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Understanding the Harvard Referencing System
One of the challenges of academic writing is formatting the finished paper. Each professor, course and publication has slightly different requirements for everything from setting up the margins to using punctuation in the bibliography. You also have to give credit to your sources or risk the consequences of a plagiarism charge.
In most cases, you use in your paper two types of citations. The first is a list at the end of the document that lists each source you used in your research. The other is an in-text citation that shows which source you used to develop a specific idea in the paper. When you write these in-text citations in parentheses, you’re using the Harvard Referencing System.
Development of the Harvard Referencing System
Parenthetical citation first appeared in a 1881 paper by famed scientist Edward Laurens Mark. In his landmark work about the embryogenesis of the common garden slug, Mark listed the author and publication year of another work. He included an explanatory footnote for further information.
Before this moment, all citations within a text used printer symbols like asterisks and crosses to denote the reference. Mark’s parenthetical citation was groundbreaking because it was a convenient way to show the reader the connections between the text and the bibliography. In 1903 he received formal credit for the new format.
Parenthetical citation first appeared in a 1881 paper by famed scientist Edward Laurens Mark. In his landmark work about the embryogenesis of the common garden slug, Mark listed the author and publication year of another work. He included an explanator
How the Harvard Referencing System Works With Writing Styles
The Harvard reference system is not a writing style like APA or Chicago Style. If fact, the publication guidelines produced by the American Psychological Association and the Modern Language Association use Harvard referencing because they require parenthe
Harvard Reference Generators
There are some Harvard Reference generators available online, but you don’t have to search for generators that specifically mention this format. Any citation generator that produces parenthetical citations is technically a Harvard Reference generator.
Tips for Formatting Citations
Several universities in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand rely on the Harvard Reference System for their research papers. They also offer tips for using parenthetical citations in text. For example, according to the University of Sheffield,
Tips for Quotations
When you want to quote direct information from another work, you have to do more than list the original author’s name and publication date. You also have to include the page number where you found the information in the original text. For long quotes, sta
Tips for Secondary Referencing
The sources you use for your research also have their own sources. You can acknowledge these secondary sources in your writing. The key is to make sure the reader understands which text you read. You do this by using the phrase “cited in” within the paren
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An annotated bibliography is an expanded version of a regular bibliography —those lists of sources you find at the end of a research paper or book. The difference is that an annotated bibliography contains an added feature: a paragraph or annotation under each bibliographical entry.
The purpose of the annotated bibliography is to provide the reader with a complete overview of the articles and books that have been written about a certain subject. Learning some background about annotated bibliographies—as well as a few key steps to writing one—will help you to quickly create an effective annotated bibliography for your assignment or research paper.
Annotated Bibliography Features
The annotated bibliography gives your readers a glimpse of the work a professional researcher would do. Every published article provides statements about prior research on the topic at hand.
A teacher may require that you write an annotated bibliography as the first step of a big research assignment. You would most likely write an annotated bibliography first and then follow with a research paper using the sources you've found.
But you may find that your annotated bibliography is an assignment on its own: It can also stand alone as a research project, and some annotated bibliographies are published. A stand-alone annotated bibliography (one that is not followed by a research paper assignment) would most likely be longer than a first-step version.
How It Should Look
Write the annotated bibliography just like a normal bibliography, but add between one and five concise sentences under each bibliographical entry. Your sentences should summarize the source content and explain how or why the source is important. Things you might mention include whether the:
- Thesis of the source is one you support or don't support
- Author has a unique experience or point of view related to your topic
- Source provides a sound basis for a paper you intend to write, leaves some questions unanswered, or has a political bias
How to Write an Annotated Bibliography
Find a few good sources for your research, and then expand by consulting the bibliographies of those sources. They will lead you to additional sources. The number of sources will depend on the depth of your research.
Determine how deeply you need to read each of these sources. Sometime you'll be expected to read each source carefully before putting it into your annotated bibliography; in other cases, skimming the source will be sufficient.
When you are doing an initial investigation of all of the sources available, your teacher may not expect you to read each source thoroughly. Instead, you likely will be expected to read parts of the sources to learn the essence of the content. Before beginning, check with your teacher to determine whether you have to read every word of every source that you plan to include.
Alphabetize your entries, just as you would in a normal bibliography.
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One of the challenges of academic writing is formatting the finished paper. Each professor, course and publication has slightly different requirements for everything from setting up the margins to using punctuation in the bibliography.
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The purpose of writing an annotated bibliography is to provide an overview of the research that has been published on a particular topic. An annotated bibliography is an expanded version of a regular bibliography—those lists of sources you ...
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Demonstrates how to properly cite (using the Council of Biology Editors CBE style) a resource and then create an appropriate annotation
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Introduces you to what an annotated bibliography is, and some tips on what to include. Uses APA as the citation style.