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Website Developmemt Technologies: A Review

Abstract: Service Science is that the basis of knowledge system and net services that judge to the provider/client model. This paper developments a technique which will be utilized in the event of net services like websites, net applications and eCommerce. The goal is to development a technique that may add structure to a extremely unstructured drawback to help within the development and success of net services. The new methodology projected are going to be referred to as {the net|the online|the net} Development Life Cycle (WDLC) and tailored from existing methodologies and applied to the context of web development. This paper can define well the projected phases of the WDLC. Keywords: Web Development, Application Development, Technologies, eCommerce.

Analysis of Russian Segment of the Web Development Market Operating Online on Upwork

The Russian segment of the web services market in the online environment, on the platform of the Upwork freelance exchange, is considered, its key characteristics, the composition of participants, development trends are highlighted, and the market structure is identified. It is found that despite the low barriers to entry, the web development market is very stable, since the composition of entrenched firms that have been operating for more than six years remains. The pricing policy of most Russian companies indicates that they work in the middle price segment and have low budgets, which is due to the specifics of the foreign market and high competition.

Farming Assistant Web Services: Agricultor

Abstract: Our farming assistant web services provides assistance to new as well as establish farmers to get the solutions to dayto-day problems faced in the field. A farmer gets to connect with other farmers throughout India to get more information about a particular crop which is popular in other states. Keywords: Farmers, Assistance, Web Development

Tradução de ementas e histórico escolar para o inglês: contribuição para participação de discentes do curso técnico em informática para internet integrado ao ensino médio em programas de mobilidade acadêmica / Translation of summary and school records into english: contribution to the participation of high school with associate technical degree on web development students in academic mobility programs

Coded websites vs wordpress websites.

This document gives multiple instructions related to web developers using older as well as newer technology. Websites are being created using newer technologies like wordpress whereas on the other hand many people prefer making websites using the traditional way. This document will clear the doubt whether an individual should use wordpress websites or coded websites according to the users convenience. The Responsiveness of the websites, the use of CMS nowadays, more and more up gradation of technologies with SEO, themes, templates, etc. make things like web development much much easier. The aesthetics, the culture, the expressions, the features all together add up in order make the designing and development a lot more efficient and effective. Digital Marketing has a tremendous growth over the last two years and yet shows no signs of stopping, is closely related with the web development environment. Nowadays all businesses are going online due to which the impact of web development has become such that it has become an integral part of any online business.

Cognitive disabilities and web accessibility: a survey into the Brazilian web development community

Cognitive disabilities include a diversity of conditions related to cognitive functions, such as reading, understanding, learning, solving problems, memorization and speaking. They differ largely from each other, making them a heterogeneous complex set of disabilities. Although the awareness about cognitive disabilities has been increasing in the last few years, it is still less than necessary compared to other disabilities. The need for an investigation about this issue is part of the agenda of the Challenge 2 (Accessibility and Digital Inclusion) from GranDIHC-Br. This paper describes the results of an online exploratory survey conducted with 105 web development professionals from different sectors to understand their knowledge and barriers regarding accessibility for people with cognitive disabilities. The results evidenced three biases that potentially prevent those professionals from approaching cogni-tive disabilities: strong organizational barriers; difficulty to understand user needs related to cognitive disabilities; a knowledge gap about web accessibility principles and guidelines. Our results confirmed that web development professionals are unaware about cognitive disabilities mostly by a lack of knowledge about them, even if they understand web accessibility in a technical level. Therefore, we suggest that applied research studies focus on how to fill this knowledge gap before providing tools, artifacts or frameworks.


A good information system must not only be neat, effective, and resilient, but also must be user friendly and up to date. In a sense, it is able to be applied to various types of electronic devices, easily accessible at any whereand time (real time), and can be modified according to user needs in a relatively easy and simple way. Information systems are now needed by various parties, especially in the field of administration and sale of medicines for Cut Nyak Dhien Hospital. During this time, recording in books has been very ineffective and caused many problems, such as difficulty in accessing old data, asa well as the information obtained was not real time. To solve it, this research raises the theme of the appropriate information system design for the hospital concerned, by utilizing CSS Bootstrap framework and research methodology for web development, namely Web Development Life Cycle. This research resulted in a responsive system by providing easy access through desktop computers, tablets, and smartphones so that it would help the hospital in the data processing process in real time.

Web Development and performance comparison of Web Development Technologies in Node.js and Python

“tom had us all doing front-end web development”: a nostalgic (re)imagining of myspace, assessment of site classifications according to layout type in web development, export citation format, share document.

Learn Web Development Basics – HTML, CSS, and JavaScript Explained for Beginners

Kingsley Ubah

If you are learning web development, you will come across terms like HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. These are often called the building blocks of the Web.

These three tools dominate web development. Every library or tool seems to be centered around HTML, CSS, and JS. So if you want to become a web developer, you need to learn them well.

You'll also discover that websites are mostly built from these three languages.

But you're probably wondering what each one is and what it's really used for. What makes these languages so special and important? And what makes them so ubiquitous that you can’t help but see them in every tutorial and topic based on web development?

Well, now you need wonder no more.

In this article, I will explain the basics of what HTML, CSS, and JavaScript are, how they make the Web work, and what they do on their own.

What is the Internet?

The internet is simply a network of computers that communicate with each other to send and receive data (information).

Each of these computers on the internet can be distinguished and located by a unique number called an IP Address. An IP Address looks something like this:

What is the Web?

The Web is a subset of the internet.

Like every other computer network out there, the Web is made up of two main components: the web browser client and the web server.

The client requests the data and the server shares or serves its data. To achieve this, the two parties have to establish an agreement. That agreement is called the Application Programming Interface or in short, the API.

But this data has to be arranged and formatted into a form that's understandable by end-users who have a wide range of technical experiences and abilities.

This is where HTML, CSS, JavaScript and the whole concept of web development come into play.

What is HTML?

HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language.

Dictionary.com defines a Markup as:

a set of detailed instructions, usually written on a manuscript to be typeset, concerning style of type, makeup of pages, and the like.

So you can think of HTML as the language used for creating detailed instructions concerning style, type, format, structure and the makeup of a web page before it gets printed (shown to you).

But in the context of web development, we can replace the term ‘printed’ with ‘rendered’ as a more accurate term.

HTML helps you structure your page into elements such as paragraphs, sections, headings, navigation bars, and so on.  

To illustrate what a page looks like, let's create a basic HTML document:

This is how you can format and structure a document with just HTML. As you can see, this markup contains some web elements such as:

  • Level 1 heading h1
  • Level 2 heading h2
  • Level 3 heading h3
  • A paragraph   p
  • An unordered list with bullet points   ul li
  • A button input input
  • And the whole body of the page body

This is what that markup above renders on a web browser:


You can also add attributes to these elements which you can use to identify the elements and access them from other places in the site.

In our example, we set the id attributes to all of the three span elements. This will help us access them from our JavaScript as you will see later.

Think of this attribute the same way as your social media username. With this name, others can find you on social media. And someone can also refer to you or mention you with this name (you can get tagged in a post, and so on).

This page is very basic and unattractive, though. If you are building anything other than a demo, you will need to add some basic styling to make it more presentable. And we can do exactly that with CSS.

Want to learn more about HTML? You can start with freeCodeCamp's Responsive Web Design certification and this brand new full HTML course from Beau Carnes .

What is CSS?

While HTML is a markup language used to format/structure a web page, CSS is a design language that you use to make your web page look nice and presentable.

CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets , and you use it to improve the appearance of a web page. By adding thoughtful CSS styles, you make your page more attractive and pleasant for the end user to view and use.

Imagine if human beings were just made to have skeletons and bare bones – how would that look? Not nice if you ask me. So CSS is like our skin, hair, and general physical appearance.

You can also use CSS to layout elements by positioning them in specified areas of your page.

To access these elements, you have to “select” them. You can select a single or multiple web elements and specify how you want them to look or be positioned.

The rules that govern this process are called CSS selectors .

With CSS you can set the colour and background of your elements, as well as the typeface, margins, spacing, padding and so much more.

If you remember our example HTML page, we had elements which were pretty self-explanatory. For example, I stated that I would change the color of the level one heading h1 to red.

To illustrate how CSS works, I will be sharing the code which sets the background-color of the three levels of headers to red, blue, and green respectively:

The above style, when applied, will change the appearance of our web page to this:


Cool, right?

We access each of the elements we want to work on by "selecting" them. The h1 selects all level 1 headings in the page, the h2 selects the level 2 elements, and so on. You can select any single HTML element you want and specify how you want it to look or be positioned.

Want to learn more about CSS? You can check out the second part of freeCodeCamp's Responsive Web Design certification to get started.

What is JavaScript?

Now, if HTML is the markup language and CSS is the design language , then JavaScript is the programming language.

If you don’t know what programming is, think of certain actions you take in your daily life:

When you sense danger, you run. When you are hungry, you eat. When you are tired, you sleep. When you are cold, you look for warmth. When crossing a busy road, you calculate the distance of vehicles away from you.

Your brain has been programmed to react in a certain way or do certain things whenever something happens. In this same way, you can program your web page or individual elements to react a certain way and to do something when something else (an event) happens.

You can program actions, conditions, calculations, network requests, concurrent tasks and many other kinds of instructions.

You can access any elements through the Document Object Model API (DOM) and make them change however you want them to.

The DOM is a tree-like representation of the web page that gets loaded into the browser.


Thanks to the DOM, we can use methods like getElementById() to access elements from our web page.

JavaScript allows you to make your webpage “think and act” , which is what programming is all about.

If you remember from our example HTML page, I mentioned that I was going to sum up the two numbers displayed on the page and then display the result in the place of the placeholder text. The calculation runs once the button gets clicked.


This code illustrates how you can do calculations with JavaScript:

Remember what I told you about HTML attributes and their uses? This code displays just that.

The displaySum is a function which gets both items from the web page, converts them to numbers (with the Number method), sums them up, and passes them in as inner values to another element.

The reason we were able to access these elements in our JavaScript was because we had set unique attributes on them, to help us identify them.

So thanks to this:

We were able to do this:

Finally, upon clicking the button, you will see the sum of the two numbers on the newly updated page:


If you want to get started with JavaScript, you can check out freeCodeCamp's JavaScript Algorithms and Data Structures certification. And you can use this great Intro to JS course to supplement your learning.

How to Put HTML, CSS, and JavaScript Together

Together, we use these three languages to format, design, and program web pages.

And when you link together some web pages with hyperlinks, along with all their assets like images, videos, and so on that are on the server computer, it gets rendered into a website .

This rendering typically happens on the front end, where the users can see what's being displayed and interact with it.

On the other hand, data, especially sensitive information like passwords, are stored and supplied from the back end part of the website. This is the part of a website which exists only on the server computer, and isn't displayed on the front-end browser. There, the user cannot see or readily access that information.

Wrapping Up

As a web developer, the three main languages we use to build websites are HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.

JavaScript is the programming language, we use HTML to structure the site, and we use CSS to design and layout the web page.

These days, CSS has become more than just a design language, though. You can actually implement animations and smooth transitions with just CSS.

In fact, you can do some basic programming with CSS too. An example of this is when you use media queries, where you define different style rules for different kinds of screens (resolutions).

JavaScript has also grown beyond being used just in the browser as well. We now use it on the server thanks to Node.js .

But the basic fact remains: HTML, CSS, and JavaScript are the main languages of the Web.

So that's it. The languages of the Web explained in basic terms. I really hope you got something useful from this article.

To round off this article, I have something to share. I recently started a weekly coding challenge series aimed at teaching beginners how to program in JavaScript. Check it out on my blog .  

Thank you for reading and see you soon.

P/S : If you are learning JavaScript, I created an eBook which teaches 50 topics in JavaScript with hand-drawn digital notes. Check it out here .

Helping you learn how to code one tutorial at a time. Online creator and entrepreneur.

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Web Application Development Essay

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  • As a template for you assignment

The Ways to Specify the Colors in CSS: Pros and Cons

Enterprise web development and distributed web applications, the browsers’ internal style sheets differences, the compatibility of website with the browsers, designing for iphone users, issue of contents and devices compatibility: tables, w3c standards for developing content for wireless technologies, works cited.

There are multiple methods of the color indication in CSS: hexadecimal color value, RGB, HSL, color keywords and X11, etc. (Dawson par. 1). Hexadecimal value is the most popular method to specify colors. It provides a large color range and is very precise, it thus widely supported by the internet browsers. RGB color value is also well elaborated.

One can specify the color by combining RGB red, green, and blue values. HSL color value successfully compliments RGB notation. HSL provides the combination of hue, saturation, and brightness. Color keywords specification has the easiest format because it doesn’t require any calculations of degrees and percentages. Previously, the keywords notation was too basic but it was expanded with the X11 color palette. Nevertheless, the lack of its support by browsers makes it difficult to use.

Nowadays, the programmers often argue about the best data models suitability for the application development. But according to the experience of many web developers, all the programming languages have advantages and disadvantages (Saint Laurent par. 4).

The main challenge in the development of enterprise applications is the choice of the language, data models, and scripts or their combination to provide the product’s efficiency. The choice of the programming language must be determined by the consideration of the multiple nuances and requires the strategic research. The second challenge is the development of the flexible design that could be suitable for a big number of devices. The success of the content delivery depends on the user’s technological capability.

The abrupt differences can be easily smoothened by the implementation of the layouts that can be adjusted according to browser’s environment. For example, one can choose a relative layout or an elastic layout. The relative layout adjusts the size of the page according to the browser’s view, and the elastic layout can be expanded or narrowed in size (Dawson par. 4).

The design will be developed for the travel company. It requires many pictures, it should be bright enough to draw attention yet shouldn’t repel. The sizes of fonts, the color matching, the sizes of pictures must be taken into consideration because the browsers can display them differently. The layout format will be the most relaxed and mutable. However, the smart placing of page elements and their correspondence with the website’s style is crucial.

The design for iPhone users is more fixed; it can be kept up to the certain rules while the designing for browsers has to deal with the multiple differences of browsers’ capabilities. Nevertheless, designing for iPhones requires the designer’s comprehension. For example, a designer need to know that the element must be smaller, the text formatting must be suitable for the small screen, and the links should consist of more than one word to tap easily (Kyrnin par. 6).

The large default tables can’t be completely seen on the screen of the mobile devices. Some alterations thus are required. A designer needs to take into consideration the amount of the table’s content and the device’s capability to support CSS and JavaScript. The content can be distributed in small tables, converted into a pie chart, or placed in PDF file with the link available for a customer (“Tables in Responsive Design” par. 8).

The W3C standards are needed for the developmental processes regulation and the positive outcomes of the design. HTML is considered to be a standard, and it is commonly accepted (Dubost par. 10). Moreover, the wireless devices can support only HTML and its variations.

The technology’s format must be considered by a designer, and the rules must be followed. For example, a designer needs to know that the mobile technologies usually do not support Flash and Cookies. A designer also needs to consider that the sizes of the elements should be relative.

“Tables in Responsive Design.” Liquid Light 10 December 2013: n.pag. Web.

Dawson, Alexander. “A Guide on Layout Types in Web Design.” Six Revisions 22 July 2010: n.pag. Web.

Dawson, Alexander. “A Guide to CSS Colors in Web Design.” Six Revisions 1 June 2011: n.pag. Web.

Dubost, Karl. “My Web Site Is a Standard! And Yours?” W3C Quality Assurance 8 April 2002: n.pag. Web.

Kyrnin, Jennifer. “How to Write Web Pages for Mobil Devices: Tips to Design Web Pages that Work Well on Small Screen Mobile Devices.” About Tech . n.d. n.pag. Web.

Saint Laurent, Simon. “Web Application Development is Different (and Better).” Radar 29 January 2014: n.pag. Web.

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IvyPanda. (2020, May 3). Web Application Development. https://ivypanda.com/essays/web-application-development/

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Home / Online Bachelor’s Degree Programs / Online Bachelor’s in Computer Science Degree / Careers with a BS in Computer Science / Types of Web Development for Beginners

Types of Web Development for Beginners Types of Web Development for Beginners Types of Web Development for Beginners

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Web developer is one of the most interesting career paths for a computer science major because it combines analytical and technical skills with creative design and development. Web developers work with professionals in IT, sales and marketing, and other departments to build websites that attract and keep customers, contributing to a business’s sales growth or a government agency’s effectiveness. Websites are so crucial to a company’s success that the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) projects the demand for web developers to grow 8% between 2019 and 2029.

A web designer evaluates the website layout on a desktop computer, tablet, and smartphone.

There are three types of web development roles: developers who specialize in the user interface (“front-end”), those who write the underlying code for running all website operations (“back-end”), and those who manage all aspects of a website (“full stack”). Each type focuses on a different area of web development, but they all have one thing in common: coding. A  bachelor’s in computer science  is a great way to learn the programming skills required for a web development career.

What are the different types of web development?

When users click on a website link, such as a “Pay Now” button, they rarely think about the underlying code that takes them to a payment page. Web developers are responsible for creating the look and feel of that button, as well as the logic that drives the website. Here are the three main types of web development:

Front-end web development

Front-end web development is responsible for the look and feel of a website. This means how colors, type, icons, and images appear. Increasingly, front-end development has to account for how a website looks on all devices, from desktop to tablet to phone. Typical programming languages include HTML, JavaScript, and CSS. Front-end developers keep up with cutting-edge trends in web design and development to make sure websites are optimized for users and search engines — and with security best practices in mind.

Back-end web development

Back-end web development is responsible for building and maintaining the code that runs a website. This code connects the website to the server and ensures that data flows properly to the website and that transactions are processed correctly. Typical programming languages include Java (different from JavaScript), PHP, and MySQL; newer tools include Python and Golang. Back-end web developers can keep up with changes in technology by participating in networking communities that share coding tips and support.

Full-stack web development

Full-stack web development covers both front-end and back-end responsibilities. Depending on the complexity of a website, a full-stack developer may be responsible for all facets of its development, from the server side to the user interface. Many full-stack developers may still specialize in one aspect of web development, but their broad experience is useful in troubleshooting or speeding up a build or redesign. Full-stack developers are often responsible for identifying cutting-edge technologies, such as enhanced programming languages (or even no- or low-code trends) and blockchain, that can be used to strengthen websites’ business capabilities.

Skills needed for success

What defines a successful website developer? The following are just a few of the skills that can help professionals advance their careers in web development.

  • Programming abilities.  Strong coding skills are essential. Mastering programming languages such as HTML and CSS is just a start. Technology changes fast, so a willingness to always be learning new coding techniques is important.
  • Attention to detail.  Testing and debugging code requires patience and analytical skills to understand what went wrong and how to fix it.
  • Creative thinking.  Successful websites have to attract and keep users, as well as be visible to search engines. Web developers have to be creative in how they pull together user experience, search engine optimization, and other factors in building a good site.

While many web designers work alone, most work for an organization. Understanding the needs of the sales department, for example, is crucial in creating a successful website. Collaborating with user experience or content creation experts is also a necessary skill.

Web developers can rely on a variety of community resources for everything from finding a job to helping with tough coding problems. Web experts advise new developers to become part of these communities.

A look at different web development careers

Just as there are different types of web development, there are different web development careers. While they do overlap, each role has different responsibilities and requires different skills.

Web designer

A web designer (also called a digital designer) is responsible for a website’s look and feel. They should have skills in design, art, and coding, as well as an understanding of best practices to build a site that is functional, appealing, and successful at drawing users. Web designers use a variety of graphic design software programs to build their sites. While coding isn’t their sole responsibility, a background in programming is useful to communicate their goals to the web programmer. The median starting web designer salary is about $43,000 per year, according to PayScale.com data from April 2021; with experience, the median salary is about $60,000 per year.

Web programmer

A web programmer or web developer writes the code that brings a website to life. Front-end web programmers build the pages the web designer creates. Back-end web programmers write the server code that runs the website. Web programmers are often familiar with web design concepts since they are responsible for making the user interface appealing to site users. The median starting salary for web programmers is about $49,000 per year; with experience, the median salary is about $64,000 per year, according to PayScale.com data from April 2021.

Content developer

A web content developer creates the content that goes on the website. That may include blog posts, product descriptions, images and videos, and news stories. Content developers may also have programming skills such as HTML and search engine optimization (SEO) that they use to make sure their websites are best positioned in search results. According to PayScale.com data from April 2021, the median web content developer salary is about $49,000 per year.

A webmaster is responsible for all aspects of an organization’s website, including design, architecture (the way information is organized on the site), coding, security, and more. The webmaster works with the programmers, designers, and marketing teams to ensure the website is effective at attracting and retaining users and is successful as part of an organization’s business strategy. A webmaster must understand design, coding, sales, and marketing. The median starting salary for webmasters is about $49,000 per year; with experience, the median salary is about $59,000 per year, according to PayScale.com data from April 2021.

An essential function of modern business

A well-designed and well-functioning website is crucial to a company’s business success. Websites are more than just a way to sell products; they must engage users and provide an attractive and seamless user experience to keep customers coming back. Websites must be designed, redesigned, maintained, and supported to meet this standard of success. The three types of web development all work together to achieve that goal.

As a result, the demand for web development professionals, whether front-end, back-end, or full-stack developers, is strong. It’s an ideal career for people who are analytical, detail-oriented, and creative, with excellent communication and networking skills.

Are you ready to learn more about the different types of web development? Does a dynamic career in web programming sound rewarding? Find out how  Maryville University’s online Bachelor of Science in Computer Science  program can help you reach your professional goals.

Recommended Reading

The Path to Becoming a Web Developer vs. Front-End Developer

Web Design vs. Web Development: What’s the Difference?

The Future of Programming and the Top Languages Programmers Should Know

Fireart Studio, ‘Front End Development Trends 2021”

Forbes , ‘Why Every Business Needs a Website’

Houston Chronicle , ‘Description of a Webmaster Position’

Houston Chronicle , ‘Different Types of Web Developers’

JobHero, “What is a Content Developer?”

MadCap, “The Three Types of Web Developers (and What They Do) ”

MerixStudio, “4 Top Picks for Backend Development in 2021 (Update)”

Noupe, ‘Top 7 Fullstack Development Trends to Follow in 2021’

PayScale.com, “Average Web Content Developer Salary”

PayScale.com, “Average Web Designer Salary”

PayScale.com, “Average Webmaster Salary”

PayScale.com, “Average Web Programmer Salary”

Programming Insider, “The Importance of Investing in Web Development for Your Business”

Techopedia, “What Does Web Programming Mean?”

TheeDigital, “The Most Important Features That Every Business Website Should Have”

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Web Developers and Digital Designers”

WebFX, “What Does a Web Designer Do?”

Yoast, “What Makes a Good Website?”

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A Literature Review: Website Design and User Engagement

Renee garett.

1 ElevateU, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Sean D. Young

2 University of California Institute for Prediction Technology, Department of Family Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA

3 UCLA Center for Digital Behavior, Department of Family Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Proper design has become a critical element needed to engage website and mobile application users. However, little research has been conducted to define the specific elements used in effective website and mobile application design. We attempt to review and consolidate research on effective design and to define a short list of elements frequently used in research. The design elements mentioned most frequently in the reviewed literature were navigation, graphical representation, organization, content utility, purpose, simplicity, and readability. We discuss how previous studies define and evaluate these seven elements. This review and the resulting short list of design elements may be used to help designers and researchers to operationalize best practices for facilitating and predicting user engagement.


Internet usage has increased tremendously and rapidly in the past decade ( “Internet Use Over Time,” 2014 ). Websites have become the most important public communication portal for most, if not all, businesses and organizations. As of 2014, 87% of American adults aged 18 or older are Internet users ( “Internet User Demographics,” 2013 ). Because business-to-consumer interactions mainly occur online, website design is critical in engaging users ( Flavián, Guinalíu, & Gurrea, 2006 ; Lee & Kozar, 2012 ; Petre, Minocha, & Roberts, 2006 ). Poorly designed websites may frustrate users and result in a high “bounce rate”, or people visiting the entrance page without exploring other pages within the site ( Google.com, 2015 ). On the other hand, a well-designed website with high usability has been found to positively influence visitor retention (revisit rates) and purchasing behavior ( Avouris, Tselios, Fidas, & Papachristos, 2003 ; Flavián et al., 2006 ; Lee & Kozar, 2012 ).

Little research, however, has been conducted to define the specific elements that constitute effective website design. One of the key design measures is usability ( International Standardization Organization, 1998 ). The International Standardized Organization (ISO) defines usability as the extent to which users can achieve desired tasks (e.g., access desired information or place a purchase) with effectiveness (completeness and accuracy of the task), efficiency (time spent on the task), and satisfaction (user experience) within a system. However, there is currently no consensus on how to properly operationalize and assess website usability ( Lee & Kozar, 2012 ). For example, Nielson associates usability with learnability, efficiency, memorability, errors, and satisfaction ( Nielsen, 2012 ). Yet, Palmer (2002) postulates that usability is determined by download time, navigation, content, interactivity, and responsiveness. Similar to usability, many other key design elements, such as scannability, readability, and visual aesthetics, have not yet been clearly defined ( Bevan, 1997 ; Brady & Phillips, 2003 ; Kim, Lee, Han, & Lee, 2002 ), and there are no clear guidelines that individuals can follow when designing websites to increase engagement.

This review sought to address that question by identifying and consolidating the key website design elements that influence user engagement according to prior research studies. This review aimed to determine the website design elements that are most commonly shown or suggested to increase user engagement. Based on these findings, we listed and defined a short list of website design elements that best facilitate and predict user engagement. The work is thus an exploratory research providing definitions for these elements of website design and a starting point for future research to reference.


2.1. selection criteria and data extraction.

We searched for articles relating to website design on Google Scholar (scholar.google.com) because Google Scholar consolidates papers across research databases (e.g., Pubmed) and research on design is listed in multiple databases. We used the following combination of keywords: design, usability, and websites. Google Scholar yielded 115,000 total hits. However, due to the large list of studies generated, we decided to only review the top 100 listed research studies for this exploratory study. Our inclusion criteria for the studies was: (1) publication in a peer-reviewed academic journal, (2) publication in English, and (3) publication in or after 2000. Year of publication was chosen as a limiting factor so that we would have enough years of research to identify relevant studies but also have results that relate to similar styles of websites after the year 2000. We included studies that were experimental or theoretical (review papers and commentaries) in nature. Resulting studies represented a diverse range of disciplines, including human-computer interaction, marketing, e-commerce, interface design, cognitive science, and library science. Based on these selection criteria, thirty-five unique studies remained and were included in this review.

2.2. Final Search Term

(design) and (usability) and (websites).

The search terms were kept simple to capture the higher level design/usability papers and allow Google scholar’s ranking method to filter out the most popular studies. This method also allowed studies from a large range of fields to be searched.

2.3. Analysis

The literature review uncovered 20 distinct design elements commonly discussed in research that affect user engagement. They were (1) organization – is the website logically organized, (2) content utility – is the information provided useful or interesting, (3) navigation – is the website easy to navigate, (4) graphical representation – does the website utilize icons, contrasting colors, and multimedia content, (5) purpose – does the website clearly state its purpose (i.e. personal, commercial, or educational), (6) memorable elements – does the website facilitate returning users to navigate the site effectively (e.g., through layout or graphics), (7) valid links – does the website provide valid links, (8) simplicity – is the design of the website simple, (9) impartiality – is the information provided fair and objective, (10) credibility – is the information provided credible, (11) consistency/reliability – is the website consistently designed (i.e., no changes in page layout throughout the site), (12) accuracy – is the information accurate, (13) loading speed – does the website take a long time to load, (14) security/privacy – does the website securely transmit, store, and display personal information/data, (15) interactive – can the user interact with the website (e.g., post comments or receive recommendations for similar purchases), (16) strong user control capabilities– does the website allow individuals to customize their experiences (such as the order of information they access and speed at which they browse the website), (17) readability – is the website easy to read and understand (e.g., no grammatical/spelling errors), (18) efficiency – is the information presented in a way that users can find the information they need quickly, (19) scannability – can users pick out relevant information quickly, and (20) learnability – how steep is the learning curve for using the website. For each of the above, we calculated the proportion of studies mentioning the element. In this review, we provide a threshold value of 30%. We identified elements that were used in at least 30% of the studies and include these elements that are above the threshold on a short list of elements used in research on proper website design. The 30% value was an arbitrary threshold picked that would provide researchers and designers with a guideline list of elements described in research on effective web design. To provide further information on how to apply this list, we present specific details on how each of these elements was discussed in research so that it can be defined and operationalized.

3.1. Popular website design elements ( Table 1 )

Frequency of website design elements used in research (2000–2014)

Seven of the website design elements met our threshold requirement for review. Navigation was the most frequently discussed element, mentioned in 22 articles (62.86%). Twenty-one studies (60%) highlighted the importance of graphics. Fifteen studies (42.86%) emphasized good organization. Four other elements also exceeded the threshold level, and they were content utility (n=13, 37.14%), purpose (n=11, 31.43%), simplicity (n=11, 31.43%), and readability (n=11, 31.43%).

Elements below our minimum requirement for review include memorable features (n=5, 14.29%), links (n=10, 28.57%), impartiality (n=1, 2.86%), credibility (n=7, 20%), consistency/reliability (n=8. 22.86%), accuracy (n=5, 14.29%), loading speed (n=10, 28.57%), security/privacy (n=2, 5.71%), interactive features (n=9, 25.71%), strong user control capabilities (n=8, 22.86%), efficiency (n=6, 17.14%), scannability (n=1, 2.86%), and learnability (n=2, 5.71%).

3.2. Defining key design elements for user engagement ( Table 2 )

Definitions of Key Design Elements

In defining and operationalizing each of these elements, the research studies suggested that effective navigation is the presence of salient and consistent menu/navigation bars, aids for navigation (e.g., visible links), search features, and easy access to pages (multiple pathways and limited clicks/backtracking). Engaging graphical presentation entails 1) inclusion of images, 2) proper size and resolution of images, 3) multimedia content, 4) proper color, font, and size of text, 5) use of logos and icons, 6) attractive visual layout, 7) color schemes, and 8) effective use of white space. Optimal organization includes 1) cognitive architecture, 2) logical, understandable, and hierarchical structure, 3) information arrangement and categorization, 4) meaningful labels/headings/titles, and 5) use of keywords. Content utility is determined by 1) sufficient amount of information to attract repeat visitors, 2) arousal/motivation (keeps visitors interested and motivates users to continue exploring the site), 3) content quality, 4) information relevant to the purpose of the site, and 5) perceived utility based on user needs/requirements. The purpose of a website is clear when it 1) establishes a unique and visible brand/identity, 2) addresses visitors’ intended purpose and expectations for visiting the site, and 3) provides information about the organization and/or services. Simplicity is achieved by using 1) simple subject headings, 2) transparency of information (reduce search time), 3) website design optimized for computer screens, 4) uncluttered layout, 5) consistency in design throughout website, 6) ease of using (including first-time users), 7) minimize redundant features, and 8) easily understandable functions. Readability is optimized by content that is 1) easy to read, 2) well-written, 3) grammatically correct, 4) understandable, 5) presented in readable blocks, and 6) reading level appropriate.


The seven website design elements most often discussed in relation to user engagement in the reviewed studies were navigation (62.86%), graphical representation (60%), organization (42.86%), content utility (37.14%), purpose (31.43%), simplicity (31.43%), and readability (31.43%). These seven elements exceeded our threshold level of 30% representation in the literature and were included into a short list of website design elements to operationalize effective website design. For further analysis, we reviewed how studies defined and evaluated these seven elements. This may allow designers and researchers to determine and follow best practices for facilitating or predicting user engagement.

A remaining challenge is that the definitions of website design elements often overlap. For example, several studies evaluated organization by how well a website incorporates cognitive architecture, logical and hierarchical structure, systematic information arrangement and categorization, meaningful headings and labels, and keywords. However, these features are also crucial in navigation design. Also, the implications of using distinct logos and icons go beyond graphical representation. Logos and icons also establish unique brand/identity for the organization (purpose) and can serve as visual aids for navigation. Future studies are needed to develop distinct and objective measures to assess these elements and how they affect user engagement ( Lee & Kozar, 2012 ).

Given the rapid increase in both mobile technology and social media use, it is surprising that no studies mentioned cross-platform compatibility and social media integration. In 2013, 34% of cellphone owners primarily use their cellphones to access the Internet, and this number continues to grow ( “Mobile Technology Factsheet,” 2013 ). With the rise of different mobile devices, users are also diversifying their web browser use. Internet Explorer (IE) was once the leading web browser. However, in recent years, FireFox, Safari, and Chrome have gained significant traction ( W3schools.com, 2015 ). Website designers and researchers must be mindful of different platforms and browsers to minimize the risk of losing users due to compatibility issues. In addition, roughly 74% of American Internet users use some form of social media ( Duggan, Ellison, Lampe, Lenhart, & Smith, 2015 ), and social media has emerged as an effective platform for organizations to target and interact with users. Integrating social media into website design may increase user engagement by facilitating participation and interactivity.

There are several limitations to the current review. First, due to the large number of studies published in this area and due to this study being exploratory, we selected from the first 100 research publications on Google Scholar search results. Future studies may benefit from defining design to a specific topic, set of years, or other area to limit the number of search results. Second, we did not quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of these website design elements. Additional research can help to better quantify these elements.

It should also be noted that different disciplines and industries have different objectives in designing websites and should thus prioritize different website design elements. For example, online businesses and marketers seek to design websites that optimize brand loyalty, purchase, and profit ( Petre et al., 2006 ). Others, such as academic researchers or healthcare providers, are more likely to prioritize privacy/confidentiality, and content accuracy in building websites ( Horvath, Ecklund, Hunt, Nelson, & Toomey, 2015 ). Ultimately, we advise website designers and researchers to consider the design elements delineated in this review, along with their unique needs, when developing user engagement strategies.

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Web Development Research Paper

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: Website , Education , Architecture , Students , Technology , Internet , Development , Computers

Words: 1900

Published: 11/27/2019



Web development is a term used in developing web sites for the internet. The internet is a system that involves a system of computer networks using Internet Protocol Suite (Loughan, 2004, p. 12-39). Web development involves the history of internet, the internet applications and architecture, and the design principles used in creating accessible and usable web sites.

Internet history

Internet started in the early 1960s when certain technologists acted on an idea that computers could be used to share information on research and development. As indicated by Howe (2010), the fields that mostly needed the internet connection for information research are science and military. Among the people who started the internet is Licklider in 1962 when he proposed the global network of computers, Lawrence Roberts who was involved in connecting the California computer and Massachusetts computers in 1965 and Leonard Kleinrock who developed the packet switching, which made it possible for internet connections (Loughan, 2004, p. 12-39).

The first internet connection known as ARPANET in 1969 had the application of connecting four major computers (Howe, 2010). The connected computers were from universities such as university of Utah, Stanford Research Institute, UCLA, and UCSB. Many more university computers connected to the internet within a few months. By that time, only librarians, scientists, experts, and engineers had access to internet. The system was complex and was not common because there was no office or home computers. Personal computers were not there and so there was nothing exciting in the use of internet and the few people who used it had to receive complex training on how to use it.

In the history of internet, Ray Tomlinson adapted e-mail in 1972. He decided to use @ as a symbol to connect the address and the . E-mails enabled the people connected to the internet to transfer files from one location to another between the internet sites. There were great changes in the internet in 1970s because of the introduction of TCP/IP, proposed by Bob Kahn. According to Howe (2010), the DoD (Department of Defense) in 1980 adopted the TCP/IP architecture and they replaced the Network Control Protocol. In 1983, the architecture was adopted universally and it became common compared to the 1960s and in the 1970s. In 1986, National Science Foundation founded NSFNet, which formed the foundation of the internet. The non-commercial government used the internet sponsored by the National Science foundation for research and other uses for approximately ten years. The rules set by the National Science Foundation during the decade led to standardization of the telnet, FTP, and e-mail. This made it a lot easier for people lacking technical background to learn how to use the internet. Although by then the use of internet was not as easy as it is today, at least other people in the universities got a chance to use internet (Loughan, 2004, p. 12-39). The main use of the internet by this time was in the libraries, engineering, physics, and computer departments. The setting of rules allowed other departments to make good use of the internet and they were able to share resources and files and to communicate with other people in the world.

In the 1980s, the number of internet sites was small which made it easy to manage and keep track of the available resources. It became hard to manage the internet resources after many universities became connected. This saw the development of the internet and there was need of more tools for indexing the available resources. In 1991, the University of Minnesota developed a friendly interface in the effort to have a simple menu system that could help in retrieving information and files on local network (Loughan, 2004, p. 12-39). The gopher demonstration system became successful and within some few years, it had spread globally covering more than 10,000 gophers (Howe, 2010). Its prolific spread was mostly due to the simplicity in use where the user was only required to type on a number and get to what they want. Since then, the internet has grown rapidly with the advancement in high-speed connectivity. The internet became useful and accessible to every person in the world and it became cheaper to connect.

Internet architecture and applications

Internet technologies globally are associated with diverse architectural types. It is not hard to access the internet because anybody in the world can connect to your internet (Standley, 2005). To enable this, the priority in internet architecture is to satisfy a static content that is simple and needs a free HTTP server and a PC. The only limitation of the application architecture is that it cannot standardize the HTML templates and to set up useful directory structures.

Internet architecture has seen the use of Common Gateway Interface that offers dynamic data such as goods availability, scores in sports, weather, and prices. As stated by Standley (2005, p. 2), “the CGI make use of the HTTP server, which recognizes applications and refers it to the program standard, which has an input and an output.” The program enables the user to get the reply in the desired HTML. The Common Gateway Interface is available in every modern language and the only limitation is that it is a very expensive proposition (Standley, 2005). To get scripting solutions, the Active Server Page technology helps to mix scripts with HTML. The ASP interprets the script part after returning the HTML parts in the page.

Another step in the network architecture and application after scripting is the N-Tiered computing. “It contains a serious application server that turns into conventional N-Tiered deployment with a HTTP server that connects the client (Stadley, 2005, p. 2).” The internet application has scalability needs, which is not like the corporate setting where it is possible to know the number of users who can access the system. With scalability, it is not possible to control or predict the quantity of users obtained. One strategy in the architecture is to build many machines that run with the same code. The machines will act as redundant servers through various software and hardware. This will make it possible for the operation staff to divide requests and add new servers to handle any excess requests. The redundant machines used for scalability are reliable because in case of failure of one machine, the load-balancing router ensures that the work is sent to the other machines. This ensures reliability because the users have nothing to loose and they may not know there was a problem with one of the machines. It also ensures availability because if there is a regional network failure, the sites duplicate their structure and addresses the risk.

The internet architecture has allowed many people to access web services, which has become a big business. This makes it possible for different people to communicate and call from anywhere in the world without the need of knowing the language on the other end. According to Marlowe (2009), the current internet architecture solves the limitations of Common Gateway Interface. It allows the deployment and development of the industrial applications by having an application server and APIs (Application Program Interfaces). The application servers introduced avoid CGI (Common Gateway Interface) and instead provides the use of Application Program Interfaces. The architecture supports the use of HTML pages and minimizes cookie technology that avoids privacy and security concerns (Marlowe, 2009). It increases the ability and availability of handling many users and enables the off-shelf business objects. The current internet architecture that uses the API is particular to a Web server hence solving limitations of CGI programs. The programs enable separate browser requests making it possible to start a new program every time.

Principles for creating usable and accessible web sites

One of the principles for creating a usable and accessible web site is to include redundant modalities. This will allow flexibility in the systems because the users will have different preferences. To achieve the redundant modalities, the users can have several ways to enter, display, or represent data. As McPartland (2007, p. 20-22), puts it, some of the ways that can be used include the use of text to label images, the use of a menu bar flash and a beep to notify someone of an error or allowing a user to issue a command by using a pointer or typing.

Another principle that used to provide usable and accessible web site is to be simple and intuitive. Designed websites should be able to provide feedback for users. Furthermore, to be simple for everyone, the website design should not have unnecessary complexity. Non-complex designs make it easy for the users and they are able to access the website (Usability first, 2011). The design should not be different from the user’s expectations because it is likely that they will not use it. The needs of the users and their expectations are considered in web site designs to promote uniqueness.

Allowing flexibility is another important principle in having accessible and usable web site. To have flexibility, the web site must accommodate both left-handed and the right-handed people (McPartland, 2007, p. 20-22). The user must also be allowed to use adaptive technologies to serve their needs in the website. This will make them feel the flexibility and freedom as they access the web site. The design of the website should not limit the users to customize settings (Usability first, 2011). An accessible and usable website must provide choices to accomplish tasks by giving different ways and features.

The internet started in the early 1960s when the users used very complex systems to operate the internet. As the years went by, the internet was developed and the universities were the first institutions to use the internet. In the 1990s, the internet was widely used and many people started using it as it developed to current web sites. The architecture and application has seen the internet develop from the use of Common Gateway Interface to Application Program Interfaces that is easier for the users of internet. The principles for creating usable and accessible websites are important because they allow the users of any kind to access the internet and use it is a simple way.

Howe, W, (2010). A Brief History of the Internet. [Online] Available from http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/history.html. Viewed on 12 September 2011. Loughan, D, (2004). Internet History. Google book.United Kingdom: Garden Books. Marlowe, D.K. (2009). Third generation Internet architecture. [Online] Available from http://www.articleinput.com/e/a/title/Internet-architecture-overcomes-CGI-and-enables-application-development/. Viewed on 12 September 2011. McPartland, A. (2007). The ABCs of Creating a Web Site. Home-Based Travel Agent, 2(7), 20-22. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Standley, J. (2005). Internet Architecture. [Online]. Available from http://www.surfscranton.com/architecture/InternetArchitecture.htm. Viewed on 12 September 2011. Usability first, (2011). Principles of Accessible and Universal Design. [Online] Available from http://www.usabilityfirst.com/about-usability/accessibility/principles-of-accessible-and-universal-design/. Viewed on 12 September 2011.


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Web Development

Web development roadmaps, front-end roadmap, to become a web developer, start with the subjects below, in the following order:, 1. create your first web page.

The first thing you have to learn, is HTML, which is the standard markup language for creating web pages.

It is used to format text, create links, tables, lists, forms, display images and more.

2. Style your web page

The next step is to learn CSS, to set the layout of your web page with beautiful colors, fonts, and much more.

How to use CSS to change the appearance and layout of all the pages in a Web site.

3. Make your web page interactive

After studying HTML and CSS, you should learn JavaScript to create dynamic and interactive web pages for your users.

What's Next?

Now you know how to use html, css, and javascript to create, style, and make interactive web pages., the next step is to publish your website, so that the rest of the world can see your work., there are tons of hosting services to choose from. we have made one for you, for free:, w3schools spaces, build your own website with w3schools spaces..

website development essay

Hello, Front-End Developer!

People who create websites and web applications for a living, are called front-end developers ., tip: many front-end developers also have basic knowledge of different css and javascript frameworks and libraries, like bootstrap , sass (css pre-processor) , jquery and react , and the popular version control system, git ., what about back-end, front-end development refers to the client -side (how a web page looks ). back-end development refers to the server -side (how a web page works )., front-end code is used to create static websites, where the purpose is to display the web page. however, if you want to make your website dynamic (manage files and databases, add contact forms, control user-access, etc.), you need to learn a back-end programming language, like php or python , and use sql to communicate with databases., a list of other popular languages can be found on our homepage ..

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website development essay

Guest Essay

How to Make Room for One Million New Yorkers

A photograph of the author.

By Vishaan Chakrabarti

Vishaan Chakrabarti is the founder of Practice for Architecture and Urbanism, a New York City architecture firm, and the former director of planning for Manhattan.

New York City doesn’t have enough homes. The average New Yorker now spends 34 percent of pre-tax income on rent, up from just 20 percent in 1965. There are many reasons homes in the city are so expensive, but at the root of it all, even after the pandemic, is supply and demand: Insufficient housing in our desirable city means more competition — and therefore sky-high prices — for the few new homes that trickle onto the market.

Some New Yorkers harbor fantasies that instead of building more, we can meet our housing needs through more rent control, against the advice of most economists , or by banning pieds-à-terre or by converting all vacant office towers into residential buildings, despite the expense and complexity . Given the enormity of the crisis, such measures would all be drops in the bucket, leading many to worry that if we were to actually build the hundreds of thousands of homes New Yorkers need, we would end up transforming the city into an unrecognizable forest of skyscrapers.

This resistance to change is more than just the usual grumbling from opinionated New Yorkers; it has become a significant obstacle, and it threatens to stifle the vitality of this great city. As Binyamin Appelbaum of The Times argues in his analysis of New York’s housing crisis: “New York is not a great city because of its buildings. It is a great city because it provides people with the opportunity to build better lives.”

website development essay

I Want a City, Not a Museum

New York’s layers of laws to protect existing buildings has led to a shortage of housing.

By Binyamin Appelbaum

To do that, New York needs to build more housing, and it can. New York could add dwellings for well over a million people — homes most New Yorkers could afford — without substantially changing the look and feel of the city.

My architecture firm, Practice for Architecture and Urbanism, previously worked with Times Opinion to imagine the future of the city’s rail infrastructure and streets . This time, we took a fresh look at housing.

We found a way to add more than 500,000 homes — enough to house more than 1.3 million New Yorkers — without radically changing the character of the city’s neighborhoods or altering its historic districts.

Here’s how we got to 500,000 housing units — the same number that the mayor has called a “moonshot goal.”

Apartments near public transit are convenient for residents and better for the environment, so we started by looking at areas within a half-mile of train stations and ferry terminals.

Next, we excluded parts of the city that might be at risk of flooding in the future.

In the remaining areas, we identified more than 1,700 acres of underutilized land: vacant lots, single-story retail buildings, parking lots and office buildings that could be converted to apartments.

For each lot, we calculated how much housing we could add without building any higher than nearby structures.

Take this single-story grocery store in the Crown Heights neighborhood of Brooklyn.

A mid-rise apartment complex built above a replacement grocery store could create 58 new housing units. The resulting structure wouldn't be any taller than the apartment complex next to it.

We also identified sites that could support smaller developments, like this vacant lot on the northern edge of the Bronx.

Low-rise apartment buildings house many more people than single-family homes. If designed thoughtfully, they could become just as much a part of the urban fabric as the city's brownstones.

This single-story store in Flushing, Queens, is just minutes away from a subway stop on a line that runs straight to Midtown Manhattan. It’s a prime example of underutilized land.

Matching the density of surrounding buildings, a high-rise built above new retail spaces could create 242 apartments.

Last, we considered office buildings that could be converted to apartments.

Office building conversions can require a tremendous amount of construction. But we should consider any reasonable proposal to house more New Yorkers.

The hypothetical buildings in our analysis would add 520,245 homes for New Yorkers. With that many new housing units, more than a million New Yorkers would have a roof over their head that they could afford, near transit and away from flood zones, all while maintaining the look and feel of the city.

Of course, adding apartment buildings would place more demand on our subways and schools in some neighborhoods. But the construction of over 520,000 homes would stimulate our economy; add people to our sidewalks, making them safer; and make the city more accessible to middle-class families — who are essential to the long-term health and prosperity of New York.

How to add 520,245 housing units to N.Y.C.


Getting to 500,000

How many housing units our proposed buildings would add.

Office conversions

Mid-rises wouldn’t feel out of place

in many parts of the Bronx and Queens.

Almost all of the office conversions

we’re proposing are in Manhattan.

Residents of high-rises along Atlantic Avenue could easily take the subway to work.

Low-rises near the

Staten Island Railway

could house thousands

more New Yorkers.

Several political, legal and economic impediments stand in the way of addressing New York City’s housing crisis. Mayor Eric Adams and Gov. Kathy Hochul have proposed ambitious plans to build hundreds of thousands of new housing units, but they have faced stiff opposition. Our City Council and State Legislature need to support a significant expansion of housing supply for the city or otherwise answer for our housing and homelessness crisis.

There are many reasons it is so difficult to build new housing in New York City — including zoning, the under-taxation of vacant and underutilized land, the continuing rise of construction costs, the elimination of important tax incentives, and intense and often misguided anti-development sentiments. These challenges can and should be addressed. But please, don’t let people tell you we can’t build the homes New Yorkers need because we’ve run out of room or because it would ruin the city’s character. We are, in fact, a very big apple.


We identified underutilized lots using the Department of City Planning’s PLUTO dataset. Transit stations include stops for the subway, ferry, Long Island Rail Road and Metro-North train lines. For the flood risk analysis, we used the NYC Flood Hazard Mapper’s 0.2 percent annual chance floodplain for 2100.

Contiguous lots facing the same street were merged to maximize hypothetical development potential; small and irregular lots were excluded from the analysis. Maximum building heights were determined by looking at buildings in an 800-foot radius from sites on local streets or quarter-mile radius for sites on more heavily trafficked thoroughfares, as defined by the city’s LION street database.

For low- , mid- and high-rises, we calculated the number of units in each proposed building using the following assumptions: We allocated 37 percent to 45 percent of each lot to open space, and then multiplied the remaining lot area by the number of stories allowed as determined above to calculate the amount of buildable area. Of that total buildable area, we allotted 15 percent to hallways, lobbies and mechanical spaces; we divided the remaining residential space by an average unit size of 750 square feet to determine the number of units.

To identify offices that could be converted to apartments, we created a list of larger, older offices that were built between 1950 and 1990 and have not been altered since 2003. We excluded offices that are publicly owned or have architectural or historical significance. To estimate the number of units in the proposed conversions, we allocated 40 percent of each building to hallways, lobbies and mechanical spaces.

To calculate how many people could live in the proposed housing, we used a rate of 2.56 people per housing unit, based on statistics for New York City from the U.S. Census Bureau.

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