effective by students, care and concern were also manifested in the way they managed the class, and in high expectations. Thirty-nine percent of teachers’ responses could be categorized as focused on behaviour management , their ability to establish clear boundaries and high expectations without being rigid, threatening or punitive. For example:

Have high expectations of students in all aspects of their classroom conduct and effort. Treat all students with respect when dealing with them individually or in a group/class situation.

For those teachers not nominated by students a consistent comment was the need for consistency, consequences for all actions and follow - through, seeming to suggest a somewhat more authoritarian view of how student behaviours should be managed.

4.1.3 Instructional management

Thirty two percent of the responses could be categorized as related to the theme of instructional management; that is, teachers’ ability to engage their students by creating interest, clarifying students’ understandings of various concepts and consolidating this understanding especially through the use of formative assessment with useful and appropriate feedback. Those teachers nominated by students considered engaging teaching and clear explanation as paramount in their management of the class:

Show a willingness to be flexible in interpreting and delivering the curriculum in a way that students will find engaging. Make the learning intentions clear. Encourage questions and make mistakes part of learning.

In contrast, those not nominated by students seemed more focused on detailed subject knowledge as opposed to how that subject knowledge was delivered. Teachers also used words like clear, effective, humour, relationship, understanding, interesting, and respect to describe what they do to create and maintain safe and supportive learning environments.

4.2 Phase 2: interviews

In further answering research question 3, and indeed the overarching question of this study, the teachers who participated in the interviews were 22 of the 25 nominated by their students as being effective classroom managers. The interviewer posed a series of questions aimed at creating a mental set for participants around student behaviour and effective classroom management. All of the teachers agreed that students choose to behave well in some classes and not so well in others with one surmising what most had suggested: ‘how much of that is a conscious choice or a learned response to the context could be different’. A variety of reasons for students’ misbehaviour in school were suggested. Many were seen as ‘factors outside the teacher’s control. It can be the temperature, it can be what they’re doing at night, it can be the relationship with their family and it can be problems with their friends.’ Two key factors were dominant in the responses given by these teachers:

I think relationship is the main thing. I think kids find it really hard to misbehave when they have a really good relationship with the teacher but I also think that lack of engagement plays a key factor. Some kids will misbehave if they’re bored or something’s too difficult for them and they’re frustrated and they can’t do it.

Discipline was not so much about punishing students for infractions as it was teaching them how to behave appropriately and therefore disciplinary interventions needed to be both preventative and corrective.

Discipline is really all about getting the kids to control themselves and to make better choices. Discipline, I suppose, is about teaching discipline.

In discussion of key techniques used or required to manage classrooms a number of concepts were mentioned, all of which fell into the three key themes developed through analysis of the survey data, and well-articulated by one teacher who said, “look after me, manage my room, and do stuff that’s interesting. I think if we’ve got those three happening, we’re in a pretty good situation.” The use of various reminders and redirects such as eye contact, minimal use of verbal responses, use of students’ names and proximity were considered the “best way to go. Give them chances, keep it low key, scan the class, proximity, body language, all of that is crucial.”

The teachers interviewed had mixed opinions on involving students in classroom discipline decisions including creating rules with the students or talking with students to discuss the impact of their behaviours. One teacher explained, “we’re not a democracy, we’re a benevolent dictatorship.” But, others were quick to advocate otherwise:

At the beginning of the year that’s what we should all do. I do it by asking kids what they expect in the classroom, if we’re going to be productive, what do they expect from me as a teacher, what do they expect from other kids in the room, what do they expect from themselves. Then, based on that, if you had to put some guidelines in place what would they be for this to be a place of work?

When it came to the use of punishment all of the teachers interviewed agreed:

It’s such a negative thing to do. There’s no relationship-building aspect to it either. You’ve sort of lost what you’ve built. Obviously, there has to be consequences if you did something wrong. But punishing and being aggressive, handing out detentions and “scab” duty, it’s ineffective because you separate the consequence, not only from the behavior but separate it from yourself. It doesn’t do anything, it makes them angry and it doesn’t change their behavior. It doesn’t teach them, it doesn’t encourage them to a better way of behaving.

Encouraging students to a better way of behaving was important amongst all participants.

I don’t bribe them with anything. Sometimes it’s just a comment or bit of encouragement, or even a call home to say doing well. I often will say things like “It’s been a really great lesson today, we’ve had some really great input, everyone’s been focused, I thought the group work was fantastic” that kind of lay it on a bit thick and so it’s been really good, and try to mention a few names of, that comment that Susie said, you know that really generated some interesting discussion… rewarding them for their learning.

All teachers interviewed agreed that, “90% of it [effective classroom management] is building a rapport. Once I’ve built a rapport then I can train them, both academically and socially. I think if you are engaging and interactive and actually show that you care about them and about their progress. That goes a long way into establishing a successful classroom.”

5 Discussion

Effective classroom management is a key dimension of teacher preparation and practice, and an important factor in early-career teacher retention or attrition (Buchanan et al. 2013 ). In an effort to improve teachers’ classroom management and its development within Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programs, it seems important to take strong consideration of teachers’ views of the practices that comprise positive learning environments. Recognizing the equal importance and value of students’ views about what happens in the classrooms (OECD 2014 ), this study investigates the beliefs and self-reported actions of teachers that students nominated as effective in creating and maintaining quality learning environments.

The aim of this study was to examine the views of teachers that students suggest manage their classes well to ascertain what their approaches are and how they manage the behaviours of the students in their classrooms. Our analysis of teachers’ survey responses showed that the two constructs of effective classroom management, instructional and behavioural management, were certainly evident in all teachers’ classrooms with most indicating their preference for techniques that are more consistent with an interactionalist approach. However, 16% of teacher-participants also suggested a preference for a more corrective and controlling approach in their classroom management. In comparing the views of those nominated by students with those not, teachers’ use of compliance and coercion strategies showed the largest differences between the two groups, despite not being statistically different . However, all teachers nominated by students as effective reflected a largely interactionalist rather than interventionist approach to classroom management. This would seem to be consistent with research that suggests that most success comes from those teachers who exhibit interactionalist traits (Brophy 1988 ; Lewis 2001 ; Maguire et al. 2010 ).

In analysing the open-ended question that asked teachers what they do that helps to create and maintain safe and supportive learning environments, the differences between those nominated by students and those not became wider and clearer. Responses from those teachers not nominated by students show a much greater reliance on imposing and maintaining control, with 20% of their comments referring to the need to regulate and enforce rules through the use of consequences such as detentions or time out. Interestingly, over 20% of those nominated by students referred instead to building caring relationships as a key element in effective classroom management. This led us to suggest a third key construct of classroom management needing attention, that of care for students .

Interviews with teachers nominated by students further consolidated the three constructs of effective classroom management: caring relationships, behaviour management and instructional management. Participant-teachers believe building rapport through caring for their students’ well-being, as the key to building positive relationships. They indicated that trust and encouragement were fundamental aspects of their relationships with students in addition to high expectations and appropriate challenges. These teachers held students accountable but also fostered student responsibility with support and structure. They firmly believed in creating learning experiences for their students that were varied and engaging.

A limitation of this study was not being able to verify the views of these teachers in observed practice. An obvious extension of this research would be to observe some of these teachers in the classroom, to further develop and highlight key practices that effectively manage students and their learning environment. Core findings from this study, however, re-affirm that effective classroom management is multidimensional including caring relationships, high expectations and opportunities for engagement, participation and contribution. This has important implications for how we prepare new teachers, for supporting early career teachers and for teachers’ ongoing professional learning. Do we attend sufficiently to the multidimensionality of classroom management in our initial teacher education programs? Are we providing impactful, research based professional learning for teachers, that offers support and mentoring as well as skills-based training?

Furthermore, at the macro policy level, these findings should be used to inform standards–setting authorities such as the Australian Institute for Teaching and Leadership (AITSL) as part of ongoing reviews of policy instruments, including the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers (AITSL 2011 ) and Initial Teacher Education mandated program accreditation standards (AITSL 2018 ). Any such reviews would greatly benefit from considering the views of teachers identified by students as effective classroom managers. As many of the teachers in this study suggested that students themselves had been a great influence on their knowledge and understanding of how to effectively manage their classrooms, perhaps greater value could be placed on the views of those we seek to most influence—the students themselves. It seems important to also note that while building positive relationships and having high expectations may be more difficult to regulate, measure and quantify than some other pedagogical practices, they were nevertheless considered by both students and teachers in this study to be of central and critical importance.

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Egeberg, H., McConney, A. & Price, A. Teachers’ views on effective classroom management: a mixed-methods investigation in Western Australian high schools. Educ Res Policy Prac 20 , 107–124 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10671-020-09270-w

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1 What is Action Research for Classroom Teachers?

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS

  • What is the nature of action research?
  • How does action research develop in the classroom?
  • What models of action research work best for your classroom?
  • What are the epistemological, ontological, theoretical underpinnings of action research?

Educational research provides a vast landscape of knowledge on topics related to teaching and learning, curriculum and assessment, students’ cognitive and affective needs, cultural and socio-economic factors of schools, and many other factors considered viable to improving schools. Educational stakeholders rely on research to make informed decisions that ultimately affect the quality of schooling for their students. Accordingly, the purpose of educational research is to engage in disciplined inquiry to generate knowledge on topics significant to the students, teachers, administrators, schools, and other educational stakeholders. Just as the topics of educational research vary, so do the approaches to conducting educational research in the classroom. Your approach to research will be shaped by your context, your professional identity, and paradigm (set of beliefs and assumptions that guide your inquiry). These will all be key factors in how you generate knowledge related to your work as an educator.

Action research is an approach to educational research that is commonly used by educational practitioners and professionals to examine, and ultimately improve, their pedagogy and practice. In this way, action research represents an extension of the reflection and critical self-reflection that an educator employs on a daily basis in their classroom. When students are actively engaged in learning, the classroom can be dynamic and uncertain, demanding the constant attention of the educator. Considering these demands, educators are often only able to engage in reflection that is fleeting, and for the purpose of accommodation, modification, or formative assessment. Action research offers one path to more deliberate, substantial, and critical reflection that can be documented and analyzed to improve an educator’s practice.

Purpose of Action Research

As one of many approaches to educational research, it is important to distinguish the potential purposes of action research in the classroom. This book focuses on action research as a method to enable and support educators in pursuing effective pedagogical practices by transforming the quality of teaching decisions and actions, to subsequently enhance student engagement and learning. Being mindful of this purpose, the following aspects of action research are important to consider as you contemplate and engage with action research methodology in your classroom:

  • Action research is a process for improving educational practice. Its methods involve action, evaluation, and reflection. It is a process to gather evidence to implement change in practices.
  • Action research is participative and collaborative. It is undertaken by individuals with a common purpose.
  • Action research is situation and context-based.
  • Action research develops reflection practices based on the interpretations made by participants.
  • Knowledge is created through action and application.
  • Action research can be based in problem-solving, if the solution to the problem results in the improvement of practice.
  • Action research is iterative; plans are created, implemented, revised, then implemented, lending itself to an ongoing process of reflection and revision.
  • In action research, findings emerge as action develops and takes place; however, they are not conclusive or absolute, but ongoing (Koshy, 2010, pgs. 1-2).

In thinking about the purpose of action research, it is helpful to situate action research as a distinct paradigm of educational research. I like to think about action research as part of the larger concept of living knowledge. Living knowledge has been characterized as “a quest for life, to understand life and to create… knowledge which is valid for the people with whom I work and for myself” (Swantz, in Reason & Bradbury, 2001, pg. 1). Why should educators care about living knowledge as part of educational research? As mentioned above, action research is meant “to produce practical knowledge that is useful to people in the everyday conduct of their lives and to see that action research is about working towards practical outcomes” (Koshy, 2010, pg. 2). However, it is also about:

creating new forms of understanding, since action without reflection and understanding is blind, just as theory without action is meaningless. The participatory nature of action research makes it only possible with, for and by persons and communities, ideally involving all stakeholders both in the questioning and sense making that informs the research, and in the action, which is its focus. (Reason & Bradbury, 2001, pg. 2)

In an effort to further situate action research as living knowledge, Jean McNiff reminds us that “there is no such ‘thing’ as ‘action research’” (2013, pg. 24). In other words, action research is not static or finished, it defines itself as it proceeds. McNiff’s reminder characterizes action research as action-oriented, and a process that individuals go through to make their learning public to explain how it informs their practice. Action research does not derive its meaning from an abstract idea, or a self-contained discovery – action research’s meaning stems from the way educators negotiate the problems and successes of living and working in the classroom, school, and community.

While we can debate the idea of action research, there are people who are action researchers, and they use the idea of action research to develop principles and theories to guide their practice. Action research, then, refers to an organization of principles that guide action researchers as they act on shared beliefs, commitments, and expectations in their inquiry.

Reflection and the Process of Action Research

When an individual engages in reflection on their actions or experiences, it is typically for the purpose of better understanding those experiences, or the consequences of those actions to improve related action and experiences in the future. Reflection in this way develops knowledge around these actions and experiences to help us better regulate those actions in the future. The reflective process generates new knowledge regularly for classroom teachers and informs their classroom actions.

Unfortunately, the knowledge generated by educators through the reflective process is not always prioritized among the other sources of knowledge educators are expected to utilize in the classroom. Educators are expected to draw upon formal types of knowledge, such as textbooks, content standards, teaching standards, district curriculum and behavioral programs, etc., to gain new knowledge and make decisions in the classroom. While these forms of knowledge are important, the reflective knowledge that educators generate through their pedagogy is the amalgamation of these types of knowledge enacted in the classroom. Therefore, reflective knowledge is uniquely developed based on the action and implementation of an educator’s pedagogy in the classroom. Action research offers a way to formalize the knowledge generated by educators so that it can be utilized and disseminated throughout the teaching profession.

Research is concerned with the generation of knowledge, and typically creating knowledge related to a concept, idea, phenomenon, or topic. Action research generates knowledge around inquiry in practical educational contexts. Action research allows educators to learn through their actions with the purpose of developing personally or professionally. Due to its participatory nature, the process of action research is also distinct in educational research. There are many models for how the action research process takes shape. I will share a few of those here. Each model utilizes the following processes to some extent:

  • Plan a change;
  • Take action to enact the change;
  • Observe the process and consequences of the change;
  • Reflect on the process and consequences;
  • Act, observe, & reflect again and so on.

The basic process of Action Research is as follows: Plan a change; Take action to enact the change; Observe the process and consequences of the change; Reflect on the process and consequences; Act, observe, & reflect again and so on.

Figure 1.1 Basic action research cycle

There are many other models that supplement the basic process of action research with other aspects of the research process to consider. For example, figure 1.2 illustrates a spiral model of action research proposed by Kemmis and McTaggart (2004). The spiral model emphasizes the cyclical process that moves beyond the initial plan for change. The spiral model also emphasizes revisiting the initial plan and revising based on the initial cycle of research:

Kemmis and McTaggart (2004) offer a slightly different process for action research: Plan; Act & Observe; Reflect; Revised Plan; Act & Observe; Reflect.

Figure 1.2 Interpretation of action research spiral, Kemmis and McTaggart (2004, p. 595)

Other models of action research reorganize the process to emphasize the distinct ways knowledge takes shape in the reflection process. O’Leary’s (2004, p. 141) model, for example, recognizes that the research may take shape in the classroom as knowledge emerges from the teacher’s observations. O’Leary highlights the need for action research to be focused on situational understanding and implementation of action, initiated organically from real-time issues:

O'Leary (2004) offers another version of the action research process that focuses the cyclical nature of action research, with three cycles shown: Observe; Reflect; Plan; Act; And Repeat.

Figure 1.3 Interpretation of O’Leary’s cycles of research, O’Leary (2000, p. 141)

Lastly, Macintyre’s (2000, p. 1) model, offers a different characterization of the action research process. Macintyre emphasizes a messier process of research with the initial reflections and conclusions as the benchmarks for guiding the research process. Macintyre emphasizes the flexibility in planning, acting, and observing stages to allow the process to be naturalistic. Our interpretation of Macintyre process is below:

Macintyre (2000) offers a much more complex process of action research that highlights multiple processes happening at the same time. It starts with: Reflection and analysis of current practice and general idea of research topic and context. Second: Narrowing down the topic, planning the action; and scanning the literature, discussing with colleagues. Third: Refined topic – selection of key texts, formulation of research question/hypothesis, organization of refined action plan in context; and tentative action plan, consideration of different research strategies. Fourth: Evaluation of entire process; and take action, monitor effects – evaluation of strategy and research question/hypothesis and final amendments. Lastly: Conclusions, claims, explanations. Recommendations for further research.

Figure 1.4 Interpretation of the action research cycle, Macintyre (2000, p. 1)

We believe it is important to prioritize the flexibility of the process, and encourage you to only use these models as basic guides for your process. Your process may look similar, or you may diverge from these models as you better understand your students, context, and data.

Definitions of Action Research and Examples

At this point, it may be helpful for readers to have a working definition of action research and some examples to illustrate the methodology in the classroom. Bassey (1998, p. 93) offers a very practical definition and describes “action research as an inquiry which is carried out in order to understand, to evaluate and then to change, in order to improve educational practice.” Cohen and Manion (1994, p. 192) situate action research differently, and describe action research as emergent, writing:

essentially an on-the-spot procedure designed to deal with a concrete problem located in an immediate situation. This means that ideally, the step-by-step process is constantly monitored over varying periods of time and by a variety of mechanisms (questionnaires, diaries, interviews and case studies, for example) so that the ensuing feedback may be translated into modifications, adjustment, directional changes, redefinitions, as necessary, so as to bring about lasting benefit to the ongoing process itself rather than to some future occasion.

Lastly, Koshy (2010, p. 9) describes action research as:

a constructive inquiry, during which the researcher constructs his or her knowledge of specific issues through planning, acting, evaluating, refining and learning from the experience. It is a continuous learning process in which the researcher learns and also shares the newly generated knowledge with those who may benefit from it.

These definitions highlight the distinct features of action research and emphasize the purposeful intent of action researchers to improve, refine, reform, and problem-solve issues in their educational context. To better understand the distinctness of action research, these are some examples of action research topics:

Examples of Action Research Topics

  • Flexible seating in 4th grade classroom to increase effective collaborative learning.
  • Structured homework protocols for increasing student achievement.
  • Developing a system of formative feedback for 8th grade writing.
  • Using music to stimulate creative writing.
  • Weekly brown bag lunch sessions to improve responses to PD from staff.
  • Using exercise balls as chairs for better classroom management.

Action Research in Theory

Action research-based inquiry in educational contexts and classrooms involves distinct participants – students, teachers, and other educational stakeholders within the system. All of these participants are engaged in activities to benefit the students, and subsequently society as a whole. Action research contributes to these activities and potentially enhances the participants’ roles in the education system. Participants’ roles are enhanced based on two underlying principles:

  • communities, schools, and classrooms are sites of socially mediated actions, and action research provides a greater understanding of self and new knowledge of how to negotiate these socially mediated environments;
  • communities, schools, and classrooms are part of social systems in which humans interact with many cultural tools, and action research provides a basis to construct and analyze these interactions.

In our quest for knowledge and understanding, we have consistently analyzed human experience over time and have distinguished between types of reality. Humans have constantly sought “facts” and “truth” about reality that can be empirically demonstrated or observed.

Social systems are based on beliefs, and generally, beliefs about what will benefit the greatest amount of people in that society. Beliefs, and more specifically the rationale or support for beliefs, are not always easy to demonstrate or observe as part of our reality. Take the example of an English Language Arts teacher who prioritizes argumentative writing in her class. She believes that argumentative writing demonstrates the mechanics of writing best among types of writing, while also providing students a skill they will need as citizens and professionals. While we can observe the students writing, and we can assess their ability to develop a written argument, it is difficult to observe the students’ understanding of argumentative writing and its purpose in their future. This relates to the teacher’s beliefs about argumentative writing; we cannot observe the real value of the teaching of argumentative writing. The teacher’s rationale and beliefs about teaching argumentative writing are bound to the social system and the skills their students will need to be active parts of that system. Therefore, our goal through action research is to demonstrate the best ways to teach argumentative writing to help all participants understand its value as part of a social system.

The knowledge that is conveyed in a classroom is bound to, and justified by, a social system. A postmodernist approach to understanding our world seeks knowledge within a social system, which is directly opposed to the empirical or positivist approach which demands evidence based on logic or science as rationale for beliefs. Action research does not rely on a positivist viewpoint to develop evidence and conclusions as part of the research process. Action research offers a postmodernist stance to epistemology (theory of knowledge) and supports developing questions and new inquiries during the research process. In this way action research is an emergent process that allows beliefs and decisions to be negotiated as reality and meaning are being constructed in the socially mediated space of the classroom.

Theorizing Action Research for the Classroom

All research, at its core, is for the purpose of generating new knowledge and contributing to the knowledge base of educational research. Action researchers in the classroom want to explore methods of improving their pedagogy and practice. The starting place of their inquiry stems from their pedagogy and practice, so by nature the knowledge created from their inquiry is often contextually specific to their classroom, school, or community. Therefore, we should examine the theoretical underpinnings of action research for the classroom. It is important to connect action research conceptually to experience; for example, Levin and Greenwood (2001, p. 105) make these connections:

  • Action research is context bound and addresses real life problems.
  • Action research is inquiry where participants and researchers cogenerate knowledge through collaborative communicative processes in which all participants’ contributions are taken seriously.
  • The meanings constructed in the inquiry process lead to social action or these reflections and action lead to the construction of new meanings.
  • The credibility/validity of action research knowledge is measured according to whether the actions that arise from it solve problems (workability) and increase participants’ control over their own situation.

Educators who engage in action research will generate new knowledge and beliefs based on their experiences in the classroom. Let us emphasize that these are all important to you and your work, as both an educator and researcher. It is these experiences, beliefs, and theories that are often discounted when more official forms of knowledge (e.g., textbooks, curriculum standards, districts standards) are prioritized. These beliefs and theories based on experiences should be valued and explored further, and this is one of the primary purposes of action research in the classroom. These beliefs and theories should be valued because they were meaningful aspects of knowledge constructed from teachers’ experiences. Developing meaning and knowledge in this way forms the basis of constructivist ideology, just as teachers often try to get their students to construct their own meanings and understandings when experiencing new ideas.  

Classroom Teachers Constructing their Own Knowledge

Most of you are probably at least minimally familiar with constructivism, or the process of constructing knowledge. However, what is constructivism precisely, for the purposes of action research? Many scholars have theorized constructivism and have identified two key attributes (Koshy, 2010; von Glasersfeld, 1987):

  • Knowledge is not passively received, but actively developed through an individual’s cognition;
  • Human cognition is adaptive and finds purpose in organizing the new experiences of the world, instead of settling for absolute or objective truth.

Considering these two attributes, constructivism is distinct from conventional knowledge formation because people can develop a theory of knowledge that orders and organizes the world based on their experiences, instead of an objective or neutral reality. When individuals construct knowledge, there are interactions between an individual and their environment where communication, negotiation and meaning-making are collectively developing knowledge. For most educators, constructivism may be a natural inclination of their pedagogy. Action researchers have a similar relationship to constructivism because they are actively engaged in a process of constructing knowledge. However, their constructions may be more formal and based on the data they collect in the research process. Action researchers also are engaged in the meaning making process, making interpretations from their data. These aspects of the action research process situate them in the constructivist ideology. Just like constructivist educators, action researchers’ constructions of knowledge will be affected by their individual and professional ideas and values, as well as the ecological context in which they work (Biesta & Tedder, 2006). The relations between constructivist inquiry and action research is important, as Lincoln (2001, p. 130) states:

much of the epistemological, ontological, and axiological belief systems are the same or similar, and methodologically, constructivists and action researchers work in similar ways, relying on qualitative methods in face-to-face work, while buttressing information, data and background with quantitative method work when necessary or useful.

While there are many links between action research and educators in the classroom, constructivism offers the most familiar and practical threads to bind the beliefs of educators and action researchers.  

Epistemology, Ontology, and Action Research

It is also important for educators to consider the philosophical stances related to action research to better situate it with their beliefs and reality. When researchers make decisions about the methodology they intend to use, they will consider their ontological and epistemological stances. It is vital that researchers clearly distinguish their philosophical stances and understand the implications of their stance in the research process, especially when collecting and analyzing their data. In what follows, we will discuss ontological and epistemological stances in relation to action research methodology.

Ontology, or the theory of being, is concerned with the claims or assumptions we make about ourselves within our social reality – what do we think exists, what does it look like, what entities are involved and how do these entities interact with each other (Blaikie, 2007). In relation to the discussion of constructivism, generally action researchers would consider their educational reality as socially constructed. Social construction of reality happens when individuals interact in a social system. Meaningful construction of concepts and representations of reality develop through an individual’s interpretations of others’ actions. These interpretations become agreed upon by members of a social system and become part of social fabric, reproduced as knowledge and beliefs to develop assumptions about reality. Researchers develop meaningful constructions based on their experiences and through communication. Educators as action researchers will be examining the socially constructed reality of schools. In the United States, many of our concepts, knowledge, and beliefs about schooling have been socially constructed over the last hundred years. For example, a group of teachers may look at why fewer female students enroll in upper-level science courses at their school. This question deals directly with the social construction of gender and specifically what careers females have been conditioned to pursue. We know this is a social construction in some school social systems because in other parts of the world, or even the United States, there are schools that have more females enrolled in upper level science courses than male students. Therefore, the educators conducting the research have to recognize the socially constructed reality of their school and consider this reality throughout the research process. Action researchers will use methods of data collection that support their ontological stance and clarify their theoretical stance throughout the research process.

Koshy (2010, p. 23-24) offers another example of addressing the ontological challenges in the classroom:

A teacher who was concerned with increasing her pupils’ motivation and enthusiasm for learning decided to introduce learning diaries which the children could take home. They were invited to record their reactions to the day’s lessons and what they had learnt. The teacher reported in her field diary that the learning diaries stimulated the children’s interest in her lessons, increased their capacity to learn, and generally improved their level of participation in lessons. The challenge for the teacher here is in the analysis and interpretation of the multiplicity of factors accompanying the use of diaries. The diaries were taken home so the entries may have been influenced by discussions with parents. Another possibility is that children felt the need to please their teacher. Another possible influence was that their increased motivation was as a result of the difference in style of teaching which included more discussions in the classroom based on the entries in the dairies.

Here you can see the challenge for the action researcher is working in a social context with multiple factors, values, and experiences that were outside of the teacher’s control. The teacher was only responsible for introducing the diaries as a new style of learning. The students’ engagement and interactions with this new style of learning were all based upon their socially constructed notions of learning inside and outside of the classroom. A researcher with a positivist ontological stance would not consider these factors, and instead might simply conclude that the dairies increased motivation and interest in the topic, as a result of introducing the diaries as a learning strategy.

Epistemology, or the theory of knowledge, signifies a philosophical view of what counts as knowledge – it justifies what is possible to be known and what criteria distinguishes knowledge from beliefs (Blaikie, 1993). Positivist researchers, for example, consider knowledge to be certain and discovered through scientific processes. Action researchers collect data that is more subjective and examine personal experience, insights, and beliefs.

Action researchers utilize interpretation as a means for knowledge creation. Action researchers have many epistemologies to choose from as means of situating the types of knowledge they will generate by interpreting the data from their research. For example, Koro-Ljungberg et al., (2009) identified several common epistemologies in their article that examined epistemological awareness in qualitative educational research, such as: objectivism, subjectivism, constructionism, contextualism, social epistemology, feminist epistemology, idealism, naturalized epistemology, externalism, relativism, skepticism, and pluralism. All of these epistemological stances have implications for the research process, especially data collection and analysis. Please see the table on pages 689-90, linked below for a sketch of these potential implications:

Again, Koshy (2010, p. 24) provides an excellent example to illustrate the epistemological challenges within action research:

A teacher of 11-year-old children decided to carry out an action research project which involved a change in style in teaching mathematics. Instead of giving children mathematical tasks displaying the subject as abstract principles, she made links with other subjects which she believed would encourage children to see mathematics as a discipline that could improve their understanding of the environment and historic events. At the conclusion of the project, the teacher reported that applicable mathematics generated greater enthusiasm and understanding of the subject.

The educator/researcher engaged in action research-based inquiry to improve an aspect of her pedagogy. She generated knowledge that indicated she had improved her students’ understanding of mathematics by integrating it with other subjects – specifically in the social and ecological context of her classroom, school, and community. She valued constructivism and students generating their own understanding of mathematics based on related topics in other subjects. Action researchers working in a social context do not generate certain knowledge, but knowledge that emerges and can be observed and researched again, building upon their knowledge each time.

Researcher Positionality in Action Research

In this first chapter, we have discussed a lot about the role of experiences in sparking the research process in the classroom. Your experiences as an educator will shape how you approach action research in your classroom. Your experiences as a person in general will also shape how you create knowledge from your research process. In particular, your experiences will shape how you make meaning from your findings. It is important to be clear about your experiences when developing your methodology too. This is referred to as researcher positionality. Maher and Tetreault (1993, p. 118) define positionality as:

Gender, race, class, and other aspects of our identities are markers of relational positions rather than essential qualities. Knowledge is valid when it includes an acknowledgment of the knower’s specific position in any context, because changing contextual and relational factors are crucial for defining identities and our knowledge in any given situation.

By presenting your positionality in the research process, you are signifying the type of socially constructed, and other types of, knowledge you will be using to make sense of the data. As Maher and Tetreault explain, this increases the trustworthiness of your conclusions about the data. This would not be possible with a positivist ontology. We will discuss positionality more in chapter 6, but we wanted to connect it to the overall theoretical underpinnings of action research.

Advantages of Engaging in Action Research in the Classroom

In the following chapters, we will discuss how action research takes shape in your classroom, and we wanted to briefly summarize the key advantages to action research methodology over other types of research methodology. As Koshy (2010, p. 25) notes, action research provides useful methodology for school and classroom research because:

Advantages of Action Research for the Classroom

  • research can be set within a specific context or situation;
  • researchers can be participants – they don’t have to be distant and detached from the situation;
  • it involves continuous evaluation and modifications can be made easily as the project progresses;
  • there are opportunities for theory to emerge from the research rather than always follow a previously formulated theory;
  • the study can lead to open-ended outcomes;
  • through action research, a researcher can bring a story to life.

Action Research Copyright © by J. Spencer Clark; Suzanne Porath; Julie Thiele; and Morgan Jobe is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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100 Classroom Management Topics and Essay Examples

🏆 best classroom management ideas, 👍 good class management ideas, ✅ most interesting classroom management topics, ❓ classroom management research questions.

  • My Own Classroom Management System Classroom management involves not only the management of student behavior but everything that goes on in the class…from preparation for the class day, to what transpires during the day and even up to when the […]
  • Classroom Management: Limitations and Benefits Taking class composition into consideration is highly important for the success of management of the class, where an educator is to provide positive student-teacher relationships and capitalize on human resources making cultural backgrounds a part […]
  • The Emperor’s Club: Classroom Behaviour Management The Emperor’s Club is a movie drama telling the story of the life of a teacher, William Hundert. These strategies will include behavior management, the engagement of students, and the level of power the protagonist […]
  • Behaviour Management in a Classroom Setting In a classroom setting, the teacher is capable of regulating the behaviour of the students. To positively change the behaviour of a student, the teacher must be able to trace the cause of their problematic […]
  • Legal and Ethical Implications for Classroom Management Teachers’ classroom management should be built in a way that does not allow for abuse of students’ rights, and enables the learners to get the necessary studying information and proper instructions.
  • Classroom Management and Learning Environment Thereby, the result is the achievement of the set goals in the course of teaching. This helps the students adjust well with the topic of study and familiarize themselves with the directives and requirements in […]
  • Developing a Personal Approach to Classroom Management The environment should be characterized by mutual respect amongst the students and the teacher and this will facilitate the classroom to listen, ask questions, make constructive comments and generally when this is done freely the […]
  • Classroom Management Strategies If a teacher sees students in the laboratory or on the field playing and talks to them about the activity, they are doing, these students will have respect to the teacher both inside and outside […]
  • Classroom Management and Routines Reinforcement in the class is expressed in the form of praise, and the opportunity to take a reward from the treasure box.
  • Classroom Management Issues X’s view of classroom management does not incorporate the variety of components that allow an educator to analyze the behavior and attitudes of the students and organize the learning activities in the most effective way.
  • Clinical Field Experience in Classroom Management First, I will be able to understand the expectations of learners based on the course outline before delegating duties and responsibilities to the trained aides in education.
  • Evaluation of Classroom Management Theories The following evaluation will assess the Skinner Model of Operant Conditioning, the Glasser Model or The Choice Theory, the Canter Model, and Jones’ Model. Therefore, educators must balance the approaches and adapt to the conditions […]
  • The Concept of Classroom Management In the analysis of the first case, the main reason behind the preference for this type of arrangement revolves around the need to create space, enhance movement of the teacher, and enable high levels of […]
  • Benchmark – Classroom Management Plan The degree to which the relationship with students’ parents is developed determines the fullness of their involvement: the more active the adult is in the classroom, the more varied the learning can be.
  • Strategies for Good Classroom Management The modeling of practices that a teacher would like to see and the teaching of character may be regarded as the most essential strategies that help to minimize cultural and individual differences.
  • “Classroom Management Strategies for Difficult Students” by O’Farrell The strategies that have been suggested to teachers and elaborated in this article include; building a sense of empathy, showing admiration the student’s negative attitudes and behaviors, letting go of ego when dealing with the […]
  • Classroom Management: Term Definiton In a learning centre, the teacher should be able to explain to the learners the kind of behavior expected of them in the learning centre.
  • Integrative Education Model as a Type of Classroom Management The Integrative Education Model is the most appropriate type of classroom management for gifted children because it involves students and teachers in polite conversations, encouragement and approval of each other.
  • Classroom Behavior Management In order to achieve positive outcomes in the educational arena, teachers ought to be able to organize the classroom and manage the behavior of their students.
  • Time-Out Rooms for Classroom & Behavior Management This is hard to argue with this idea, but only under the condition that the room is properly designed, safe, and is not abused by the educators; this should be a place where a child […]
  • Productive Teacher-Student Interaction: Classroom Management In this case, the work is of a preventive nature but not reactive, which minimises the likelihood of conflicts and contributes to a favourable learning environment.
  • Classroom Management and Communication A classic calendar and a wall clock will be hanging in front of the class so that students are updated on time and the class is decorated.
  • Classroom Management Practices It is critical for a teacher to be able to address the unwanted behaviors of the student and establish the desired order in the classroom in order to facilitate productive work and successful learning for […]
  • Disruptive Behavior Management in Classroom A student who is a “helpless hand raiser” either pays little to no attention to the teacher’s explanation of the new materials or gets disrupted during the explanation; as a result, the student misses important […]
  • Classroom Management Plan and Its Importance Although the classroom management plan includes a range of components, its development is important to reflect the teacher’s priorities and actions to achieve the set goals; therefore, the plan should include the statement of the […]
  • Classroom Management Observation and Assessment One of the simplest methods to do so is to have assessors sit at the back of the classroom and evaluate the teacher’s performance.
  • Teacher Emotional Management in the Classroom The hypothesis of the study is clear and consistent with the objective of the study, which states that effective management and regulation of unpleasant emotions can help alleviate impacts of disruptive classroom behaviors of students […]
  • Classroom Management Comprehensive Plan All students will have to be attentive in class, to contribute in class; the students will have to raise their hands or politely bring me to their attention, the students will always complete and send […]
  • Classroom Management: Johnny’ Case It is necessary to talk to the school counselor, discuss Johnny’s strong and weak points, taking into consideration his grade level, keep in mind possible rewards and obligatory schedules, and, at the same time, address […]
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  • Data Analysis and Results of Classroom Management
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  • Classroom Management and the Behaviorist Theory of Education
  • The Classroom Management Challenges Facing Teachers
  • Classroom Management Methods and Methods
  • Classroom Management Can Make or Break The School Year
  • Self Efficacy and Classroom Management
  • Education Classroom Management Journal
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  • 20th and 21st Century Classroom Management Pioneers
  • Best Practices Checklist and Its Effectiveness in Relation to Classroom Management Preparation Evaluation
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  • What Do Managers Say About Classroom Management?
  • How Can One Control a Disruptive Behaviour in a Classroom Without Disrupting the Lesson?
  • What Problems Could Be Avoided in Classroom Management?
  • Does Effective Classroom Management Prevent Discipline Problems?
  • What Does Affect Teachers’ Classroom Management Skills?
  • What Are the Challenges of Online Classroom Management?
  • How to Support Students and Help Them Continue to Learn During COVID-19?
  • What Strategies Would Be Effective to Handle Mixed-Ability Students in Learning English as a Foreign Language?
  • Is Classroom Management an Innate Skill or Something Which Can Be Taught?
  • What Is the Effect of Physical Learning Spaces on Students’ Motivation?
  • Do Cultural Dimensions Affect Classroom Interaction and Learning Outcomes?
  • How Can a Teacher Control Noise in the Classroom?
  • What Are the Key Skills Demonstrated by Teachers Who Are Defined as Being Effective Classroom Managers?
  • How Important Is It to Establish Personal Relations With Students?
  • What Are Strategies and Solutions for Dealing With a Disruptive Classroom?
  • Can Social Media Be Used Effectively in the Classroom or Is It Too Distracting?
  • How May Elementary School Class Size and Middle School Socioeconomic Status Influence Middle School Transition?
  • What Are the Key Elements of Effective Classroom Management?
  • When Dealing With Classroom Interactions, Are There Any Alternatives to the Flanders Instrument?
  • Do Colors Effect Children With Deficit and Emotional or Behavioral Disorders?
  • Why Do Small Class Sizes Have Positive Effects on Learning Outcomes?
  • How Do Students Feel About Using Smart Phone Technology for Learning Activities?
  • What Is the Link Between Numeracy Automaticity and Student Performance in the Regular Classroom?
  • How Can Teachers Help Their Students Become Better Learners by Doing Research in the Teachers’ Backyards?
  • Should We Use So Much Technology in Teaching?
  • Can We Consider Education Using the Virtual Classroom Is an Instance of E-learning?
  • What Is the Successful Way to Build a Healthy Community of Students in a Class?
  • How Do Classroom Management Affect Students?
  • What Are Strategies for Effective Classroom Management?
  • How Can Teachers Fully Benefit From Classroom Management?
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200+ List of Topics for Action Research in the Classroom

List of Topics for Action Research in the Classroom

In the dynamic landscape of education, teachers are continually seeking innovative ways to enhance their teaching practices and improve student outcomes. Action research in the classroom is a powerful tool that allows educators to investigate and address specific challenges, leading to positive changes in teaching methods and learning experiences. 

Selecting the right topics from the list of topics for action research in the classroom is crucial for ensuring meaningful insights and improvements. In this blog post, we will explore the significance of action research in the classroom, the criteria for selecting impactful topics, and provide an extensive list of potential research areas.

Understanding: What is Action Research

Table of Contents

Action research is a reflective process that empowers teachers to systematically investigate and analyze their own teaching practices. Unlike traditional research, action research is conducted by educators within their own classrooms, emphasizing a collaborative and participatory approach. 

This method enables teachers to identify challenges, implement interventions, and assess the effectiveness of their actions.

How to Select Topics From List of Topics for Action Research in the Classroom

Choosing the right topic is the first step in the action research process. The selected topic should align with classroom goals, address students’ needs, be feasible to implement, and have the potential for positive impact. Teachers should consider the following criteria when selecting action research topics:

  • Alignment with Classroom Goals and Objectives: The chosen topic should directly contribute to the overall goals and objectives of the classroom. Whether it’s improving student engagement, enhancing learning outcomes, or fostering a positive classroom environment, the topic should align with the broader educational context.
  • Relevance to Students’ Needs and Challenges: Effective action research addresses the specific needs and challenges faced by students. Teachers should identify areas where students may be struggling or where improvement is needed, ensuring that the research directly impacts the learning experiences of the students.
  • Feasibility and Practicality: The feasibility of the research is crucial. Teachers must choose topics that are practical to implement within the constraints of the classroom setting. This includes considering available resources, time constraints, and the level of support from school administrators.
  • Potential for Positive Impact: The ultimate goal of action research is to bring about positive change. Teachers should carefully assess the potential impact of their research, aiming for improvements in teaching methods, student performance, or overall classroom dynamics.

List of Topics for Action Research in the Classroom

  • Impact of Mindfulness Practices on Student Focus
  • The Effectiveness of Peer Tutoring in Mathematics
  • Strategies for Encouraging Critical Thinking in History Classes
  • Using Gamification to Enhance Learning in Science
  • Investigating the Impact of Flexible Seating Arrangements
  • Assessing the Benefits of Project-Based Learning in Language Arts
  • The Influence of Classroom Decor on Student Motivation
  • Examining the Use of Learning Stations for Differentiation
  • Implementing Reflective Journals to Enhance Writing Skills
  • Exploring the Impact of Flipped Classroom Models
  • Analyzing the Effects of Homework on Student Performance
  • The Role of Positive Reinforcement in Classroom Behavior
  • Investigating the Impact of Classroom Libraries on Reading Proficiency
  • Strategies for Fostering a Growth Mindset in Students
  • Assessing the Benefits of Cross-Curricular Integration
  • Using Technology to Enhance Vocabulary Acquisition
  • The Impact of Outdoor Learning on Student Engagement
  • Investigating the Relationship Between Attendance and Academic Success
  • The Role of Parental Involvement in Homework Completion
  • Assessing the Impact of Classroom Rituals on Community Building
  • Strategies for Increasing Student Participation in Discussions
  • Exploring the Influence of Classroom Lighting on Student Alertness
  • Investigating the Impact of Daily Agendas on Time Management
  • The Effectiveness of Socratic Seminars in Social Studies
  • Analyzing the Use of Graphic Organizers for Concept Mapping
  • Implementing Student-Led Conferences for Goal Setting
  • Examining the Effects of Mind Mapping on Information Retention
  • The Influence of Classroom Temperature on Academic Performance
  • Investigating the Benefits of Cooperative Learning Strategies
  • Strategies for Addressing Test Anxiety in Students
  • Assessing the Impact of Positive Affirmations on Student Confidence
  • The Use of Literature Circles to Enhance Reading Comprehension
  • Exploring the Effects of Classroom Noise Levels on Concentration
  • Investigating the Benefits of Cross-Grade Collaborations
  • Analyzing the Impact of Goal Setting on Student Achievement
  • Implementing Interactive Notebooks for Conceptual Understanding
  • The Effectiveness of Response to Intervention (RTI) Programs
  • Strategies for Integrating Social-Emotional Learning (SEL)
  • Investigating the Impact of Classroom Discussions on Critical Thinking
  • The Role of Brain Breaks in Enhancing Student Focus
  • Assessing the Benefits of Inquiry-Based Learning in Science
  • Exploring the Effects of Music on Studying and Retention
  • Investigating the Use of Learning Contracts for Individualized Learning
  • The Influence of Classroom Colors on Mood and Learning
  • Strategies for Promoting Collaborative Problem-Solving
  • Analyzing the Impact of Flexible Scheduling on Student Productivity
  • The Effectiveness of Mindful Breathing Exercises on Stress Reduction
  • Investigating the Benefits of Service Learning Projects
  • The Role of Peer Assessment in Improving Writing Skills
  • Exploring the Impact of Field Trips on Cultural Competency
  • Assessing the Benefits of Personalized Learning Plans
  • Strategies for Differentiating Instruction in Large Classrooms
  • Investigating the Influence of Teacher-Student Relationships on Learning
  • The Effectiveness of Vocabulary Games in Foreign Language Classes
  • Analyzing the Impact of Classroom Discussions on Civic Engagement
  • Implementing Goal-Setting Strategies for Test Preparation
  • The Role of Classroom Celebrations in Building a Positive Environment
  • Strategies for Enhancing Student Reflection and Metacognition
  • Investigating the Effects of Positive Behavior Supports (PBS)
  • The Influence of Classroom Humor on Student Engagement
  • Assessing the Benefits of Student-Led Research Projects
  • Exploring the Impact of Timed vs. Untimed Tests on Anxiety
  • Investigating the Use of Educational Podcasts for Learning
  • The Effectiveness of Debate Activities in Developing Persuasive Skills
  • Analyzing the Impact of Mindful Walking Breaks on Concentration
  • Strategies for Promoting Digital Citizenship in the Classroom
  • The Role of Visualization Techniques in Mathematics Learning
  • Assessing the Benefits of Classroom Agreements for Behavior
  • Exploring the Effects of Goal-Setting in Physical Education
  • Investigating the Influence of Classroom Seating Charts on Behavior
  • The Effectiveness of Peer Editing in Improving Writing Skills
  • Strategies for Integrating Cultural Competency in History Lessons
  • Analyzing the Impact of Classroom Pets on Student Well-Being
  • The Role of Morning Meetings in Building Classroom Community
  • Investigating the Benefits of Using Learning Centers in Elementary Schools
  • Exploring the Effects of Virtual Reality in Geography Education
  • Assessing the Impact of Homework Choice on Student Motivation
  • Strategies for Promoting Growth Mindset in Mathematics
  • The Influence of Classroom Layout on Group Collaboration
  • Investigating the Benefits of Mindful Listening Practices
  • The Effectiveness of Using Real-World Examples in Science Lessons
  • Analyzing the Impact of Student-Led Assessments on Accountability
  • Exploring the Use of Learning Contracts for Student Responsibility
  • Investigating the Benefits of Teaching Digital Literacy Skills
  • Strategies for Implementing Peer Mentoring Programs
  • The Role of Graphic Novels in Promoting Literacy
  • Assessing the Impact of Flexible Grouping in Mathematics Classes
  • The Effectiveness of Using Storytelling for Conceptual Understanding
  • Investigating the Influence of Classroom Rituals on Attendance
  • Exploring the Benefits of Mindfulness Practices in Physical Education
  • Strategies for Integrating Social Justice Education in the Curriculum
  • Analyzing the Impact of Goal-Setting on Homework Completion
  • The Role of Classroom Mindfulness Activities in Stress Reduction
  • Investigating the Benefits of Using Educational Apps for Vocabulary
  • The Effectiveness of Using Drama in History Lessons
  • Assessing the Impact of Classroom Routines on Time Management
  • Exploring the Influence of Teacher-Student Rapport on Academic Achievement
  • Strategies for Promoting Active Listening Skills in the Classroom
  • Investigating the Benefits of Using Concept Mapping in Science
  • The Role of Classroom Socratic Seminars in Developing Critical Thinking
  • Assessing the Impact of Mindful Eating Practices on Student Focus
  • Exploring the Effects of Flipped Learning in Physical Education
  • Investigating the Benefits of Using Educational Games for Math Fluency
  • The Effectiveness of Peer Assessment in Art Classes
  • Strategies for Fostering Creativity in Science Education
  • Analyzing the Impact of Morning Stretches on Student Alertness
  • The Role of Classroom Discussions in Enhancing Social Studies Learning
  • Investigating the Benefits of Using Augmented Reality in History Lessons
  • Assessing the Impact of Growth Mindset Interventions on Test Anxiety
  • Strategies for Incorporating Environmental Education in the Curriculum
  • The Effectiveness of Using Conceptual Maps in Literature Analysis
  • Exploring the Influence of Classroom Lighting on Reading Comprehension
  • Investigating the Benefits of Using Learning Apps for Language Acquisition
  • The Role of Classroom Experiments in Science Education
  • Analyzing the Impact of Mindful Breathing Exercises on Test Performance
  • Strategies for Promoting Collaborative Problem-Solving in Mathematics
  • Assessing the Benefits of Mindfulness Practices in Physical Education
  • Exploring the Effects of Flexible Seating on Student Collaboration
  • Investigating the Influence of Homework Choice on Student Motivation
  • The Effectiveness of Using Educational Podcasts for History Learning
  • Strategies for Integrating Sustainability Education Across Subjects
  • Analyzing the Impact of Mindful Writing Practices on Language Arts Skills
  • The Role of Peer Teaching in Enhancing Understanding of Complex Concepts
  • Investigating the Benefits of Using Digital Storytelling in Literature Classes
  • The Effectiveness of Inquiry-Based Learning in Social Studies
  • Assessing the Impact of Student-Led Book Clubs on Reading Engagement
  • Strategies for Incorporating Financial Literacy in Mathematics Education
  • Exploring the Influence of Classroom Decor on Science Interest
  • Investigating the Benefits of Mindful Movement Breaks in the Classroom
  • The Role of Reflection Journals in Developing Critical Thinking Skills
  • Analyzing the Impact of Virtual Field Trips on Geography Learning
  • Strategies for Promoting Inclusive Physical Education Practices
  • Assessing the Benefits of Using Educational Board Games for Learning
  • The Effectiveness of Mindfulness Practices in Foreign Language Classes
  • Investigating the Influence of Classroom Rituals on Academic Rigor
  • Exploring the Impact of Student-Led Conferences on Goal Setting
  • The Role of Mindful Listening Practices in Improving Communication Skills
  • Investigating the Benefits of Using Educational Apps for Science Exploration
  • Analyzing the Effectiveness of Socratic Seminars in Philosophy Classes
  • Strategies for Promoting Gender Equity in STEM Education
  • Assessing the Impact of Classroom Celebrations on Student Well-Being
  • The Effectiveness of Using Debate Activities in Language Arts
  • Exploring the Influence of Positive Affirmations on Classroom Climate
  • Investigating the Benefits of Using Concept Mapping in History Essays
  • Strategies for Incorporating Media Literacy in Social Studies
  • Analyzing the Impact of Mindful Reflection Practices on Homework Completion
  • The Role of Peer Collaboration in Enhancing Artistic Skills
  • Investigating the Benefits of Using Educational Apps for Vocabulary Acquisition
  • The Effectiveness of Mindful Breathing Exercises in Test Preparation
  • Assessing the Impact of Flipped Learning in Science Laboratories
  • Strategies for Promoting Civic Engagement in Social Studies Classes
  • Exploring the Influence of Outdoor Learning on Scientific Inquiry
  • Investigating the Benefits of Using Learning Stations for Literature Analysis
  • The Role of Mindful Movement in Improving Physical Education Experiences
  • Analyzing the Effectiveness of Virtual Reality in Language Learning
  • Strategies for Incorporating Global Perspectives in Geography Education
  • Assessing the Impact of Mindful Coloring Activities on Stress Reduction
  • The Effectiveness of Using Educational Games for History Review
  • Investigating the Benefits of Mindful Breathing Exercises in Mathematics
  • Exploring the Influence of Classroom Rituals on Study Habits
  • The Role of Mindful Listening Practices in Enhancing Oral Communication
  • Analyzing the Impact of Student-Led Workshops on Study Skills
  • Strategies for Promoting Critical Media Literacy in Language Arts
  • Assessing the Benefits of Mindfulness Practices in Physical Fitness
  • The Effectiveness of Using Educational Apps for Music Appreciation
  • Investigating the Influence of Classroom Decor on Artistic Expression
  • Exploring the Impact of Mindful Eating Practices on Nutrition Awareness
  • The Role of Peer Assessment in Improving Science Fair Projects
  • Analyzing the Benefits of Mindful Breathing Exercises in History Classes
  • Strategies for Promoting Teamwork in Physical Education
  • Assessing the Impact of Classroom Celebrations on Cultural Understanding
  • The Effectiveness of Using Conceptual Maps in Geography Education
  • Investigating the Benefits of Mindful Movement Breaks in Mathematics
  • The Role of Mindful Listening Practices in Improving Musical Skills
  • Analyzing the Impact of Student-Led Discussions in Philosophy Classes
  • Strategies for Incorporating Environmental Stewardship in Science Education
  • Assessing the Benefits of Using Educational Games for Physical Fitness
  • Exploring the Influence of Classroom Decor on Mathematical Interest
  • Investigating the Effectiveness of Virtual Reality in Art Appreciation
  • The Role of Mindful Movement in Enhancing Physical Education Experiences
  • Strategies for Promoting Cultural Competency in Language Arts
  • Analyzing the Impact of Mindful Breathing Exercises on Test Anxiety
  • The Effectiveness of Using Educational Apps for Science Exploration
  • Investigating the Benefits of Peer Teaching in Mathematics Classes
  • Exploring the Influence of Classroom Rituals on Language Arts Skills
  • Assessing the Impact of Mindful Coloring Activities on Creative Expression
  • The Role of Mindful Listening Practices in Improving Public Speaking
  • Investigating the Benefits of Using Learning Stations for History Learning
  • The Effectiveness of Peer Assessment in Improving Writing Skills
  • Strategies for Promoting Digital Literacy in Geography Education
  • Analyzing the Impact of Mindful Eating Practices on Healthy Habits
  • Assessing the Benefits of Using Educational Games for Social Studies
  • The Effectiveness of Mindful Movement Breaks in Science Education
  • Exploring the Influence of Classroom Decor on Writing Motivation
  • Investigating the Role of Mindfulness Practices in Mathematics Anxiety
  • Strategies for Incorporating Financial Literacy in Social Studies
  • Analyzing the Benefits of Using Concept Mapping in Science Labs
  • The Role of Mindful Breathing Exercises in Improving Music Education
  • Exploring the Impact of Virtual Reality on Foreign Language Acquisition
  • Assessing the Benefits of Mindful Movement Breaks in History Classes

Tips for Conducting Action Research in the Classroom

  • Setting Clear Research Goals and Objectives: Clearly define the goals and objectives of the research to ensure a focused and purposeful investigation.
  • Involving Stakeholders in the Research Process: Engage students, parents, and colleagues in the research process to gather diverse perspectives and insights.
  • Collecting and Analyzing Relevant Data: Use a variety of data collection methods, such as surveys, observations, and assessments, to gather comprehensive and meaningful data.
  • Reflecting on Findings and Adjusting Teaching Practices: Regularly reflect on the research findings and be open to adjusting teaching practices based on the insights gained from the research.

Case Studies or Examples

Highlighting successful action research projects provides inspiration and practical insights for teachers. 

Sharing case studies or examples of impactful research can demonstrate the positive outcomes and improvements that can result from well-conducted action research.

In conclusion, action research is a valuable tool for educators seeking to enhance their teaching practices and improve student outcomes. 

Selecting the right topics from a list of topics for action research in the classroom is crucial for the success of action research projects, and teachers should consider alignment with goals, relevance to students, feasibility, and potential impact. 

By exploring a diverse range of topics, teachers can embark on meaningful action research journeys, contributing to the continuous improvement of education.

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Research Topics about Classroom

research topics in classroom management

  • The Future Classroom
  • The Resistance of Students in the Classroom
  • Large-Scale or Classroom-Based Evaluation
  • Inclusion of Autistic Children in Regular Classrooms
  • Disadvantages and Consequences of Small Classroom Size
  • Should Professors Be Allowed to Speak Out in Class on Political or Social Issues?
  • Classroom Lesson Pacing
  • Hands-on Learning in the Classroom: Benefits and Drawbacks
  • My Personal Classroom Management System
  • Classroom Environment that Supports Teaching and Learning
  • Dealing with Depression in the Classroom
  • Peer Practice in the Classroom: Interactive Learning Strategies
  • Classroom Procedural Environment
  • Classroom & Behavior Management Time-Out Rooms
  • Management of Classroom Behavior
  • God and Darwin in Science Class: Where Do Students’ Beliefs Go?
  • Technology in the Classroom
  • Integrative Education Model as a Classroom Management Technique
  • Classroom Management: Definition of Terms
  • Classroom Values for Children
  • Brown’s from Teacher-Centered to Learner-Centered Curriculum: Improving Learning in Diverse Classrooms
  • Portland State University: Technology Resources in the Classroom
  • Professors’ Opinions on Political or Social Issues in the Classroom
  • Evaluation Ethics: Classroom Observation Protocols
  • Early Childhood Classroom Design
  • The Application of Technology in the Classroom
  • Comparison of the Effectiveness of Flipped Classroom and Traditional Classroom Student Engagement and Teaching Methodologies
  • Insensitive Racial Name-Calling in the Classroom
  • Recommendations for a Poor Classroom Learning Environment
  • Diversity in the Classroom and Its Implications
  • Preschool Classroom Science
  • Displaying Religious Assignments in the Classroom: The First Case
  • Buying School Supplies for a Classroom

Essay Topics on Classroom Management

  • Effective Student Classroom Management Techniques
  • Different Classroom Management Strategies that Teachers Can Use Every Day
  • Effective Classroom Management and Bandura
  • Culturally Responsive Teaching Practice and Classroom Management
  • Strategies for Classroom Management and Collaborative Learning
  • Evidence-Based Classroom Management Strategies and Materials
  • Data Analysis and Classroom Management Results
  • Computers, Teaching Assistants, and Classroom Management
  • Cosmopoint International Institute of Technology Online Enlistment, Clearance, and Classroom Management System
  • Prevention of Disruptive Behavior in the Classroom
  • Classroom Management Education for Motivating Young Learners
  • Overview of the Classroom Management Action Plan
  • Academic Achievement Can Be Improved through Classroom Management Skills
  • Classroom Management’s Legal and Ethical Implications
  • Discipline and Classroom Management in Regular Classrooms
  • Classroom Management in Public Schools: Effective Teachers and Instructional Practices
  • Behavioral Conditioning and Classroom Management
  • Classroom Management Philosophical Assumptions and Beliefs
  • Comprehensive Classroom Management Plan: Effective Disruptive Behavior Response
  • Classroom Management and Discipline – Routines and Rules

Fascinating Classroom Management Topics to Write about

  • What Influences Teachers’ Classroom Management Capabilities
  • Classroom Management and Behavior Expectations at School
  • Theory of Classroom Management by Maslow
  • The Instrumental Music Classroom and Classroom Management
  • Effective Discipline and Classroom Management
  • Classroom Management Education and Early Childhood Education
  • Management Principles of Fayols in the Classroom
  • Middle and High School Classroom Management
  • Management and Discipline in the Classroom to Meet the Needs of a Diverse Student Population
  • Effective Classroom Management and Instructional Strategies
  • Classroom Management and Behaviorist Education Theory
  • Teachers’ Classroom Management Challenges
  • Methods and Techniques for Classroom Management
  • Classroom Management Can Either Make or Break the School Year
  • Classroom Management and Self-Efficacy
  • Junior High School Classroom Management Education Classroom Management Journal
  • Classroom Management Pioneers of the 20th and 21st Centuries
  • Best Practices Checklist and Its Utility in Classroom Management Preparation Evaluation
  • Four Classroom Management Techniques

Classroom Management Research Questions

  • How Can Disruptive Behavior Be Controlled in a Classroom Without Interrupting the Lesson?
  • What Issues in Classroom Management Could Be Avoided?
  • Does Good Classroom Management Prevent Discipline Issues?
  • What Influences Teachers’ Classroom Management Capabilities?
  • What Are the Difficulties of Managing an Online Classroom?
  • How Can We Assist Students in Continuing to Learn During COVID-19?
  • What Approaches Would Be Most Effective in Teaching Mixed-Ability Students English as a Foreign Language?
  • Is Classroom Management a Natural Talent or Something that Can be Learned?
  • What Impact Do Physical Learning Environments Have on Student Motivation?
  • Do Cultural Factors Influence Classroom Interaction and Learning Outcomes?
  • How Can a Teacher Manage Classroom Noise?
  • What Key Skills Do Teachers Who Are Defined as Effective Classroom Managers Demonstrate?
  • What Is the Importance of Developing Personal Relationships with Students?
  • What Are Some Disruptive Classroom Management Strategies and Solutions?
  • Is It Possible to Use Social Media Effectively in the Classroom? or is it Too Distracting?
  • How Do Middle School Socioeconomic Status and Elementary School Class Size Influence Middle School Transition?
  • What Are the Essential Elements of Good Classroom Management?
  • Are There Any Alternatives to the Flanders Instrument for dealing with Classroom Interactions?
  • Do Colors Impact Children Who Have Deficits and Emotional or Behavioral Disorders?
  • Why Are Small Class Sizes Beneficial to Learning Outcomes?
  • How Do Students Feel About Using Smartphone Technology for Educational Purposes?
  • What Is the Relationship between Numeracy Automaticity and Regular Classroom Performance?
  • How Can Teachers Help Students Become Better Learners by Conducting Research in Their Own Backyards?
  • Should We Be Using So Much Technology in the Classroom?
  • Can We Consider Education in a Virtual Classroom as an E-learning Example?
  • What Is the Most Effective Way to Create a Healthy Community of Students in a Classroom?
  • What Impact Does Classroom Management Have on Students?
  • What Are Effective Classroom Management Techniques?
  • How Can Teachers Get the Most Out of Classroom Management?

16 Ways to Encourage Students to Tell ...

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Related articles more from author, anglo-saxons essay topics, good research topics about information management, alternative energy essay topics, ancient egypt essay topics, essay topics about mozart, simple & easy national parks essay topics.

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23 Brilliant Classroom Management Strategies and Techniques

Keys to a well-planned system.

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Some classrooms run like clockwork, with teachers seeming to manage them effortlessly. Others … well, not so much. But there’s nothing magic or automatic about classroom management. It’s a skill that teachers build over time, constantly refining their classroom management strategies to find the ones that work best for them. Here are some teacher-tested management techniques for designing and maintaining your own ideal classroom learning environment.

1. Work with a classroom management system that really “gets” today’s classrooms

While teachers don’t usually get to choose their own classroom management systems, sometimes one stands out enough to be brought to your administrators’ attention for consideration. We love Blocksi for how much more it provides teachers above and beyond the basics like attendance monitoring and grading software. For example, Blocksi allows teachers to monitor every student’s screen from the teacher dashboard, allowing you to ensure your class is on task during independent work times. Teachers can also engage in text conferences or video conferences with students in class or remotely, making quick, meaningful feedback a breeze. It also gives teachers the option to filter what websites and YouTube videos students can access, making sure students are safe and using their devices responsibly. It really is more like a classroom teacher’s co-pilot than a simple classroom management app.

2. Build relationships with your students

This is the most important of classroom management strategies and often the most challenging. The payoffs are worth the effort though. When students and teachers trust one another, they can get so much more done in the classroom. Positive relationships may not solve all your classroom management problems , but they’re a great place to start.

Be realistic about how much information you can hold in your head. Keep a chart or notebook about things you learn from your students. Who swims on Wednesdays? Who lives with their grandmother? Which kid loves to pick strawberries? Review this chart regularly before you meet with your students so you can ask them personal questions that show you care.

  • 7 Teacher Phrases That Can Change Your Classroom Culture
  • Cultivating Long-Lasting, School-Wide Relationships for Students

3. Communicate positively with families

TalkingPoints app on cell phone screen which is on a teacher's desk with supplies.

This doesn’t just mean calling home when there’s a problem. That’s important, of course, but so is sharing students’ successes with their families. Every parent wants to hear positive news about their child, and this reinforcement almost always makes its way back to the student. Try to contact at least one family each day to celebrate their child’s achievements.

  • 7 Reasons Why You Should Send Positive Messages to Parents
  • 9 of the Biggest Parent Communication Mistakes (Plus How To Fix Them)

If this sounds like a lot of work, we’ve got good news! Parent-teacher communication apps make things so much easier. One of our favorites, TalkingPoints , is a free app that focuses on family engagement, especially for under-resourced, multilingual communities. Parents and teachers text each other through their phones or a web browser, and the app provides any translation needed. Texting allows both parents and teachers to communicate on their own schedules, improving the process for everyone. You can learn more about TalkingPoints here , and when you’re ready to get started, sign up and start communicating for free today.

4. Create a learning space that matches your needs

These days, there are no set rules for what a classroom needs to look like. Think about your teaching style, and create a classroom with areas that match. Do you do a lot of group work? Use tables, or desks that can easily be rearranged. Be sure to provide spaces for students to work on their own comfortably, and accommodate any special needs. Consider asking students to help create the space that helps them learn, and be open to their suggestions.

  • 8 Types of Learning Spaces for Your Classroom
  • 25 of the Best Flexible Seating Options for Today’s Classroom
  • How To Create and Use a Calm-Down Corner in Any Learning Environment
  • How To Create Inclusive Classroom Spaces for Students With Physical Disabilities

5. Set clear expectations up front

two ways that teachers can update classroom routines including having task boxes for students and using hand sanitizer for hall passes

Most teachers start the year by sharing their classroom rules and procedures. If you really want students to abide by them, take some extra time to explain more specifically what you mean and why they matter. If your first rule is “respect each other,” students will likely need some clarification around what that means to you. Brainstorm a list together, or ask students to act out appropriate and inappropriate behaviors.

Take things a step further by having your students work together to create classroom rules that they all agree to follow. When you use techniques like giving kids buy-in and treating them like adults, it improves classroom management.

  • What Makes Good Classroom Rules?
  • 35 Must-Teach Classroom Procedures and Routines

6. Establish a behavior management plan

Every single teacher must be prepared with specific plans for behavior issues, including consequences for poor choices. Determine what you’ll say and do (it can help to role-play some common scenarios with more experienced teachers in advance). Try to match consequences with behaviors, so they’re more meaningful for students. In the heat of the moment, it can be tough to hand out a consequence. Enforce the consequence without any emotion. “You did this, and the consequence is this.” This helps students see that the behavior is unacceptable, but the student is still valuable.

  • Need Behavior Reflection Sheets? Grab Our Free Bundle
  • Behavior Management Starts With Principals, Not Teachers. Here’s Why.

7. Be consistent, insistent, and persistent

Once you’ve established your rules and behavior management plan, stick with it, every single day. When you tell kids to stop talking and get back to work, but you don’t follow through, you are effectively telling them it doesn’t matter that much. This can lead to teachers raising their voices and saying things they regret. You don’t have to be mean—you just have to mean it.

Logical Consequences in the Classroom

  • 10 Ways To Discipline Students Without Taking Away Recess

8. Don’t yell at students

Seriously, no screaming, shouting, or yelling in the classroom. Most kids just tune it out anyway. Determine other methods for getting students’ attention, like doorbells, clapbacks, or hand signals. These classroom management strategies save your voice and lower everyone’s stress levels.

  • 10 Ways To Stop Yelling in the Classroom (and Still Get Students’ Attention)
  • 15 Reasons Why Teachers Love Their Wireless Classroom Doorbells

9. Incorporate movement whenever possible

Collage of Active Math Games

Sitting still is hard . Whenever possible, let kids get up and move around in your classroom, even just for a minute or two. This helps reset their brains, shake out the wiggles, and prepare to focus on learning again. Even better? Use active learning activities when you can. When moving and learning happen together, kids really benefit.

  • 54 Educational Brain Breaks for Kids
  • 35 Active Math Games and Activities for Kids Who Love To Move
  • 21 Kinesthetic Reading Activities To Get Students Up and Moving

10. Accommodate all learners

People learn in a variety of different ways, so the best classroom management techniques include lots of variety too. Offer activities that work for multiple learning styles: Allow students to read a text, watch a video, have a discussion with their peers, do hands-on practice, and more. When a student struggles with material, try switching up the teaching and learning methods you’re using. The more opportunities you give students to succeed and feel confident in their learning, the better.

  • What Are Learning Styles, and How Should Teachers Use Them?
  • 18 Effective Ways To Scaffold Learning in the Classroom
  • 21 Differentiated Instruction Strategies Every Teacher Can Use

11. Understand special needs

What is a 504 plan?

So many classroom management challenges can be averted by considering and planning for the needs in your classroom. Regularly review IEP and 504 plans, and share any concerns or questions with the special ed team. Be transparent with these students so they know the plan—and they know you know it too. Encourage kids to remind you of their accommodations, so it’s a team effort. This reduces anxieties for everyone and empowers kids to ask for what they need.

  • What Exactly Is an IEP?
  • What Is a 504 Plan? What Teachers Need To Know

12. Recognize and honor diversity

When students feel seen, their learning and achievement skyrockets. As you learn more about your students, look for ways to represent their diverse characteristics in your lessons. Highlight BIPOC scientists , LGBTQ+ authors and books , and multilingual learning resources. Educate yourself on the differences between equality and equity, and strive to understand the challenges many of your students face both in and out of the classroom.

  • 9 Areas of Your Teaching to Evaluate for Diversity & Inclusion

13. Address individual problems individually

When a student struggles, we sometimes want to help them “save face”—or help ourselves avoid difficult conversations. So, we choose to punish the whole class, or spend extra time on a topic that only a few kids really need help with. Learn to privately address challenges directly with the student(s) affected. These conversations really do get easier over time and can help you build strong relationships all around.

  • Why I’m Against Collective Punishment in Classrooms
  • Tips for Keeping Your Cool During Hard Conversations

14. Don’t take things personally

Kids come to school with all sorts of baggage and often take out their wider frustrations on teachers and fellow students. It can be tempting to take things personally and let your emotions take over. Instead, take a step back and return to your behavior management plan. Ask yourself, “What does this student need right now?” and go from there. In the rare case where you and a student actually do seem to have a personal conflict, remember to address that individually with them instead of getting into a shouting match in the classroom.

  • Coping With the Emotional Weight of Teaching

15. Focus on the facts

In the same vein, be sure that you’re truly addressing the problem you have, not the one you think you have. For instance, if it feels like one particular student is constantly interrupting the class, start keeping track. (Better yet, have another teacher or admin step in to observe and keep track for you.) It might not happen as often as you think, or it might be that there’s a pattern to the problem that suggests its own solution. Do your best to use classroom management techniques that approach situations with logic rather than emotion or frustration.

  • 10 Creative Ideas for Tracking Classroom Behavior

16. Stay organized

research topics in classroom management

Source: @suzannesplans

Teachers have a million different things to do during any given day, so organization is one of the most important classroom management strategies. There’s a reason so many teachers love their daily planners and can’t get enough classroom organization ideas. Here are some of our favorite articles to get you started:

  • 33+ of the Best Teacher Productivity Tools To Help You Manage All the Things
  • 16 Hacks for Keeping Your Teacher Desk Organized (Yes, Really!)
  • Best Teacher Backpacks and Teacher Bags
  • 15 Easy Solutions for Messy Classroom Spaces
  • Here’s Everything That Should Go in Your Teacher Survival Kit

17. Give students as much responsibility as possible

Examples of classroom jobs, including botanist and paper passer

One way to help with organization is to take some responsibilities off your plate. Delegation is one of the best classroom management strategies because it empowers your students. They can take over jobs like taking attendance, cleaning up workstations, passing out papers, and even grading each other’s homework. Stop looking for ways to do things for your students, and instead find ways they can do things for themselves.

  • The Big List of Classroom Jobs for PreK-12
  • Why We’re Ditching Classroom Jobs for Star Student of the Day

18. Plan, plan, plan

Cacti teacher planner on desk and Floral teacher planner on desk.

Even if you aren’t required to submit lesson plans, that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t do them. There’s a lot to manage throughout the day, and not knowing what you are supposed to be teaching can easily destroy a good day. Develop plans that work for your teaching style, accommodate all learners, go along with curriculum standards, and pique the curiosity of your students. It may sound daunting, but the more you do it, the better you’ll get. A well-planned day is one of the best classroom management strategies for making an immediate positive impact. Plus it can make all the difference between being tired and flat-out exhausted.

  • The Best Teacher Planners, According to Teachers
  • Educators Say These Are the Best Online Planners for Teachers
  • 24 Lesson Plan Examples for Every Grade and Subject

19. Learn to be flexible

Then again, the best-laid plans sometimes get derailed by snow days, sick kids, escaped hamsters, and other unforeseen emergencies. Teachers have to be able to be flexible and make adjustments on the fly. Build extra time into every lesson plan for the unexpected, and keep a supply of early-finisher activities on hand too. When you utilize classroom management strategies that help you go with the flow, your life becomes so much easier.

  • The Big List of Fast Finisher Activities

20. Notice the good things

Feeling down or negative? There’s a good chance you’re only focusing on the perceived failures or struggles in your classroom. All too often we spend our days telling students (and ourselves!) what went wrong. Just as it takes practice to notice things that aren’t going well in the classroom so you can course-correct, you might need to work on noticing things that are going well. Get in the habit of making a daily list of successes, even if they’re as small as “every kid remembered to turn in their homework on their own” or “Luiz and Geena didn’t fight at all today.” Use that list to praise students personally or send positive texts to families.

  • 15 Ways To Bring More Positive Language Into Your Classroom and School

21. Recognize achievements of all kinds

A hand holding a 'Your Teacher is Proud!' note on blue paper

Be lavish with your praise! We don’t always need to be problem-solving. Instead, build on the positives, which will then push out the negatives. For example, if you see kids working together to solve something, notice it out loud. “Nice teamwork, you two. Can you share why you decided to do this together instead of on your own?” This way you’ll get to hear their thinking, and other students will get to learn that it’s OK (and encouraged) to do things differently.

  • The Subtle Power of the Positive Note

22. Focus on behavior over achievement

As you’re celebrating achievement, try to look for and praise the behaviors that led to it. This encourages kids to value a growth mindset , where getting better at something is just as important as being good at it in the first place. So if a student receives a C on a test but it’s a 10-point improvement over their last score, tell them you’re proud. Ask how they accomplished that gain, and encourage them to keep up the positive behavior.

  • Ways To Encourage Good Behavior Without Junky Prizes or Sugary Treats

23. Default to compassion

A kid shows up late. “Everything OK? We missed you.” A kid doesn’t have their homework for the fourth time this week. “Hey, is something going on that’s making it hard for you to get your work done? This is really important, and I want to make sure you’re able to do what you need to do.” A kid throws a tantrum in class. “Wow, you’re really struggling with self-control. Can you tell me why? Are you hungry or tired?” This is one of those strategies that can be a real game-changer with your most challenging students. Learn more at the link.

  • The Secret to Classroom Management—No Matter Where You Teach

Classroom Management Techniques by Grade

  • Kindergarten: Classroom Management | Online Teaching Guide
  • First Grade: Classroom Management | Online Teaching Guide
  • Second Grade: Classroom Management | Online Teaching Guide
  • Third Grade: Classroom Management | Online Teaching Guide
  • Fourth Grade: Classroom Management | Online Teaching Guide
  • Fifth Grade: Classroom Management | Online Teaching Guide
  • 11 Dos and Don’ts of Middle School Classroom Management
  • 50 Tips and Tricks for High School Classroom Management

Be sure to check out Blocksi to see all the tools and resources this classroom management system offers teachers and schools.

Is your classroom feeling out of control? Try these classroom management strategies and techniques to help get more authority and respect.

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Logical Consequences in the Classroom

We need to teach students the hows and whys of good decisions, rather than punishing them for making a bad choice. Continue Reading

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Research Topics & Ideas: Education

170+ Research Ideas To Fast-Track Your Project

Topic Kickstarter: Research topics in education

If you’re just starting out exploring education-related topics for your dissertation, thesis or research project, you’ve come to the right place. In this post, we’ll help kickstart your research topic ideation process by providing a hearty list of research topics and ideas , including examples from actual dissertations and theses..

PS – This is just the start…

We know it’s exciting to run through a list of research topics, but please keep in mind that this list is just a starting point . To develop a suitable education-related research topic, you’ll need to identify a clear and convincing research gap , and a viable plan of action to fill that gap.

If this sounds foreign to you, check out our free research topic webinar that explores how to find and refine a high-quality research topic, from scratch. Alternatively, if you’d like hands-on help, consider our 1-on-1 coaching service .

Overview: Education Research Topics

  • How to find a research topic (video)
  • List of 50+ education-related research topics/ideas
  • List of 120+ level-specific research topics 
  • Examples of actual dissertation topics in education
  • Tips to fast-track your topic ideation (video)
  • Free Webinar : Topic Ideation 101
  • Where to get extra help

Education-Related Research Topics & Ideas

Below you’ll find a list of education-related research topics and idea kickstarters. These are fairly broad and flexible to various contexts, so keep in mind that you will need to refine them a little. Nevertheless, they should inspire some ideas for your project.

  • The impact of school funding on student achievement
  • The effects of social and emotional learning on student well-being
  • The effects of parental involvement on student behaviour
  • The impact of teacher training on student learning
  • The impact of classroom design on student learning
  • The impact of poverty on education
  • The use of student data to inform instruction
  • The role of parental involvement in education
  • The effects of mindfulness practices in the classroom
  • The use of technology in the classroom
  • The role of critical thinking in education
  • The use of formative and summative assessments in the classroom
  • The use of differentiated instruction in the classroom
  • The use of gamification in education
  • The effects of teacher burnout on student learning
  • The impact of school leadership on student achievement
  • The effects of teacher diversity on student outcomes
  • The role of teacher collaboration in improving student outcomes
  • The implementation of blended and online learning
  • The effects of teacher accountability on student achievement
  • The effects of standardized testing on student learning
  • The effects of classroom management on student behaviour
  • The effects of school culture on student achievement
  • The use of student-centred learning in the classroom
  • The impact of teacher-student relationships on student outcomes
  • The achievement gap in minority and low-income students
  • The use of culturally responsive teaching in the classroom
  • The impact of teacher professional development on student learning
  • The use of project-based learning in the classroom
  • The effects of teacher expectations on student achievement
  • The use of adaptive learning technology in the classroom
  • The impact of teacher turnover on student learning
  • The effects of teacher recruitment and retention on student learning
  • The impact of early childhood education on later academic success
  • The impact of parental involvement on student engagement
  • The use of positive reinforcement in education
  • The impact of school climate on student engagement
  • The role of STEM education in preparing students for the workforce
  • The effects of school choice on student achievement
  • The use of technology in the form of online tutoring

Level-Specific Research Topics

Looking for research topics for a specific level of education? We’ve got you covered. Below you can find research topic ideas for primary, secondary and tertiary-level education contexts. Click the relevant level to view the respective list.

Research Topics: Pick An Education Level

Primary education.

  • Investigating the effects of peer tutoring on academic achievement in primary school
  • Exploring the benefits of mindfulness practices in primary school classrooms
  • Examining the effects of different teaching strategies on primary school students’ problem-solving skills
  • The use of storytelling as a teaching strategy in primary school literacy instruction
  • The role of cultural diversity in promoting tolerance and understanding in primary schools
  • The impact of character education programs on moral development in primary school students
  • Investigating the use of technology in enhancing primary school mathematics education
  • The impact of inclusive curriculum on promoting equity and diversity in primary schools
  • The impact of outdoor education programs on environmental awareness in primary school students
  • The influence of school climate on student motivation and engagement in primary schools
  • Investigating the effects of early literacy interventions on reading comprehension in primary school students
  • The impact of parental involvement in school decision-making processes on student achievement in primary schools
  • Exploring the benefits of inclusive education for students with special needs in primary schools
  • Investigating the effects of teacher-student feedback on academic motivation in primary schools
  • The role of technology in developing digital literacy skills in primary school students
  • Effective strategies for fostering a growth mindset in primary school students
  • Investigating the role of parental support in reducing academic stress in primary school children
  • The role of arts education in fostering creativity and self-expression in primary school students
  • Examining the effects of early childhood education programs on primary school readiness
  • Examining the effects of homework on primary school students’ academic performance
  • The role of formative assessment in improving learning outcomes in primary school classrooms
  • The impact of teacher-student relationships on academic outcomes in primary school
  • Investigating the effects of classroom environment on student behavior and learning outcomes in primary schools
  • Investigating the role of creativity and imagination in primary school curriculum
  • The impact of nutrition and healthy eating programs on academic performance in primary schools
  • The impact of social-emotional learning programs on primary school students’ well-being and academic performance
  • The role of parental involvement in academic achievement of primary school children
  • Examining the effects of classroom management strategies on student behavior in primary school
  • The role of school leadership in creating a positive school climate Exploring the benefits of bilingual education in primary schools
  • The effectiveness of project-based learning in developing critical thinking skills in primary school students
  • The role of inquiry-based learning in fostering curiosity and critical thinking in primary school students
  • The effects of class size on student engagement and achievement in primary schools
  • Investigating the effects of recess and physical activity breaks on attention and learning in primary school
  • Exploring the benefits of outdoor play in developing gross motor skills in primary school children
  • The effects of educational field trips on knowledge retention in primary school students
  • Examining the effects of inclusive classroom practices on students’ attitudes towards diversity in primary schools
  • The impact of parental involvement in homework on primary school students’ academic achievement
  • Investigating the effectiveness of different assessment methods in primary school classrooms
  • The influence of physical activity and exercise on cognitive development in primary school children
  • Exploring the benefits of cooperative learning in promoting social skills in primary school students

Secondary Education

  • Investigating the effects of school discipline policies on student behavior and academic success in secondary education
  • The role of social media in enhancing communication and collaboration among secondary school students
  • The impact of school leadership on teacher effectiveness and student outcomes in secondary schools
  • Investigating the effects of technology integration on teaching and learning in secondary education
  • Exploring the benefits of interdisciplinary instruction in promoting critical thinking skills in secondary schools
  • The impact of arts education on creativity and self-expression in secondary school students
  • The effectiveness of flipped classrooms in promoting student learning in secondary education
  • The role of career guidance programs in preparing secondary school students for future employment
  • Investigating the effects of student-centered learning approaches on student autonomy and academic success in secondary schools
  • The impact of socio-economic factors on educational attainment in secondary education
  • Investigating the impact of project-based learning on student engagement and academic achievement in secondary schools
  • Investigating the effects of multicultural education on cultural understanding and tolerance in secondary schools
  • The influence of standardized testing on teaching practices and student learning in secondary education
  • Investigating the effects of classroom management strategies on student behavior and academic engagement in secondary education
  • The influence of teacher professional development on instructional practices and student outcomes in secondary schools
  • The role of extracurricular activities in promoting holistic development and well-roundedness in secondary school students
  • Investigating the effects of blended learning models on student engagement and achievement in secondary education
  • The role of physical education in promoting physical health and well-being among secondary school students
  • Investigating the effects of gender on academic achievement and career aspirations in secondary education
  • Exploring the benefits of multicultural literature in promoting cultural awareness and empathy among secondary school students
  • The impact of school counseling services on student mental health and well-being in secondary schools
  • Exploring the benefits of vocational education and training in preparing secondary school students for the workforce
  • The role of digital literacy in preparing secondary school students for the digital age
  • The influence of parental involvement on academic success and well-being of secondary school students
  • The impact of social-emotional learning programs on secondary school students’ well-being and academic success
  • The role of character education in fostering ethical and responsible behavior in secondary school students
  • Examining the effects of digital citizenship education on responsible and ethical technology use among secondary school students
  • The impact of parental involvement in school decision-making processes on student outcomes in secondary schools
  • The role of educational technology in promoting personalized learning experiences in secondary schools
  • The impact of inclusive education on the social and academic outcomes of students with disabilities in secondary schools
  • The influence of parental support on academic motivation and achievement in secondary education
  • The role of school climate in promoting positive behavior and well-being among secondary school students
  • Examining the effects of peer mentoring programs on academic achievement and social-emotional development in secondary schools
  • Examining the effects of teacher-student relationships on student motivation and achievement in secondary schools
  • Exploring the benefits of service-learning programs in promoting civic engagement among secondary school students
  • The impact of educational policies on educational equity and access in secondary education
  • Examining the effects of homework on academic achievement and student well-being in secondary education
  • Investigating the effects of different assessment methods on student performance in secondary schools
  • Examining the effects of single-sex education on academic performance and gender stereotypes in secondary schools
  • The role of mentoring programs in supporting the transition from secondary to post-secondary education

Tertiary Education

  • The role of student support services in promoting academic success and well-being in higher education
  • The impact of internationalization initiatives on students’ intercultural competence and global perspectives in tertiary education
  • Investigating the effects of active learning classrooms and learning spaces on student engagement and learning outcomes in tertiary education
  • Exploring the benefits of service-learning experiences in fostering civic engagement and social responsibility in higher education
  • The influence of learning communities and collaborative learning environments on student academic and social integration in higher education
  • Exploring the benefits of undergraduate research experiences in fostering critical thinking and scientific inquiry skills
  • Investigating the effects of academic advising and mentoring on student retention and degree completion in higher education
  • The role of student engagement and involvement in co-curricular activities on holistic student development in higher education
  • The impact of multicultural education on fostering cultural competence and diversity appreciation in higher education
  • The role of internships and work-integrated learning experiences in enhancing students’ employability and career outcomes
  • Examining the effects of assessment and feedback practices on student learning and academic achievement in tertiary education
  • The influence of faculty professional development on instructional practices and student outcomes in tertiary education
  • The influence of faculty-student relationships on student success and well-being in tertiary education
  • The impact of college transition programs on students’ academic and social adjustment to higher education
  • The impact of online learning platforms on student learning outcomes in higher education
  • The impact of financial aid and scholarships on access and persistence in higher education
  • The influence of student leadership and involvement in extracurricular activities on personal development and campus engagement
  • Exploring the benefits of competency-based education in developing job-specific skills in tertiary students
  • Examining the effects of flipped classroom models on student learning and retention in higher education
  • Exploring the benefits of online collaboration and virtual team projects in developing teamwork skills in tertiary students
  • Investigating the effects of diversity and inclusion initiatives on campus climate and student experiences in tertiary education
  • The influence of study abroad programs on intercultural competence and global perspectives of college students
  • Investigating the effects of peer mentoring and tutoring programs on student retention and academic performance in tertiary education
  • Investigating the effectiveness of active learning strategies in promoting student engagement and achievement in tertiary education
  • Investigating the effects of blended learning models and hybrid courses on student learning and satisfaction in higher education
  • The role of digital literacy and information literacy skills in supporting student success in the digital age
  • Investigating the effects of experiential learning opportunities on career readiness and employability of college students
  • The impact of e-portfolios on student reflection, self-assessment, and showcasing of learning in higher education
  • The role of technology in enhancing collaborative learning experiences in tertiary classrooms
  • The impact of research opportunities on undergraduate student engagement and pursuit of advanced degrees
  • Examining the effects of competency-based assessment on measuring student learning and achievement in tertiary education
  • Examining the effects of interdisciplinary programs and courses on critical thinking and problem-solving skills in college students
  • The role of inclusive education and accessibility in promoting equitable learning experiences for diverse student populations
  • The role of career counseling and guidance in supporting students’ career decision-making in tertiary education
  • The influence of faculty diversity and representation on student success and inclusive learning environments in higher education

Research topic idea mega list

Education-Related Dissertations & Theses

While the ideas we’ve presented above are a decent starting point for finding a research topic in education, they are fairly generic and non-specific. So, it helps to look at actual dissertations and theses in the education space to see how this all comes together in practice.

Below, we’ve included a selection of education-related research projects to help refine your thinking. These are actual dissertations and theses, written as part of Master’s and PhD-level programs, so they can provide some useful insight as to what a research topic looks like in practice.

  • From Rural to Urban: Education Conditions of Migrant Children in China (Wang, 2019)
  • Energy Renovation While Learning English: A Guidebook for Elementary ESL Teachers (Yang, 2019)
  • A Reanalyses of Intercorrelational Matrices of Visual and Verbal Learners’ Abilities, Cognitive Styles, and Learning Preferences (Fox, 2020)
  • A study of the elementary math program utilized by a mid-Missouri school district (Barabas, 2020)
  • Instructor formative assessment practices in virtual learning environments : a posthumanist sociomaterial perspective (Burcks, 2019)
  • Higher education students services: a qualitative study of two mid-size universities’ direct exchange programs (Kinde, 2020)
  • Exploring editorial leadership : a qualitative study of scholastic journalism advisers teaching leadership in Missouri secondary schools (Lewis, 2020)
  • Selling the virtual university: a multimodal discourse analysis of marketing for online learning (Ludwig, 2020)
  • Advocacy and accountability in school counselling: assessing the use of data as related to professional self-efficacy (Matthews, 2020)
  • The use of an application screening assessment as a predictor of teaching retention at a midwestern, K-12, public school district (Scarbrough, 2020)
  • Core values driving sustained elite performance cultures (Beiner, 2020)
  • Educative features of upper elementary Eureka math curriculum (Dwiggins, 2020)
  • How female principals nurture adult learning opportunities in successful high schools with challenging student demographics (Woodward, 2020)
  • The disproportionality of Black Males in Special Education: A Case Study Analysis of Educator Perceptions in a Southeastern Urban High School (McCrae, 2021)

As you can see, these research topics are a lot more focused than the generic topic ideas we presented earlier. So, in order for you to develop a high-quality research topic, you’ll need to get specific and laser-focused on a specific context with specific variables of interest.  In the video below, we explore some other important things you’ll need to consider when crafting your research topic.

Get 1-On-1 Help

If you’re still unsure about how to find a quality research topic within education, check out our Research Topic Kickstarter service, which is the perfect starting point for developing a unique, well-justified research topic.

Research Topic Kickstarter - Need Help Finding A Research Topic?

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Research topics and ideas in psychology

64 Comments

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Special education

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Research title related to students

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Saira Murtaza

Assalam o Alaikum I’m a student Bs educational Resarch and evaluation I’m confused to choose My thesis title please help me in choose the thesis title

Ngirumuvugizi Jaccques

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Anangnerisia@gmail.com

You can find our list of nursing-related research topic ideas here: https://gradcoach.com/research-topics-nursing/

FOSU DORIS

Write on action research topic, using guidance and counseling to address unwanted teenage pregnancy in school

Samson ochuodho

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Rhod Tuyan

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Mercedes Bunsie

parental involvement and students academic performance

Abshir Mustafe Cali

Science education topics?

alina

plz tell me if you got some good topics, im here for finding research topic for masters degree

Karen Joy Andrade

How about School management and supervision pls.?

JOHANNES SERAME MONYATSI

Hi i am an Deputy Principal in a primary school. My wish is to srudy foe Master’s degree in Education.Please advice me on which topic can be relevant for me. Thanks.

NKWAIN Chia Charles

Every topic proposed above on primary education is a starting point for me. I appreciate immensely the team that has sat down to make a detail of these selected topics just for beginners like us. Be blessed.

Nkwain Chia Charles

Kindly help me with the research questions on the topic” Effects of workplace conflict on the employees’ job performance”. The effects can be applicable in every institution,enterprise or organisation.

Kelvin Kells Grant

Greetings, I am a student majoring in Sociology and minoring in Public Administration. I’m considering any recommended research topic in the field of Sociology.

Sulemana Alhassan

I’m a student pursuing Mphil in Basic education and I’m considering any recommended research proposal topic in my field of study

Cristine

Research Defense for students in senior high

Kupoluyi Regina

Kindly help me with a research topic in educational psychology. Ph.D level. Thank you.

Project-based learning is a teaching/learning type,if well applied in a classroom setting will yield serious positive impact. What can a teacher do to implement this in a disadvantaged zone like “North West Region of Cameroon ( hinterland) where war has brought about prolonged and untold sufferings on the indegins?

Damaris Nzoka

I wish to get help on topics of research on educational administration

I wish to get help on topics of research on educational administration PhD level

Sadaf

I am also looking for such type of title

Afriyie Saviour

I am a student of undergraduate, doing research on how to use guidance and counseling to address unwanted teenage pregnancy in school

wysax

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William AU Mill

Can i request your suggestion topic for my Thesis about Teachers as an OFW. thanx you

ChRISTINE

Would like to request for suggestions on a topic in Economics of education,PhD level

Aza Hans

Would like to request for suggestions on a topic in Economics of education

George

Hi 👋 I request that you help me with a written research proposal about education the format

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Am offering degree in education senior high School Accounting. I want a topic for my project work

Sarah Moyambo

l would like to request suggestions on a topic in managing teaching and learning, PhD level (educational leadership and management)

request suggestions on a topic in managing teaching and learning, PhD level (educational leadership and management)

Ernest Gyabaah

I would to inquire on research topics on Educational psychology, Masters degree

Aron kirui

I am PhD student, I am searching my Research topic, It should be innovative,my area of interest is online education,use of technology in education

revathy a/p letchumanan

request suggestion on topic in masters in medical education .

D.Newlands PhD.

Look at British Library as they keep a copy of all PhDs in the UK Core.ac.uk to access Open University and 6 other university e-archives, pdf downloads mostly available, all free.

Monica

May I also ask for a topic based on mathematics education for college teaching, please?

Aman

Please I am a masters student of the department of Teacher Education, Faculty of Education Please I am in need of proposed project topics to help with my final year thesis

Ellyjoy

Am a PhD student in Educational Foundations would like a sociological topic. Thank

muhammad sani

please i need a proposed thesis project regardging computer science

also916

Greetings and Regards I am a doctoral student in the field of philosophy of education. I am looking for a new topic for my thesis. Because of my work in the elementary school, I am looking for a topic that is from the field of elementary education and is related to the philosophy of education.

shantel orox

Masters student in the field of curriculum, any ideas of a research topic on low achiever students

Rey

In the field of curriculum any ideas of a research topic on deconalization in contextualization of digital teaching and learning through in higher education

Omada Victoria Enyojo

Amazing guidelines

JAMES MALUKI MUTIA

I am a graduate with two masters. 1) Master of arts in religious studies and 2) Master in education in foundations of education. I intend to do a Ph.D. on my second master’s, however, I need to bring both masters together through my Ph.D. research. can I do something like, ” The contribution of Philosophy of education for a quality religion education in Kenya”? kindly, assist and be free to suggest a similar topic that will bring together the two masters. thanks in advance

betiel

Hi, I am an Early childhood trainer as well as a researcher, I need more support on this topic: The impact of early childhood education on later academic success.

TURIKUMWE JEAN BOSCO

I’m a student in upper level secondary school and I need your support in this research topics: “Impact of incorporating project -based learning in teaching English language skills in secondary schools”.

Fitsum Ayele

Although research activities and topics should stem from reflection on one’s practice, I found this site valuable as it effectively addressed many issues we have been experiencing as practitioners.

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143 Classroom Management Research Questions & Essay Topics

🏆 best essay topics on classroom, ✍️ classroom essay topics for college, 👍 good classroom research topics & essay examples, 🌶️ hot classroom ideas to write about, 💡 simple classroom essay ideas, ❓ classroom management research questions.

  • Summary of Observations in Classroom
  • The 48-Hour Cell Phone Ban in the Classroom
  • The Role of Computers in the Classroom
  • Distance Learning vs. The Traditional Classroom
  • Cultural Diversity in Classrooms
  • Flipped Classroom: Benefits and Limitations
  • Classroom Management Case Study
  • Applying Technology in the Classroom The paper describes how important is it that schools teach using iPads, Smart Boards, social media, and other new technologies.
  • Evidence-Based Strategies for Classroom Behavior Management Behavior management is a critical skill, which helps teachers mitigate pupils’ challenging conduct and promotes positive practices.
  • Improving the Oral Communication Skills in Classroom Discussions are used in the classroom for many reasons: discussions increase student interest and participation and help get feedback from teachers.
  • Classroom Activity Showcasing Application of Motivational Theory Paper illustrates a classroom activity that can be used to make grade 8 students be motivated in a business class.
  • Inclusion and Individual Differences in Classroom Inclusive learning environments are critical for pacifying the learning students with disability through the development of adaptive mechanisms of learning in general classrooms.
  • Assessment Tools in a Language Arts Classroom This paper compares some of the most commonly used assessment tools by looking at their advantages and disadvantages.
  • Flipped Classroom Approach: Literature Review This paper aims at an analysis of five articles that study and prove the positive effects of a flipped-classroom approach on students’ learning outcomes and provide their results.
  • Colour-Coding in Teaching Grammar in EFL Classroom Researchers and practitioners try to make use of learners’ cognitive and psychological peculiarities that are instrumental in enhancing people’s ability to learn.
  • Adult Education in the “Real World” Classroom The research aims to determine the extent to which adult learners are affected by the constraints of time and motivation to complete classes in the “real world” classroom.
  • Classroom Career: Occupational Interest Self-Assessment Personality assessments are useful tools that can help a person to distinguish some important personality traits relevant to career choice.
  • “Virtual Students, Digital Classroom” by Neil Postman Neil Postman in his article “Virtual Students, Digital Classroom” begins by saying that the new technology of computers has been given the status of a god.
  • Classroom Analysis of a Recorded Class The topic of the class is empathy in literature, which aims at educating the students about the notion of empathy and how writers might use it in their attempts to engage their readers.
  • Applying the First Amendment at Classroom It seems apparent that the appropriate application of the First Amendment should be considered as a foundation for democracy in the United States.
  • Classroom Management System: Lesson Observation This paper analyzes the classroom management system, evaluates its planning and implementation, and examines the lesson plan with a detailed reflection on how it worked out.
  • Dominance and Cooperation as Classroom Management Strategies The classroom management strategies are oriented to demonstrating dominance, promoting cooperation, guaranteeing the awareness of students’ needs, and providing guidance.
  • Addressing Bullying in Elementary and Middle School Classrooms The study mainly focuses on teachers’ lack of knowledge on how to deal with the issue of bullying in the classroom in an effective manner.
  • “Effects of Classroom Testing” by Microcomputer Research into the reasons for these crimes, the means through which they are executed, and the motivation of killers has been undertaken.
  • The Myth of Computers in the Classroom A computer makes work easier and with data storage and transfer features, it is the best option compared to other forms.
  • Blended Learning and Flipped Classrooms This report aims at giving the benefits and consequences developed through the integration of the traditional teaching and learning practices with the online development programs.
  • Integrating Technology Into the Classroom Green Valley Community College is experiencing a high level of school drop-outs, which has been attributed to the lack of technology in the classroom.
  • LGBTQ (Queer) in English Language Learning Classrooms This study addresses the issue of the LGBTQ community’s underrepresentation in English language learning classrooms and in the curriculum.
  • Diversity Field Experience in Classroom This paper aims to define the concept of diversity in a classroom and discuss culturally responsive teaching using specific examples.
  • Effective Use of Technology in the Classroom and at Home It is essential to consider the effectiveness of using technology in diverse circumstances, understanding its integral part in contemporary society.
  • Core Classroom Management Competencies and Skills of High-School Teachers in the Digital Era The modern educational field is continuously undergoing the influence of multiple factors within the social, political, economic, and technological environments.
  • Planning a Productive Classroom Community It is good to understand that, different students respond differently to the teaching technique used by their teachers.
  • Classroom Discipline and Behaviour’ Management The final aim of a successful process of behavior guidance is the formation of self-discipline. The guidance of a child’s behavior begins in early childhood and continues throughout the school years.
  • Teaching Strategies and Classroom Management The paper analyzes the teaching strategies observed in grades 3 and 5. They included a demonstration, collaboration, hands-on and the traditional lecture.
  • How to Keep Young Students Engaged and Disciplined in Classroom To improve discipline and engage young students in active educational activities, the necessary materials are needed, in particular, playing instruments.
  • Augmentative and Alternative Communication in the Classroom Environment The article explores ways of alternative communication during education for children with autistic disorder and lack of speech.
  • Online vs. Traditional Classroom Education Technology today is a tool that has become the topic of many professional workshops, and teachers today are learning to use it to add to their teaching tools.
  • Classroom English Language Test Testing provides an input of data about the learner’s levels of growth, difficulties, anxieties, and predispositions towards different styles of learning.
  • Classroom Observation: Children with IEPs The ground for the IEP is the serious emotional disturbance: children demonstrate hyperactivity, lack of attention, immaturity, and impulsiveness.
  • Classroom Tools and Materials Management The plan contains several useful strategies for use in the classroom. Also, the paper discusses ideas exchange with fellow teachers.
  • Classroom and Behavior Management: John’s Case The focus learner selected for this project is John, a 15-year-old Hispanic male. John is in the ninth grade, and he was diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
  • Laptops in Learning Process in the Classroom This study focuses on investigating the effects of personal computers on students’ learning process and academic study during class.
  • Online and Classroom Observation Forms The online classroom observation form describes teaching methods as using the relevant technology and using precise, clear, and appropriate online examples.
  • Paraeducators in Classrooms with Disabled Students This paper aims to research the co-teaching models and the role of the paraeducators’ assistance in the classroom with children with disabilities.
  • L2 Classroom as an Example of a Community of Practice An L2 classroom can be organized by a specific community of people who migrated into a new country for their fellow newcomers who might struggle with learning a new language.
  • Anti-Bias Curriculum in Early Childhood Classroom The anti-bias curriculum should teach diversity as any solution designed to raise awareness, attitudes, knowledge, and cultural diversity skills.
  • Classroom Management Areas for a New Teacher Classroom management is defined as “the use of procedures and teaching techniques that promote a safe and efficient learning environment”.
  • Classroom Environment: Vision, Mission, and Philosophy The paper provides a brief description of a learning classroom environment. Such an environment conformed to the vision, mission, and philosophy of an early education program.
  • Classroom Plan For Early Childhood Education This paper will look at the child-centered developmentally appropriate classroom plan for early childhood learners of ages 3-5 (pre-school).
  • Piaget’s & Kohlberg’s Moral Development in the US Classroom Moral development is a gradual process by which children build up appropriate mind-set toward other people within a particular society.
  • Classroom Management and Techniques to Incorporate in Student’s Reinforcement Plan Managing a classroom is a very complicated affair in modern times. Teachers are faced with many challenges in the course of handling students in classrooms.
  • How to Create Literacy Centers in Classrooms Literacy centers seek to promote literacy in a comprehensive manner by developing essential skills in a multifaceted way.
  • The Flipped Classroom Article by Bishop and Verleger Research on the flipped classroom is both timely and cost-effective because of the affordable status of recording technology.
  • Creating Inclusive Classrooms for Diverse Learners This paper discusses the characteristics, words, and approaches the instructors can use to create an inclusive classroom. It provides relevant examples.
  • A Phone Ban in the American Classroom While personal device policies differ from region to region and class to class, almost every teacher has recognized the new normal of post-pandemic reliance on technology.
  • Using Twitter in the Foreign Language Classroom This paper argues Twitter is a useful tool for developing communicative competence in various aspects of language learning such as speaking, listening, reading, and writing.
  • Improving Implementation of Classroom Instruction This paper analyzes the article “Improving implementation of classroom instruction through teacher-directed behavioral consultation: A single-case demonstration” by Mautone et al.
  • Technology in Early Years Classrooms The digital space of a classroom can be implemented in a positive way through the use of a virtual laboratory. It is an engaging and visual method that is safe and accessible.
  • Impact of Technology in the Classroom The aim of the paper is to analyze and determine what technological approaches are most effective in the classroom.
  • Physical and Mental Wellness of Young Children in the Early Childhood Classroom The paper research and summarizes the article “Affectionate touch and care” about ways to promote young children’s physical and mental wellness in the early childhood classroom.
  • Injuries in the Early Childhood Classroom The paper research and summarizes an article “Preventing unintentional injuries in US early care and education” about ways to respond to injuries in the early childhood classroom.
  • Virtual Classroom Training Challenges There are a number of challenges in regard to virtual classroom training: computer illiteracy, limitations of virtual interaction, technological reliance, etc.
  • Effective Strategies for Linguistically Diverse Classrooms It is necessary to establish evaluation methods suitable for all categories of students considering sociocultural factors to ensure a precise assessment of their abilities.
  • Task-Based Language Teaching Applied in Elementary Classroom The purpose of this paper is to review the best possible teaching method applicable Task-Based language teaching method applicable in elementary schools from grade 1 to grade 3.
  • The Voice of Classroom: Native and Non-native Educators in English Language Teaching The paper argues the connection between the VoC rates and the educator’s ability to use the concepts and notions that the students understand.
  • English Language Learners Classrooms & Instructional Strategies English Language Learners must pass a speaking and writing portion of language proficiency assessment for scoring out and being immersed in mainstream classes without support.
  • Teaching Special Education in the General Education Classroom This literature review will seek to critically review the dynamic that comprises teaching special education within the general education classroom.
  • The Need for a Literacy-Rich Classroom The present-day educators highlight the need for a literacy-rich classroom that reflects the proper application of technology.
  • Classroom Assessment Techniques: Designing Units of Instruction As a crucial and an operating factor motivating students to read, understand and perform, a designed unit of instruction not only assists to manage time.
  • Inclusive Educational Classrooms for Students With Learning Disabilities The study aims to determine if a solution strategy improves the progress of junior high students with learning disabilities participating in inclusive educational classrooms.
  • “Classroom Discourse: The Language of Teaching and Learning”: Culturally Responsive Reading It is vital to develop a set of techniques that can be used to examine the classroom discourse in different cultural environments. This is one of the main tasks that should be done.
  • Multiculturalism in the Classroom: Culturally Responsive Teaching Teachers should be able to benefit from rationalizing the effects of their own racial/cultural identity on the way they perform professionally.
  • Curriculum Outline: Classroom Planning with Groups In accomplishing their responsibilities, educators are faced with many challenges. Among them, is teaching students whose English is their first language.
  • Classroom Management: The Impact of Tokenism on Students Tokenism happens when a teacher gives favor to a certain individual or group of individuals so as to give evidence of representation.
  • Instructional Styles in the Classroom Instructional styles refer to the methods that instructors use to give instructions to students, they determine the amount of information that a student acquires in a class.
  • Sociocultural Linguistics Learning in Classroom The goal of the workshop will be to promote cultural awareness in the classroom and educate teachers on strategies that will improve such awareness.
  • Conducting a Research on Hybrid Classes and Its Impact in the Classroom The main purpose of this paper is to illuminate the best ways for conducting a research on hybrid classes and its impact in the classroom.
  • Inclusion of Students With Autism in General Education Classrooms The article’s main purpose is to sensitize the need for new strategies that would harness the inclusion of students with ASD into general classrooms.
  • Assertive Discipline vs. Classroom Autonomy Ten students who have either been detained or suspended will compose half of the student members, while the other half will involve students who have never been held or suspended.
  • Classroom Discipline: Wong’s, Kyle, and Scott’s Win-Win Strategies Discipline is important for high-quality education. Students should be taught procedures so as to make maximum use of learning and also to develop a sense of responsibility.
  • Classroom Practices Are Best Learned by Experience One of the greatest challenges is the setting of the goals of a course and ensuring that each of the classroom sessions is geared towards achieving those objectives.
  • Classroom Practices and Students’ Attitudes Toward Science Factors such as teacher characteristics, teaching technique, social interactions, gender and culture are cited as the driving force behind students’ attitudes towards science.
  • Political and Social Issues Discussion in the Classroom Author defends opinion that professors shouldn’t be allowed to advocate their views on political or social issues in the classroom cause every has a right to have his/her own views.
  • “Meeting the Needs of Culturally Diverse Learners in Family and Consumer Sciences Middle School Classrooms”: Article Review In the article, the authors have examined the increasing ethnic and cultural diversity in the middle school classrooms of the Family and Consumer Sciences.
  • Sexually Segregated vs. Integrated Classrooms Integrated classrooms promote inclusivity and minimize gender stereotypes while also encouraging cooperation and communication across genders.
  • Teaching Strategies in a Classroom and Virtual Setting In order to meet educational goals and enhance students’ performance, educators tend to use various teaching strategies.
  • Natural & Social Science Grade 3 Classroom Library One of the professional tasks of a teacher is to compile a methodologically adequate list of literature-references, which can be organically incorporated into the learning process.
  • Classroom Components: Learner Weaknesses and Strengths The students will be allowed to attend classes for sometime (about two or three weeks) before being issued with the questionnaire to fill in.
  • Classroom Management Ideas: Behavioral Crises and Promotion of Friendship Between Students This paper discusses Gilliam and Salend’s articles related to classroom management and examines their ideas that can significantly facilitate the work of teachers.
  • Creating Classroom Room Communities and Networks The creation of classroom communities is important for strengthening students’ sense of belonging to the school and increasing his/her commitment to learning activities.
  • Self-Management in the Classroom It is improper for teachers to solely use intrusive reinforcers in their quest to teach students how to behave appropriately. They should use them moderately to prevent dependency.
  • Inquiry-Based Science Classroom: Elements and Methods This paper will examine the major components of an inquiry-based science classroom and proceed to describe some methods that might improve inquiry in the science classroom setting.
  • Rules and Positive Climate in Classroom Management It is important to state that clearly formulated group norms and rules are important to guarantee the development of the effective atmosphere in classrooms.
  • Training New Technology in the Classroom This paper shall seek to explain how teachers are trained to the new technologies, the procedures involved in rolling them out, and how beneficial they are to students and teachers.
  • Cornell Junior School Classroom Observation This paper has discussed the various observations that pertain to Cornell School. It has analyzed the observations made in class.
  • Should Concealed Handguns Be Allowed in Texas Classrooms? Cases of violence and crime among licensed handgun holders are very few. They should be allowed to carry their weapons in Texas’ colleges because they promote their personal and public security.
  • Flipped Classroom in Nursing Schools This paper aims to review available scholarship on the flipped classroom model with the view to demonstrating how it can be effectively used in associate degree nursing schools.
  • Adolescent Development and Learning in the Classroom
  • Early Childhood Classroom Environment for Children
  • Cross-Cultural Pragmatic Perspective for Classroom Teaching
  • Applying Social Development Within the Classroom
  • Abstinence and Sex Education in the Classroom
  • Higher Education Classroom Management
  • Classroom Management and Child-Friendly School System
  • Difference Between China and American Classroom Teaching
  • Classroom Procedures for Preschool Classroom
  • Diversity and Multicultural Education in the Classroom
  • Arming Teachers and Students for Protection in a Washington State Classroom
  • Effective Classroom Interaction and Pupil Management
  • Bullying and Social Isolation in the Classroom
  • Appropriate Classroom Behavior for Young Children
  • Creating the Safest Classroom and Lab Atmosphere
  • Discipline and Improve Students Behaviour in Classroom
  • Classroom Discipline and Management for the Beginning Teacher
  • Cell Phones and Its Effects on the Classroom Environment
  • Effective Teaching and Classroom Management
  • Classroom Management and Discipline in Regular Classrooms
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder & Autism in the Classroom
  • How Does Classroom Management Affect the Teaching/Learning Process?
  • What Are the Most Common Mistakes in Classroom Management?
  • Are Boys and Girls Treated Differently by Teachers in Classroom Situations?
  • What Is the Relationship Between Classroom Management and Student Motivation?
  • How Does Poor Classroom Management Affect Learning?
  • Why Is It Important to Have a Classroom Management Plan and What Are the Most Important Elements That This Plan Should Include?
  • Can Teachers Promote Democracy in the Classroom?
  • How Can Teachers Use E-Learning in the Classroom?
  • What Are the Challenges in Writing a Classroom Management Plan?
  • How Does Classroom Management Affect Motivation?
  • Why Is Effective Classroom Management Important?
  • How Important Are Classroom Organization Strategies in Supporting Student Learning?
  • What Is the Main Purpose of Classroom Management?
  • Does School Safety and Classroom Disciplinary Climate Hinder Learning?
  • How Can Schools Make the Best Use of Information Technology in the Classroom?
  • What Are the Challenges of a Teacher as a Classroom Manager?
  • Does the Classroom Environment Affect Learning?
  • What Are the 3 Key Elements of Effective Classroom Management?
  • How Should High School Teachers Handle Discipline in the Classroom?
  • Have Classroom Teachers Become Less Important With the Increased Use of the Internet in Education?
  • What Is the Most Effective Classroom Management Procedure?
  • How Can Teacher Feedback Be Used to Improve the Classroom Disciplinary Climate?
  • Why Are Classroom Rules Important?
  • Does the Inclusive Classroom Model Have a Successful Outcome?
  • How Does Classroom Environment Affect Child Development?

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StudyCorgi. (2021, December 21). 143 Classroom Management Research Questions & Essay Topics. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/classroom-essay-topics/

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StudyCorgi . "143 Classroom Management Research Questions & Essay Topics." December 21, 2021. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/classroom-essay-topics/.

StudyCorgi . 2021. "143 Classroom Management Research Questions & Essay Topics." December 21, 2021. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/classroom-essay-topics/.

These essay examples and topics on Classroom were carefully selected by the StudyCorgi editorial team. They meet our highest standards in terms of grammar, punctuation, style, and fact accuracy. Please ensure you properly reference the materials if you’re using them to write your assignment.

This essay topic collection was updated on January 5, 2024 .

Classroom management

Guides & resources (10+).

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Rules and routines

Secondary school teacher leaning over group table, giving students feedback.

Foundational classroom management resources handbook

teacher in class with three boys

Classroom management resources: User guide

Research (2).

A group of children in a classroom with their hands up

Effectively managing classrooms to create safe and supportive learning environments

A group of children in a classroom with their hands up

Engaged classrooms through effective classroom management

Summaries & explainers (4).

A teachers stands at the front of the class, directing students.

Establishing and maintaining rules: Their role in classroom management

A teacher stands at the front of a class, talking.

Teaching routines: Their role in classroom management

Two students and a teacher interacting

High expectations for student behaviour: Their role in classroom management

research topics in classroom management

Dr Jenny Donovan on classroom engagement

Senate submission on the issue of increasing disruption in australian school classrooms, australia's national education evidence body.

IMAGES

  1. 9 Examples of Effective Classroom Management Strategies

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  2. 27 Tips for Effective Classroom Management Infographic

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  3. 11 Strategies for Classroom Management

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  4. (PDF) Study on Teachers' Classroom Management Approaches and Experiences

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  5. Why Are Infographics Effective in the Classroom?

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  6. 20 Classroom Management Strategies and Techniques [Infographic] : teaching

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VIDEO

  1. Classroom Management and its needs explained by Namita

  2. Hacks for Classroom Management

  3. Conscious Classroom Management -- What the Best Teachers Everyday (preview video 1)

  4. Classroom Management Strategies

  5. Invitations That Support Learner Identity and Agency

  6. Classroom Management Tools to Use in the First Month of School

COMMENTS

  1. 11 Research-Based Classroom Management Strategies

    Studies also show that sending positive letters home improves kids' self-management and decision making. 6. Private Reminders: When partnered with discreet praise, private reminders to students about how to act responsibly increase on-task behaviors. Researchers recommend using short and unemotional reminders. 7.

  2. Research-based Effective Classroom Management Techniques: A Review of

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the research and implementation of Positive. Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and other related-based classroom strategies and school-wide behavior management tools. I will research the best approaches, strategies and. interventions used for behavioral issues.

  3. Classroom Management: what does research tell us?

    The aim of classroom management is twofold. The first is to establish a quiet and calm environment in the classroom so that the pupils can take part in meaningful learning in a subject. The second aim is that classroom management contributes to the pupils' social and moral development.

  4. PDF A Systematic Review of Studies on Classroom Management from 1980 ...

    A Systematic Review of Studies on Classroom Management Bokuff. 435. database. To determine which articles clearly focus . on classroom management, the first 100 articles out of . 1132 that include the term "classroom management" in the title, abstract, and keywords are carefully . examined. Then the results revealed that the articles

  5. Classroom Management: What Does Research Tell Us?

    The aim of classroom management is twofold. The first is to establish a quiet and calm environment in the classroom so that the pupils can take part in meaningful learning in a subject. The second aim is that classroom management contributes to the pupils' social and moral development. During an early phase, classroom management focused on ...

  6. PDF Enhancing Effective Classroom Management in Schools: Structures ...

    Third, we provide both a research example and a real-world implementation scenario that illustrate how the recommended strategies might be applied in typical school settings. Fourth, we highlight a range of struc-tures for enhancing practicing teachers' deliv-ery of effective classroom management that were depicted in the research and case exam-

  7. (PDF) A Systematic Review of Studies on Classroom Management from 1980

    Because the first study direc tly relat ed to classroom. management on the W oS database appears in 1980, and since it takes up t o six months for the dat abase. to index all the articles in a y ...

  8. (PDF) The Relationship Between Classroom Management and Students

    purpose of the present study was to synthesize the qualitative research studies on classroom management. conducted between 2009 and 2019. It was also aimed to investigate the relationship between ...

  9. A Self-Led Approach to Improving Classroom Management Practices Using

    Classroom management is a top priority for teachers. Managing a classroom includes accounting for routines, schedules, physical arrangements, teacher-student relationships, learning dynamics, and instruction (Cooper & Scott, 2017).Teachers who are skilled in classroom management foster a learning environment that promotes academic and social-emotional development (Meyers et al., 2017).

  10. Classroom management in higher education: A systematic literature

    This paper presents the findings of a systematic literature review (performed from 2010 to 2020) about classroom management (CM) in higher education. The purpose of this article is to present the state of CM in higher education. Search terms identified 129 papers, from which 42 relevant articles met the inclusion criteria of the current review.

  11. Teachers' views on effective classroom management: a mixed-methods

    Classroom management is universally seen as a key dimension of teachers' work as reflected in research that places it among the most required teaching skills (Huntly 2008; Jones 2006; McKenzie et al. 2011).Teachers' skill in classroom management is often cited as the dimension of teachers' work that is the most challenging and the area of training that many beginning and pre-service ...

  12. The Key to Effective Classroom Management

    The Key to Effective Classroom Management. A three-phase process helps build strong teacher-student bonds, which can reduce disruptive behavior. It's a daunting but all-too-common sight for many teachers: A classroom full of rowdy students who are unable to focus on the lesson. Classroom management techniques may get things back on track, but ...

  13. Classroom Management That Works: Research-Based Strategies for ...

    She is the co-author of Classroom Management That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Every Teacher (2003) and a co-author of a book on vocabulary instruction published by the International Reading Association. Additionally, she has published a number of articles on topics ranging from classroom management to the role of the self-system in ...

  14. 1 What is Action Research for Classroom Teachers?

    Action research is a process for improving educational practice. Its methods involve action, evaluation, and reflection. It is a process to gather evidence to implement change in practices. Action research is participative and collaborative. It is undertaken by individuals with a common purpose.

  15. 100 Classroom Management Topics and Essay Examples

    Teachers' classroom management should be built in a way that does not allow for abuse of students' rights, and enables the learners to get the necessary studying information and proper instructions. Behaviour Management in a Classroom Setting. In a classroom setting, the teacher is capable of regulating the behaviour of the students.

  16. Classroom Management

    Topics. Assessment; Integrated Studies; Project-Based Learning; ... try these classroom management techniques to discourage misbehavior and build a stronger classroom community. ... task, but developing your tone of voice can build trust, reduce conflict, and set the stage for more learning in your classroom, research shows. Youki Terada. 10.8k ...

  17. classroom management research: Topics by Science.gov

    Handbook of Classroom Management: Research, Practice, and Contemporary Issues. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center. Evertson, Carolyn M., Ed.; Weinstein, Carol S., Ed. 2006-01-01. Classroom management is a topic of enduring concern for teachers, administrators, and the public. It consistently ranks as the first or second most serious educational problem in the eyes of the general ...

  18. 200+ List of Topics for Action Research in the Classroom

    Tips for Conducting Action Research in the Classroom. Setting Clear Research Goals and Objectives: Clearly define the goals and objectives of the research to ensure a focused and purposeful investigation. Involving Stakeholders in the Research Process: Engage students, parents, and colleagues in the research process to gather diverse perspectives and insights.

  19. Research Topics about Classroom

    Spread the love. Research Topics about Classroom. The Future Classroom. The Resistance of Students in the Classroom. Large-Scale or Classroom-Based Evaluation. Inclusion of Autistic Children in Regular Classrooms. Disadvantages and Consequences of Small Classroom Size. Should Professors Be Allowed to Speak Out in Class on Political or Social ...

  20. 23 Brilliant Classroom Management Strategies and Techniques

    8. Don't yell at students. Seriously, no screaming, shouting, or yelling in the classroom. Most kids just tune it out anyway. Determine other methods for getting students' attention, like doorbells, clapbacks, or hand signals. These classroom management strategies save your voice and lower everyone's stress levels.

  21. 170+ Research Topics In Education (+ Free Webinar)

    The impact of poverty on education. The use of student data to inform instruction. The role of parental involvement in education. The effects of mindfulness practices in the classroom. The use of technology in the classroom. The role of critical thinking in education.

  22. 143 Classroom Management Research Questions & Essay Topics

    Classroom Management Areas for a New Teacher. Classroom management is defined as "the use of procedures and teaching techniques that promote a safe and efficient learning environment". Classroom Environment: Vision, Mission, and Philosophy. The paper provides a brief description of a learning classroom environment.

  23. Classroom management

    Effectively managing classrooms to create safe and supportive learning environments. This discussion paper explores the evidence supporting the Australian Education Research Organisation's (AERO) suite of classroom management resources. Read more Effectively managing classrooms to create safe and supportive learning environments.