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Rising interest expenses.

On Sept. 30, 2022, the NFIP made a semi-annual interest payment of $300 million to the U.S. Treasury. With this payment, the NFIP has now paid over $5.7 billion in interest since Hurricane Katrina hit the United States in 2005.

NFIP Modifies Benefit-Cost Ratio for Community Grant Programs

There is a Benefit-Cost Analysis (BCA) requirement to access funding through FEMA’s Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs. The BCA is the method used to calculate the future risk reduction benefits of a hazard mitigation project and compares those benefits to its costs.

Partner Developed Guidance for Mapping Debris Flow and Mudflow Hazards

roads, impact critical infrastructure like water and sewer lines and can be deadly. It is difficult to identify where debris flows and mudflows are likely to happen using existing mapping methods. Professionals need a more effective way to map debris and mudflow risk areas.

Paradise, California: Rebuilding Resilient Homes after the Camp Fire

The Town of Paradise employed innovative tactics with state and federal support to empower low-to-moderate income residents to rebuild their homes safely and navigate disaster assistance options after the Camp Fire. Establishing a Building Resiliency Center provided a single place to assist property owners with their rebuilding needs and questions. Direct engagement with impacted residents and a focus on customer service helped overcome challenges and provides an example of trauma-informed disaster assistance at the local level.

Virginia Department of Emergency Management Office of Diversity Opportunity Inclusion

Challenge Good governance is defined by several characteristics including accountability; transparency; responsiveness; efficiency; integrity; and inclusiveness. By developing data-driven policies and laws that address the diverse needs of the Commonwealth, we can continue to build resilient communities and inter-connected counties, towns, and cities.  

Maryland – Equity & Climate Adaptation Projects

Challenge How do we build climate-resilient communities while also advancing equity for all, including people of color and others who have been historically underserved and adversely affected by persistent poverty and inequality?

District of Columbia Homeland Security and Emergency Management Agency Subrecipient Monitoring Protocol

The DCHSEMA monitoring process follows a risk-based monitoring strategy which looks at prior monitoring, spending performance, number of subawards, average financial risk, audits, quarterly status review, and overall performance.

Maryland Department of the Environment: Promoting Higher Standards with the Climate Ready Action Boundary Map Viewer

Challenge: The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) is how high floodwater is likely to rise during a 1%-annual-chance flood event. It is one way to measure and indicate flood risk. However, the study that established the BFE is only a snapshot in time. There are many factors that can cause floodwaters to rise above the BFE. These factors include debris-blocked bridge and culvert openings; blocked city storm sewer drains; higher-intensity rain events; storm tracks causing coinciding peak flows of flooding sources; high backwater conditions; and heavy rains on frozen ground with considerable snow depths. There is also always the potential for an event more severe than the 1%-annual-chance event. To communicate and reduce flood risk in areas beyond FEMA’s regulatory flood zones, communities need more information (especially spatial information) about flooding that exceeds the 1%-annual-chance event.

This section outlines the current state of the NFIP’s debt to Treasury and proposes potential reforms to address this accumulation of debt.

Flood Grant Program Helps Reduce High Risk Flood Properties and Increases Resilience

An overview of FEMA’s Flood Mitigation Assistance program that provides a summary of the program’s results for FY 2021. Relevant details of the program for FY 2022 are also provided. This program is key to FEMA’s resilience efforts as catastrophic flooding persists.

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Disaster Management in Flash Floods in Leh (Ladakh): A Case Study

Preeti gupta.

Regimental Medical Officer, Leh, Ladakh, India

Anurag Khanna

1 Commanding Officer, Army Hospital, Leh, India

2 Registrar, Army Hospital, Leh, India


On August 6, 2010, in the dark of the midnight, there were flash floods due to cloud burst in Leh in Ladakh region of North India. It rained 14 inches in 2 hours, causing loss of human life and destruction. The civil hospital of Leh was badly damaged and rendered dysfunctional. Search and rescue operations were launched by the Indian Army immediately after the disaster. The injured and the dead were shifted to Army Hospital, Leh, and mass casualty management was started by the army doctors while relief work was mounted by the army and civil administration.

The present study was done to document disaster management strategies and approaches and to assesses the impact of flash floods on human lives, health hazards, and future implications of a natural disaster.

Materials and Methods:

The approach used was both quantitative as well as qualitative. It included data collection from the primary sources of the district collectorate, interviews with the district civil administration, health officials, and army officials who organized rescue operations, restoration of communication and transport, mass casualty management, and informal discussions with local residents.

234 persons died and over 800 were reported missing. Almost half of the people who died were local residents (49.6%) and foreigners (10.2%). Age-wise analysis of the deaths shows that the majority of deaths were reported in the age group of 25–50 years, accounting for 44.4% of deaths, followed by the 11–25-year age group with 22.2% deaths. The gender analysis showed that 61.5% were males and 38.5% were females. A further analysis showed that more females died in the age groups <10 years and ≥50 years.


Disaster preparedness is critical, particularly in natural disasters. The Army's immediate search, rescue, and relief operations and mass casualty management effectively and efficiently mitigated the impact of flash floods, and restored normal life.


In the midnight of August 6, 2010, Leh in Ladakh region of North India received a heavy downpour. The cloud burst occurred all of a sudden that caught everyone unawares. Within a short span of about 2 h, it recorded a rainfall of 14 inches. There were flash floods, and the Indus River and its tributaries and waterways were overflowing. As many as 234 people were killed, 800 were injured, and many went missing, perhaps washed away with the gorging rivers and waterways. There was vast destruction all around. Over 1000 houses collapsed. Men, women, and children were buried under the debris. The local communication networks and transport services were severely affected. The main telephone exchange and mobile network system (BSNL), which was the lifeline in the far-flung parts of the region, was completely destroyed. Leh airport was flooded and the runway was covered with debris, making it non-functional. Road transport was badly disrupted as roads were washed away and blocked with debris at many places. The civil medical and health facilities were also severely affected, as the lone district civil hospital was flooded and filled with debris.

Materials and Methods

The present case study is based on the authors’ own experience of managing a natural disaster caused by the flash floods. The paper presents a firsthand description of a disaster and its prompt management. The data was collected from the records of the district civil administration, the civil hospital, and the Army Hospital, Leh. The approach used was both quantitative as well as qualitative. It included data collection from the primary sources of the district collectorate, interviews with the district civil administration and army officials who organized rescue operations, restoration of communication, and transport, mass casualty management, and informal discussions with local residents.

Disaster management strategies

Three core disaster management strategies were adopted to manage the crisis. These strategies included: i) Response, rescue, and relief operations, ii) Mass casualty management, and iii) Rehabilitation.

Response, rescue, and relief operations

The initial response was carried out immediately by the Government of India. The rescue and relief work was led by the Indian Army, along with the State Government of Jammu and Kashmir, Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF), and Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP). The Indian Army activated the disaster management system immediately, which is always kept in full preparedness as per the standard army protocols and procedures.

There were just two hospitals in the area: the government civil hospital (SNM Hospital) and Army Hospital. During the flash floods, the government civil hospital was flooded and rendered dysfunctional. Although the National Disaster Management Act( 1 ) was in place, with the government civil hospital being under strain, the applicability of the act was hampered. The Army Hospital quickly responded through rescue and relief operations and mass casualty management. By dawn, massive search operations were started with the help of civil authorities and local people. The patients admitted in the civil hospital were evacuated to the Army Hospital, Leh in army helicopters.

The runway of Leh airport was cleared up within a few hours after the disaster so that speedy inflow of supplies could be carried out along with the evacuation of the casualties requiring tertiary level healthcare to the Army Command Hospital in Chandigarh. The work to make the roads operational was started soon after the disaster. The army engineers had started rebuilding the collapsed bridges by the second day. Though the main mobile network was dysfunctional, the other mobile network (Airtel) still worked with limited connectivity in the far-flung areas of the mountains. The army communication system was the main and the only channel of communication for managing and coordinating the rescue and relief operations.

Mass casualty management

All casualties were taken to the Army Hospital, Leh. Severely injured people were evacuated from distant locations by helicopters, directly landing on the helipad of the Army Hospital. In order to reinforce the medical staff, nurses were flown in from the Super Specialty Army Hospital (Research and Referral), New Delhi, to handle the flow of casualties by the third day following the disaster. National Disaster Cell kept medical teams ready in Chandigarh in case they were required. The mortuary of the government civil hospital was still functional where all the dead bodies were taken, while the injured were handled by Army Hospital, Leh.

Army Hospital, Leh converted its auditorium into a crisis expansion ward. The injured started coming in around 0200 hrs on August 6, 2010. They were given first aid and were provided with dry clothes. A majority of the patients had multiple injuries. Those who sustained fractures were evacuated to Army Command Hospital, Chandigarh, by the Army's helicopters, after first aid. Healthcare staff from the government civil hospital joined the Army Hospital, Leh to assist them. In the meanwhile, medical equipment and drugs were transferred from the flooded and damaged government civil hospital to one of the nearby buildings where they could receive the casualties. By the third day following the disaster, the operation theatre of the government civil hospital was made functional. Table 1 gives the details of the patients admitted at the Army Hospital.

Admissions in the Army Hospital, Leh

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The analysis of the data showed that majority of the people who lost their lives were mainly local residents (49.6%). Among the dead, there were 10.3% foreign nationals as well [ Table 2 ]. The age-wise analysis of the deaths showed that the majority of deaths were reported in the age group 26–50 years, accounting for 44.4% of deaths, followed by 11–25 year group with 22.2% deaths.

Number of deaths according to status of residence

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The gender analysis showed that 61.5% were males among the dead, and 38.5% were females. A further analysis showed that more females died in <10 years and ≥50 years age group, being 62.5% and 57.1%, respectively [ Table 3 ].

Age and sex distribution of deaths

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Victims who survived the disaster were admitted to the Army Hospital, Leh. Over 90% of them suffered traumatic injuries, with nearly half of them being major traumatic injuries. About 3% suffered from cold injuries and 6.7% as medical emergencies [ Table 4 ].

Distribution according to nature of casualty among the hospitalized victims

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Object name is IJCM-37-185-g004.jpg


Shelter and relief.

Due to flash floods, several houses were destroyed. The families were transferred to tents provided by the Indian Army and government and non-government agencies. The need for permanent shelter for these people emerged as a major task. The Prime Minister of India announced Rs. 100,000 as an ex-gratia to the next of kin of each of those killed, and relief to the injured. Another Rs. 100,000 each would be paid to the next of kin of the deceased from the Chief Minister's Relief Fund of the State Government.

Supply of essential items

The Army maintains an inventory of essential medicines and supplies in readiness as a part of routing emergency preparedness. The essential non-food items were airlifted to the affected areas. These included blankets, tents, gum boots, and clothes. Gloves and masks were provided for the persons who were working to clear the debris from the roads and near the affected buildings.

Water, sanitation, and hygiene

Public Health is seriously threatened in disasters, especially due to lack of water supply and sanitation. People having lost their homes and living in temporary shelters (tents) puts a great strain on water and sanitation facilities. The pumping station was washed away, thus disrupting water supply in the Leh Township. A large number of toilets became non-functional as they were filled with silt, as houses were built at the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains. Temporary arrangements of deep trench latrines were made while the army engineers made field flush latrines for use by the troops.

Water was stagnant and there was the risk of contamination by mud or dead bodies buried in the debris, thus making the quality of drinking water questionable. Therefore, water purification units were installed and established. The National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) airlifted a water storage system (Emergency Rescue Unit), which could provide 11,000 L of pure water. Further, super-chlorination was done at all the water points in the army establishments. To deal with fly menace in the entire area, anti-fly measures were taken up actively and intensely.

Food and nutrition

There was an impending high risk of food shortage and crisis of hunger and malnutrition. The majority of food supply came from the plains and low-lying areas in North India through the major transport routes Leh–Srinagar and Leh–Manali national highways. These routes are non-functional for most part of the winter. The local agricultural and vegetable cultivation has always been scanty due to extreme cold weather. The food supplies took a further setback due to the unpredicted heavy downpour. Food storage facilities were also flooded and washed away. Government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and the Indian Army immediately established food supply and distribution system in the affected areas from their food stores and airlifting food supplies from other parts of the country.

There was a high risk of water-borne diseases following the disaster. Many human bodies were washed away and suspected to have contaminated water bodies. There was an increased fly menace. There was an urgent need to prevent disease transmission due to contaminated drinking water sources and flies. There was also a need to rehabilitate people who suffered from crush injuries sustained during the disaster. The public health facilities, especially, the primary health centers and sub-health centers, were not adequately equipped and were poorly connected by roads to the main city of Leh. Due to difficult accessibility, it took many hours to move casualties from the far-flung areas, worsening the crisis and rescue and relief operations. The population would have a higher risk of mental health problems like post-traumatic stress disorder, deprivation, and depression. Therefore, relief and rehabilitation would include increased awareness of the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and its alleviation through education on developing coping mechanisms.

Economic impact

Although it would be too early to estimate the impact on economy, the economy of the region would be severely affected due to the disaster. The scanty local vegetable and grain cultivation was destroyed by the heavy rains. Many houses were destroyed where people had invested all their savings. Tourism was the main source of income for the local people in the region. The summer season is the peak tourist season in Ladakh and that is when the natural disaster took place. A large number of people came from within India and other countries for trekking in the region. Because of the disaster, tourism was adversely affected. The disaster would have a long-term economic impact as it would take a long time to rebuild the infrastructure and also to build the confidence of the tourists.

The floods put an immense pressure and an economic burden on the local people and would also influence their health-seeking behavior and health expenditure.

Political context

The disaster became a security threat. The area has a high strategic importance, being at the line of control with China and Pakistan. The Indian Army is present in the region to defend the country's borders. The civil administration is with the Leh Autonomous Hill Development Council (LAHDC) under the state government of Jammu and Kashmir.


It is impossible to anticipate natural disasters such as flash floods. However, disaster preparedness plans and protocols in the civil administration and public health systems could be very helpful in rescue and relief and in reducing casualties and adverse impact on the human life and socio economic conditions.( 2 ) However, the health systems in India lack such disaster preparedness plans and training.( 3 ) In the present case, presence of the Indian Army that has standard disaster management plans and protocols for planning, training, and regular drills of the army personnel, logistics and supply, transport, and communication made it possible to immediately mount search, rescue, and relief operations and mass casualty management. Not only the disaster management plans were in readiness, but continuous and regular training and drills of the army personnel in rescue and relief operations, and logistics and communication, could effectively facilitate the disaster management operations.

Effective communication was crucial for effective coordination of rescue and relief operations. The Army's communication system served as an alternative communication channel as the public communication and mobile network was destroyed, and that enabled effective coordination of the disaster operations.

Emergency medical services and healthcare within few hours of the disaster was critical to minimize deaths and disabilities. Preparedness of the Army personnel, especially the medical corps, readiness of inventory of essential medicines and medical supplies, logistics and supply chain, and evacuation of patients as a part of disaster management protocols effectively launched the search, rescue, and relief operations and mass casualty reduction. Continuous and regular training and drills of army personnel, health professionals, and the community in emergency rescue and relief operations are important measures. Emergency drill is a usual practice in the army, which maintains the competence levels of the army personnel. Similar training and drill in civil administration and public health systems in emergency protocols for rescue, relief, mass casualty management, and communication would prove very useful in effective disaster management to save lives and restore health of the people.( 2 – 4 )

Lessons learnt and recommendations

Natural disasters not only cause a large-scale displacement of population and loss of life, but also result in loss of property and agricultural crops leading to severe economic burden.( 3 – 6 ) In various studies,( 3 , 4 , 7 , 8 ) several shortcomings have been observed in disaster response, such as, delayed response, absence of early warning systems, lack of resources for mass evacuation, inadequate coordination among government departments, lack of standard operating procedures for rescue and relief, and lack of storage of essential medicines and supplies.

The disaster management operations by the Indian Army in the natural disaster offered several lessons to learn. The key lessons were:

Source of Support: Nil

Conflict of Interest: None declared.

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Case Studies: Red Cross Red Crescent Disaster Risk Reduction in Action – What Works at Local Level, June 2018


Preview of DRR-in-Action-Case-Studies-FULL-Final-v2-1.pdf

Community/local action for resilience:

The Australian Red Cross in Queensland adapted a generic preparedness tool to support highrisk marginalised communities of asylum seekers to build their own resilience to disaster. Specific and relevant messaging was developed within a community education programme co-designed with members of the asylum seekers community, who became educators and facilitators to deliver the programme. The programme reached 900 people in a successful pilot, measured through positive shifts in knowledge of key actions to take in preparedness of disaster. The underlying achievement is the acceptance and trust of the communities, reflecting the respect for cultural and language diversity, and recognizing the capacity of asylum seekers communities to contribute and participate in their host country.

Exacerbated erosion affected the ecology and increased vulnerability of coastal communities in Demak. The Indonesian Red Cross mobilized communities through Community-Based Action Teams to restore the ecosystem through mangrove plantation and implement livelihood generation to improve community resilience. Under an integrated approach, the community is connected with village authorities and scientists from the Bogor Agricultural Institute to implement sustainable local action. The programme has shown concrete results in reducing the risks of tidal disasters, while eco-tourism and crab cultivation farming have increased the income of the communities, along with their heightened awareness and preparedness for disaster.

Rural herders in Mongolia must keep their livestock alive through extreme temperatures and exposure of harsh winters that follow after drought. In efforts to reduce livestock loss, the Red Cross supported herder communities to design and construct winters shelters for livestock in a participatory approach garnering the collective capacity of community, local government and the Red Cross. A strong community focus ensures that the herders drive the activities towards preserving their livelihoods and the traditional nomadic way of life under threat by climatic challenges.

Over the last two years the Red Cross Red Crescent Southeast Asia Youth Network has improved Youth programming and networks on youth-led initiatives and solutions for DRR. A pilot Youth in School Safety Programme rolled out in six countries, training 150 youth volunteers who in turn conducted countless school safety actions. A comprehensive mapping of school safety actions in all 11 countries of South Asia is underway to showcase activities of RCRC Youth volunteers on the ground.

Private Sector Interventions:

Leaders of leading commercial organizations jointly commit resources to work constructively with government to make Australian communities safer and more resilient to natural disasters, by shifting national investment from recovery and response to preparedness and mitigation. The Australian Red Cross joins this Roundtable - contributing on emergency management and humanitarian aspects - to collectively deliver on community education, risk information, adaptation research, mitigation infrastructure and strategic alliances.

Disaster Risk Governance:

Disaster related laws and policies need to better include and protect those most at risk of disasters. This case study outlines the steps taken by the IFRC Disaster Law Programme - from global research undertaken jointly by IFRC and UNDP, to the provision of technical advice in supporting Asia Pacific National Societies, as the community-based actor and auxiliary to government, to ensure inclusive community empowerment and protection, gender and inclusion in national disaster laws and policies.

Gender and Inclusiveness:

An innovative approach that embraces the essence of inclusiveness, the Participatory Campaign Planning methodology is applied to develop hazard messages and the means of communicating them that are tailored to different target groups, with the aim of making them more effective in creating behaviour change. This case study focuses on urban communities in Nepal and various elements to be considered within different target groups and their geographic environments.

This collaborative research by the IFRC and the ASEAN Committee for Disaster Management was undertaken in recognizing that there are few SGBV studies that focus on low-income developing countries and fewer that go beyond the gendered effects on women and girls, overlooking men and boys and sexual minority groups. Key findings illustrate that the risks to SGBV are exacerbated during natural disaster situations in Indonesia, Lao PDR and the Philippines, and that “disaster responders” and actors addressing needs of SGBV survivors are not working together adequately to reduce these risks.

Early Warning and Early Action:

When four pilot communities in the district of Bogura were affected by severe flood events in July and August of 2017, the Early Action Protocol of the Forecast-based Financing (FbF) approach was activated, and unconditional cash grant was chosen as the early action for floods to give people the flexibility to prepare individually for the impending flood and take the measures they see fit. This case study outlines the steps taken by Bangladesh Red Crescent Society and German Red Cross to implement FbF in Bangladesh. It analyses not only the effectiveness of the activation in Bogura, but the longer term impacts of this early action development.

Through the Bangladesh Cyclone Preparedness Programme (CPP) interventions, a programme jointly run by the Government of Bangladesh and the Bangladesh Red Crescent Society (BDRCS), the communities of the coastal areas in Bangladesh have become more aware of the need to go to safe shelters during emergencies, have understood the significance of early warning and learned to pay heed to advice from CPP and youth volunteers. On 28 May 2017 - the eve of Cyclone Mora, more than 55,260 CPP volunteers and BDRCS youth volunteers were deployed to pass early warning message door to door in the coastal region, and announcing the danger of the approaching cyclone in the local language. Cyclone early warning messages were disseminated across a population area covering 11 million people, and almost half a million people were reached in this process and taken to safe places in less than 24 hours. The CPP has substantially reduce death tolls due to cyclones in Bangladesh.

The Flood Early Warning Early Action System (FEWEAS) was developed through a collaboration between the Indonesian Red Cross (PMI) and Institute Teknologi Bandung (ITB) to provide effective solutions for reducing disaster risk through a shared platform for community and government to address issues upstream and downstream in formulating appropriate strategy, planning and ground action for floods. FEWEAS is an internet-based application to predict and monitor rainfall and flooding. PMI Provincial and District staff and volunteers are using the FEWEAS to monitor floods along the Bengawan Solo River in East Java, and along the Citarum River in West Java. While the application provides flood alerts and updates to the community through smartphones, the communities and Community Based Action Teams can update their response, upload photos, videos and relevant information to further inform response actions.

The Mongolian Red Cross Society (MRCS) assisted 2,000 herder households in most-at-risk areas (40 soums in 12 provinces) with unrestricted cash grants in December 2017 and with animal care kits in January 2018, before the peak of the winter season. The MRCS used the Dzud Risk Map released by the Government in November 2017 to decide which soums to target for early action with the aim to reach the herders well before the loss of their livestock to reduce the impact of Dzud on the livelihoods of the herders. The Dzud Risk Map highlighted the risk of livestock death throughout the whole of Mongolia. A cost-benefit analysis is being conducted to further inform FbF in Mongolia.

A community early warning system (CEWS) model was developed in partnership by the Red Cross, government agencies and regional organizations in the Pacific to better link CEWS with national and sub-national systems. Taking these pilots to scale requires i) national mechanisms such as SOPs and action plans that systematically link warnings and climate information provided by National Meteorological Services to early preparedness actions at multiple scales, and; ii) available funding (at multiple scales) to support early actions. Recently a Roadmap for Forecast-based Financing for Drought Preparedness has been developed in the Solomon Islands. Through continued partnership approach, the Roadmap and outcomes from the regional ‘FINPAC’ CEWS project will be used to support the Government of the Solomon Islands and Solomon Islands Red Cross to implement a programme for communities, provincial and national authorities to apply forecast information for early action at scale. The drought thresholds developed in collaboration will form the basis of an FbF trigger system in the Solomon Islands.

Displacement and DRR:

Cox’s Bazar became the world’s most densely populated refugee settlement following the massive influx of people from Myanmar that started in August 2017. Being a coastal district prone to disaster, existing infrastructure and services cannot cope to cover the host population and incoming refugees, and preparedness interventions became critical. This case study follows actions taken to extend the coverage of the Cyclone Preparedness Programme, successfully integrating displaced people in camp settlements as temporary CPP camp volunteers, to support in establishing early warning system and ensure relevant preparedness and response action.

Urban Community/local action for resilience:

Green Response/ Enhancing Preparedness for Effective Response:

Under the Green Response initiative to improve environmental outcomes of life-saving operations, the IFRC in reviewing practices and policies is mapping the present level of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions generated by relief operations and to implement GHG reduction activities to lower the environmental impact of emergency operations. The mapping contributes to the global emission baseline for IFRC supply chain monitoring, to design the reduction roadmap and build internal capacity.

To improve the environmental outcomes and reduce negative impacts of operations and programmes, the IFRC deployed an Environmental Field Advisor (EFA) to the Population Movement Operation in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh. The EFA conducted an environmental impact assessment and worked with project leads to identify and implement improvements. A significant achievement to date is the IFRC joining the UNHCR/IOM/WFP/FAO to provide LPG as cooking fuel to camp community households to combat massive deforestation cause by firewood collection.

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Activities and Initiatives by Country and Region

Priorities for action 1: understanding disaster risks, priorities for action 2: strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk, priorities for action 3: investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience, priorities for action 4: enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to "build back better" in recovery rehabilitation and reconstruction.

You can find "Project Report" from JICA library website, please access and search from the links provided.

JICA's Cooperation on Disaster Risk Reduction 1990s-Up to Now

Disseminating Japanese past-disaster lessons and experience to the world

Scientific technology needs to provide a reliable risk assessment based on scientifically analysed data to plan effective disaster countermeasures. Japan maintains and utilizes every type of disaster statistical data. The government closely works with the Science Council of Japan in the Central Disaster Management Council and also promotes evacuation training and disaster risk reduction education with local communities. Based on the experiences in Japan, JICA helps promote "understanding disaster risks."

Disaster Risk Reduction Planning Based on Scientific Risk Assessment


Nepal "Project for Assessment of Earthquake Disaster Risk for the Kathmandu Valley"

Earthquakes had repeatedly struck Kathmandu Valley in the past. There were hardly no regulations on the construction of earthquake resistant structures, or restrictions on land usage or buildings by then. The 7.8 magnitude earthquake that hit Nepal in 2015 caused tremendous damage to the country and the surrounding areas. It killed 8,790 people, injured 22,300, and destroyed 510,000 houses.

The project for the assessment of earthquake disaster risk for Kathmandu Valley had carried out hazard assessment using the most advanced academic knowledge available and the risk assessment based on knowledge and damage estimates using multiple occurrence scenarios. The risk assessment results helped to organize the project models in the local government. Examples are the creation of local disaster risk reduction plans and earthquake resistance plans for public infrastructures.

* Newsletters of the Project for Assessment of EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RISK for the Kathmandu Valley in Nepal

"Disaster Risk Reduction and Management" is a dual approach to a range of different measures for avoiding and reducing the risk of a disaster. In Japan, disaster countermeasures had relied on "public help" for a long time. The experience in the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake and the Great East Japan Earthquake demonstrated the importance of improving "self-help" and "mutual help" during a large-scale disaster. Japan's "Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act" clearly states that disaster risks should be managed and reduced comprehensively through the vertical roles of the national and local governments, the horizontal role of society in the whole area, and collaboration with other stakeholders such as private sectors, NGOs and local communities. -The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction views that "disaster risk governance" and the idea of "cooperation" is indispensable to build a disaster resilient social structure. The Sendai Framework also sets its priorities on "mainstreaming DRR," "disaster risk reduction plans and strategies" and "collaboration between government and multiple stakeholders." Legislations and standards have been developed and improved through history by experience. JICA will promote disaster risk governance by expounding on the importance of disaster risk reduction facilities, cooperation systems between related entities, and cooperation with those in the fields of science and technology.

Promotion of Mainstreaming DRR and Assessment of Underlying Risks


Sri Lanka "Disaster Management Capacity Enhancement Project Adaptable to Climate Change"

After the Sumatra earthquake and tsunami in December 2004, Sri Lanka established new institutions in national and local levels and has been improving its disaster countermeasures since then. JICA provided support for rehabilitation and reconstruction as well as support to further improve disaster risk reduction skills in the country.

In this project, JICA provided technical and financial support to improve the skill of government agencies involved in important public infrastructure projects. JICA helped the National Building Research Organization to increase their ability to improve landslide disaster countermeasures. JICA also assisted in the disaster risk reduction system model covering evacuation and disaster risk reduction activities of the local residents.

As a result of this project, a disaster impact assessment method was developed and is now conducted prior to infrastructure development and maintenance in Sri Lanka. JICA also helped the Meteorological Agency improve their skills to monitor and forecast the weather efficiently and accurately. The Meteorological Agency used to take 50 minutes to collect data in the event of a disaster because the collected data was processed manually. Thanks to improvements in the information network, they are now able to collect observation data within 10 minutes. Their ability to announce warnings more quickly has contributed to reducing the damage.

The Ministry of Disaster Management of Sri Lanka and JICA made a Roadmap which, based on the main features of disasters, describes strategies and priority actions to effectively build a safe and resilient Sri Lanka in line with the Sendai Framework.

* Movies as output of the data collection survey in the Philippines may be accessed from the following sites:

In the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction Priorities Action 3, "Investing in Disaster Risk Reduction for Resilience", increasing the amount of investment in disaster risk reduction to reduce the risk of disasters is important, not only to protect human lives, but also for the surrounding environment, including assets and opportunities for development. As a country plagued by many disasters, Japan has been working on disaster preparation and JICA understands from experience that investment in disaster risk reduction is a necessary element for continuous growth. JICA utilizes the best Japanese technologies to reduce disaster risks such as setting standards based on risk assessment, establishing regulations on land use, and promoting suitable disaster risk prevention projects. JICA also promotes "mainstreaming DRR" in development and sector plans.

Risk-Resilient Critical Infrastructure


Thailand: "Subway that can operate in the event of a flood because of prior disaster management –Blue Line Subway in Bangkok"

Traffic congestion and air pollution in Bangkok, the capital of Thailand, have become a serious problem to development from the 1990's. The Blue Line Subway that opened in 2004 was designed with help from Japan to provide an alternative to road transportation, and the design includes many elements of disaster risk reduction. Since Bangkok is located in a flood-prone area, the subway entrance was made higher than the sidewalk. They also incorporated a structure that prevents water from getting into the station in the event of flood, and designed a structure that functions as a water shield at the subway entrance. Some of the vents were set at a higher position, and a drainage pump was installed. A guideline or procedures to close down the stations has been provided. A system is also in place for the safe operation of public transportation. At the time of the 2011 flood when airports and roads were closed, the Blue Line Subway continued to operate even in flooded areas without water getting into the subway stations. This public infrastructure maintenance project contributed not only to resolving environmental problems such as traffic jam and air pollution, but also showed a great example of mainstreaming DRR.

To minimize damage and influence from disasters and to achieve early restoration and recovery, the following three actions are important: (1) Strengthen the preparation for emergency measures in advance; (2) Take action in forecasting disasters; and (3) Improve organizations and structures to respond effectively at all levels. Assuming that disasters will happen, Japan made preparations for various situations in advance. These include memorandums of agreement on disaster response between the national government, local authorities and the private sector. Japan has revised its systems and structures through lessons learnt from large-scale disasters, and aims to utilize limited funds. As the second best choice after an unfortunate and unavoidable disaster, Japan believes that it is necessary to carry out "Build Back Better." This approach will make a country more resilient and will prevent repeated damage from similar disasters. JICA helps disaster-affected countries achieve "Build Back Better" by promoting precautionary measures, and restoring and recovering from disasters.

Seamless Approach from Response to Development and "Build Back Better"


Philippines "The Project on Reconstruction and Recovery from Typhoon Yolanda"

Typhoon Yolanda hit the Philippines with a historically unprecedented scale on November 8, 2013 and inflicted extensive damage to a wide area of the country.

Soon after the disaster, the Government of Japan dispatched a Disaster Relief Medical Team and a team of experts which immediately conducted an investigation to assess the affected areas and a survey on the needs for recovery. The Government of Japan has seamlessly connected its emergency response to assistance activities in order to provide assistance in cooperation with grass-root communities. This includes grant aid projects, technical advices and JICA Partnership Programs. JICA encourages high ranking officials to intensively embrace the concept of "Build Back Better" for sustainable reconstruction from disasters.


JICA projects are not just for recovery and reconstruction, but also help in the complete process of early recovery and reconstruction of affected areas. JICA projects help build disaster-resilient communities and society based on Japan's experience from the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. JICA encourages partnerships between autonomous bodies with cooperation of the related local governments. In addition, in drawing up the recovery and reconstruction plan, JICA strengthens partnerships among autonomous bodies with the cooperation of local governments. JICA also works on providing comprehensive recovery assistance such as measures to improve local people's income, encouraging the social participation of women.

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Information on disaster risk management: case study of five countries

disaster management project case study

This report contains the general conclusions of a project on disaster risk information conducted by IDB and ECLAC in Colombia, Chile, Jamaica, Mexico and Nicaragua. It sheds light on the institutional structures and disaster risk management that exist in the countries studied. By providing a chronological account of the evolution of institutions responsible for emergency and civil defence processes and for risk management as part of planning and development policies the study constitutes a valuable record of national experiences and explains how the countries studied have made changes in recent decades to the institutions in charge of disaster and risk management as well as their information systems. Based on the experiences that have been documented regarding the responses to disasters, some conclusions are drawn that have region-wide implications and recommendations directed at decision makers are formulated.

Please note: Content is displayed as last posted by a PreventionWeb community member or editor. The views expressed therein are not necessarily those of UNDRR, PreventionWeb, or its sponsors. See our terms of use


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