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What Is a Case Study?
When you’re performing research as part of your job or for a school assignment, you’ll probably come across case studies that help you to learn more about the topic at hand. But what is a case study and why are they helpful? Read on to learn all about case studies.
Deep Dive into a Topic
At face value, a case study is a deep dive into a topic. Case studies can be found in many fields, particularly across the social sciences and medicine. When you conduct a case study, you create a body of research based on an inquiry and related data from analysis of a group, individual or controlled research environment.
As a researcher, you can benefit from the analysis of case studies similar to inquiries you’re currently studying. Researchers often rely on case studies to answer questions that basic information and standard diagnostics cannot address.
Study a Pattern
One of the main objectives of a case study is to find a pattern that answers whatever the initial inquiry seeks to find. This might be a question about why college students are prone to certain eating habits or what mental health problems afflict house fire survivors. The researcher then collects data, either through observation or data research, and starts connecting the dots to find underlying behaviors or impacts of the sample group’s behavior.
During the study period, the researcher gathers evidence to back the observed patterns and future claims that’ll be derived from the data. Since case studies are usually presented in the professional environment, it’s not enough to simply have a theory and observational notes to back up a claim. Instead, the researcher must provide evidence to support the body of study and the resulting conclusions.
As the study progresses, the researcher develops a solid case to present to peers or a governing body. Case study presentation is important because it legitimizes the body of research and opens the findings to a broader analysis that may end up drawing a conclusion that’s more true to the data than what one or two researchers might establish. The presentation might be formal or casual, depending on the case study itself.
Once the body of research is established, it’s time to draw conclusions from the case study. As with all social sciences studies, conclusions from one researcher shouldn’t necessarily be taken as gospel, but they’re helpful for advancing the body of knowledge in a given field. For that purpose, they’re an invaluable way of gathering new material and presenting ideas that others in the field can learn from and expand upon.
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Multiple Case Studies
Nadia Alqahtani and Pengtong Qu
The case study approach is popular across disciplines in education, anthropology, sociology, psychology, medicine, law, and political science (Creswell, 2013). It is both a research method and a strategy (Creswell, 2013; Yin, 2017). In this type of research design, a case can be an individual, an event, or an entity, as determined by the research questions. There are two variants of the case study: the single-case study and the multiple-case study. The former design can be used to study and understand an unusual case, a critical case, a longitudinal case, or a revelatory case. On the other hand, a multiple-case study includes two or more cases or replications across the cases to investigate the same phenomena (Lewis-Beck, Bryman & Liao, 2003; Yin, 2017). …a multiple-case study includes two or more cases or replications across the cases to investigate the same phenomena
The difference between the single- and multiple-case study is the research design; however, they are within the same methodological framework (Yin, 2017). Multiple cases are selected so that “individual case studies either (a) predict similar results (a literal replication) or (b) predict contrasting results but for anticipatable reasons (a theoretical replication)” (p. 55). When the purpose of the study is to compare and replicate the findings, the multiple-case study produces more compelling evidence so that the study is considered more robust than the single-case study (Yin, 2017).
To write a multiple-case study, a summary of individual cases should be reported, and researchers need to draw cross-case conclusions and form a cross-case report (Yin, 2017). With evidence from multiple cases, researchers may have generalizable findings and develop theories (Lewis-Beck, Bryman & Liao, 2003).
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Lewis-Beck, M., Bryman, A. E., & Liao, T. F. (2003). The Sage encyclopedia of social science research methods . Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Yin, R. K. (2017). Case study research and applications: Design and methods . Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Key Research Books and Articles on Multiple Case Study Methodology
Yin discusses how to decide if a case study should be used in research. Novice researchers can learn about research design, data collection, and data analysis of different types of case studies, as well as writing a case study report.
Chapter 2 introduces four major types of research design in case studies: holistic single-case design, embedded single-case design, holistic multiple-case design, and embedded multiple-case design. Novice researchers will learn about the definitions and characteristics of different designs. This chapter also teaches researchers how to examine and discuss the reliability and validity of the designs.
Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2017). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches . Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
This book compares five different qualitative research designs: narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study. It compares the characteristics, data collection, data analysis and representation, validity, and writing-up procedures among five inquiry approaches using texts with tables. For each approach, the author introduced the definition, features, types, and procedures and contextualized these components in a study, which was conducted through the same method. Each chapter ends with a list of relevant readings of each inquiry approach.
This book invites readers to compare these five qualitative methods and see the value of each approach. Readers can consider which approach would serve for their research contexts and questions, as well as how to design their research and conduct the data analysis based on their choice of research method.
Günes, E., & Bahçivan, E. (2016). A multiple case study of preservice science teachers’ TPACK: Embedded in a comprehensive belief system. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 11 (15), 8040-8054.
In this article, the researchers showed the importance of using technological opportunities in improving the education process and how they enhanced the students’ learning in science education. The study examined the connection between “Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge” (TPACK) and belief system in a science teaching context. The researchers used the multiple-case study to explore the effect of TPACK on the preservice science teachers’ (PST) beliefs on their TPACK level. The participants were three teachers with the low, medium, and high level of TPACK confidence. Content analysis was utilized to analyze the data, which were collected by individual semi-structured interviews with the participants about their lesson plans. The study first discussed each case, then compared features and relations across cases. The researchers found that there was a positive relationship between PST’s TPACK confidence and TPACK level; when PST had higher TPACK confidence, the participant had a higher competent TPACK level and vice versa.
Recent Dissertations Using Multiple Case Study Methodology
Milholland, E. S. (2015). A multiple case study of instructors utilizing Classroom Response Systems (CRS) to achieve pedagogical goals . Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (Order Number 3706380)
The researcher of this study critiques the use of Classroom Responses Systems by five instructors who employed this program five years ago in their classrooms. The researcher conducted the multiple-case study methodology and categorized themes. He interviewed each instructor with questions about their initial pedagogical goals, the changes in pedagogy during teaching, and the teaching techniques individuals used while practicing the CRS. The researcher used the multiple-case study with five instructors. He found that all instructors changed their goals during employing CRS; they decided to reduce the time of lecturing and to spend more time engaging students in interactive activities. This study also demonstrated that CRS was useful for the instructors to achieve multiple learning goals; all the instructors provided examples of the positive aspect of implementing CRS in their classrooms.
Li, C. L. (2010). The emergence of fairy tale literacy: A multiple case study on promoting critical literacy of children through a juxtaposed reading of classic fairy tales and their contemporary disruptive variants . Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (Order Number 3572104)
To explore how children’s development of critical literacy can be impacted by their reactions to fairy tales, the author conducted a multiple-case study with 4 cases, in which each child was a unit of analysis. Two Chinese immigrant children (a boy and a girl) and two American children (a boy and a girl) at the second or third grade were recruited in the study. The data were collected through interviews, discussions on fairy tales, and drawing pictures. The analysis was conducted within both individual cases and cross cases. Across four cases, the researcher found that the young children’s’ knowledge of traditional fairy tales was built upon mass-media based adaptations. The children believed that the representations on mass-media were the original stories, even though fairy tales are included in the elementary school curriculum. The author also found that introducing classic versions of fairy tales increased children’s knowledge in the genre’s origin, which would benefit their understanding of the genre. She argued that introducing fairy tales can be the first step to promote children’s development of critical literacy.
Asher, K. C. (2014). Mediating occupational socialization and occupational individuation in teacher education: A multiple case study of five elementary pre-service student teachers . Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (Order Number 3671989)
This study portrayed five pre-service teachers’ teaching experience in their student teaching phase and explored how pre-service teachers mediate their occupational socialization with occupational individuation. The study used the multiple-case study design and recruited five pre-service teachers from a Midwestern university as five cases. Qualitative data were collected through interviews, classroom observations, and field notes. The author implemented the case study analysis and found five strategies that the participants used to mediate occupational socialization with occupational individuation. These strategies were: 1) hindering from practicing their beliefs, 2) mimicking the styles of supervising teachers, 3) teaching in the ways in alignment with school’s existing practice, 4) enacting their own ideas, and 5) integrating and balancing occupational socialization and occupational individuation. The study also provided recommendations and implications to policymakers and educators in teacher education so that pre-service teachers can be better supported.
Multiple Case Studies by Nadia Alqahtani and Pengtong Qu is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.
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This chapter addresses the peculiarities, characteristics, and major fallacies of multiple case research designs. The major advantage of multiple case research lies in cross-case analysis. A multiple case research design shifts the focus from understanding a single case to the differences and similarities between cases. Thus, it is not just conducting more (second, third, etc.) case studies. Rather, it is the next step in developing a theory about factors driving differences and similarities. Also, researchers find relevant information on how to write a multiple case research design paper and learn about typical methodologies used for this research design. The chapter closes with referring to overlapping and adjacent research designs.
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The Multiple Case Study Design Methodology and Application for Management Education
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Most organizations today operate in volatile economic and social environments and qualitative research plays an essential role in investigating leadership and management problems. This unique volume offers novice and experienced researchers a brief, student-centric research methods text specifically devoted to the multiple case study design. The multiple case study design is a valuable qualitative research tool in studying the links between the personal, social, behavioral, psychological, organizational, cultural, and environmental factors that guide organizational and leadership development. Case study research is essential for the in-depth study of participants' perspectives on the phenomenon within its natural context. Rigorously designed management and leadership case studies in the extant literature have a central focus on individual managers' and leaders' stories and their perceptions of the broader forces operating within and outside their organizations. This is a comprehensive methodology book exploring the multiple case study design with step-by-step and easily accessible guidelines on the topic, making it especially valuable to researchers, academics, and students in the areas of business, management, and leadership.
Table of Contents
1. A Refresher on the Philosophical Foundations of Academic Research 2. Research Methodologies: The Basics 3. The Role of Theory in Qualitative Research 4. How does the Novice Researcher Design a Multiple Case Study? 5. The Advantage of the Multiple Case Study Design for Management Researchers 6. Applying Data Collection Methods in Multiple Case Study Research 7. The Data Analysis Process for Multiple Case Study Research 8. Extending Theory with Multiple Case Study Design 9. Incorporating Multiple Case Design and Methodologies into Teaching and Professional Practice 10. Writing and Publishing Multiple Case Study Research 11. Concluding Thoughts
Daphne Halkias is Professor and Distinguished Research Fellow at École des Ponts Business School in Paris, France. Michael Neubert is Associate Professor in Business and Management Studies and a Member of the Academic Council at UIBS in Zurich, Switzerland. Paul W. Thurman is Professor of Management and Analytics at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health, New York, USA. Nicholas Harkiolakis is on the Faculty of the School of Technology at Northcentral University, San Diego, California, USA.
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Introduction, section snippets, references (54), cited by (37), recommended articles (6).
Library & Information Science Research
A multiple-case study investigation of the discontinuation of nine chat reference services ☆.
Using the multiple-case study method, this research investigates reasons why nine virtual reference (chat) services have been discontinued. The investigation of these five academic, one public, and three consortial chat services was conducted through structured e-mail and telephone interviews with the library decision makers and analysis of available reports and documents. The major reason for discontinuation was funding problems, followed by low volume (including low volume by target audience). Other reasons were staffing problems, technical problems, and institutional culture issues. Staffing issues included the need for comfortable staffing patterns, maintenance of sufficient volume to maintain proficiency, and cultivation of positive attitudes. Technical problems centered on software malfunctions and connectivity difficulties. Within two of the consortia, different patterns of funding, staffing, and mission posed difficulties for blended cultures that caused the consortia to break up. Despite all these issues, the possibility of restarting chat services, perhaps in consortia or with simpler chat software, exists for all services, with two services desiring to restart when funds and reorganization permit.
What were the deciding factors for ending these services?
Who was involved in making the decision to end the services?
How could these failures/false starts have been prevented?
What has been the impact of discontinuing these services?
What are the similarities and differences among the cases?
What lessons can be learned to ensure the success of existing services or newly developing services?
The results of this exploratory study will be of value to library managers needing to make informed decisions about starting new chat reference services or judging the viability of existing ones. Detailing the experiences of other services can identify potential pitfalls and avoid costly mistakes, perhaps influencing the future sustainability of chat reference services.
Defining successful chat reference services
The literature on chat reference services includes debates on the value of chat services (Coffman and Arret, 2004a, Coffman and Arret, 2004b, Tenopir, 2004a, Tenopir, 2004b); evaluation (Arnold and Kaske, 2005, Lankes et al., 2003, Pomerantz et al., 2004, Stoffel and Tucker, 2004, White et al., 2003); transcript analysis (Radford, in press, Radford, 2006, Radford and Thompson, 2004); case studies (Scardellato, 2001); pilot studies (Matheson, 2004); use and user satisfaction assessments (DeGroot
Case study research originated in the disciplines of anthropology and sociology. It has been used in numerous library and information science (LIS) studies, including research on traditional as well as VR services (see Beard et al., 2003, Diamond and Pease, 2001, Foley, 2002, Hamel, 1993, Kloss and Zhang, 2003, Radford, 1983, Scardellato, 2001, Stalker and Murfin, 1996). Case studies are explanatory, and “illustrate a decision or set of decisions: why they were taken, how they were implemented,
Starting and operating the services
Several common themes emerged with respect to starting and operating the services. One theme is that all cases used existing personnel to staff their chat service. All of the chat services hours of operation were for times when the library was open to the public with the exception of Case E, which had hours of operation available after the regular libraries were closed, from 7 p.m. to 10 p.m., staffed by librarians working from home.
Another common theme was that the intended audience for most
These findings highlight the importance of maintaining enough volume for staff to stay primed and interested. Sufficient volume is critical to staff satisfaction, although some service staff were satisfied despite low volume. The Case F informant noted: “They felt that they learned new tools to add to their repertoire and also felt good about professional growth. They enjoyed participating and wished that they had been busier.”
Hours of service
Questions linger about the length of hours of service and about
Before beginning a chat service, conduct a user needs assessment to determine optimum hours and days of service and software needs.
Allow sufficient time for services to “catch on” for pilot projects or initial service offerings. A commitment for a minimum of 2 years should be made to determine service viability. Six months is an insufficient time commitment.
Determine and define specific criteria for “success” and plan an effective
Future research directions
As is frequently the case in research investigations, numerous questions remain unanswered, providing a rich array of avenues for future inquiries. Pomerantz (2005) has provided a multifaceted research agenda for virtual reference scholarship that includes many of the issues raised here.
Chat technology is changing rapidly and in order for services to ensure long-term sustainability, additional research is needed to bridge the gap between the expectations and preferences of the service users and
The authors would like to acknowledge all the interview participants.
Quality reference service: A preliminary case study
The journal of academic librarianship, the current state of digital reference: validation of a general digital reference model through a survey of digital reference services, information processing and management, improving reference service cost studies, evaluating the quality of a chat service, portal: libraries and the academy, virtual reference: alive and well, library journal, ask: a virtual enquiry desk—a case study, the electronic library.
- Bejune, M. (2004, November 8–9). Deciding when to offer chat reference: Optimizing the decision making process by...
One library's experience with live, virtual reference
Journal of the medical library association, managing a statewide virtual reference service: how q and a nj works, computers in libraries, journal collection cost-effectiveness in an academic chemistry library: results of a cost/use survey at the university of illinois at urbana champaign, collection management, to chat or not to chat—taking another look at virtual reference, part 1, to chat or not to chat: taking yet another look at virtual reference, a university-wide, library-based chat service, reference services review, quantifying cooperation: collaborative digital reference service, college and research libraries, digital reference: a case study of question types in an academic library, instant messaging reference in an academic library: a case study, college & research libraries, case study methods, using the contingent valuation method to measure patron benefits of reference desk service in an academic library, unobtrusive reference testing, the return on investment of electronic journals: it is a matter of time, d-lib magazine, the viability of live online reference: an assessment, we've created it, now what, the costs of educational media: guidelines of planning and evaluation, introduction to reference work in the digital age, online chat reference, reference and user services quarterly, what are they asking an analysis of questions asked at in-person and virtual service points, have(n't) we been here before lessons from telephone reference, the reference librarian, flipped instruction for information literacy: five instructional cases of academic librarians.
Outcomes of the analysis include a case description and a report on themes, which provide an in-depth understanding of the issues under study (Creswell, 2013). Case study research has been used in library and information science research (Haglund & Olsson, 2008; Radford & Kern, 2006), including investigations in information literacy (Johnston & Webber, 2003; Larkin & Pines, 2005). Case study methodology is suited to the in-depth understanding of a single case or the comparison of several cases to show different perspectives (Creswell, 2013).
University of California, Berkeley librarians have incorporated the flipped instruction model into information literacy training by focusing on two primary elements: assigning pre-class assignments and increasing active learning techniques. We explore these two elements across five diverse instructional cases, which include one-shot and semester-long classes that were conducted through online or in-person delivery for both graduate and undergraduate students across a range of subject areas (sciences, social sciences, and humanities). We examine the enabling factors and the perceived outcomes of this instructional paradigm. Because students came to class with enhanced library understanding and experience from the pre-class assignment, they were better prepared to engage with the material and articulate additional learning needs. We note students' increased engagement during class and more time available for higher-order learning exercises and discussions. As a result, flipped instruction appears to enable more learning opportunities without increasing classroom time. The challenges of this model are the requisite commitment of time and effort, the need to foster class participation, and the facilitation of active communication within the class. We propose a framework of catalysts, building blocks, and instructional outcomes to help library instructors incorporate flipped instruction elements into their instructional design.
Standing By to Help: Transforming Online Reference with a Proactive Chat System
In fact, some libraries went so far as to discontinue virtual reference service. A study of nine discontinued virtual reference services found that low volume was a common reason for dropping the service (Radford & Kern, 2006), and in their usability evaluation of virtual reference services, Chow and Croxton (2014) also noted that “Many virtual reference projects initiated in recent years have been suspended or discontinued altogether”. It has become almost axiomatic that the decline in reference questions is a natural result of moving beyond the cumbersome process of searching and accessing materials in the print format.
In July 2013, the University of Texas at San Antonio Libraries implemented a proactive, context-sensitive chat system developed for online businesses. Chat questions immediately increased from eight questions daily to eight questions hourly on average, resulting in an increase of 340% from 2013 to 2014. This paper describes the system characteristics, explaining how the chat client was configured to provide convenient, context-sensitive help that engages many more users than the previous system. An analysis showed that most questions received were reference questions requiring the expertise of a librarian. The system has lowered the bar of inquiry for reference users, transforming chat from a low-use option to a heavily used service with an important role in supporting academic research and information literacy.
A Survey and Empirical Study of Virtual Reference Service in Academic Libraries
One challenge for current VRS is its low usage by patrons, despite the fact that many studies concluded very high user satisfaction and willingness to recommend the service.3 Radford and Kern's4 multiple-case study showed that in non-consortium VRS, chat questions were less than 3% of total reference questions. Ryan5 found that 89% of chat questions were not research related and, most of the time, were “simple” directional questions, which calls into question the need for professional librarians to staff such a service.
Virtual Reference Services (VRS) have high user satisfaction. The main problem is its low usage. We surveyed 100 academic library web sites to understand how VRS are presented. We then conducted a usability study to further test an active VRS model regarding its effectiveness.
Mobile Instant Messaging for Reference Queries Post COVID-19
Does proactivity drive use understanding growth in chat reference services, right-sizing proactive chat reference service using trigger time, general and smoking cessation weight concern in a hispanic sample of light and intermittent smokers.
This study assessed general and cessation related weight concerns in a Hispanic sample of light (≤ 10 cigarettes per day) and intermittent (non-daily smoking) smokers (LITS) participating in a brief smoking cessation intervention. Three hundred and fifty-four Hispanic LITS ( M age = 34.2, SD = 14; 51.1% male; 57.9% Mexican American; 59.0% daily light, 41.0% intermittent) completed baseline measures assessing demographics, tobacco use/history, stage of change (SOC), general weight concern, and cessation related weight concern. Three multiple logistic regression models examined potential predictors (i.e., age, gender, SOC, cigarettes per month, smoking status [daily vs non-daily], weight, cessation related weight concern, general weight concern) of general weight concern, cessation related weight concern, and past 30 day abstinence (controlling for the intervention). Study results indicated that a majority of participants reported general weight concern (59.6%), and slightly more than a third (35.6%) reported post cessation weight gain concern (mean and median weight tolerated before relapse were within the 10–12 lb range). Lower weight and endorsing general weight concern were associated with cessation related weight concern. Female gender, higher weight, and endorsing cessation related weight concern were associated with general weight concern. Monthly cigarette use was associated with smoking cessation at the three-month follow-up. The results indicate a substantial prevalence of general weight concern and non-trivial rates of cessation related weight concern in Hispanic LITS attempting to quit, and greater success in quitting among those who reported lower rates of cigarettes smoked per month.
Rate of Detection of Unsuspected Pregnancies After Implementation of Mandatory Point-of-Care Urine Pregnancy Testing Prior to Hysterosalpingography
The aim of this study was to determine the rate of detection of unsuspected pregnancies after the implementation of mandatory point-of-care urine pregnancy testing before hysterosalpingography (HSG).
At the authors' institution, HSGs are scheduled to occur during days 8 to 12 of the menstrual cycle. Upon arrival in the radiology department, all women undergo point-of-care urine pregnancy testing before HSG (at a cost of $1.25 per test). Urine pregnancy test results were retrospectively reviewed.
Four hundred ten women (mean age, 25.9 years; range, 22-50 years) underwent point-of-care urine pregnancy testing before HSG between October 2010 and July 2012. Study indications were infertility evaluation (90.7% [372 of 410]) and tubal patency assessment after placement of tubal occlusive devices (9.3% [38 of 410]). Two positive urine pregnancy test results (0.5%) were recorded. One positive result was deemed a false-positive because the patient had received an intramuscular injection of β–human chorionic gonadotropin before the scheduled HSG, and follow-up laboratory testing showed declining β–human chorionic gonadotropin levels. The second positive result was a true-positive, and the patient was determined to be 4.5 weeks pregnant on the date of the scheduled HSG.
One of 410 women presenting for HSG was found to have an unsuspected early pregnancy, which was detected with a point-of-care urine pregnancy test. Consideration should be given to routine pregnancy testing of women before HSG because scheduling on the basis of menstrual cycle dates can be unreliable.
Lessons learnt from the deployment of a semantic virtual research environment
The ourSpaces Virtual Research Environment makes use of Semantic Web technologies to create a platform to support multi-disciplinary research groups. This paper introduces the main semantic components of the system: a framework to capture the provenance of the research process, a collection of services to create and visualise metadata and a policy reasoning service. We also describe different approaches to authoring and accessing metadata within the VRE. Using evidence gathered from data provided by the users of the system we discuss the lessons learnt from deployment with three case study groups.
Creating a Library Orientation Video for Distance, Regional, and Online Students
For distance, regional, and online students, making connections with the library can be difficult. However, distance learners require the same reliable, accessible, and timely access to information, resources and library services that in-person learners enjoy. To increase distance learner awareness and usage of library services, resources, and tools, the NorQuest College Library created an interactive online orientation video. Through this video, library staff were able to address the unique needs of distance learners and foster library use by this group. This chapter focuses on best practices for creating an orientation video on a small budget, options for advertising the video to distance learners and faculty, and the results of a follow-up survey on student use and satisfaction.
Supporting Student Retention and Success : Personal Librarian Program at the University of Victoria
In September 2014, librarians at the University of Victoria (UVic) launched a Personal Librarian Program (PLP) for first-year students. The program aimed to establish a point of contact to assist students in their academic needs related to the library and make them more aware of and comfortable asking for library help. This program at UVic Libraries directly addressed the University's top priorities, enhancing the first-year experience and promoting student retention and success. In this chapter, we will present a brief literature review of PLPs and how specialized programs like these contribute to student retention, describe how we set up the program (including automating emails) at UVic, promotion of the program, and share the response we have received from students, which although low did provide the program coordinators with useful lessons going forward.
Assembly and inhibitory activity of monovalent mannosides terminated with aromatic methyl esters: The effect of naphthyl groups
A series of monovalent α-D-mannoside ligands terminated with aromatic methyl esters have been synthesized in excellent yields using the Cu(I) catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (“click chemistry”). These mannosides were designed to have a unique aglycone moiety (tail) that combines a triazole ring attached to aromatic methyl esters via a six carbon alkyl chain. The mannose unit of these ligands was linked at the ortho , meta , and para positions of substituted methyl benzoates and 1-, 3-, and 6-substituted methyl 2-napthaoates. In hemagglutination assays, ligands ( 32A-38A ) showed better inhibitory activities than the standard inhibitor, methyl α-D-mannopyranoside. Overall, the naphthyl-based mannoside ligand ( 37A ) showed the best activity and therefore merits further development.
Earlier versions of this research: (1) “ CSI cyberspace: A multiple-case study investigation of the untimely demise of seven virtual reference service ” was presented to the 11th RUSA Reference Research Forum, ALA, Chicago, IL, June 25, 2005; and (2) “ Cyberspace casualties: An inquiry into cases of discontinued virtual reference services ” was presented at the Virtual Reference Desk 7th Annual Digital Reference Conference, San Francisco, CA, November 15, 2005.
When you’re performing research as part of your job or for a school assignment, you’ll probably come across case studies that help you to learn more about the topic at hand. But what is a case study and why are they helpful? Read on to lear...
Case studies are important because they help make something being discussed more realistic for both teachers and learners. Case studies help students to see that what they have learned is not purely theoretical but instead can serve to crea...
Examples of a case study could be anything from researching why a single subject has nightmares when they sleep in their new apartment, to why a group of people feel uncomfortable in heavily populated areas. A case study is an in-depth anal...
Key Research Books and Articles on Multiple Case Study Methodology. Yin, R. K. (2017). Case study research and applications: Design and methods.
Keywords: Work-integrated learning, information management, qualitative research, triad partnership, multiple- case design. The rationale of this article is
Thus, multiple cases allow wider exploring of research questions and theoretical evolution (Eisenhardt &. Graebner, 2007).
In multiple-case study, replication occurs in two stages: a literal replication stage where cases are selected to obtain similar results, and a theoretical
A multiple case research design shifts the focus from understanding a single case to the differences and similarities between cases. Thus, it is
In this book, I call this tension the “case–quintain dilemma.” For multicase research, the cases need to be similar in some ways— perhaps a set of teachers
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Multiple case study analysis allows researcher to infer a general opinion on the specific issue by analyzing different cases in the same research.
The multiple case study design is a valuable qualitative research tool in studying the links between the personal, social, behavioral, psychological
To illustrate an approach to data analysis in qualitative case study methodology. There is often little detail in case study research about how data were
Using the multiple-case study method, this research investigates reasons why nine virtual reference (chat) services have been discontinued.