Turabian Footnote/Endnote Style
Table of Contents: Books E-books Journal Articles (Print) Journal Articles (Online) Magazine Articles (Print) Magazine Articles (Online) Newspaper Articles Review Articles Websites For More Help
The examples in this guide are meant to introduce you to the basics of citing sources using Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (seventh edition) . Kate Turabian created her first "manual" in 1937 as a means of simplifying for students The Chicago Manual of Style ; the seventh edition of Turabian is based on the 15th edition of the Chicago Manual . For types of resources not covered in this guide (e.g., government documents, manuscript collections, video recordings) and for further detail and examples, please consult the websites listed at the end of this guide, the handbook itself (LAU Ref Desk LB 2369 .T8 2007) or a reference librarian .
Whenever you refer to or use another's words, facts or ideas in your paper, you are required to cite the source. Traditionally, disciplines in the humanities (art, history, music, religion, theology) require the use of bibliographic footnotes or endnotes in conjunction with a bibliography to cite sources used in research papers and dissertations. For the parenthetical reference (author-date) system (commonly used in the sciences and social sciences), please refer to the separate guide Turabian Parenthetical/Reference List Style . It is best to consult with your professor to determine the preferred citation style.
Indicate notes in the text of your paper by using consecutive superscript numbers (as demonstrated below). The actual note is indented and can occur either as a footnote at the bottom of the page or as an endnote at the end of the paper. To create notes, type the note number followed by a period on the same line as the note itself. This method should always be used for endnotes; it is the preferred method for footnotes. However, superscript numbers are acceptable for footnotes, and many word processing programs can generate footnotes with superscript numbers for you.
When citing books, the following are elements you may need to include in your bibliographic citation for your first footnote or endnote and in your bibliography, in this order:
1. Author or editor; 2. Title; 3. Compiler, translator or editor (if an editor is listed in addition to an author); 4. Edition; 5. Name of series, including volume or number used; 6. Place of publication, publisher and date of publication; 7. Page numbers of citation (for footnote or endnote).
Books with One Author or Corporate Author
Author: Charles Hullmandel experimented with lithographic techniques throughout the early nineteenth century, patenting the "lithotint" process in 1840. 1
Editor: Human beings are the sources of "all international politics"; even though the holders of political power may change, this remains the same. 1
Corporate Author: Children of Central and Eastern Europe have not escaped the nutritional ramifications of iron deficiency, a worldwide problem. 1
1 Michael Twyman, Lithography 1800-1850 (London: Oxford University Press, 1970), 145-146.
1 Valerie M. Hudson, ed., Culture and Foreign Policy (Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers, 1997), 5.
1 UNICEF, Generation in Jeopardy: Children in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union , edited by Alexander Zouev (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1999), 44.
Note the different treatment of an editor's name depending on whether the editor takes the place of an author (second example) or is listed in addition to the author (third example).
Method A: Include the author or editor's last name, the title (or an abbreviated title) and the page number cited.
2 Twyman, Lithography 1800-1850, 50.
2 Hudson, ed., Culture and Foreign Policy, 10.
2 UNICEF, Generation in Jeopardy, 48.
Method B: Include only the author or editor's last name and the page number, leaving out the title.
2 Twyman, 50.
2 Hudson, ed., 10.
2 UNICEF, 48.
Use Method A if you need to cite more than one reference by the same author.
1. Michael Twyman, Lithography 1800-1850 (London: Oxford University Press, 1970), 145-146.
Ibid., short for ibidem, means "in the same place." Use ibid. if you cite the same page of the same work in succession without a different reference intervening. If you need to cite a different page of the same work, include the page number. For example: 2 Ibid., 50.
Hudson, Valerie, N., ed. Culture and Foreign Policy . Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers, 1997.
Twyman, Michael. Lithography 1800-1850 . London: Oxford University Press, 1970.
UNICEF. Generation in Jeopardy: Children in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union . Edited by Alexander Zouev. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1999.
Books with Two or More Authors or Editors
1 Russell Keat and John Urry, Social Theory as Science, 2d ed. (London: Routledge and K. Paul, 1982), 196.
1 Toyoma Hitomi, "The Era of Dandy Beauties," in Queer Voices from Japan: First-Person Narratives from Japan's Sexual Minorities, eds. Mark J. McLelland, Katsuhiko Suganuma, and James Welker ( Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007), 157.
For references with more than three authors, cite the first named author followed by "et al." Cite all the authors in the bibliography.
1 Leonard B. Meyer, et al., The Concept of Style , ed. Berel Lang (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1979), 56.
2 Keat and Urry, Social Theory as Science , 200.
2 Meyer, et al., The Concept of Style , 90.
Keat, Russell, and John Urry. Social Theory as Science , 2d. ed. London: Routledge and K. Paul, 1982.
Hitomi, Toyoma. "The Era of Dandy Beauties." In Queer Voices from Japan: First-Person Narratives from Japan's Sexual Minorities, edited by Mark J. McLelland, Katsuhiko Suganuma, and James Welker, 153-165. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007.
Meyer, Leonard B., Kendall Walton, Albert Hofstadter, Svetlana Alpers, George Kubler, Richard Wolheim, Monroe Beardsley, Seymour Chatman, Ann Banfield, and Hayden White. The Concept of Style . Edited by Berel Lang. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1979.
Follow the guidelines for print books, above, but include the collection (if there is one), URL and the date you accessed the material.
1 John Rae, Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy (Boston: Hillard, Gray and Company, 1834), in The Making of the Modern World, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/MOME?af=RN&ae=U104874605&srchtp=a&ste=14 (accessed June 22, 2009).
2 Rae, Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy .
Rae, John. Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy. Boston: Hillard, Gray and Company, 1834. In The Making of the Modern World, http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/MOME?af=RN&ae=U104874605&srchtp=a&ste=14 (accessed June 22, 2009).
For periodical (magazine, journal, newspaper, etc.) articles, include some or all of the following elements in your first footnote or endnote and in your bibliography, in this order:
1. Author; 2. Article title; 3. Periodical title; 4. Volume or Issue number (or both); 5. Publication date; 6. Page numbers.
For online periodicals , add: 7. URL and date of access; or 8. Database name, URL and date of access. (If available, include database publisher and city of publication.)
For an article available in more than one format (print, online, etc.), cite whichever version you used.
Journal Articles (Print)
1 Lawrence Freedman, "The Changing Roles of Military Conflict," Survival 40, no. 4 (1998): 52.
Here you are citing page 52. In the bibliography (see below) you would include the full page range: 39-56.
If a journal has continuous pagination within a volume, you do not need to include the issue number:
1 John T. Kirby, "Aristotle on Metaphor," American Journal of Philology 118 (1997): 520.
Subsequent footnotes :
2 Freedman, "The Changing Roles of Military Conflict," 49.
2 Kirby, "Aristotle on Metaphor," 545.
Freedman, Lawrence. "The Changing Roles of Military Conflict." Survival 40, no. 4 (1998): 39-56.
Kirby, John T. "Aristotle on Metaphor." American Journal of Philology 118 (1997): 517-554.
Journal Articles (Online)
Cite as above, but include the URL and the date of access of the article.
On the Free Web
1 Molly Shea, "Hacking Nostalgia: Super Mario Clouds," Gnovis 9, no. 2 (Spring 2009), http://gnovisjournal.org/journal/hacking-nostalgia-super-mario-clouds (accessed June 25, 2009).
Through a Subscription Database
1 John T. Kirby, "Aristotle on Metaphor," American Journal of Philology 118, no. 4 (Winter 1997): 524, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/american_journal_of_philology/v118/118.4.kirby.html (accessed June 25, 2009).
1 Michael Moon, et al., "Queers in (Single-Family) Space," Assemblage 24 (August 1994): 32, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3171189 (accessed June 25, 2009).
2 Shea, "Hacking Nostalgia."
2 Kirby, "Aristotle on Metaphor," 527.
2 Moon, "Queers in (Single-Family) Space," 34.
Shea, Molly. "Hacking Nostalgia: Super Mario Clouds," Gnovis 9, no. 2 (Spring 2009), http://gnovisjournal.org/journal/hacking-nostalgia-super-mario-clouds (accessed June 25, 2009).
Kirby, John T. "Aristotle on Metaphor," American Journal of Philology 118, no. 4 (Winter 1997): 524, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/american_journal_of_philology/v118/118.4.kirby.html (accessed June 25, 2009).
Moon, Michael, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, Benjamin Gianni, and Scott Weir. "Queers in (Single-Family) Space." Assemblage 24 (August 1994): 30-7, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3171189 (accessed June 25, 2009).
Magazine Articles (Print)
Monthly or Bimonthly
1 Paul Goldberger, "Machines for Living: The Architectonic Allure of the Automobile," Architectural Digest, October 1996, 82.
1 Steven Levy and Brad Stone, "Silicon Valley Reboots," Newsweek , March 25, 2002, 45.
2 Goldberger, "Machines for Living," 82.
2 Levy and Stone, "Silicon Valley Reboots," 46.
Goldberger, Paul. "Machines for Living: The Architectonic Allure of the Automobile." Architectural Digest, October 1996.
Levy, Steven, and Brad Stone. "Silicon Valley Reboots." Newsweek , March 25, 2002.
Magazine Articles (Online)
Follow the guidelines for print magazine articles, adding the URL and date accessed.
1 Bill Wyman, "Tony Soprano's Female Trouble," Salon.com, May 19, 2001, http://www.salon.com/2001/05/19/sopranos_final/ (accessed February 13, 2017).
1 Sasha Frere-Jones, "Hip-Hop President." New Yorker , November 24, 2008, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=35324426&site=ehost-live (accessed June 26, 2009).
Wyman, Bill. "Tony Soprano's Female Trouble." Salon.com, May 19, 2001, http://www.salon.com/2001/05/19/sopranos_final/ (accessed February 13, 2017).
Frere-Jones, Sasha. "Hip-Hop President." New Yorker , November 24, 2008. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=35324426&site=ehost-live (accessed June 26, 2009).
In most cases, you will cite newspaper articles only in notes, not in your bibliography. Follow the general pattern for citing magazine articles, although you may omit page numbers.
1 Eric Pianin, "Use of Arsenic in Wood Products to End," Washington Post , February 13, 2002, final edition.
1 Eric Pianin, "Use of Arsenic in Wood Products to End," Washington Post , February 13, 2002, final edition, in LexisNexis Academic (accessed June 27, 2009).
Note: In the example above, there was no stable URL for the article in LexisNexis, so the name of the database was given rather than a URL.
Follow the pattern below for review articles in any kind of periodical.
1 Alanna Nash, "Hit 'Em With a Lizard," review of Basket Case, by Carl Hiassen, New York Times , February 3, 2002, http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=105338185&sid=2&Fmt=6&clientId=5604&… (accessed June 26, 2009).
1 David Denby, "Killing Joke," review of No Country for Old Men , directed by Ethan and Joel Coen, New Yorker, February 25, 2008, 72-73, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=fah&AN=30033248&s… June 26, 2009).
2 Nash, "Hit 'Em With a Lizard."
2 Denby, "Killing Joke."
In most cases, you will be citing something smaller than an entire website. If you are citing an article from a website, for example, follow the guidelines for articles above. You can usually refer to an entire website in running text without including it in your reference list, e.g.: "According to its website, the Financial Accounting Standards Board requires ...".
If you need to cite an entire website in your bibliography, include some or all of the following elements, in this order:
1. Author or editor of the website (if known) 2. Title of the website 3. URL 4. Date of access
Financial Accounting Standards Board . http://www.fasb.org (accessed April 29, 2009).
FOR MORE HELP
Following are links to sites that have additional information and further examples:
Turabian Quick Guide (University of Chicago Press)
Chicago Manual of Style Online
RefWorks Once you have created an account, go to Tools/Preview Output Style to see examples of Turabian style.
Purdue's Online Writing Lab (OWL) Excellent source for research, writing and citation tips.
Citing Sources Duke University's guide to citing sources. The site offers comparison citation tables with examples from APA , Chicago , MLA and Turabian for both print and electronic works.
How to Cite Electronic Sources From the Library of Congress. Provides MLA and Turabian examples of citing formats like films, photographs, maps and recorded sound that are accessed electronically.
Uncle Sam: Brief Guide to Citing Government Publications The examples in this excellent guide from the University of Memphis are based on the Chicago Manual of Style and Kate Turabian's Manual .
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- How to Cite a Book | APA, MLA, & Chicago Examples
How to Cite a Book | APA, MLA, & Chicago Examples
Published on February 26, 2021 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 23, 2022.
To cite a book, you need a brief in-text citation and a corresponding reference listing the author’s name, the title, the year of publication, and the publisher. The order and format of information depends on the citation style you’re using. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago style .
Use the interactive example generator to explore the format of book citations in MLA and APA.
Table of contents
Citing a book in mla style, citing a book in apa style, citing a book in chicago style, where to find source information in a book, frequently asked questions about citations.
An MLA book citation includes the author’s name , the book title (in italics, capitalized headline-style), the edition (if specified), the publisher, and the year of publication. If it’s an e-book , write “e-book” (or a more specific description, e.g. “Kindle ed.”) before the publisher name.
The corresponding in-text citation lists the author’s last name and the page number of the passage cited.
You can also use our free MLA Citation Generator to create your book citations.
Generate accurate MLA citations with Scribbr
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Citing a book chapter in MLA
To cite a book chapter , first give the author and title (in quotation marks) of the chapter cited, then information about the book as a whole and the page range of the specific chapter.
The in-text citation lists the author of the chapter and the page number of the relevant passage.
An APA Style book citation lists the author’s last name and initials, the year of publication, the title and any subtitle (in italics, capitalizing only the first word), the edition (if specified), and the publisher. Add a DOI or URL to the end of the entry if available (e.g. for e-books or books accessed online ).
In an in-text citation, state the author’s last name and the publication year, and a page number if you need to show the location of a specific quote or paraphrase .
You can also use our free APA Citation Generator to automatically generate your book citations. Search for a title, DOI, or ISBN to retrieve the details.
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Citing a book chapter in APA
To cite a book chapter , list information about the chapter first, followed by information about the book, including the book’s editor(s) and the chapter’s page range within the book.
The author of the chapter, not the editor of the book, is listed in the in-text citation.
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Chicago notes and bibliography style uses footnotes to cite sources instead of parenthetical citations. These notes refer to a bibliography at the end giving full source details.
A Chicago bibliography entry for a book includes the author’s name, the book title and subtitle, the edition (if stated), the location and name of the publisher, and the year of publication. For an e-book , add the e-book format (e.g. “Kindle”) at the end.
Chicago also has an alternative style, Chicago author-date . You can see examples of book citations in this style here .
Citing a book chapter in Chicago
To cite a book chapter , start with the author and the title of the chapter (in quotation marks), then give the title (in italics) and editor of the book, the page range of the chapter, the location and name of the publisher, and the year of publication.
All the information you need for a book citation can usually be found on the book’s title page and copyright page. The main things you’re looking for are:
- the title (and subtitle if present)
- name(s) of the author(s)
- year of publication
- place of publication
You should also check if the book specifies an edition (e.g. 2nd edition, revised edition) and if any other contributors are named (e.g. editor, translator).
The image below shows where to find the relevant information on the title and copyright pages of a typical book.
The main elements included in all book citations across APA , MLA , and Chicago style are the author, the title, the year of publication, and the name of the publisher. A page number is also included in in-text citations to highlight the specific passage cited.
In Chicago style and in the 6th edition of APA Style , the location of the publisher is also included, e.g. London: Penguin.
When a book’s chapters are written by different authors, you should cite the specific chapter you are referring to.
When all the chapters are written by the same author (or group of authors), you should usually cite the entire book, but some styles include exceptions to this.
- In APA Style , single-author books should always be cited as a whole, even if you only quote or paraphrase from one chapter.
- In MLA Style , if a single-author book is a collection of stand-alone works (e.g. short stories ), you should cite the individual work.
- In Chicago Style , you may choose to cite a single chapter of a single-author book if you feel it is more appropriate than citing the whole book.
Check if your university or course guidelines specify which citation style to use. If the choice is left up to you, consider which style is most commonly used in your field.
- APA Style is the most popular citation style, widely used in the social and behavioral sciences.
- MLA style is the second most popular, used mainly in the humanities.
- Chicago notes and bibliography style is also popular in the humanities, especially history.
- Chicago author-date style tends to be used in the sciences.
Other more specialized styles exist for certain fields, such as Bluebook and OSCOLA for law.
The most important thing is to choose one style and use it consistently throughout your text.
The abbreviation “ et al. ” (Latin for “and others”) is used to shorten citations of sources with multiple authors.
“Et al.” is used in APA in-text citations of sources with 3+ authors, e.g. (Smith et al., 2019). It is not used in APA reference entries .
Use “et al.” for 3+ authors in MLA in-text citations and Works Cited entries.
Use “et al.” for 4+ authors in a Chicago in-text citation , and for 10+ authors in a Chicago bibliography entry.
When you want to cite a specific passage in a source without page numbers (e.g. an e-book or website ), all the main citation styles recommend using an alternate locator in your in-text citation . You might use a heading or chapter number, e.g. (Smith, 2016, ch. 1)
In APA Style , you can count the paragraph numbers in a text to identify a location by paragraph number. MLA and Chicago recommend that you only use paragraph numbers if they’re explicitly marked in the text.
For audiovisual sources (e.g. videos ), all styles recommend using a timestamp to show a specific point in the video when relevant.
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Caulfield, J. (2022, August 23). How to Cite a Book | APA, MLA, & Chicago Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved May 25, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/cite-a-book/
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Home / Book Formatting / How to Use Footnotes in Books: The Ultimate Guide
How to Use Footnotes in Books: The Ultimate Guide
Footnotes are a key component of certain genres of books, particularly nonfiction. And yet, very few people use them properly.
This is largely due to the fact that it is hard to add footnotes to a book, especially for most formatting programs.
In the past you had to have a huge, expensive program like Adobe InDesign to add footnotes to your book, but now there is a tool that will do it for you with no hassle. More on that in a moment.
For now, let's discuss proper usage of footnotes in your book.
- What a footnote is
- How it differs from endnotes
- How to use footnotes correctly
- Different styles for footnotes
- Ideas for using footnotes in fiction
What Are Footnotes?
Footnotes are relevant notes placed at the bottom of your page, and are referenced from within the page (usually with superscript numbers).
The primary purpose of a footnote is to add additional information, without interrupting the flow of the writing.
That additional information can include:
- Parenthetical information
- Copyright permissions
- Background information
- Author's notes
Footnotes are fantastic tools to share information without overpowering the reader. However, there are certain guides and styles to use footnotes properly, and we will get into many of them in a moment.
Footnotes vs. Endnotes
There is often some confusion about whether footnotes are the same as endnotes or vice versa. But footnotes are not the same as endnotes, though they do serve a similar purpose.
- Footnotes provide additional information at the bottom of each page, corresponding to the reference.
- Endnotes provide additional information at the end of each chapter or at the end of the book.
Otherwise, footnotes and endnotes are almost identical. They both are referenced with a small superscript number, and both refer to citations, additional information, etc. The only difference is the positioning of the note.
See this article for a full breakdown on the difference between footnotes and endnotes.
How to Use Footnotes Properly: Examples
Footnotes will look different depending on what style you use, and so you want to make sure that they look like they should, and that you are using a consistent style throughout your book or essay.
Let's start by examining what the in-text citations look like.
To cite your footnote within the body of your text, start by including a small superscript number after the word or sentence where you want to place the reference.
If it is your first reference on the page, start with the number 1, if it is your second reference, go to number 2, and so on.
This will clue the reader in so they know which number to look for at the bottom of the page.
Here is an example of an in-text citation:
Alice was beginning to get very tired of sitting by her sister on the bank 1 , and of having nothing to do: once or twice she had peeped into the book her sister was reading, but it had no pictures or conversations in it. 2
The Chicago style is typically used for citations, though it can be used for other forms of footnotes as well.
For Chicago footnotes, you want to:
- Indent each footnote
- Write the number at the start of each note, followed by a period and a space
- Separate each footnote with one blank line
- Include the full information about each source (in the Chicago style) the first time beside it, with shortened information in subsequent citations.
You may also want to have a complete list of sources in the back of your book in addition to these footnotes.
Here is an example of a Chicago-style footnote:
1. King, Stephen. On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft. New York, NY: Scribner, 2000.
2. King, Stephen. On Writing
APA-style footnotes are typically used for additional information instead of citations, though this is not a hard and fast rule. You can also use them for copyright clarification.
To use APA-style footnotes, remember the following:
- Add an indent at the start of each footnote
- Begin with the superscript footnote number followed by a space (no period)
- Stick to essential information only, as APA footnotes can get long.
Here is an example of APA footnotes:
1 King, S. (2000). On writing: A memoir of the craft . Scribner.
2 This is where you might make an additional note or comment related to the piece you are writing.
MLA footnotes can be used in a variety of ways, including additional information, citations, expansions, etc.
To do MLA-style footnotes well, remember the following:
- Style the number at the beginning with a superscript and a space (no period)
- Add an indent at the start of your footnote
- In-text citations are in parentheses
Here's an example of an MLA-style footnote:
1 King, Stephen. On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft. Scribner, 2000.
2 This is where you might make an additional note or comment related to the piece you are writing.
How to Use Footnotes for Quotes
If you're quoting a source directly in your material, you will want to add a footnote to cite your source so that you don't plagiarize.
To do this, use the exact words of the quote, place quotation marks around it, then placed your superscript number at the end of the quote, outside of the quotation marks.
Use a Good Formatting Program
To do this well, you are definitely going to need a good formatting program, the more automation the better.
Programs like Microsoft Word and Adobe InDesign have long had the features necessary to add footnotes, but it is a pain to do, and can take a lot of time to learn.
Other formatting software like Vellum don't even have this capability.
The best formatting program for adding footnotes is Atticus . It will not only add footnotes for you, automatically adding them to the bottom of each of your pages, but it allows you to do so with the click of a button.
You can check out Atticus here, or scroll down for more information.
Using Footnotes In Fiction Books
While footnotes are primarily used in nonfiction books, there are some fun ways to use footnotes in fiction as well. Here are just a few ideas:
- Reveal additional details about your world : it can be tough to pack all of the world building that you need into your story. How about giving a few extra details in the footnotes?
- Make your world seem more real : by adding footnotes, you can make your world seem more academic, like it is an actual place. Tolkien did this in the Lord of the Rings.
- Add comments from other characters : what if you had a character reading the book you are writing? You could use footnotes as a way of letting the character comment on the text. You could also use this for the narrator of a first-person point of view to comment on their own words.
Adding footnotes in fiction can be a fun way to stand out from the crowd, and make the process fun to read.
Why Footnotes Are Important
It is crucial that you learn to cite your sources, especially if you are a nonfiction writer. If you used any information in your book from a source other than your own experience (which most of it will be), then you will want to cite those sources.
Thankfully, there is a tool to make this process a lot easier for you.
Atticus is the all-in-one program designed for authors to write and format their books with ease.
Not only will it automatically create your footnotes, but it does a lot of other things to. Here is a brief rundown of Atticus's features:
- It does footnotes and endnotes
- You can format a ebook or print book in a variety of sizes
- It is $100 cheaper than the leading alternative (which does not have footnotes, by the way)
- It is available on virtually every platform, including Windows, Mac, Linux, and Chromebook
So if you want a program that makes footnotes easy, along with all of your other formatting needs , give Atticus a look.
How to Create Footnotes in Atticus
Atticus is one of the only formatting programs that does easy-to-insert footnotes (Adobe InDesign does footnotes, but the software is incredibly difficult to learn).
Atticus makes the process easy. Start by choosing whether you want footnotes or endnotes in the Formatting Tab:
Then, simply find where you want to insert your footnote, and select the following button in the top tool bar:
This will create a pop-up where you can insert your desired footnote:
You will then see the footnote displayed in the main editor:
And that’s it! Once this is done, the footnotes will appear in your formatted documents. Here is what that looks like in the Print version:
Note also that for ebooks , your footnotes will be converted to endnotes, since footnotes only work in print.
It’s such an easy process that very few formatting tools have, and ONLY Atticus makes it this simple.
Video: Footnotes in Atticus!
For a nice summary of this article, and a demonstration of how footnotes work in Atticus, be sure to check out this video.
Want more videos like this? Be sure to subscribe to my YouTube channel for weekly videos!
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How to do APA footnotes
Footnotes are a way for the author to provide additional content to their papers without distracting the reader from the text. The information in footnotes is different from the information provided in APA annotated bibliographies . Footnotes can be content based, providing a little more insight on an idea you raise in the text, or they can be used to provide copyright attribution for long quotes and passages.
Properly formatted APA footnotes can be placed at the bottom of the page. Alternatively, you can put them on their own page after the references. This guide on footnotes, end notes, and parentheticals provides information about the differences between these different types of notes. Either way, it’s important to know how to use footnotes properly.
In this guide, students can learn about the different uses for footnotes as well as how to format footnotes according to APA Style. All of the information here comes straight from the 7th edition of the Publication Manual .
Why use footnotes? What information goes into them?
There are two primary reasons why an author would use footnotes:
1. Using a footnote for content
As mentioned above, there are a few different ways to use footnotes. The more common way is when an author wants to provide extra insight on an idea without disrupting the flow of the text. This is called a content footnote.
In this case, you would write a a couple sentences about the extra insight. For example:
1 This data refers to the situation in 2010, and it includes emissions from industrial processes. Emissions from the latter are released during the physical and chemical transformation of materials like clinker production. Since these industrial production processes are also consumers of energy, here we made the choice to combine them with CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion.
2. Using a footnote for copyright attribution
When you are reproducing a portion of a copyrighted work, like an extended passage from a book or journal, it is necessary to provide copyright attribution. This can be done inside a footnote. The footnote is used instead of a parenthetical in-text citation, and you will still need to add the source as an entry in the reference list.
If it is an image or graph you are reproducing, copyright attribution can go in the figure note or table note.
A copyright footnote should start with “ From ” or “ Adapted from ” and the format will change slightly depending on the source.
Here is a template for copyright attribution for a website followed by two examples:
1 From Webpage title , by Group Author OR Author FirstMiddleName Initials. Author Surname. Year Published, Website Name (URL).
*Note: If the Group Author and Website Name are the same, omit the Website Name slot.
2 From First images from the James Webb Space Telescope , by National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2022 (https://www.nasa.gov/webbfirstimages).
3 From Question of what now for Syria remains as vexed as ever , by M. Chulov. 2022, The Guardian (https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/jul/19/question-of-what-now-for-syria-remains-as-vexed-as-ever).
Endnotes vs. footnotes: What’s the difference?
According to APA Style, the author may choose to place the footnotes on the bottom of the page on which the callout appears or at the end of the paper on their own page(s).
“Endnotes” is a function on many word processors that inserts callouts and place the notes at the end of the document. While this is the same idea as footnotes, APA calls for a specially-formatted footnotes page.
To place the footnotes at the end of your document, check the preferences of the footnote function. You should be able to select “End of Document” instead of “End of Page.”
How to format APA footnotes
Always use the footnotes function of your word processor to insert footnotes. This will make it much easier to keep track of everything even as page content changes.
How to format footnotes correctly:
- Always use the footnotes function.
- The callout should be in superscript, like this. 1
- The callout should come after the punctuation, like this. 2
- If there’s a dash 3 —the callout comes before the punctuation, not after.
- All callouts should appear in numerical order, like this. 4
APA footnotes example
Now let’s have a look at what properly formatted APA footnotes look like in action.
Here is an example of a concise, relevant, and properly formatted footnote from “The role of renewable energy in the global economy transformation,” published in Energy Strategy Reviews.
. . . A transition away from fossil fuels to low-carbon solutions will play an essential role, as energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions represent two-thirds of all greenhouse gases (GHG). 1
In this example, the footnotes function automatically created a dividing line at the bottom of the document. It has also reduced the font size by 1pt, which is neither required nor discouraged by APA.
The reason this is a good example, however, is because the footnote provides supplemental information that is both relevant and substantive. The information would have been too distracting to appear in the main text, but it provides helpful insight on the author’s research method.
Published October 28, 2020.
APA Formatting Guide
- Annotated Bibliography
- Block Quotes
- et al Usage
- In-text Citations
- Multiple Authors
- Page Numbers
- Parenthetical Citations
- Reference Page
- Sample Paper
- APA 7 Updates
- View APA Guide
- Book Chapter
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Website (no author)
- View all APA Examples
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You can include more than one footnote on the same page in APA style. There is no restriction on the number of footnotes to be included on a page. Depending upon the number of footnotes on the page, the text area of the page will be automatically adjusted to fit the footnotes.
Footnotes in APA are used to provide the reader some additional information about the idea or the element being discussed. Footnotes are used in all types of publications such as journal articles, book chapters, and conference papers.
Two types of footnotes are used in APA style: content footnotes and copyright attribution footnotes. A content footnote provides additional explanation or information about something mentioned in the text, while a copyright attribution footnote provides copyright information for lengthy content that has been reprinted in the text. For both types, the in-text citation remains the same. Remember the following guidelines when you want to cite a footnote:
- Footnotes (whether content footnotes or copyright attribution footnotes) are numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text.
- Use superscript Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.) to designate a footnote callout.
- This is a footnote. 1
- In this footnote, 2 the author tries to clarify the idea.
- A footnote callout—unlike in-text reference citation 3 —is simple to add.
- You should not add space before the footnote callout.
- If you want to refer to the same footnote again in the text, do not add any superscript Arabic numeral. Instead, write “see Footnote 3.” In this case, the footnote description need not be given again.
Note that a footnote should have only one idea. If you want to add more information, it is advisable to add the content in the text or create an appendix.
APA Citation Examples
Other Citation Styles
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How to Do Footnotes
Last Updated: April 8, 2023 References Approved
Placing citations, supplementing text.
This article was co-authored by wikiHow staff writer, Jennifer Mueller, JD . Jennifer Mueller is a wikiHow Content Creator. She specializes in reviewing, fact-checking, and evaluating wikiHow's content to ensure thoroughness and accuracy. Jennifer holds a JD from Indiana University Maurer School of Law in 2006. There are 9 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. In this case, 81% of readers who voted found the article helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 1,358,679 times. Learn more...
Footnotes are used generally in academic and professional writing to cite sources or add supplemental information to the main text of a paper. Academic citation styles, such as the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA), discourage the use of extensive footnotes. Others, such as Chicago style, require them.  X Research source
Tip: Footnotes are typically a smaller font size than the main text of your paper. Typically, you won't need to change the default size on the word processing app you're using to write your paper – it will do this automatically when you create a footnote.
- You'll typically only have one footnote per sentence. If you need more than one footnote, place the other footnote at the end of the sentence clause it relates to, outside the closing punctuation. The only exception is if the sentence is broken up by a long dash, in which case, the superscript number goes before the beginning of the dash.  X Trustworthy Source Purdue Online Writing Lab Trusted resource for writing and citation guidelines Go to source
Footnote Number in Line with Text: It is well known that patients who suffer from Crohn's and Colitis can have many debilitating symptoms. 1.
Superscripted Footnote Number: It is well known that patients who suffer from Crohn's and Colitis can have many debilitating symptoms. 1
- For some longer papers, such as doctoral theses, footnote numbers may start over with each chapter. If you're unsure if this is appropriate for your project, discuss it with your editor or advisor.
- Most word processing apps will maintain sequential numbering for you, provided you use the app's function for inserting footnotes, rather than trying to type the numbers manually.
- You typically have formatting options that allow you to choose numbers, letters, or other symbols to indicate footnotes. You can also change the size or placement of footnotes, although the default option is usually appropriate.
- For most style guides, the use of footnotes does not replace the need for a list of references at the end of your paper. Even if a full list of references isn't strictly required, it can help place your paper in context.
- For example, suppose you've paraphrased information from a book by Reginald Daily, titled Timeless wikiHow Examples: Through the Ages. If you were using Chicago style, your footnote citation would look something like this: Reginald Daily, Timeless wikiHow Examples: Through the Ages (Minneapolis: St. Olaf Press, 2010), 115.
- For example, suppose later on in your paper you need to cite Reginald Daily's wikiHow book again. Your shortened citation might look something like this: Daily, wikiHow Examples , 130.
Tip: Some citation styles recommend using the abbreviation "id." or "ibid." if you cite to the same source in footnotes immediately following. Others, notably the Chicago Manual of Style, require the use of a shortened citation instead.
- For example, suppose you have a sentence in your text comparing the conclusions in Reginald Daily's book with the observations in another book on the same topic. Your footnote might look something like this: Reginald Daily, Timeless wikiHow Examples: Through the Ages (Minneapolis: St. Olaf Press, 2010), 115; Mary Beth Miller, The wiki Revolution (New York: New Tech Press, 2018), 48.
- For example, if Miller's work reached a conclusion that was contrary to the conclusion Daily reached, your footnote might look something like this: Reginald Daily, Timeless wikiHow Examples: Through the Ages (Minneapolis: St. Olaf Press, 2010), 115; but see Mary Beth Miller, The wiki Revolution (New York: New Tech Press, 2018), 48.
- If you believe it would be helpful to your readers, you can add a brief parenthetical comment after the second source that explains why you included it.
- For example, suppose you want to include a brief explanation as to why you're citing Daily's book, despite the fact that it was published in 2010. Your footnote might look something like this: Reginald Daily, Timeless wikiHow Examples: Through the Ages (Minneapolis: St. Olaf Press, 2010), 115. Although published in 2010, Daily's work provides a jumping-off point for research in this area.
- For example, there may be a basic concept that is beyond the scope of your paper, but important for your readers to understand. You could add a footnote that says "For an explanation of the theory of relativity, see generally" followed by a source or list of sources.
- Typically, these types of footnotes provide your reader with information on something that is tangential to your paper but could be important to help your readers understand the topic as a whole or place your paper in context.
- Some style guides, such as MLA and APA, instruct that parenthetical statements should be included in the main text of your paper, rather than in footnotes.  X Trustworthy Source Purdue Online Writing Lab Trusted resource for writing and citation guidelines Go to source
Tip: Keep your footnotes as brief as possible, especially with supplemental footnotes. Don't stray too far off topic or go into a tangent that is only marginally related to the topic of your paper.
- These types of footnotes frequently accompany a quote from a source and may include a citation to the source. For example, if you quoted a source that discussed wikiHow, and you wanted to clarify, you might add a footnote that says "wikiHow examples are used to clarify text in situations where it would be helpful to have a visual cue. Reginald Daily, Timeless wikiHow Examples: Through the Ages (Minneapolis: St. Olaf Press, 2010), 115."
- For example, suppose you are writing a paper about the use of wikiHow articles as sources, and you include a study finding that wikiHow articles are more accurate than articles on major news sites about similar topics. You might add a footnote that says "Despite this fact, the vast majority of professors at public universities in the US do not accept wikiHow articles as sources for research papers."
- You can also use footnotes to make a witty remark, which can add humor and lightheartedness to your paper. However, these types of footnotes should be used extremely rarely, and only when appropriate to the subject matter.
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- Before writing, confirm with your professor or organization what style guide you should be using to write your paper. Make sure your use of footnotes follows the rules for that style. ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
- If a footnote includes both a citation and supplemental information, the citation usually comes first. ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
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- ↑ https://www.plagiarism.org/article/what-are-footnotes
- ↑ https://stpauls-mb.libguides.com/citations/footnotes
- ↑ https://www.library.georgetown.edu/tutorials/research-guides/turabian-footnote-guide
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_endnotes_and_footnotes.html
- ↑ https://libguides.stonehill.edu/c.php?g=884839&p=6358739
- ↑ https://www.law.cornell.edu/citation/6-300
- ↑ https://libguides.utep.edu/c.php?g=429690&p=2930768
- ↑ https://jle.aals.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1243&context=home
- ↑ https://libguides.liberty.edu/c.php?g=864199&p=6197236
About This Article
To use footnotes as citations, find a sentence you want to cite and insert a "1" at the end of it using the footnote setting in your word processor. Then, insert your citation next to the corresponding "1" at the bottom of the page, like "Reginald Daily, Timeless wikiHow Examples: Through the Ages (Minneapolis: St. Olaf Press, 2010), 115." When you're finished, move onto the next sentence you need to cite and repeat the process. To learn how to use footnotes to clarify information in your paper, read the article! Did this summary help you? Yes No
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2018 Primetime Emmy & James Beard Award Winner
21 Things to Know Before You Go to Moscow
Jun 06 2018.
A primer on traveling well in Russia’s swaggering capital.
If you had visited in the last days of the Soviet Union, and then returned to live in the mid-90s, as I did, then you could be forgiven a bit of heartbreak for Moscow and the people who lived there. The radiant enthusiasms of perestroika were gone by 1995, murdered by crony capitalism or the disastrous Chechen wars or their shambolic boozehound of a president. Moscow had always been the epitome of Russia, but for a long period, that simply meant that the city was crueler, less equal, more chaotic and dangerous than it had been before.
All of that seems now a distant memory, as if scrubbed clean by one of those maniacal sidewalk-water-Zambonis that pressure-wash the sidewalks of the city center every night. Central Moscow now is repainted and so clean it can feel like Slavic Disneyland. It’s a perfect reflection of Putin himself: pinched, wealthy, disciplined. God help you if you’re an outspoken artist, a disgruntled activist, a run-of-the-mill fall-down drunk or some other kind of undesirable. Moscow has no place for you these days.
I have no nostalgia for the old chaos, though. Life in Moscow is easier these days, especially for visitors. The streets are safe at night. Russians are, despite what you might have heard, enthusiastic hosts. The grand buildings and bejeweled churches gleam everywhere. And thanks to a falling Ruble, prices are reasonable across the board. This is actually, despite all the geopolitical burbling, an excellent time to visit. — Nathan Thornburgh
Save up for your Visa. The price of a Russian tourist visa keeps creeping up, and the requirements—like needing an official invitation from an approved organization —remind one just a bit of the Soviet days. If you stand in line at a consulate in the U.S., you can get a visa for US$123. If you use a passport service and need a quick turnaround and expedited visa, that can creep up to nearly US$500. It’s absurd. Although, importantly, it’s not nearly as egregious as what many have to go through to visit the U.S. Good news for World Cup ticket-holders: you can enter Russia without a visa if you have a Fan ID , which gets you free public transportation as well.
[Already been to Moscow? Here’s R&K’s guide to Saint Petersburg.]
Don’t fear the Ruble. Moscow used to be expensive. Like, weird-expensive. Luanda -expensive. But with the Ruble being one of the first currencies to go down the slide that we’ll all be on soon enough, this is actually a great time to visit. A quality hotel in central Moscow can be yours for US$110/night or less (except during the World Cup of football, aka the Beautiful Gouge). Moscow is still a city where people spend to make a statement, so you may find yourself with a heavy dinner bill if you aren’t careful, but even the very highest-end restaurants like White Rabbit don’t cost what a pedestrian upscale meal in New York might.
Download some Russian. Moscow is far more English-friendly than most places in Russia, but without at least some basic words and some translation firepower, you’ll struggle at times. Download Yandex Translate [ Apple // Android ], which works offline too and translates text from photos. (It has 94 languages so you can use it for future trips, too.) Here are the Russian words you really should know: выход (VY-khod) exit; вход (v-KHOD) entrance, ресторан (resto-RAHN) restaurant, туалет (tua-LYET) toilet, аптека (ap-TYEK-a) pharmacy. And, for good measure, something weird and local like ботва (baht-VA), which means the leaves and stalks of root vegetables or tubers, but is used as slang for nonsense or a trifling.
Carry your passport. It’s unlikely that you’ll get stopped by police, who mostly seem to stand around waiting for opposition leader Alexei Navalny, but if you do, you’ll definitely want to have your passport on you. Take it with you at all times.
Don’t drink the water. The water system here is better than in rickety Saint Petersburg, but bottled water is still king.
Go small with cash. Carry a wad of cash, because not everywhere takes credit cards (and almost nowhere takes American Express). And as is true of Russia generally, make sure you get plenty of small bills (100₽ and 500₽ notes) and not just a lean stack of 5,000₽ notes that no one will want to break for you.
Know your Rings . Russia’s eternally autocratic tendencies have deeply shaped Moscow. Moscow is the heart of Russia, and the Kremlin is the heart of Moscow, so the entire city spins out from the ancient fortress in a series of concentric rings. The first ring—the Boulevard Ring—is actually more of a horseshoe, but the Garden Ring after that and the Third Ring Road trace great looping circles around the capital. The Circle Line of the metro does the same underground slightly further out from the Kremlin than the Garden Ring.
For visitors, this means the sweet spot for accommodations is probably between the Boulevard and Garden Rings. Further in, and hotels get more expensive. Further out, and you’re going to be far from everything—Moscow is a big sprawl. If you are saving money by being a bit further out, just make sure you’ve got easy Metro access. Moscow traffic will break your spirit, no matter what ring you’re on.
Git your Teremok. Moscow may be the city that went mad for McDonald ’s, but Russian fast-food chain Teremok delivers a real hit of flavor and sense of place for a reasonable price. We will always enjoy the ability to get a buttery blini with roe for under US$10, or even this thing , which they call an E-mail Blini and which comes with mushrooms and melty cheese, like all email should.
Get that Rideshare. Moscow’s informal cab economy in the late Soviet days and throughout the 1990s was strong. Civilians of all kinds would cruise around in their personal cars and look for people flagging them down on the side of the road. For drivers, it was a way to make some much-needed cash. For riders, it was chaotic and sometimes tricky (you had to negotiate your fare and watch your back), but incredibly convenient. As ambivalent as we are about ridesharing around the world, it is a lifeline in Moscow. Thanks to the ubiquity of Uber and Yandex Taxi (which recently acquired Uber’s Russia business), the good old days are back: only now instead of waving a couple fingers toward passing cars, you just tap on your phone and a (licensed and registered) car will whisk you away. Prices are similar in both apps and low by European standards (a 15-minute ride can run $6 or less).
Go underground. Moscow’s larger avenues and streets don’t have pedestrian crossings, so don’t keep walking, expecting to find one at the next corner. Instead, the city’s networks of underground passageways are how you navigate your way across the street. It can take a while to get your bearings underground and figure out which exit you need: some of the larger hubs are like underground cities and have a dozen or so. These passageways are also centers of commerce: you can buy clothes, groceries, get your watch repaired, etc.
Make friends over meat pockets. Cheburek is a delightfully greasy oversized crescent of meat-filled pastry that the Tatar people brought to Moscow. Cheburek Friendship (Чебуречная Дружба) is a somewhat oddly named purveyor of these delights. It’s a brilliantly humble place, with fluorescent lighting and communal sinks for washing your hands before and after. It’s just 40₽ (US$0.64) per cheburek. Also, you’ll want to get some vodka in you as soon as possible in Moscow, and you can definitely do that here: savvy (or just alcoholic) patrons chase each fatty bite with a swig of vodka followed by a gulp of Fanta. Our kind of place.
Find Ivan and his offal. There are plenty of restaurateurs in Moscow, many of them slick operators with a consistent, glossy portfolio of market-tested dining concepts. Ivan Shishkin isn’t like that. He’s an old friend of Roads & Kingdoms and one of the true iconoclasts in Moscow’s dining scene. His two main restaurants are Delicatessen (a basement speakeasy with a nearly blasphemous food menu) and Youth Cafe (a restored bordello on Trubnaya with big, wild plates to choose from). For the quickest hit of Shishkin’s off-kilter genius, slink down the stairs at Delicatessen and order the fried calf brains in egg yolk sauce with pike roe, or get the caviar pizza or perhaps the horse tartare seared with a branding iron at your table. Eat, drink, and think: this is a man who embraces freedom wherever he can find it.
Head for Food City. You might think that calling Food City (Фуд Сити) , an agriculture depot on the outskirts of Moscow, a “city” would be some kind of hyperbole. It is not. This is an entire cosmos (ok, that is hyperbole) of vendors and farmers and chefs and laborers and laypeople who all have roles to play in feeding a megacity. For any food obsessive, it’s well worth the 40-minute cab ride south to get there and walk the aisles of Moscow’s breadbasket. And because Central Asians dominate the labor of this industry, there is some of Russia’s best plov—inexpensive, fragrant rice steamed with spiced meats—and fresh flatbread served at stalls on the fringes of the market. Think of it as a Tsukijii Market for vegetables and Uzbek rice.
Be caviar savvy. The ancient species of Caspian Sea sturgeon whose beloved roe has fed Tsars and peasants alike is endangered, and it’s illegal in Russia to poach or sell wild, black caviar. (Although this hasn’t stopped people from smuggling and poaching in all kinds of creative ways, including stashing 1,000 pounds of it in a coffin .) Most legal caviar in Russia comes from farmed Siberian sturgeon. You probably can’t know the source of every spoonful caviar you encounter, but if someone tries to sell you wild black caviar, it’s either illegal, not sturgeon, or a lie. If you want to drop some cash on excellent caviar and vodka in a restaurant, chef Ivan Shishkin recommends Beluga . If you want to score some top-end black gold and avoid the restaurant mark-up, try the Rybnaya Manufactura chain of seafood stores, or the admittedly pricier high-end grocers such as Eliseevskiy or the GUM shopping mall’s Gastronome No.1 , where you can taste before you buy. You can also order online at Osetr, and they’ll deliver to you anywhere in the city.
Visit the Hotel Ukraine. Even if you’re not staying there. The hotel is now part of the Radisson chain, but they’ve left the original lettering intact from when it was the grand Hotel Ukraina, commissioned by Joseph Stalin and occupying the second-tallest of his gothic, Soviet power-showcase Seven Sisters skyscrapers. Come for the panoramic view from the very top of the hotel, reachable by separate elevator from the upper bar. Order a Moscow Mule—which was not invented in Moscow , by the way—at the terrace bar if you must, but this is a playground for karaoke-drunk oligarchs and cocktails are pricey. Whatever you do, don’t miss the diorama in the lobby—a 1:75 scale model of Moscow and the Kremlin complex, with a 5-minute audio spiel explaining what’s what. It’s a lot of fun, and a perfect introduction to Moscow’s heart. For an excellent view of the Kremlin, go to the roof restaurant at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel .
Join the masses at the Kremlin. As the beating fortress heart of Moscow, and therefore, all of Russia, the Kremlin complex and Red Square has a staggering share of Eurasia’s prime real estate, treasures, and historical artefacts—including Lenin’s Mausoleum (or strictly speaking, Lenin’s embalmed corpse). It will be busy, especially from May to September, so plan your visit in advance and try to go early in the morning. The Kremlin Armoury has a limited number of tickets available each day, for example. Booking tickets through the official Kremlin website will enable you to skip the ticket lines. When planning, avoid Russian public holidays: the museums might be closed, or busy with locals.
…then look beyond the Kremlin. There are world-class treasures and bling, naturally, but Moscow’s charms include dozens of obscure museums. There are scores of writers’ and poets’ houses (“ The Master and Margarita ” fans should check out the rival Mikhail Bulgakov House and state-run Bulgakov Museum , which are both in his former apartment building but don’t acknowledge each other); a vodka history museum; a museum dedicated to valenki (Russian felt boots); a gallery of working Soviet-era arcade games; an ice sculpture museum; and an opulent bunker built after the first round of nuclear tests. Note that some museums charge different prices for locals and foreigners.
But note that Monday is a day of rest… For Moscow’s museums, at least. Except for the Kremlin museums and St Basil’s Cathedral, it seems that Mondays are a universal day off for the keepers/houses of Moscow’s historic and cultural treasures.
Go to GUM for food, not the Chanel. Moscow’s landmark posh department store dates back to the 18th century, and is a barometer of sorts for the city’s consumption power. Its stores were more bare in the Soviet era, but GUM now has a full stable of upmarket chains. The real charm here is its food store, Gastronome No.1, which stocks the international and hyper-local product you need, such as Soviet candy. Also, try a deeply nostalgic Soviet-era ice-cream cone at one of GUM’s kiosks, and, finally, spend 150₽ for a most luxurious restroom experience in the “Historic Toilets.”
Tchotchke tip. If you must buy topless Putin calendars and nesting matryoshka dolls, then we recommend the little souvenir shop staffed by friendly Central Asian women on at Arbat 20, just between Dragon Tattoo and the Irish Pub. They have some schlock, of course, but a lot of high quality at decent prices—look for the matryoshki with traditional motifs of a farmwife holding a black chicken.
The Moscow Metro is your friend. Moscow traffic is some of the worst in Europe, if not the world. The Metro is cheap, fast, reliable, and gorgeous. It’s also not as complicated as it looks to a non-Cyrillic reader. Read our primer. Also, if you’re going traveling all over the city, you should get a refillable Troika card , good for all forms of transport: Metro, trams, buses, and suburban railways. (The card also comes in bracelet and key ring form for maximum convenience.) Now, go sort out your visa.
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The basic formats for citing a book in a Chicago footnote and a bibliography entry are as follows: Chicago book citation; Chicago bibliography: Author last name, first name. Book Title: Subtitle. Place of publication: Publisher, Year. Rhys, Jean. Wide Sargasso Sea. London: Penguin, 1997.
However, superscript numbers are acceptable for footnotes, and many word processing programs can generate footnotes with superscript numbers for you. BOOKS. When citing books, the following are elements you may need to include in your bibliographic citation for your first footnote or endnote and in your bibliography, in this order: 1. Author or ...
To cite a book chapter, first give the author and title (in quotation marks) of the chapter cited, then information about the book as a whole and the page range of the specific chapter. The in-text citation lists the author of the chapter and the page number of the relevant passage. MLA format. Author last name, First name.
Paperback. $9.99 31 Used from $1.18 17 New from $7.74. Footnotes have not had it easy. Their dominance of eighteenth- and nineteenth- century literature and scholarship was both hard-won -- following many years of struggle -- and doomed, as it led to belittlement in the twentieth century. In The Devil's Details, Chuck Zerby playfully explores ...
Novels with Fictional Footnotes. Novels with footnotes that are part of the story. flag. All Votes Add Books To This List. 1. Jonathan Strange & Mr Norrell. by. Susanna Clarke. 3.85 avg rating — 227,631 ratings.
Footnotes Books. Showing 1-50 of 423. Jonathan Strange & Mr Norrell (Paperback) by. Susanna Clarke. (shelved 10 times as footnotes) avg rating 3.85 — 227,607 ratings — published 2004. Want to Read. Rate this book.
Simply omit the unknown information and continue with the footnote as usual. Example Book (New York: Scholastic, 2010), 65. Citing a part of a work. When citing a specific part of a work in the Chicago footnotes format, for example, when citing an article in Chicago, provide the relevant page(s) or section identifier. This can include specific ...
How to write a footnote. Within the text, place a footnote signal directly after the passage that the footnote relates to. Footnote signals should come after punctuation and at the end of sentences when possible. The only exception is the dash (—), in which case the footnote signal comes before, not after. At the bottom of the page, that same ...
The Footnote: A Curious History. Paperback - April 1, 1999. The weapon of pedants, the scourge of undergraduates, the bête noire of the "new" liberated scholar: the lowly footnote, long the refuge of the minor and the marginal, emerges in this book as a singular resource, with a surprising history that says volumes about the evolution of ...
But footnotes are not the same as endnotes, though they do serve a similar purpose. Footnotes provide additional information at the bottom of each page, corresponding to the reference. Endnotes provide additional information at the end of each chapter or at the end of the book. Otherwise, footnotes and endnotes are almost identical.
How to format footnotes correctly: Always use the footnotes function. The callout should be in superscript, like this. 1. The callout should come after the punctuation, like this. 2. If there's a dash 3 —the callout comes before the punctuation, not after. All callouts should appear in numerical order, like this. 4.
That's right: that Jones book citation is pushed back to footnote #29. That also means that the supra note number in footnote #34 (which is now footnote #35) needs to change, from 28 to 29. When you first create footnote #34, don't manually type "28" after "supra note." Instead, insert it as a cross-reference, following the instructions in the ...
Place a single footnote at the end of the sentence and include the citations to both sources in the same footnote, rather than having 2 footnotes at the end of the sentence. X Research source For example, suppose you have a sentence in your text comparing the conclusions in Reginald Daily's book with the observations in another book on the same ...
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