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Reference : Author/editor Last name, Initials. (Year) 'Title of case study' [Case Study], Journal Title, Volume (Issue), pp. page numbers. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Month Year].
Ofek, E., Avery, J., Rudolph, S., Martins Gomes, V., Saadat, N., Tsui, A., & Shroff, Y. (2014) 'Case study second thoughts about a strategy shift' [Case Study], Harvard Business Review , 92(12), pp. 125-129. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=99621003&site=ehost-live [Accessed 10 December 2014].
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- In their case study Ofek et al. (2014) describe how marketing to the young generation...
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A Quick Guide to Harvard Referencing | Citation Examples
Published on 14 February 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 7 November 2022.
Referencing is an important part of academic writing. It tells your readers what sources you’ve used and how to find them.
Harvard is the most common referencing style used in UK universities. In Harvard style, the author and year are cited in-text, and full details of the source are given in a reference list .
Harvard Reference Generator
Table of contents
Harvard in-text citation, creating a harvard reference list, harvard referencing examples, referencing sources with no author or date, frequently asked questions about harvard referencing.
A Harvard in-text citation appears in brackets beside any quotation or paraphrase of a source. It gives the last name of the author(s) and the year of publication, as well as a page number or range locating the passage referenced, if applicable:
Note that ‘p.’ is used for a single page, ‘pp.’ for multiple pages (e.g. ‘pp. 1–5’).
An in-text citation usually appears immediately after the quotation or paraphrase in question. It may also appear at the end of the relevant sentence, as long as it’s clear what it refers to.
When your sentence already mentions the name of the author, it should not be repeated in the citation:
Sources with multiple authors
When you cite a source with up to three authors, cite all authors’ names. For four or more authors, list only the first name, followed by ‘ et al. ’:
Sources with no page numbers
Some sources, such as websites , often don’t have page numbers. If the source is a short text, you can simply leave out the page number. With longer sources, you can use an alternate locator such as a subheading or paragraph number if you need to specify where to find the quote:
Multiple citations at the same point
When you need multiple citations to appear at the same point in your text – for example, when you refer to several sources with one phrase – you can present them in the same set of brackets, separated by semicolons. List them in order of publication date:
Multiple sources with the same author and date
If you cite multiple sources by the same author which were published in the same year, it’s important to distinguish between them in your citations. To do this, insert an ‘a’ after the year in the first one you reference, a ‘b’ in the second, and so on:
A bibliography or reference list appears at the end of your text. It lists all your sources in alphabetical order by the author’s last name, giving complete information so that the reader can look them up if necessary.
The reference entry starts with the author’s last name followed by initial(s). Only the first word of the title is capitalised (as well as any proper nouns).
Sources with multiple authors in the reference list
As with in-text citations, up to three authors should be listed; when there are four or more, list only the first author followed by ‘ et al. ’:
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Reference list entries vary according to source type, since different information is relevant for different sources. Formats and examples for the most commonly used source types are given below.
- Entire book
- Book chapter
- Translated book
- Edition of a book
- Print journal
- Online-only journal with DOI
- Online-only journal with no DOI
- General web page
- Online article or blog
- Social media post
Sometimes you won’t have all the information you need for a reference. This section covers what to do when a source lacks a publication date or named author.
No publication date
When a source doesn’t have a clear publication date – for example, a constantly updated reference source like Wikipedia or an obscure historical document which can’t be accurately dated – you can replace it with the words ‘no date’:
Note that when you do this with an online source, you should still include an access date, as in the example.
When a source lacks a clearly identified author, there’s often an appropriate corporate source – the organisation responsible for the source – whom you can credit as author instead, as in the Google and Wikipedia examples above.
When that’s not the case, you can just replace it with the title of the source in both the in-text citation and the reference list:
Harvard referencing uses an author–date system. Sources are cited by the author’s last name and the publication year in brackets. Each Harvard in-text citation corresponds to an entry in the alphabetised reference list at the end of the paper.
Vancouver referencing uses a numerical system. Sources are cited by a number in parentheses or superscript. Each number corresponds to a full reference at the end of the paper.
A Harvard in-text citation should appear in brackets every time you quote, paraphrase, or refer to information from a source.
The citation can appear immediately after the quotation or paraphrase, or at the end of the sentence. If you’re quoting, place the citation outside of the quotation marks but before any other punctuation like a comma or full stop.
In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ‘ et al. ’
Though the terms are sometimes used interchangeably, there is a difference in meaning:
- A reference list only includes sources cited in the text – every entry corresponds to an in-text citation .
- A bibliography also includes other sources which were consulted during the research but not cited.
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.
Caulfield, J. (2022, November 07). A Quick Guide to Harvard Referencing | Citation Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 5 June 2023, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/referencing/harvard-style/
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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / How to Cite Sources / How to Cite a Case Study in APA, MLA, or Chicago
How to Cite a Case Study in APA, MLA, or Chicago
When citing a case study, the format in MLA and APA is similar to that of a report, and in Chicago style, it is similar to that of a book. For all three citation styles, you will need the name of the author(s), the title of the case study, the year it was published, the publishing organization/publisher, and URL (if applicable). The templates and examples below will demonstrate how to cite a case study in MLA, APA, and Chicago styles.
Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Case Study . Edition (if applicable), volume number (if applicable), Publisher, year of publication, URL without http:// or https:// (if applicable).
Hill, Linda A., et al. HCL Technologies (A). Rev. edition, Harvard Business School, 2008, www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=34784.
(Author Last Name(s) page #)
(Hill et al. 8)
Author Last Name, Author Initial. (Publication Year). Title of Case Study (Case # if applicable). Publishing Organization. URL
Hill, L., Khanna, T., & Stecker, E. (2008). HCL Technologies (A) (Case 408-004). Harvard Business School. https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=34784
(Author Last Name, Publication Year)
(Hill et al., 2008)
Author Last Name, First Name. Title of the Case Study . Publishing City: Publishing Organization, Publication Year. URL.
Hill, Linda A., Tarun Khanna, and Emily Stecker. HCL Technologies (A). Boston: Harvard Business School, 2008. https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=34784.
1. Author First Name Last Name, Title of the Case Study (Publishing City: Publishing Organization, Publication Year), URL.
1. Linda A. Hill, Tarun Khanna, and Emily Stecker, HCL Technologies (A) ( Boston: Harvard Business School, 2008), https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=34784.
Author Last Name, First Name. Publication Year. Title of the Case Study . Publishing City: Publishing Organization. URL.
Hill, Linda A., Tarun Khanna, and Emily Stecker. 2008. HCL Technologies (A). Boston: Harvard Business School. https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=34784.
(Author Last Name Publication Date)
(Holl, Khanna, and Stecker 2008)
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Quick guide to Harvard referencing (Cite Them Right)
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There are different versions of the Harvard referencing style. This guide is a quick introduction to the commonly-used Cite Them Right version. You will find further guidance available through the OU Library on the Cite Them Right Database .
For help and support with referencing and the full Cite Them Right guide, have a look at the Library’s page on referencing and plagiarism . If you need guidance referencing OU module material you can check out which sections of Cite Them Right are recommended when referencing physical and online module material .
In-text citations and full references
Referencing consists of two elements:
- in-text citations, which are inserted in the body of your text and are included in the word count. An in-text citation gives the author(s) and publication date of a source you are referring to. If the publication date is not given, the phrase 'no date' is used instead of a date. If using direct quotations or you refer to a specific section in the source you also need the page number/s if available, or paragraph number for web pages.
- full references, which are given in alphabetical order in reference list at the end of your work and are not included in the word count. Full references give full bibliographical information for all the sources you have referred to in the body of your text.
Difference between reference list and bibliography
a reference list only includes sources you have referred to in the body of your text
a bibliography includes sources you have referred to in the body of your text AND sources that were part of your background reading that you did not use in your assignment
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Examples of in-text citations
You need to include an in-text citation wherever you quote or paraphrase from a source. An in-text citation consists of the last name of the author(s), the year of publication, and a page number if relevant. There are a number of ways of incorporating in-text citations into your work - some examples are provided below:
Note: When referencing a chapter of an edited book, your in-text citation should give the author(s) of the chapter.
Examples of full references
Module websites, online module materials.
(Includes written online module activities, audio-visual material such as online tutorials, recordings or videos).
When referencing material from module websites, the date of publication is the year you started studying the module.
Surname, Initial. (Year of publication/presentation) 'Title of item'. Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).
OR, if there is no named author:
The Open University (Year of publication/presentation) 'Title of item'. Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).
Rietdorf, K. and Bootman, M. (2022) 'Topic 3: Rare diseases'. S290: Investigating human health and disease . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1967195 (Accessed: 24 January 2023).
The Open University (2022) ‘3.1 The purposes of childhood and youth research’. EK313: Issues in research with children and young people . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1949633§ion=1.3 (Accessed: 24 January 2023).
You can also use this template to reference videos and audio that are hosted on your module website:
The Open University (2022) ‘Video 2.7 An example of a Frith-Happé animation’. SK298: Brain, mind and mental health . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=2013014 §ion=4.9.6 (Accessed: 22 November 2022).
The Open University (2022) ‘Audio 2 Interview with Richard Sorabji (Part 2)’. A113: Revolutions . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=1960941§ion=5.6 (Accessed: 22 November 2022).
Note: if a complete journal article has been uploaded to a module website, or if you have seen an article referred to on the website and then accessed the original version, reference the original journal article, and do not mention the module materials. If only an extract from an article is included in your module materials that you want to reference, you should use secondary referencing, with the module materials as the 'cited in' source, as described above.
Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of message', Title of discussion board , in Module code: Module title . Available at: URL of VLE (Accessed: date).
Fitzpatrick, M. (2022) ‘A215 - presentation of TMAs', Tutor group discussion & Workbook activities , in A215: Creative writing . Available at: https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/forumng/discuss.php?d=4209566 (Accessed: 24 January 2022).
Note: When an ebook looks like a printed book, with publication details and pagination, reference as a printed book.
Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) Title . Edition if later than first. Place of publication: publisher. Series and volume number if relevant.
Example with one author:
Bell, J. (2014) Doing your research project . Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Example with two or three authors:
Goddard, J. and Barrett, S. (2015) The health needs of young people leaving care . Norwich: University of East Anglia, School of Social Work and Psychosocial Studies.
Example with four or more authors:
Young, H.D. et al. (2015) Sears and Zemansky's university physics . San Francisco, CA: Addison-Wesley.
Note: You can choose one or other method to reference four or more authors (unless your School requires you to name all authors in your reference list) and your approach should be consistent.
Chapter in edited book
Note: Books that have an editor, or editors, where each chapter is written by a different author or authors.
Surname of chapter author, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of chapter or section', in Initial. Surname of book editor, (ed.) Title of book . Place of publication: publisher, Page reference.
Franklin, A.W. (2012) 'Management of the problem', in S.M. Smith (ed.) The maltreatment of children . Lancaster: MTP, pp. 83–95.
Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Journal , volume number (issue number), page reference. If accessed online: Available at: DOI or URL (if required) (Accessed: date).
Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education , 33(3), pp. 323-326.
Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education , 33(3), pp. 323-326. Available at: https://doi-org.libezproxy.open.ac.uk/10.1080/02619761003602246
Barke, M. and Mowl, G. (2016) 'Málaga – a failed resort of the early twentieth century?', Journal of Tourism History , 2(3), pp. 187–212. Available at: https://www-tandfonline-com.libezproxy.open.ac.uk/doi/full/10.1080/17551... (Accessed: 24 January 2023).
Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper , Day and month, Page reference.
Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper , Day and month, Page reference if available. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).
Mansell, W. and Bloom, A. (2012) ‘£10,000 carrot to tempt physics experts’, The Guardian , 20 June, p. 5.
Roberts, D. and Ackerman, S. (2013) 'US draft resolution allows Obama 90 days for military action against Syria', The Guardian , 4 September. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/04/syria-strikes-draft-resolut... (Accessed: 9 September 2015).
Surname, Initial. (Year that the site was published/last updated) Title of web page . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).
Organisation (Year that the page was last updated) Title of web page . Available at: URL (Accessed: date).
Robinson, J. (2007) Social variation across the UK . Available at: https://www.bl.uk/british-accents-and-dialects/articles/social-variation... (Accessed: 21 November 2021).
The British Psychological Society (2018) Code of Ethics and Conduct . Available at: https://www.bps.org.uk/news-and-policy/bps-code-ethics-and-conduct (Accessed: 22 March 2019).
Note: Cite Them Right Online offers guidance for referencing webpages that do not include authors' names and dates. However, be extra vigilant about the suitability of such webpages.
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Q. How do I cite a case study in Harvard Business Review?
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Answered By: Katie Hutchison Last Updated: Oct 26, 2016 Views: 342805
Harvard Business Review - Case Studies
This format would apply to any business case including Harvard Business Review, Ivey and MIT Sloane cases:
Author(s). Name of the case. Business Case. City. Publisher. Date. Format (Print or Web) If your format is Web include the date it was accessed. EXAMPLE: Yoffe, David B. and Renee Kim. Apple Inc in 2010. Case Study. Boston. Harvard Business Publishing, 2010. Web. 28 October 2010.
Harvard Business School Case Study
Citation elements required and general format:
Author(s). (Year). Title of case study . HBS No. number of case study. City, State abbreviation or Country of publication: Publisher. EXAMPLES:
Smith, S. (2003). Leadership. HBS No. 7-806-122. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing.
Eisenmann, T., & Herman, K. (2006). Google, Inc. HBS No. 9-806-105. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing.
In-text citation examples – Harvard Business School Case Study
APA in-text citations include the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page number (for quotes), either as part of the text of your paper or in parentheses.
…as the case study concluded (Smith, 2003, p. 6).
Smith reported (2003, p. 6) that the data was flawed.
Eisenmann and Herman did agree on the research findings (2006, p. 11).
… as both researchers agreed (Eisenmann & Herman, 2006, p. 11).
Chicago Manual of Style ( PDF selections copied from Grove City College Henry Buhl Library)
Mikołaj Jan Piskorski and David Chen, “Twitter,” HBS No. 710-455 (Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2010), p. 8.
Piskorski , Mikołaj Jan, and David Chen. “Twitter.” HBS No. 710-455. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2010.
On the Web
Amy C. Edmondson and Laura R. Feldman, “Group Process in the Challenger Launch Decision (A),” HBS No. 603-068 (Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2002), http://hbsp.harvard.edu, accessed October 2012.
Edmondson, Amy C., and Laura R. Feldman. “Group Process in the Challenger Launch Decision (A).” HBS No. 603-068. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2002. http://hbsp. harvard.edu, accessed September 2007.
Michael J. Enright et al., “Daewoo and the Korean Chaebol,” University of Hong Kong case no. HKU143 (University of Hong Kong, August 2001), via Harvard Business Publishing, http://hbsp.harvard.edu/, accessed March 2007.
Enright, Michael J., et al. “Daewoo and the Korean Chaebol.” University of Hong Kong case no. HKU143 (University of Hong Kong, August 2001). Harvard Business Publishing. http://hbsp.harvard.edu/, accessed March 2007.
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What the Case Study Method Really Teaches
- Nitin Nohria
Seven meta-skills that stick even if the cases fade from memory.
It’s been 100 years since Harvard Business School began using the case study method. Beyond teaching specific subject matter, the case study method excels in instilling meta-skills in students. This article explains the importance of seven such skills: preparation, discernment, bias recognition, judgement, collaboration, curiosity, and self-confidence.
During my decade as dean of Harvard Business School, I spent hundreds of hours talking with our alumni. To enliven these conversations, I relied on a favorite question: “What was the most important thing you learned from your time in our MBA program?”
Alumni responses varied but tended to follow a pattern. Almost no one referred to a specific business concept they learned. Many mentioned close friendships or the classmate who became a business or life partner. Most often, though, alumni highlighted a personal quality or skill like “increased self-confidence” or “the ability to advocate for a point of view” or “knowing how to work closely with others to solve problems.” And when I asked how they developed these capabilities, they inevitably mentioned the magic of the case method.
Harvard Business School pioneered the use of case studies to teach management in 1921. As we commemorate 100 years of case teaching, much has been written about the effectiveness of this method. I agree with many of these observations. Cases expose students to real business dilemmas and decisions. Cases teach students to size up business problems quickly while considering the broader organizational, industry, and societal context. Students recall concepts better when they are set in a case, much as people remember words better when used in context. Cases teach students how to apply theory in practice and how to induce theory from practice. The case method cultivates the capacity for critical analysis, judgment, decision-making, and action.
There is a word that aptly captures the broader set of capabilities our alumni reported they learned from the case method. That word is meta-skills, and these meta-skills are a benefit of case study instruction that those who’ve never been exposed to the method may undervalue.
Educators define meta-skills as a group of long-lasting abilities that allow someone to learn new things more quickly. When parents encourage a child to learn to play a musical instrument, for instance, beyond the hope of instilling musical skills (which some children will master and others may not), they may also appreciate the benefit the child derives from deliberate, consistent practice. This meta-skill is valuable for learning many other things beyond music.
In the same vein, let me suggest seven vital meta-skills students gain from the case method:
There is no place for students to hide in the moments before the famed “cold call”— when the teacher can ask any student at random to open the case discussion. Decades after they graduate, students will vividly remember cold calls when they, or someone else, froze with fear, or when they rose to nail the case even in the face of a fierce grilling by the professor.
The case method creates high-powered incentives for students to prepare. Students typically spend several hours reading, highlighting, and debating cases before class, sometimes alone and sometimes in groups. The number of cases to be prepared can be overwhelming by design.
Learning to be prepared — to read materials in advance, prioritize, identify the key issues, and have an initial point of view — is a meta-skill that helps people succeed in a broad range of professions and work situations. We have all seen how the prepared person, who knows what they are talking about, can gain the trust and confidence of others in a business meeting. The habits of preparing for a case discussion can transform a student into that person.
Many cases are long. A typical case may include history, industry background, a cast of characters, dialogue, financial statements, source documents, or other exhibits. Some material may be digressive or inessential. Cases often have holes — critical pieces of information that are missing.
The case method forces students to identify and focus on what’s essential, ignore the noise, skim when possible, and concentrate on what matters, meta-skills required for every busy executive confronted with the paradox of simultaneous information overload and information paucity. As one alumnus pithily put it, “The case method helped me learn how to separate the wheat from the chaff.”
3. Bias Recognition
Students often have an initial reaction to a case stemming from their background or earlier work and life experiences. For instance, people who have worked in finance may be biased to view cases through a financial lens. However, effective general managers must understand and empathize with various stakeholders, and if someone has a natural tendency to favor one viewpoint over another, discussing dozens of cases will help reveal that bias. Armed with this self-understanding, students can correct that bias or learn to listen more carefully to classmates whose different viewpoints may help them see beyond their own biases.
Recognizing and correcting personal bias can be an invaluable meta-skill in business settings when leaders inevitably have to work with people from different functions, backgrounds, and perspectives.
Cases put students into the role of the case protagonist and force them to make and defend a decision. The format leaves room for nuanced discussion, but not for waffling: Teachers push students to choose an option, knowing full well that there is rarely one correct answer.
Indeed, most cases are meant to stimulate a discussion rather than highlight effective or ineffective management practice. Across the cases they study, students get feedback from their classmates and their teachers about when their decisions are more or less compelling. It enables them to develop the judgment of making decisions under uncertainty, communicating that decision to others, and gaining their buy-in — all essential leadership skills. Leaders earn respect for their judgment. It is something students in the case method get lots of practice honing.
It is better to make business decisions after extended give-and-take, debate, and deliberation. As in any team sport, people get better at working collaboratively with practice. Discussing cases in small study groups, and then in the classroom, helps students practice the meta-skill of collaborating with others. Our alumni often say they came away from the case method with better skills to participate in meetings and lead them.
Orchestrating a good collaborative discussion in which everyone contributes, every viewpoint is carefully considered, yet a thoughtful decision is made in the end is the arc of any good case discussion. Although teachers play the primary role in this collaborative process during their time at the school, it is an art that students of the case method internalize and get better at when they get to lead discussions.
Cases expose students to lots of different situations and roles. Across cases, they get to assume the role of entrepreneur, investor, functional leader, or CEO, in a range of different industries and sectors. Each case offers an opportunity for students to see what resonates with them, what excites them, what bores them, which role they could imagine inhabiting in their careers.
Cases stimulate curiosity about the range of opportunities in the world and the many ways that students can make a difference as leaders. This curiosity serves them well throughout their lives. It makes them more agile, more adaptive, and more open to doing a wider range of things in their careers.
Students must inhabit roles during a case study that far outstrip their prior experience or capability, often as leaders of teams or entire organizations in unfamiliar settings. “What would you do if you were the case protagonist?” is the most common question in a case discussion. Even though they are imaginary and temporary, these “stretch” assignments increase students’ self-confidence that they can rise to the challenge.
In our program, students can study 500 cases over two years, and the range of roles they are asked to assume increases the range of situations they believe they can tackle. Speaking up in front of 90 classmates feels risky at first, but students become more comfortable taking that risk over time. Knowing that they can hold their own in a highly curated group of competitive peers enhances student confidence. Often, alumni describe how discussing cases made them feel prepared for much bigger roles or challenges than they’d imagined they could handle before their MBA studies. Self-confidence is difficult to teach or coach, but the case study method seems to instill it in people.
There may well be other ways of learning these meta-skills, such as the repeated experience gained through practice or guidance from a gifted coach. However, under the direction of a masterful teacher, the case method can engage students and help them develop powerful meta-skills like no other form of teaching. This quickly became apparent when case teaching was introduced in 1921 — and it’s even truer today.
For educators and students, recognizing the value of these meta-skills can offer perspective on the broader goals of their work together. Returning to the example of piano lessons, it may be natural for a music teacher or their students to judge success by a simple measure: Does the student learn to play the instrument well? But when everyone involved recognizes the broader meta-skills that instrumental instruction can instill — and that even those who bumble their way through Bach may still derive lifelong benefits from their instruction — it may lead to a deeper appreciation of this work.
For recruiters and employers, recognizing the long-lasting set of benefits that accrue from studying via the case method can be a valuable perspective in assessing candidates and plotting their potential career trajectories.
And while we must certainly use the case method’s centennial to imagine yet more powerful ways of educating students in the future, let us be sure to assess these innovations for the meta-skills they might instill, as much as the subject matter mastery they might enable.
- Nitin Nohria is a professor at Harvard Business School and the chairman of Thrive Capital, a venture capital firm based in New York.
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For Acts of Parliament , details to include are:
- Short title in italics, or use the long title if there is one, year in italics, jurisdiction abbreviation (in round brackets) and section/s if applicable, e.g. Yarra River Protection (Wilip-Gin Birrarung Murron Act 2017 (Vic)
- Italics are not used for Acts of Parliament of other nations, e.g. Youth Work Act 2010 (Estonia)
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- Popular title of Case (in italics).
- Year (in round brackets).
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- First page number. e.g. Reurich v Sureway Employment and Training Pty Ltd (2018) FCA 680
Please note Students studying Law units at VU use the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) - check with your lecturer
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FAQ: How do I cite a Harvard Business Review case study in APA style?
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Answered By: Jennifer Harris Last Updated: Mar 21, 2023 Views: 65358
When citing case studies in APA style you'll want to include the typical citation elements and apply general formatting guidelines. The following are examples of how case studies could be cited in APA style, but be sure to check with your professor about how they'd like you to cite case studies in your work.
Kotter (1990) explains the steps British Airways took to reverse a horrible customer service atmosphere and financial crisis.
… as the case study concluded (Bisell & Tram, 2007) .
Groysberg and Connolly (2015) concluded in their case study that….
Example (don't forget to indent the second and subsequent lines):
Author(s). (Year). Title of case study . HBS No. number of case study. Publisher.
Example, one author:
Kotter, J. (1990). Changing the culture at British Airways . HBS No. 491-009. Harvard Business School Publishing.
Example, two authors:
Groysberg, B., & Connolly, K. (2015). BlackRock: Diversity as a driver for success . HBS No. 415-047. Harvard Business School Publishing.
- APA Guide (Shapiro Library)
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This information is intended to be a guideline, not expert advice. Please be sure to speak to your professor about the appropriate way to cite sources in your class assignments and projects.
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Harvard guide contents
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This guide offers advice on using the Harvard referencing style, which is a general author-date referencing system of which there are many versions. The Harvard style used at Monash University is based on the Australian Government’s Style Manual , referred to throughout this document as the Style Manual. The Style Manual was updated in 2020 and is available online . The 2020 Style Manual contains a number of major changes compared with the 2002 Style Manual which Monash previously based the Harvard style on. The major changes that have been incorporated into this Harvard citing and referencing guide are:
- In the reference list, parentheses are now used to separate the year, rather than commas
- The word 'and' is always used to separate authors, the symbol '&' is never used
- Page numbers are only required for direct quotes, not for summaries or paraphrases, although advice is included that there may be different requirements depending on the discipline
Two of the main reasons why we use referencing styles are to acknowledge our sources and to give readers the information they need to find the sources for themselves. This requires two elements: citations and a reference list. In an author-date referencing system such as Harvard, citations within the text include the author’s surname and the publication year. Each in-text citation has a corresponding entry in the reference list. The reference list entries include the author’s name and the publication year, the title, and the publication details. More guidance and examples related to Harvard citations and references are included in the following pages of this guide.
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Basic format to reference an online case study. The basics of a Reference List entry for an case study: Author or authors. The surname is followed by first initials. Year of publication. Case study title, in italics. Date viewed.
The basics of a Reference List entry for an case study: Author or authors. The surname is followed by first initials. Year of publication. Case study title, in italics. Date viewed. URL <in angled brackets>. Example:
Case studies - Harvard Style Guide - LibGuides at UCD Library Harvard Style Guide: Case studies This guide explains how to use the Harvard Style. It includes a short tutorial. Back to Academic Integrity guide Case studies Reference: Author/editor Last name, Initials.
The results of the first study (Woodhouse, 2018a) were inconclusive, but a follow up study (Woodhouse, 2018b) ... When that's not the case, you can just replace it with the title of the source in both the in-text citation and the reference list: ... A Quick Guide to Harvard Referencing | Citation Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 5 June 2023, from ...
Case Study. Citing a case study in APA style In-text citation template and example: (Author Surname, Year) (Rapp & Caramazza, 2002) Reference list entry template and example: Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Title of the case study [Case study]. Name of Publication, Volume (Issue), Page number. Rapp, B., & Caramazza, A. (2002).
For all three citation styles, you will need the name of the author (s), the title of the case study, the year it was published, the publishing organization/publisher, and URL (if applicable). The templates and examples below will demonstrate how to cite a case study in MLA, APA, and Chicago styles. MLA 9 Structure:
A Guide to Harvard Referencing Style: Case Studies & Standards Referencing Case Studies IN-TEXT CITATION Spar and Burns (2000) ... .... (Spar & Burns, 2000) "....." (Spar & Burns, 2000:8) FORMAT OF A REFERENCE TO A CASE STUDY Author's surname, Initials. Year. 'Title.' Case number. Place: Publisher or Institution.
There are different versions of the Harvard referencing style. This guide is a quick introduction to the commonly-used Cite Them Right version. You will find further guidance available through the OU Library on the Cite Them Right Database.
Harvard Business School Case Study Citation elements required and general format: Author (s). (Year). Title of case study. HBS No. number of case study. City, State abbreviation or Country of publication: Publisher. EXAMPLES: One Author: Smith, S. (2003). Leadership. HBS No. 7-806-122. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing. Two Authors:
Case studies featuring Black protagonists. Curated: August 03, 2020 Managing Your Organization Leading in a Time of Crisis How companies and governments have responded to major disasters....
Harvard Business School pioneered the use of case studies to teach management in 1921. As we commemorate 100 years of case teaching, much has been written about the effectiveness of this...
According to the Regional Investment Corporation Act 2018 (Cth) (No. 6, 2018). No full stops at the end of the reference for the Reference List for legislation and cases. Marriage Amendment (Definition and Religious Freedoms) Bill 2017 (Cth). No Italics. Reurich v Sureway Employment and Training Pty Ltd (2018) FCA 680.
Mar 21, 2023 65307 When citing case studies in APA style you'll want to include the typical citation elements and apply general formatting guidelines. The following are examples of how case studies could be cited in APA style, but be sure to check with your professor about how they'd like you to cite case studies in your work. In-Text Citations
What is the Harvard Referencing System? The Harvard citation style is a system that students, writers and researchers can use to incorporate other people's quotes, findings and ideas into their work in order to support and validate their conclusions without breaching any intellectual property laws.
How to cite a case study in Harvard It's no news that one of the most difficult things about any academic assignment is formatting. And while choosing fonts and margins is easy, citing and referencing can be a problem. If you also wonder how to cite a case study, this article is the right place to be.
i Preface These final Reference Case Guidelines for Benefit-Cost Analysis in Global Health and Development represent the conclusion of the ^ enefit‐ost Analysis Reference ase: Principles, Methods, and Standards _ project, initiated by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in October 2016.
Create your citations, reference lists and bibliographies automatically using the APA, MLA, Chicago, or Harvard referencing styles. It's fast and free! Back to English; case study - English bibliographies - in Harvard style . ... the case study method faculty of washington. 1st ed. E-book or PDF. baxter, P. and jack, S. ...
Hitting the wall: Nike and International Labor Practices. HBS 700047. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing.
This guide introduces you to the Harvard referencing style, which uses an 'author-date' approach. If your lecturer or department does not ask you to use any particular style, we recommend using Harvard. It's easy to learn, simple to use, and there is lots of advice available to help you out.
Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1997. Mayo, Anthony, and Mark Benson. "Bill Gates and Steve Jobs." HBS No. 407-028 (Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2010). R. EPEATING A . C. ITATION. After the first complete citation of a work, you may abbreviate subsequent instances by using either Ibid. or a shortened form of the ...
Fundamentals of APA American Psychological Association (APA) style includes parenthetical in-text citations and a reference list. APA uses parenthetical citations as its form of in-text citation. Provide a parenthetical citation before the period directly following the information you are citing.
Factual correctness is often the limiting factor in practical applications of natural language generation in high-stakes domains such as healthcare. An essential requirement for maintaining factuality is the ability to deal with rare tokens. This paper focuses on rare tokens that appear in both the source and the reference sequences, and which, when missed during generation, decrease the ...
This guide offers advice on using the Harvard referencing style, which is a general author-date referencing system of which there are many versions. The Harvard style used at Monash University is based on the Australian Government's Style Manual, referred to throughout this document as the Style Manual. The Style Manual was updated in 2020 ...