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Decision Matrix Resources

Decision Matrix Related Topics

What is a Decision Matrix?

Quality Glossary Definition: Decision matrix

Also called: Pugh matrix, decision grid, selection matrix or grid, problem matrix, problem selection matrix, opportunity analysis, solution matrix, criteria rating form, criteria-based matrix

A decision matrix evaluates and prioritizes a list of options and is a decision-making tool . The team first establishes a list of weighted criteria and then evaluates each option against those criteria. This is a variation of the L-shaped matrix.

When to Use a Decision Matrix

Typical situations are:

Decision Matrix Procedure

Method 1: Establish a rating scale for each criterion. Some options are:

Method 2: For each criterion, rank-order all options according to how well each meets the criterion. Number them with 1 being the option that is least desirable according to that criterion.

Method 3 (Pugh matrix): Establish a baseline, which may be one of the alternatives or the current product or service. For each criterion, rate each other alternative in comparison to the baseline, using scores of worse (-1), same (0), or better (+1). Finer rating scales can be used, such as 2, 1, 0, -1, -2 for a five-point scale or 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3 for a seven-point scale. Again, be sure that positive numbers reflect desirable ratings.

Decision Matrix Example

Figure 1 shows a decision matrix used by the customer service team at the Parisian Experience restaurant to decide which aspect of the overall problem of "long wait time" to tackle first. The problems they identified are customers waiting for the host, the waiter, the food, and the check.

The criteria they identified are "Customer pain" (how much does this negatively affect the customer?), "Ease to solve," "Effect on other systems," and "Speed to solve." Originally, the criteria "Ease to solve" was written as "Difficulty to solve," but that wording reversed the rating scale. With the current wording, a high rating on each criterion defines a state that would encourage selecting the problem: high customer pain, very easy to solve, high effect on other systems, and quick solution.

Decision Matrix Example

Figure 1: Decision Matrix Example

"Customer pain" has been weighted with 5 points, showing that the team considers it by far the most important criterion, compared to 1 or 2 points for the others.

The team chose a rating scale of high = 3, medium = 2, and low = 1 and used it for the problem. "Customers wait for food." In this example, the customer pain is medium (2), because the restaurant ambiance is nice. This problem would not be easy to solve (low ease = 1), as it involves both waiters and kitchen staff. The effect on other systems is medium (2), because waiters have to make several trips to the kitchen. The problem will take a while to solve (low speed = 1), as the kitchen is cramped and inflexible.

Each rating is multiplied by the weight for that criterion. For example, "Customer pain" (weight of 5) for "Customers wait for host" rates high (3) for a score of 15. The scores are added across the rows to obtain a total for each problem. "Customers wait for host" has the highest score at 28. Since the next highest score is 18, the host problem probably should be addressed first.

Decision Matrix Considerations

Additional considerations

Adapted from The Quality Toolbox, Second Edition, ASQ Quality Press.

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31 examples of problem solving performance review phrases

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Use these practical examples of phrases, sample comments, and templates for your performance review , 360-degree feedback survey, or manager appraisal.

The following examples not only relate to problem-solving but also conflict management , effective solutions, selecting the best alternatives, decision making , problem identification, analyzing effectively, and generally becoming an effective problem-solving strategist. Start using effective performance review questions to help better guide your workforce's development. 

Problem solving appraisal comments: you're doing great


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Madeline is a writer, communicator, and storyteller who is passionate about using words to help drive positive change. She holds a bachelor's in English Creative Writing and Communication Studies and lives in Denver, Colorado. In her spare time, she's usually somewhere outside (preferably in the mountains) — and enjoys poetry and fiction.

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174 Performance Feedback Examples (Reliability, Integrity, Problem Solving)

By Editorial Team on June 18, 2022 — 16 minutes to read

Performance feedback is a critical part of any organization. It helps managers assess the effectiveness of their employees and identify areas for improvement. The purpose of performance feedback is to help the employee improve their skills and work better in the future. So, the goal of performance feedback is to help the employee improve: performance feedback should be specific, objective, and actionable.

In this article you will find performance review examples for the following skills:

Each section below contains positive (“Meets or Exceeds Expectations”) and negative (“Below Expectations”) examples for the skills listed above. If you are looking for more performance review examples and phrases for different skills, check our main article here (click to open 2000+ Performance Review Phrases: The Complete List) Learn more:

How to Give Performance Feedback? Techniques and Examples (Positive, Negative, STAR Feedback)

How to Identify and Handle Employee Underperformance? 5 Proven Steps

How to Integrate an Effective Performance Management System?

Part 1 Problem Solving and Decision Making

Meets or exceeds expectations.

✓ He is a person with good decision-making skills and can make sound fact based judgements.

✓ He is able to work out multiple alternative solutions and determine the most suitable choice.

✓ He is objective in considering facts or situations.

✓ He doesn’t allow individual emotions or feelings influence decisions.

✓ He is decisive in difficult situations.

✓ He is supportive and encourages others to work with him.

✓ He is skilled at analyzing any situation and working out a solution.

✓ He always defines a problem clearly and seeks out alternative solutions.

✓ He always thinks twice before making his decision.

✓ He consistently updates colleagues on what is going on within the company.

✓ He is prepared to tackle complex situations and always develops suitable solutions to offer to the managers.

✓ He always understands problem thoroughly and tries to find different solutions.

✓ He only makes a decision after considering it carefully.

✓ He provides the latest information relating to his job to everyone.

✓ He does not mind facing complicated situations and always finds appropriate solutions to offer.

✓ He is objective when considering a fact or situation.

✓ He is firm to not let the individual emotion and feeling affect on the made decision.

✓ He is able to make sound fact-based judgments.

✓ He is able to analyze any problem and find the best solution to any problem.

✓ He always analyzes an issue carefully and then looks for different ways to resolve that issue.

✓ He is ready to deal with complicated consequences. He has ability to find the most suitable solutions to submit to management.

✓ He thinks through potential resolutions to problems before making a rash judgment.

✓ He keeps management apprised of ongoing problems or issues that occur within the department.

✓ He is not afraid to respond to complex issues and provide recommendations to all levels of management.

✓ He is able to successfully analyze a problem and find an appropriate resolution.

✓ He clearly explains the problem and offers the users several different resolution options.

✓ His investigative skills has provided a key resource for a team focused on solving glitches. His ability to quickly assess a problem and identify potential solutions is key to his excellent performance.

✓ He examines a problem and quickly identifies potential solutions. He recommends the most suitable solution.

✓ He understands the testing process and how to discover a solution to a particular problem.

✓ He is one of the more technical employees we have on staff. He can quickly analyze a situation and discover practical solutions.

✓ He is adept at discovering potential solutions for problems.

Below Expectations

✗ He is too hesitant to make a decision.

✗ He applies overly complex and impractical approaches to solving problems.

✗ He fails to make short-lists of solutions recommended by direct units.

✗ He is often paralyzed and confused when facing tight deadlines to make decisions.

✗ He makes too many complaints about the content of the job.

✗ He tends to apply a narrow and rushed decision-making approach.

✗ He avoid conflicts at work in relation to the decision making process.

✗ He struggles to work out a solution to any difficult problem.

✗ He is uncomfortable when faced with any awkward problem.

✗ He easily loses focus when facing a complex situation.

✗ He fails to provide managers with the necessary information when a problem arises.

✗ He repeats his mistakes over and over again. He doesn’t know how to learn from failure.

✗ He is unable to find out a solution when facing a complicated situation.

✗ He cannot give managers the requisite information when an issue occurs.

✗ He makes mistakes again and again. John needs to learn the appropriate lessons from failure.

✗ He has difficulty coming up with resolution to difficult problems.

✗ He relies on others in heated situations.

✗ He loses his focus when problems arise.

✗ He is poor at communicating a problem’s status before it becomes a crisis.

✗ He can offer potential solutions to a problem but struggles to identify the best solution.

✗ She lacks the skill to analyze a problem to discuss the core issues.

✗ He resists further training in problem solving. He believes he is proficient, yet he is lacking in many areas.

✗ It is his responsibility, in his role, to solve problems. He seems slow and indecisive when presented with a major issue.

✗ He finds it hard to look for a solution to a difficult situation.

✗ He is impossible to submit needed information to the managers when he faces a complex situation.

Looking for more examples? We created the largest list of performance review phrases for different skills. You can find it here (click to open 2000+ Performance Review Phrases: The Complete List)

Part 2 Reliability and Dependability

✓ He is the go-to person if the task absolutely must be completed by a given time.

✓ He shows that he is a positive person who is willing to do whatever it takes to help.

✓ He is an important member of our team and will finish the task when it is required.

✓ He is willing to work overtime until the project is finished.

✓ He never fails to impress by performing well each day. We depend on him.

✓ He always finishes the jobs faithfully, He performs at or above all our expectations.

✓ He is loyal and trustworthy.

✓ He is one of our hardest workers. He demonstrates that he cares about his job, his coworkers, and the company.

✓ He consistently impresses us with her willingness to do whatever it takes to get the job done.

✓ He is a very reliable employee.

✓ He is dependable and turns in good performance each day. He never fails to impress.

✓ He shows faithful commitment to getting the job done. He consistently performs at or above expectations.

✓ When we have a task that must be done, we turn to him. He has our trust because he’s proven he can get the job done.

✓ He is known for his dependability and willingness to do what it takes.

✓ He is willing to get her hands dirty with his employees to ensure the job gets completed on time.

✓ There are many times we have tasks that absolutely must be completed by a given time. He can be relied upon to get the task accomplished on time.

✓ He has been a reliable and valued member of team. His commitment to punctuality and attendance has contributed greatly to our team’s overall success.

✓ He displays exceptional performance day after day.

✓ He keeps his word under all circumstances.

✓ He does everything possible to maintain a strong and steady performance in all circumstances.

✓ He is unfazed by any obstacles, pressures or demands that would justifiably derail others.

✓ He can be counted on to give 100 percent under all circumstances.

✓ He keeps to his commitments and works with fellow employees to help them keep to theirs.

✓ He automatically works extra hours if that’s what it takes to get the job done right.

✓ He can be counted upon for steady performance.

✓ He consistently demonstrates solid performance in all aspects of his work.

✓ He handles projects conscientiously from start to finish.

✓ He is an asset to our team. If it needs to to completed, he will finish it.

✗ We cannot depend on him. If a task must be completed it is better assigned to someone else.

✗ He does not demonstrate a willingness to complete the job.

✗ He is never willing work overtime even if the jobs requires it.

✗ He shows no willingness to do what it takes to get the job done, especially in this economy.

✗ His reliability is in doubt. His work results are often poor and must be checked frequently.

✗ He tends to leave work for others to do; while most of his coworkers are willing to work late to finish the project.

✗ His productivity is not as good as that of his coworkers.

✗ He is very loyal but he cannot be depended on. He is an irresponsible person.

✗ He is usually reliable in his work, but there have been a few incidents where this was not the case.

✗ He is very loyal guy, but cannot be depended on.

✗ We need people who are willing to do whatever it takes to get the job done. He is not one of those people.

✗ He does not demonstrate a concern for others perception of him or his job performance.

✗ His results are not as consistent as those of her coworkers.

✗ He is not reliable for his effort and does not demonstrate a willingness to do whatever it takes to get the job accomplished.

✗ He does not show a willingness to help his employees out even when production is behind. Since being promoted to supervisor, he has taken a hands off approach to the detriment of her team.

✗ He demands reliability from others, but not from himself.

✗ He has energy, drive, and performance levels that are inconsistent and unpredictable.

✗ He talks about deliverables, but does not consistently deliver.

✗ He disappoints employees who depend on him.

✗ He makes promises that he doesn’t keep.

✗ He guarantees that deadlines will be met, but consistently misses them.

✗ He is reliable when it suits him, he constantly needs to be reminded to do tasks he does not enjoy.

Part 3 Integrity and Ethics

✓ He is very punctual and values the time of her colleagues and business partners. He has never been late to business meetings.

✓ He is a very honest person. He never abuses any company benefits for personal purposes.

✓ He is highly principled. He is a good manager who treats all employees equally, regardless of gender, age or any other factor.

✓ He has the ability to resolve disputes with clients and partners peacefully.

✓ He discourages gossip or other negative discourse at the workplace. He forms a good working climate.

✓ He is well-mannered and never criticizes his colleagues when they do something incorrectly. He helps to remedy the situation instead.

✓ He always complies with the dress code. His conduct is as proper and formal as his appearance.

✓ He is a skilled negotiator who follows corporate rules and studied techniques. His negotiation skills have had a positive impact on his career development.

✓ He has developed an effective system of encouraging and criticizing of her employees. His people-management is respected by the working community.

✓ He is one of the most moral employees. His firm stand on principles and ethics is to be commended.

✓ He follows all company policies. He abides by both the letter and the spirit of the rules.

✓ He is highly trustworthy. He shows high ideals about how he believes those around him should behave.

✓ He is someone we expect a lot out of and he consistently delivers. His daily work ethic is a standard which others should follow.

✓ He understands his legal responsibility to the company very well.

✓ His high standards of ethics are shown through all of his work on a daily basis.

✓ He maintains the highest standards of personal integrity.

✓ He displays exemplary behavior in every aspect of his work.

✓ He is highly regarded for his integrity both within and outside the company.

✓ He Is a true embodiment of the company’s values regarding integrity.

✓ He sets the standard for integrity.

✓ He Identifies the most worthy steps and then follows them.

✓ He always opts for the reputable route when given a choice.

✓ He finds and implements commendable ways to handle any ethically challenging situation.

✓ His employees emulate the very high personal standards of integrity he sets.

✓ He consistently engages in meritorious behavior.

✓ He can be counted upon to act honorably in all situations.

✓ He fosters a climate of integrity in his department.

✓ He demonstrates the highest levels of integrity in all his dealings with employees.

✓ He always deals with customers with the highest levels of integrity.

✓ He has a strong sense of integrity that underlies all his dealings with vendors.

✓ He shows good intentions in all her workplace behaviors.

✓ He consistently takes the high road.

✓ He suitably counsels employees who engage in inappropriate behaviors.

✓ He has a strong sense of right and wrong. He consistently strives to do what’s right

✓ He maintains high standards of integrity across his department.

✓ He makes decisions that consistently reflect his strong commitment to acting reputably.

✓ He quickly dismisses less than exemplary options.

✗ He seems to be too focused on his appearance and following the dress code instead of working skills.

✗ His approach to respecting corporate ethics is too strict. The staff cannot show initiative in climate he has created.

✗ He is too restrained and does not encourage or compliment his personnel when he should.

✗ He fails to reprimand his employees even when they make serious mistakes in business negotiations.

✗ He goes into excessive details during business communications to make sure colleagues understands his point of view. It takes too much working time.

✗ His own high ethical approach and his faith in other people want to work ethically is often not justified.

✗ He values a mutually beneficial cooperation with his partners and maintains good relationships with them. He absolutely forgets about the necessary competitiveness, which is also important in business.

✗ He has created democratic and equal relationships with his employees but he should have been more demanding.

✗ He has occasionally made misleading statements that have needed to be corrected.

✗ He is often lax with regard to ethics in business dealings internationally. He must manage his employees to realize that international ethics must be more carefully considered.

✗ There are some accusations from customers that he been untruthful.

✗ He meets the letter of the law but frequently fails to respect the spirit as far as our ethics policy is concerned.

✗ Bending the rules is effectively breaking them in our line of work. He needs to be more cautious about sticking strictly to the rules as defined.

✗ He lets expedience take priority over integrity.

✗ He sets integrity aside when pursuing his goals.

✗ He tries to rationalize his less-than-meritorious behaviors.

✗ Integrity does not seem to rank particularly highly on his list of priorities.

✗ He always expects integrity from others, but doesn’t always display it himself.

✗ He demonstrates acceptable levels of integrity only intermittently.

✗ He has show several recent lapses in integrity.

✗ He violates company standards and expectations regarding employee integrity

✗ He has put the company at risk with his inappropriate actions.

✗ He engages in underhanded behaviors.

✗ Has taken actions that have caused his employees to question his integrity.

✗ He has generated complaints from customers because of issues with his integrity.

✗ He has been the cause of concern from vendors because of his integrity.

✗ He has cost the company customers and money because of his disingenuous behavior.

✗ He has engaged in questionable behaviors that have led to corporate embarrassment.

Learn more:

More Performance Review Examples

Here you can find more performance review examples: click to open 2000+ Performance Review Phrases: The Complete List

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Interview Answers


26 Good Examples of Problem Solving (Interview Answers)

300+ Interview Questions Answered.

300+ Interview Questions with Expert Answers.

Employers like to hire people who can solve problems and work well under pressure. A job rarely goes 100% according to plan, so hiring managers will be more likely to hire you if you seem like you can handle unexpected challenges while staying calm and logical in your approach.

But how do they measure this?

They’re going to ask you interview questions about these problem solving skills, and they might also look for examples of problem solving on your resume and cover letter. So coming up, I’m going to share a list of examples of problem solving, whether you’re an experienced job seeker or recent graduate.

Then I’ll share sample interview answers to, “Give an example of a time you used logic to solve a problem?”

Problem-Solving Defined

It is the ability to identify the problem, prioritize based on gravity and urgency, analyze the root cause, gather relevant information, develop and evaluate viable solutions, decide on the most effective and logical solution, and plan and execute implementation. 

Problem-solving also involves critical thinking, communication, listening, creativity, research, data gathering, risk assessment, continuous learning, decision-making, and other soft and technical skills.

Solving problems not only prevent losses or damages but also boosts self-confidence and reputation when you successfully execute it. The spotlight shines on you when people see you handle issues with ease and savvy despite the challenges. Your ability and potential to be a future leader that can take on more significant roles and tackle bigger setbacks shine through. Problem-solving is a skill you can master by learning from others and acquiring wisdom from their and your own experiences. 

It takes a village to come up with solutions, but a good problem solver can steer the team towards the best choice and implement it to achieve the desired result.  

Examples of Problem Solving Scenarios in the Workplace

Problem Solving Examples for Recent Grads/Entry Level Job Seekers

You can share all of the examples above when you’re asked questions about problem solving in your interview. As you can see, even if you have no professional work experience, it’s possible to think back to problems and unexpected challenges that you faced in your studies and discuss how you solved them.

Interview Answers to “Give an Example of an Occasion When You Used Logic to Solve a Problem”

Now, let’s look at some sample interview answers to, “Give me an example of a time you used logic to solve a problem,” since you’re likely to hear this interview question in all sorts of industries.

Example Answer 1:

At my current job, I recently solved a problem where a client was upset about our software pricing. They had misunderstood the sales representative who explained pricing originally, and when their package renewed for its second month, they called to complain about the invoice. I apologized for the confusion and then spoke to our billing team to see what type of solution we could come up with. We decided that the best course of action was to offer a long-term pricing package that would provide a discount. This not only solved the problem but got the customer to agree to a longer-term contract, which means we’ll keep their business for at least one year now, and they’re happy with the pricing. I feel I got the best possible outcome and the way I chose to solve the problem was effective.

Example Answer 2:

In my last job, I had to do quite a bit of problem solving related to our shift scheduling. We had four people quit within a week and the department was severely understaffed. I coordinated a ramp-up of our hiring efforts, I got approval from the department head to offer bonuses for overtime work, and then I found eight employees who were willing to do overtime this month. I think the key problem solving skills here were taking initiative, communicating clearly, and reacting quickly to solve this problem before it became an even bigger issue.

Example Answer 3:

In my current marketing role, my manager asked me to come up with a solution to our declining social media engagement. I assessed our current strategy and recent results, analyzed what some of our top competitors were doing, and then came up with an exact blueprint we could follow this year to emulate our best competitors but also stand out and develop a unique voice as a brand. I feel this is a good example of using logic to solve a problem because it was based on analysis and observation of competitors, rather than guessing or quickly reacting to the situation without reliable data. I always use logic and data to solve problems when possible. The project turned out to be a success and we increased our social media engagement by an average of 82% by the end of the year.

Answering Questions About Problem Solving with the STAR Method

When you answer interview questions about problem solving scenarios, or if you decide to demonstrate your problem solving skills in a cover letter (which is a good idea any time the job description mention problem solving as a necessary skill), I recommend using the STAR method to tell your story.

STAR stands for:

It’s a simple way of walking the listener or reader through the story in a way that will make sense to them. So before jumping in and talking about the problem that needed solving, make sure to describe the general situation. What job/company were you working at? When was this? Then, you can describe the task at hand and the problem that needed solving. After this, describe the course of action you chose and why. Ideally, show that you evaluated all the information you could given the time you had, and made a decision based on logic and fact.

Finally, describe a positive result you got.

Whether you’re answering interview questions about problem solving or writing a cover letter, you should only choose examples where you got a positive result and successfully solved the issue.

Example answer:

Situation : We had an irate client who was a social media influencer and had impossible delivery time demands we could not meet. She spoke negatively about us in her vlog and asked her followers to boycott our products. (Task : To develop an official statement to explain our company’s side, clarify the issue, and prevent it from getting out of hand). Action : I drafted a statement that balanced empathy, understanding, and utmost customer service with facts, logic, and fairness. It was direct, simple, succinct, and phrased to highlight our brand values while addressing the issue in a logical yet sensitive way.   We also tapped our influencer partners to subtly and indirectly share their positive experiences with our brand so we could counter the negative content being shared online.  Result : We got the results we worked for through proper communication and a positive and strategic campaign. The irate client agreed to have a dialogue with us. She apologized to us, and we reaffirmed our commitment to delivering quality service to all. We assured her that she can reach out to us anytime regarding her purchases and that we’d gladly accommodate her requests whenever possible. She also retracted her negative statements in her vlog and urged her followers to keep supporting our brand.

What Are Good Outcomes of Problem Solving?

Whenever you answer interview questions about problem solving or share examples of problem solving in a cover letter, you want to be sure you’re sharing a positive outcome.

Below are good outcomes of problem solving:

Every employer wants to make more money, save money, and save time. If you can assess your problem solving experience and think about how you’ve helped past employers in those three areas, then that’s a great start. That’s where I recommend you begin looking for stories of times you had to solve problems.

Tips to Improve Your Problem Solving Skills

Throughout your career, you’re going to get hired for better jobs and earn more money if you can show employers that you’re a problem solver. So to improve your problem solving skills, I recommend always analyzing a problem and situation before acting. When discussing problem solving with employers, you never want to sound like you rush or make impulsive decisions. They want to see fact-based or data-based decisions when you solve problems.

Next, to get better at solving problems, analyze the outcomes of past solutions you came up with. You can recognize what works and what doesn’t. Think about how you can get better at researching and analyzing a situation, but also how you can get better at communicating, deciding the right people in the organization to talk to and “pull in” to help you if needed, etc.

Finally, practice staying calm even in stressful situations. Take a few minutes to walk outside if needed. Step away from your phone and computer to clear your head. A work problem is rarely so urgent that you cannot take five minutes to think (with the possible exception of safety problems), and you’ll get better outcomes if you solve problems by acting logically instead of rushing to react in a panic.

You can use all of the ideas above to describe your problem solving skills when asked interview questions about the topic. If you say that you do the things above, employers will be impressed when they assess your problem solving ability.

If you practice the tips above, you’ll be ready to share detailed, impressive stories and problem solving examples that will make hiring managers want to offer you the job. Every employer appreciates a problem solver, whether solving problems is a requirement listed on the job description or not. And you never know which hiring manager or interviewer will ask you about a time you solved a problem, so you should always be ready to discuss this when applying for a job.

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Biron Clark

Biron Clark

Biron Clark is a former executive recruiter who has worked individually with hundreds of job seekers, reviewed thousands of resumes and LinkedIn profiles, and recruited for top venture-backed startups and Fortune 500 companies. He has been advising job seekers since 2012 to think differently in their job search and land high-paying, competitive positions.

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Problem Solving: 40 Useful Performance Feedback Phrases

Problem Solving: Use these sample phrases to craft meaningful performance evaluations, drive change and motivate your workforce.

Problem Solving is the skill of defining a problem to determine its cause, identify it, prioritize and select alternative solutions to implement in solving the problems and reviving relationships.

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Problem solving through values: A challenge for thinking and capability development

The paper aims to introduce the conceptual framework of problem solving through values. The framework consists of problem analysis, selection of value(s) as a background for the solution, the search for alternative ways of the solution, and the rationale for the solution. This framework reveals when, how, and why is important to think about values when solving problems. A consistent process fosters cohesive and creative value-based thinking during problem solving rather than teaching specific values. Therefore, the framework discloses the possibility for enabling the development of value-grounded problem solving capability.The application of this framework highlights the importance of responsibility for the chosen values that are the basis for the alternatives which determine actions. The 4W framework is meaningful for the people’s lives and their professional work. It is particularly important in the process of future professionals’ education. Critical issues concerning the development of problem solving through values are discussed when considering and examining options for the implementation of the 4W framework in educational institutions.

1. Introduction

The core competencies necessary for future professionals include problem solving based on complexity and collaborative approaches ( OECD, 2018 ). Currently, the emphasis is put on the development of technical, technological skills as well as system thinking and other cognitive abilities (e.g., Barber, 2018 ; Blanco, Schirmbeck, & Costa, 2018 ). Hence, education prepares learners with high qualifications yet lacking in moral values ( Nadda, 2017 ). Educational researchers (e.g., Barnett, 2007 ; Harland & Pickering, 2010 ) stress that such skills and abilities ( the how? ), as well as knowledge ( the what? ), are insufficient to educate a person for society and the world. The philosophy of education underlines both the epistemological and ontological dimensions of learning. Barnett (2007) points out that the ontological dimension has to be above the epistemological one. The ontological dimension encompasses the issues related to values that education should foster ( Harland & Pickering, 2010 ). In addition, values are closely related to the enablement of learners in educational environments ( Jucevičienė et al., 2010 ). For these reasons, ‘ the why ?’ based on values is required in the learning process. The question arises as to what values and how it makes sense to educate them. Value-based education seeks to address these issues and concentrates on values transfer due to their integration into the curriculum. Yazdani and Akbarilakeh (2017) discussed that value-based education could only convey factual knowledge of values and ethics. However, such education does not guarantee the internalization of values. Nevertheless, value-based education indicates problem solving as one of the possibilities to develop values.

Values guide and affect personal behavior encompassing the ethical aspects of solutions ( Roccas, Sagiv, & Navon, 2017 ; Schwartz, 1992 , 2012 ; Verplanken & Holland, 2002 ). Therefore, they represent the essential foundation for solving a problem. Growing evidence indicates the creative potential of values ( Dollinger, Burke, & Gump, 2007 ; Kasof, Chen, Himsel, & Greenberger, 2007 ; Lebedeva et al., 2019) and emphasizes their significance for problem solving. Meanwhile, research in problem solving pays little attention to values. Most of the problem solving models (e.g., Newell & Simon, 1972 ; Jonassen, 1997 ) utilize a rational economic approach. Principally, the research on the mechanisms of problem solving have been conducted under laboratory conditions performing simple tasks ( Csapó & Funke, 2017 ). Moreover, some of the decision-making models share the same steps as problem solving (c.f., Donovan, Guss, & Naslund, 2015 ). This explains why these terms are sometimes used interchangeably ( Huitt, 1992 ). Indeed, decision-making is a part of problem solving, which emerges while choosing between alternatives. Yet, values, moral, and ethical issues are more common in decision-making research (e.g., Keeney, 1994 ; Verplanken & Holland, 2002 ; Hall & Davis, 2007 ; Sheehan & Schmidt, 2015 ). Though, research by Shepherd, Patzelt, and Baron (2013) , Baron, Zhao, and Miao (2015) has affirmed that contemporary business decision makers rather often leave aside ethical issues and moral values. Thus, ‘ethical disengagement fallacy’ ( Sternberg, 2017, p.7 ) occurs as people think that ethics is more relevant to others. In the face of such disengagement, ethical issues lose their prominence.

The analysis of the literature revealed a wide field of problem solving research presenting a range of more theoretical insights rather empirical evidence. Despite this, to date, a comprehensive model that reveals how to solve problems emphasizing thinking about values is lacking. This underlines the relevance of the chosen topic, i.e. a challenge for thinking and for the development of capabilities addressing problems through values. To address this gap, the following issues need to be investigated: When, how, and why a problem solver should take into account values during problem solving? What challenges may occur for using such framework of thinking in different fields of education? Aiming this, the authors of the paper substantiated the conceptual framework of problem solving grounded in consistent thinking about values. The substantiation consists of several parts. First, different approaches to solving problems were examined. Second, searching to reveal the possibilities of values integration into problem solving, value-based approaches significant for problem solving were critically analyzed. Third, drawing on the effect of values when solving a problem and their creative potential, the authors of this paper claim that the identification of values and their choice for a solution need to be specified in the process of problem solving. As a synthesis of conclusions coming from the literature review and conceptual extensions regarding values, the authors of the paper created the coherent framework of problem solving through values (so called 4W).

The novelty of the 4W framework is exposed by several contributions. First, the clear design of overall problem solving process with attention on integrated thinking about values is used. Unlike in most models of problem solving, the first stage encompass the identification of a problem, an analysis of a context and the perspectives that influence the whole process, i.e. ‘What?’. The stage ‘What is the basis for a solution?’ focus on values identification and their choice. The stage ‘Ways how?’ encourages to create alternatives considering values. The stage ‘Why?’ represent justification of a chosen alternative according particular issues. Above-mentioned stages including specific steps are not found in any other model of problem solving. Second, even two key stages nurture thinking about values. The specificity of the 4W framework allows expecting its successful practical application. It may help to solve a problem more informed revealing when and how the explication of values helps to reach the desired value-based solution. The particular significance is that the 4W framework can be used to develop capabilities to solve problems through values. The challenges to use the 4W framework in education are discussed.

2. Methodology

To create the 4W framework, the integrative literature review was chosen. According to Snyder (2019) , this review is ‘useful when the purpose of the review is not to cover all articles ever published on the topic but rather to combine perspectives to create new theoretical models’ (p.334). The scope of this review focused on research disclosing problem solving process that paid attention on values. The following databases were used for relevant information search: EBSCO/Hostdatabases (ERIC, Education Source), Emerald, Google Scholar. The first step of this search was conducted using integrated keywords problem solving model , problem solving process, problem solving steps . These keywords were combined with the Boolean operator AND with the second keywords values approach, value-based . The inclusion criteria were used to identify research that: presents theoretical backgrounds and/or empirical evidences; performed within the last 5 years; within an educational context; availability of full text. The sources appropriate for this review was very limited in scope (N = 2).

We implemented the second search only with the same set of the integrated keywords. The inclusion criteria were the same except the date; this criterion was extended up to 10 years. This search presented 85 different sources. After reading the summaries, introductions and conclusions of the sources found, the sources that do not explicitly provide the process/models/steps of problem solving for teaching/learning purposes and eliminates values were excluded. Aiming to see a more accurate picture of the chosen topic, we selected secondary sources from these initial sources.

Several important issues were determined as well. First, most researchers ground their studies on existing problem solving models, however, not based on values. Second, some of them conducted empirical research in order to identify the process of studies participants’ problem solving. Therefore, we included sources without date restrictions trying to identify the principal sources that reveal the process/models/steps of problem solving. Third, decision-making is a part of problem solving process. Accordingly, we performed a search with the additional keywords decision-making AND values approach, value-based decision-making . We used such inclusion criteria: presents theoretical background and/or empirical evidence; no date restriction; within an educational context; availability of full text. These all searches resulted in a total of 16 (9 theoretical and 7 empirical) sources for inclusion. They were the main sources that contributed most fruitfully for the background. We used other sources for the justification the wholeness of the 4W framework. We present the principal results of the conducted literature review in the part ‘The background of the conceptual framework’.

3. The background of the conceptual framework

3.1. different approaches of how to solve a problem.

Researchers from different fields focus on problem solving. As a result, there still seems to be a lack of a conventional definition of problem solving. Regardless of some differences, there is an agreement that problem solving is a cognitive process and one of the meaningful and significant ways of learning ( Funke, 2014 ; Jonassen, 1997 ; Mayer & Wittrock, 2006 ). Differing in approaches to solving a problem, researchers ( Collins, Sibthorp, & Gookin, 2016 ; Jonassen, 1997 ; Litzinger et al., 2010 ; Mayer & Wittrock, 2006 ; O’Loughlin & McFadzean, 1999 ; ect.) present a variety of models that differ in the number of distinct steps. What is similar in these models is that they stress the procedural process of problem solving with the focus on the development of specific skills and competences.

For the sake of this paper, we have focused on those models of problem solving that clarify the process and draw attention to values, specifically, on Huitt (1992) , Basadur, Ellspermann, and Evans (1994) , and Morton (1997) . Integrating the creative approach to problem solving, Newell and Simon (1972) presents six phases: phase 1 - identifying the problem, phase 2 - understanding the problem, phase 3 - posing solutions, phase 4 - choosing solutions, phase 5 - implementing solutions, and phase 6 - final analysis. The weakness of this model is that these phases do not necessarily follow one another, and several can coincide. However, coping with simultaneously occurring phases could be a challenge, especially if these are, for instance, phases five and six. Certainly, it may be necessary to return to the previous phases for further analysis. According to Basadur et al. (1994) , problem solving consists of problem generation, problem formulation, problem solving, and solution implementation stages. Huitt (1992) distinguishes four stages in problem solving: input, processing, output, and review. Both Huitt (1992) and Basadur et al. (1994) four-stage models emphasize a sequential process of problem solving. Thus, problem solving includes four stages that are used in education. For example, problem-based learning employs such stages as introduction of the problem, problem analysis and learning issues, discovery and reporting, solution presentation and evaluation ( Chua, Tan, & Liu, 2016 ). Even PISA 2012 framework for problem solving composes four stages: exploring and understanding, representing and formulating, planning and executing, monitoring and reflecting ( OECD, 2013 ).

Drawing on various approaches to problem solving, it is possible to notice that although each stage is named differently, it is possible to reveal some general steps. These steps reflect the essential idea of problem solving: a search for the solution from the initial state to the desirable state. The identification of a problem and its contextual elements, the generation of alternatives to a problem solution, the evaluation of these alternatives according to specific criteria, the choice of an alternative for a solution, the implementation, and monitoring of the solution are the main proceeding steps in problem solving.

3.2. Value-based approaches relevant for problem solving

Huitt (1992) suggests that important values are among the criteria for the evaluation of alternatives and the effectiveness of a chosen solution. Basadur et al. (1994) point out to visible values in the problem formulation. Morton (1997) underlines that interests, investigation, prevention, and values of all types, which may influence the process, inspire every phase of problem solving. However, the aforementioned authors do not go deeper and do not seek to disclose the significance of values for problem solving.

Decision-making research shows more possibilities for problem solving and values integration. Sheehan and Schmidt (2015) model of ethical decision-making includes moral sensitivity, moral judgment, moral motivation, and moral action where values are presented in the component of moral motivation. Another useful approach concerned with values comes from decision-making in management. It is the concept of Value-Focused Thinking (VFT) proposed by Keeney (1994) . The author argues that the goals often are merely means of achieving results in traditional models of problem solving. Such models frequently do not help to identify logical links between the problem solving goals, values, and alternatives. Thus, according to Keeney (1994) , the decision-making starts with values as they are stated in the goals and objectives of decision-makers. VFT emphasizes the core values of decision-makers that are in a specific context as well as how to find a way to achieve them by using means-ends analysis. The weakness of VFT is its restriction to this means-ends analysis. According to Shin, Jonassen, and McGee (2003) , in searching for a solution, such analysis is weak as the problem solver focuses simply on removing inadequacies between the current state and the goal state. The strengths of this approach underline that values are included in the decision before alternatives are created. Besides, values help to find creative and meaningful alternatives and to assess them. Further, they include the forthcoming consequences of the decision. As VFT emphasizes the significant function of values and clarifies the possibilities of their integration into problem solving, we adapt this approach in the current paper.

3.3. The effect of values when solving a problem

In a broader sense, values provide a direction to a person’s life. Whereas the importance of values is relatively stable over time and across situations, Roccas et al. (2017) argue that values differ in their importance to a person. Verplanken and Holland (2002) investigated the relationship between values and choices or behavior. The research revealed that the activation of a value and the centrality of a value to the self, are the essential elements for value-guided behavior. The activation of values could happen in such cases: when values are the primary focus of attention; if the situation or the information a person is confronted with implies values; when the self is activated. The centrality of a particular value is ‘the degree to which an individual has incorporated this value as part of the self’ ( Verplanken & Holland, 2002, p.436 ). Thus, the perceived importance of values and attention to them determine value-guided behavior.

According to Argandoña (2003) , values can change due to external (changing values in the people around, in society, changes in situations, etc.) and internal (internalization by learning) factors affecting the person. The research by Hall and Davis (2007) indicates that the decision-makers’ applied value profile temporarily changed as they analyzed the issue from multiple perspectives and revealed the existence of a broader set of values. The study by Kirkman (2017) reveal that participants noticed the relevance of moral values to situations they encountered in various contexts.

Values are tightly related to personal integrity and identity and guide an individual’s perception, judgment, and behavior ( Halstead, 1996 ; Schwartz, 1992 ). Sheehan and Schmidt (2015) found that values influenced ethical decision-making of accounting study programme students when they uncovered their own values and grounded in them their individual codes of conduct for future jobs. Hence, the effect of values discloses by observing the problem solver’s decision-making. The latter observations could explain the abundance of ethics-laden research in decision-making rather than in problem solving.

Contemporary researchers emphasize the creative potential of values. Dollinger et al. (2007) , Kasof et al. (2007) , Lebedeva, Schwartz, Plucker, & Van De Vijver, 2019 present to some extent similar findings as they all used Schwartz Value Survey (respectively: Schwartz, 1992 ; ( Schwartz, 1994 ), Schwartz, 2012 ). These studies disclosed that such values as self-direction, stimulation and universalism foster creativity. Kasof et al. (2007) focused their research on identified motivation. Stressing that identified motivation is the only fully autonomous type of external motivation, authors define it as ‘the desire to commence an activity as a means to some end that one greatly values’ (p.106). While identified motivation toward specific values (italic in original) fosters the search for outcomes that express those specific values, this research demonstrated that it could also inhibit creative behavior. Thus, inhibition is necessary, especially in the case where reckless creativity could have painful consequences, for example, when an architect creates a beautiful staircase without a handrail. Consequently, creativity needs to be balanced.

Ultimately, values affect human beings’ lives as they express the motivational goals ( Schwartz, 1992 ). These motivational goals are the comprehensive criteria for a person’s choices when solving problems. Whereas some problem solving models only mention values as possible evaluation criteria, but they do not give any significant suggestions when and how the problem solver could think about the values coming to the understanding that his/her values direct the decision how to solve the problem. The authors of this paper claim that the identification of personal values and their choice for a solution need to be specified in the process of problem solving. This position is clearly reflected in humanistic philosophy and psychology ( Maslow, 2011 ; Rogers, 1995 ) that emphasize personal responsibility for discovering personal values through critical questioning, honest self-esteem, self-discovery, and open-mindedness in the constant pursuit of the truth in the path of individual life. However, fundamental (of humankind) and societal values should be taken into account. McLaughlin (1997) argues that a clear boundary between societal and personal values is difficult to set as they are intertwined due to their existence in complex cultural, social, and political contexts at a particular time. A person is related to time and context when choosing values. As a result, a person assumes existing values as implicit knowledge without as much as a consideration. This is particularly evident in the current consumer society.

Moreover, McLaughlin (1997) stresses that if a particular action should be tolerated and legitimated by society, it does not mean that this action is ultimately morally acceptable in all respects. Education has possibilities to reveal this. One such possibility is to turn to the capability approach ( Sen, 1990 ), which emphasizes what people are effectively able to do and to be. Capability, according to Sen (1990) , reflects a person’s freedom to choose between various ways of living, i.e., the focus is on the development of a person’s capability to choose the life he/she has a reason to value. According to Webster (2017) , ‘in order for people to value certain aspects of life, they need to appreciate the reasons and purposes – the whys – for certain valuing’ (italic in original; p.75). As values reflect and foster these whys, education should supplement the development of capability with attention to values ( Saito, 2003 ). In order to attain this possibility, a person has to be aware of and be able to understand two facets of values. Argandoña (2003) defines them as rationality and virtuality . Rationality refers to values as the ideal of conduct and involves the development of a person’s understanding of what values and why he/she should choose them when solving a problem. Virtuality approaches values as virtues and includes learning to enable a person to live according to his/her values. However, according to McLaughlin (1997) , some people may have specific values that are deep or self-evidently essential. These values are based on fundamental beliefs about the nature and purpose of the human being. Other values can be more or less superficial as they are based on giving priority to one or the other. Thus, virtuality highlights the depth of life harmonized to fundamentally rather than superficially laden values. These approaches inform the rationale for the framework of problem solving through values.

4. The 4W framework of problem solving through values

Similar to the above-presented stages of the problem solving processes, the introduced framework by the authors of this paper revisits them (see Fig. 1 ). The framework is titled 4W as its four stages respond to such questions: Analyzing the Problem: W hat ? → Choice of the value(s): W hat is the background for the solution? → Search for the alternative w ays of the solution: How ? → The rationale for problem solution: W hy is this alternative significant ? The stages of this framework cover seven steps that reveal the logical sequence of problem solving through values.

Fig. 1

The 4 W framework: problem solving through values.

Though systematic problem solving models are criticized for being linear and inflexible (e.g., Treffinger & Isaksen, 2005 ), the authors of this paper assume a structural view of the problem solving process due to several reasons. First, the framework enables problem solvers to understand the thorough process of problem solving through values. Second, this framework reveals the depth of each stage and step. Third, problem solving through values encourages tackling problems that have crucial consequences. Only by understanding and mastering the coherence of how problems those require a value-based approach need to be addressed, a problem solver will be able to cope with them in the future. Finally, this framework aims at helping to recognize, to underline personal values, to solve problems through thinking about values, and to take responsibility for choices, even value-based. The feedback supports a direct interrelation between stages. It shapes a dynamic process of problem solving through values.

The first stage of problem solving through values - ‘ The analysis of the problem: What? ’- consists of three steps (see Fig. 1 ). The first step is ‘ Recognizing the problematic situation and naming the problem ’. This step is performed in the following sequence. First, the problem solver should perceive the problematic situation he/she faces in order to understand it. Dostál (2015) argues that the problematic situation has the potential to become the problem necessary to be addressed. Although each problem is limited by its context, not every problematic situation turns into a problem. This is related to the problem solver’s capability and the perception of reality: a person may not ‘see’ the problem if his/her capability to perceive it is not developed ( Dorst, 2006 ; Dostál, 2015 ). Second, after the problem solver recognizes the existence of the problematic situation, the problem solver has to identify the presence or absence of the problem itself, i.e. to name the problem. This is especially important in the case of the ill-structured problems since they cannot be directly visible to the problem solver ( Jonassen, 1997 ). Consequently, this step allows to determine whether the problem solver developed or has acquired the capability to perceive the problematic situation and the problem (naming the problem).

The second step is ‘ Analysing the context of the problem as a reason for its rise ’. At this step, the problem solver aims to analyse the context of the problem. The latter is one of the external issues, and it determines the solution ( Jonassen, 2011 ). However, if more attention is paid to the solution of the problem, it diverts attention from the context ( Fields, 2006 ). The problem solver has to take into account both the conveyed and implied contextual elements in the problematic situation ( Dostál, 2015 ). In other words, the problem solver has to examine it through his/her ‘contextual lenses’ ( Hester & MacG, 2017 , p.208). Thus, during this step the problem solver needs to identify the elements that shape the problem - reasons and circumstances that cause the problem, the factors that can be changed, and stakeholders that are involved in the problematic situation. Whereas the elements of the context mentioned above are within the problematic situation, the problem solver can control many of them. Such control can provide unique ways for a solution.

Although the problem solver tries to predict the undesirable results, some criteria remain underestimated. For that reason, it is necessary to highlight values underlying the various possible goals during the analysis ( Fields, 2006 ). According to Hester and MacG (2017) , values express one of the main features of the context and direct the attention of the problem solver to a given problematic situation. Hence, the problem solver should explore the value-based positions that emerge in the context of the problem.

The analysis of these contextual elements focus not only on a specific problematic situation but also on the problem that has emerged. This requires setting boundaries of attention for an in-depth understanding ( Fields, 2006 ; Hester & MacG, 2017 ). Such understanding influences several actions: (a) the recognition of inappropriate aspects of the problematic situation; (b) the emergence of paths in which identified aspects are expected to change. These actions ensure consistency and safeguard against distractions. Thus, the problem solver can now recognize and identify the factors that influence the problem although they are outside of the problematic situation. However, the problem solver possesses no control over them. With the help of such context analysis, the problem solver constructs a thorough understanding of the problem. Moreover, the problem solver becomes ready to look at the problem from different perspectives.

The third step is ‘ Perspectives emerging in the problem ’. Ims and Zsolnai (2009) argue that problem solving usually contains a ‘problematic search’. Such a search is a pragmatic activity as the problem itself induces it. Thus, the problem solver searches for a superficial solution. As a result, the focus is on control over the problem rather than a deeper understanding of the problem itself. The analysis of the problem, especially including value-based approaches, reveals the necessity to consider the problem from a variety of perspectives. Mitroff (2000) builds on Linstone (1989) ideas and claims that a sound foundation of both naming and solving any problem lays in such perspectives: the technical/scientific, the interpersonal/social, the existential, and the systemic (see Table 1 ).

The main characteristics of four perspectives for problem solving

Whereas all problems have significant aspects of each perspective, disregarding one or another may lead to the wrong way of solving the problem. While analysing all four perspectives is essential, this does not mean that they all are equally important. Therefore, it is necessary to justify why one or another perspective is more relevant and significant in a particular case. Such analysis, according to Linstone (1989) , ‘forces us to distinguish how we are looking from what we are looking at’ (p.312; italic in original). Hence, the problem solver broadens the understanding of various perspectives and develops the capability to see the bigger picture ( Hall & Davis, 2007 ).

The problem solver aims to identify and describe four perspectives that have emerged in the problem during this step. In order to identify perspectives, the problem solver search answers to the following questions. First, regarding the technical/scientific perspective: What technical/scientific reasons are brought out in the problem? How and to what extent do they influence a problem and its context? Second, regarding the interpersonal/social perspective: What is the impact of the problem on stakeholders? How does it influence their attitudes, living conditions, interests, needs? Third, regarding the existential perspective: How does the problem affect human feelings, experiences, perception, and/or discovery of meaning? Fourth, regarding the systemic perspective: What is the effect of the problem on the person → community → society → the world? Based on the analysis of this step, the problem solver obtains a comprehensive picture of the problem. The next stage is to choose the value(s) that will address the problem.

The second stage - ‘ The choice of value(s): What is the background for the solution?’ - includes the fourth and the fifth steps. The fourth step is ‘ The identification of value(s) as a base for the solution ’. During this step, the problem solver should activate his/her value(s) making it (them) explicit. In order to do this, the problem solver proceeds several sub-steps. First, the problem solver reflects taking into account the analysis done in previous steps. He/she raises up questions revealing values that lay in the background of this analysis: What values does this analyzed context allow me to notice? What values do different perspectives of the problem ‘offer’? Such questioning is important as values are deeply hidden ( Verplanken & Holland, 2002 ) and they form a bias, which restricts the development of the capability to see from various points of view ( Hall & Paradice, 2007 ). In the 4W framework, this bias is relatively eliminated due to the analysis of the context and exploration of the perspectives of a problem. As a result, the problem solver discovers distinct value-based positions and gets an opportunity to identify the ‘value uncaptured’ ( Yang, Evans, Vladimirova, & Rana, 2017, p.1796 ) within the problem analyzed. The problem solver observes that some values exist in the context (the second step) and the disclosed perspectives (the third step). Some of the identified values do not affect the current situation as they are not required, or their potential is not exploited. Thus, looking through various value-based lenses, the problem solver can identify and discover a congruence between the opportunities offered by the values in the problem’s context, disclosed perspectives and his/her value(s). Consequently, the problem solver decides what values he/she chooses as a basis for the desired solution. Since problems usually call for a list of values, it is important to find out their order of priority. Thus, the last sub-step requires the problem solver to choose between fundamentally and superficially laden values.

In some cases, the problem solver identifies that a set of values (more than one value) can lead to the desired solution. If a person chooses this multiple value-based position, two options emerge. The first option is concerned with the analysis of each value-based position separately (from the fifth to the seventh step). In the second option, a person has to uncover which of his/her chosen values are fundamentally laden and which are superficially chosen, considering the desired outcome in the current situation. Such clarification could act as a strategy where the path for the desired solution is possible going from superficially chosen value(s) to fundamentally laden one. When a basis for the solution is established, the problem solver formulates the goal for the desired solution.

The fifth step is ‘ The formulation of the goal for the solution ’. Problem solving highlights essential points that reveal the structure of a person’s goals; thus, a goal is the core element of problem solving ( Funke, 2014 ). Meantime, values reflect the motivational content of the goals ( Schwartz, 1992 ). The attention on the chosen value not only activates it, but also motivates the problem solver. The motivation directs the formulation of the goal. In such a way, values explicitly become a basis of the goal for the solution. Thus, this step involves the problem solver in formulating the goal for the solution as the desired outcome.

The way how to take into account value(s) when formulating the goal is the integration of value(s) chosen by the problem solver in the formulation of the goal ( Keeney, 1994 ). For this purpose the conjunction of a context for a solution (it is analyzed during the second step) and a direction of preference (the chosen value reveals it) serves for the formulation of the goal (that represents the desired solution). In other words, a value should be directly included into the formulation of the goal. The goal could lose value, if value is not included into the goal formulation and remains only in the context of the goal. Let’s take the actual example concerning COVID-19 situation. Naturally, many countries governments’ preference represents such value as human life (‘it is important of every individual’s life’). Thus, most likely the particular country government’s goal of solving the COVID situation could be to save the lifes of the country people. The named problem is a complex where the goal of its solution is also complex, although it sounds simple. However, if the goal as desired outcome is formulated without the chosen value, this value remains in the context and its meaning becomes tacit. In the case of above presented example - the goal could be formulated ‘to provide hospitals with the necessary equipment and facilities’. Such goal has the value ‘human’s life’ in the context, but eliminates the complexity of the problem that leads to a partial solution of the problem. Thus, this step from the problem solver requires caution when formulating the goal as the desired outcome. For this reason, maintaining value is very important when formulating the goal’s text. To avoid the loss of values and maintain their proposed direction, is necessary to take into account values again when creating alternatives.

The third stage - ‘ Search for the alternative ways for a solution: How? ’ - encompasses the sixth step, which is called ‘ Creation of value-based alternatives ’. Frequently problem solver invokes a traditional view of problem identification, generation of alternatives, and selection of criteria for evaluating findings. Keeney (1994) ; Ims and Zsolnai (2009) criticize this rational approach as it supports a search for a partial solution where an active search for alternatives is neglected. Moreover, a problematic situation, according to Perkins (2009) , can create the illusion of a fully framed problem with some apparent weighting and some variations of choices. In this case, essential and distinct alternatives to the solution frequently become unnoticeable. Therefore, Perkins (2009) suggest to replace the focus on the attempts to comprehend the problem itself. Thinking through the ‘value lenses’ offers such opportunities. The deep understanding of the problem leads to the search for the alternative ways of a solution.

Thus, the aim of this step is for the problem solver to reveal the possible alternative ways for searching a desired solution. Most people think they know how to create alternatives, but often without delving into the situation. First of all, the problem solver based on the reflection of (but not limited to) the analysis of the context and the perspectives of the problem generates a range of alternatives. Some of these alternatives represent anchored thinking as he/she accepts the assumptions implicit in generated alternatives and with too little focus on values.

The chosen value with the formulated goal indicates direction and encourages a broader and more creative search for a solution. Hence, the problem solver should consider some of the initial alternatives that could best support the achievement of the desired solution. Values are the principles for evaluating the desirability of any alternative or outcome ( Keeney, 1994 ). Thus, planned actions should reveal the desirable mode of conduct. After such consideration, he/she should draw up a plan setting out the actions required to implement each of considered alternatives.

Lastly, after a thorough examination of each considered alternative and a plan of its implementation, the problem solver chooses one of them. If the problem solver does not see an appropriate alternative, he/she develops new alternatives. However, the problem solver may notice (and usually does) that more than one alternative can help him/her to achieve the desired solution. In this case, he/she indicates which alternative is the main one and has to be implemented in the first place, and what other alternatives and in what sequence will contribute in searching for the desired solution.

The fourth stage - ‘ The rationale for the solution: Why ’ - leads to the seventh step: ‘ The justification of the chosen alternative ’. Keeney (1994) emphasizes the compatibility of alternatives in question with the values that guide the action. This underlines the importance of justifying the choices a person makes where the focus is on taking responsibility. According to Zsolnai (2008) , responsibility means a choice, i.e., the perceived responsibility essentially determines its choice. Responsible justification allows for discovering optimal balance when choosing between distinct value-based alternatives. It also refers to the alternative solution that best reflects responsibility in a particular value context, choice, and implementation.

At this stage, the problem solver revisits the chosen solution and revises it. The problem solver justifies his/her choice based on the following questions: Why did you choose this? Why is this alternative significant looking from the technical/scientific, the interpersonal/social, the existential, and the systemic perspectives? Could you take full responsibility for the implementation of this alternative? Why? How clearly do envisaged actions reflect the goal of the desired solution? Whatever interests and for what reasons do this alternative satisfies in principle? What else do you see in the chosen alternative?

As mentioned above, each person gives priority to one aspect or another. The problem solver has to provide solid arguments for the justification of the chosen alternative. The quality of arguments, according to Jonassen (2011) , should be judged based on the quality of the evidence supporting the chosen alternative and opposing arguments that can reject solutions. Besides, the pursuit of value-based goals reflects the interests of the individual or collective interests. Therefore, it becomes critical for the problem solver to justify the level of responsibility he/she takes in assessing the chosen alternative. Such a complex evaluation of the chosen alternative ensures the acceptance of an integral rather than unilateral solution, as ‘recognizing that, in the end, people benefit most when they act for the common good’ ( Sternberg, 2012, p.46 ).

5. Discussion

The constant emphasis on thinking about values as explicit reasoning in the 4W framework (especially from the choice of the value(s) to the rationale for problem solution) reflects the pursuit of virtues. Virtues form the features of the character that are related to the choice ( Argandoña, 2003 ; McLaughlin, 2005 ). Hence, the problem solver develops value-grounded problem solving capability as the virtuality instead of employing rationality for problem solving.

Argandoña (2003) suggests that, in order to make a sound valuation process of any action, extrinsic, transcendent, and intrinsic types of motives need to be considered. They cover the respective types of values. The 4W framework meets these requirements. An extrinsic motive as ‘attaining the anticipated or expected satisfaction’ ( Argandoña, 2003, p.17 ) is reflected in the formulation of the goal of the solution, the creation of alternatives and especially in the justification of the chosen alternative way when the problem solver revisits the external effect of his/her possible action. Transcendent motive as ‘generating certain effects in others’ ( Argandoña, 2003, p.17 ) is revealed within the analysis of the context, perspectives, and creating alternatives. When the learner considers the creation of alternatives and revisits the chosen alternative, he/she pays more attention to these motives. Two types of motives mentioned so far are closely related to an intrinsic motive that emphasizes learning development within the problem solver. These motives confirm that problem solving is, in fact, lifelong learning. In light of these findings, the 4W framework is concerned with some features of value internalization as it is ‘a psychological outcome of conscious mind reasoning about values’ ( Yazdani & Akbarilakeh, 2017, p.1 ).

The 4W framework is complicated enough in terms of learning. One issue is concerned with the educational environments ( Jucevičienė, 2008 ) required to enable the 4W framework. First, the learning paradigm, rather than direct instruction, lies at the foundation of such environments. Second, such educational environments include the following dimensions: (1) educational goal; (2) learning capacity of the learners; (3) educational content relevant to the educational goal: ways and means of communicating educational content as information presented in advance (they may be real, people among them, as well as virtual); (5) methods and means of developing educational content in the process of learners’ performance; (6) physical environment relevant to the educational goal and conditions of its implementation as well as different items in the environment; (7) individuals involved in the implementation of the educational goal.

Another issue is related to exercising this framework in practice. Despite being aware of the 4W framework, a person may still not want to practice problem solving through values, since most of the solutions are going to be complicated, or may even be painful. One idea worth looking into is to reveal the extent to which problem solving through values can become a habit of mind. Profound focus on personal values, context analysis, and highlighting various perspectives can involve changes in the problem solver’s habit of mind. The constant practice of problem solving through values could first become ‘the epistemic habit of mind’ ( Mezirow, 2009, p.93 ), which means a personal way of knowing things and how to use that knowledge. This echoes Kirkman (2017) findings. The developed capability to notice moral values in situations that students encountered changed some students’ habit of mind as ‘for having “ruined” things by making it impossible not to attend to values in such situations!’ (the feedback from one student; Kirkman, 2017, p.12 ). However, this is not enough, as only those problems that require a value-based approach are addressed. Inevitably, the problem solver eventually encounters the challenges of nurturing ‘the moral-ethical habit of mind’ ( Mezirow, 2009, p.93 ). In pursuance to develop such habits of mind, the curriculum should include the necessity of the practising of the 4W framework.

Thinking based on values when solving problems enables the problem solver to engage in thoughtful reflection in contrast to pragmatic and superficial thinking supported by the consumer society. Reflection begins from the first stage of the 4W framework. As personal values are the basis for the desired solution, the problem solver is also involved in self-reflection. The conscious and continuous reflection on himself/herself and the problematic situation reinforce each step of the 4W framework. Moreover, the fourth stage (‘The rationale for the solution: Why’) involves the problem solver in critical reflection as it concerned with justification of ‘the why , the reasons for and the consequences of what we do’ (italic, bold in original; Mezirow, 1990, p.8 ). Exercising the 4W framework in practice could foster reflective practice. Empirical evidence shows that reflective practice directly impacts knowledge, skills and may lead to changes in personal belief systems and world views ( Slade, Burnham, Catalana, & Waters, 2019 ). Thus, with the help of reflective practice it is possible to identify in more detail how and to what extent the 4W framework has been mastered, what knowledge gained, capabilities developed, how point of views changed, and what influence the change process.

Critical issues related to the development of problem solving through values need to be distinguished when considering and examining options for the implementation of the 4W framework at educational institutions. First, the question to what extent can the 4W framework be incorporated into various subjects needs to be answered. Researchers could focus on applying the 4W framework to specific subjects in the humanities and social sciences. The case is with STEM subjects. Though value issues of sustainable development and ecology are of great importance, in reality STEM teaching is often restricted to the development of knowledge and skills, leaving aside the thinking about values. The special task of the researchers is to help practitioners to apply the 4W framework in STEM subjects. Considering this, researchers could employ the concept of ‘dialogic space’ ( Wegerif, 2011, p.3 ) which places particular importance of dialogue in the process of education emphasizing both the voices of teachers and students, and materials. In addition, the dimensions of educational environments could be useful aligning the 4W framework with STEM subjects. As STEM teaching is more based on solving various special tasks and/or integrating problem-based learning, the 4W framework could be a meaningful tool through which content is mastered, skills are developed, knowledge is acquired by solving pre-prepared specific tasks. In this case, the 4W framework could act as a mean addressing values in STEM teaching.

Second is the question of how to enable the process of problem solving through values. In the current paper, the concept of enabling is understood as an integral component of the empowerment. Juceviciene et al. (2010) specify that at least two perspectives can be employed to explain empowerment : a) through the power of legitimacy (according to Freire, 1996 ); and b) through the perspective of conditions for the acquisition of the required knowledge, capabilities, and competence, i.e., enabling. In this paper the 4W framework does not entail the issue of legitimacy. This issue may occur, for example, when a teacher in economics is expected to provide students with subject knowledge only, rather than adding tasks that involve problem solving through values. Yet, the issue of legitimacy is often implicit. A widespread phenomenon exists that teaching is limited to certain periods that do not have enough time for problem solving through values. The issue of legitimacy as an organizational task that supports/or not the implementation of the 4W framework in any curriculum is a question that calls for further discussion.

Third (if not the first), the issue of an educator’s competence to apply such a framework needs to be addressed. In order for a teacher to be a successful enabler, he/she should have the necessary competence. This is related to the specific pedagogical knowledge and skills, which are highly dependent on the peculiarities of the subject being taught. Nowadays actualities are encouraging to pay attention to STEM subjects and their teacher training. For researchers and teacher training institutions, who will be interested in implementing the 4W framework in STEM subjects, it would be useful to draw attention to ‘a material-dialogic approach to pedagogy’ ( Hetherington & Wegerif, 2018, p.27 ). This approach creates the conditions for a deep learning of STEM subjects revealing additional opportunities for problem solving through values in teaching. Highlighting these opportunities is a task for further research.

In contrast to traditional problem solving models, the 4W framework is more concerned with educational purposes. The prescriptive approach to teaching ( Thorne, 1994 ) is applied to the 4W framework. This approach focuses on providing guidelines that enable students to make sound decisions by making explicit value judgements. The limitation is that the 4W framework is focused on thinking but not executing. It does not include the fifth stage, which would focus on the execution of the decision how to solve the problem. This stage may contain some deviation from the predefined process of the solution of the problem.

6. Conclusions

The current paper focuses on revealing the essence of the 4W framework, which is based on enabling the problem solver to draw attention to when, how, and why it is essential to think about values during the problem solving process from the perspective of it’s design. Accordingly, the 4W framework advocates the coherent approach when solving a problem by using a creative potential of values.

The 4W framework allows the problem solver to look through the lens of his/her values twice. The first time, while formulating the problem solving goal as the desired outcome. The second time is when the problem solver looks deeper into his/her values while exploring alternative ways to solve problems. The problem solver is encouraged to reason about, find, accept, reject, compare values, and become responsible for the consequences of the choices grounded on his/her values. Thus, the problem solver could benefit from the 4W framework especially when dealing with issues having crucial consequences.

An educational approach reveals that the 4W framework could enable the development of value-grounded problem solving capability. As problem solving encourages the development of higher-order thinking skills, the consistent inclusion of values enriches them.

The 4W framework requires the educational environments for its enablement. The enablement process of problem solving through values could be based on the perspective of conditions for the acquisition of the required knowledge and capability. Continuous practice of this framework not only encourages reflection, but can also contribute to the creation of the epistemic habit of mind. Applying the 4W framework to specific subjects in the humanities and social sciences might face less challenge than STEM ones. The issue of an educator’s competence to apply such a framework is highly important. The discussed issues present significant challenges for researchers and educators. Caring that the curriculum of different courses should foresee problem solving through values, both practicing and empirical research are necessary.

Declaration of interests

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Both authors have approved the final article.


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Carter's 10 Cs of Supplier Evaluation

Improving your supply chain management.

By the Mind Tools Content Team

problem solving evaluation criteria examples

Making the right choice of supplier for any part of your organization is critical. Get it right, and you can build a lasting, mutually beneficial relationship. Get it wrong, and the results can be both costly and disruptive.

You might find a supplier that offers a good price, but later realize that the quality of their products do not meet your expectations. Or maybe they don't keep you up to date with the progress of your orders.

Mismatches between your procurement needs and what a supplier offers can add costs, cause delays, and even damage your organization's reputation – for example, if the equipment or resources supplied are substandard.

In this article, reviewed and endorsed by the model's originator, Dr Ray Carter , you can learn how to use the 10 Cs of Supplier Evaluation to identify your organization's needs, understand how suppliers can meet them, and choose the right supplier for you.

Defining The 10 Cs

Dr Carter, director of DPSS Consultants, first outlined his Seven Cs of Supplier Evaluation in a 1995 article in the Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management. He later added three new Cs to the model. [1]

The 10 Cs are criteria for assessing the suitability of a potential supplier. Use them as a checklist when deciding who to approach, and who to avoid. They are:

This model was first published in the Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management , Carter, R., 'The Seven C's of Supplier Evaluation,' 44-46, © Elsevier (1995). Model reprinted with kind permission of Dr Ray Carter.

Using the 10 Cs in Procurement Management

Carter's 10 Cs can form the basis for a strong Procurement Management policy. They help you to evaluate potential suppliers in the areas that matter to you, and can greatly improve your supply chain management. Bear in mind also, that with the more agile and gig economy prevalent today, suppliers might well be micro or Small to Medium Enterprizes (SMEs) and not just big corporates.

First, you can use the 10 Cs to analyze different aspects of a supplier's business: examining all 10 elements will give you a broad understanding of the supplier's effectiveness and ability to deliver.

If you have only a few suppliers to assess, and you want them to excel in all 10 Cs, you might quickly eliminate all of them. To avoid this, use a grid-based tool such as Decision Matrix Analysis to score each supplier against each of the 10 Cs. Then choose the supplier that scores best against the conditions that are most important to you.

Remember to double-check the areas where the supplier is weak – some of these could make a relationship impossible.

The checklist can also help you to negotiate a better price. For example, if you identify a particularly weak area in a supplier, you can use this insight to bargain for a lower price – especially if you perceive that the supplier's weakness poses a risk for your firm, and you need to take action to minimize this risk.

You can adapt Carter's 10 Cs checklist to outline your organization's needs in a tendering process . Use each of the elements to state the standards that you want your bidders to meet.

The 10 Cs Model in Detail

It's worth putting a lot of effort into supplier evaluation for business-critical resources, for situations where you will be spending a lot of money, or where you want a long-term relationship with a supplier.

When you research a supplier, prepare probing questions – ones that will reveal the level of detail that you need to make an informed decision. Where possible, talk to existing customers as well as the suppliers themselves.

In the following sections, we look at how you can apply Carter's 10 Cs model to find the supplier that will best fit your organization's needs and values.

1. Competency

First, look at how competent the supplier is. Make a thorough assessment of their capabilities, and measure them against your needs. Then look at what other customers think. How happy are they with the supplier? Have they encountered any problems? And find out why former customers changed supplier.

Look for customers whose needs and values are similar to yours, to ensure that the information you gather is relevant to your organization.

2. Capacity

The supplier needs to have enough capacity to handle your company's requirements. So, ask how quickly they will be able to respond to your needs, and to market and supply fluctuations.

Look at the supplier's resources, too. Do they have the means to meet your orders, taking into account their commitments to other clients? (These resources could include staff, equipment, storage, and available materials.)

3. Commitment

Your supplier needs to provide evidence that they are committed to high quality standards. Where appropriate, look for quality initiatives within the organization, such as ISO 9001 or Six Sigma .

The supplier must also show they will be committed to you, as a customer, throughout the time that you expect to work together. (This is particularly important if you're planning a long-term relationship with them.)

Look for evidence of their ongoing commitment to fulfilling your requirements, whatever the needs of their other customers.

Ask how much control this supplier has over their policies, processes, procedures, and supply chain. How will they ensure that they deliver consistently and reliably, especially if they rely on scarce resources, and if these resources are controlled by another organization.

It is also vital to ask about their compliance with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which is essential for any organization that works in, or has partners in, the European Union (EU).

Your supplier should be in good financial health. Cash-positive firms are in a much better position to weather economic ups and downs.

So, does this supplier have plenty of cash at hand, or are they overextended financially? And what information can the supplier offer to demonstrate their ongoing financial strength?

Look at the cost of the product or service that this supplier provides. How does it compare with the other options that you're considering?

Most people consider cost to be a key factor when choosing a supplier. However, cost is in the middle of the 10 Cs list for a reason. Other factors, such as a commitment to quality and financial health, can potentially affect your business much more than cost alone, particularly if you plan to rely on the supplier long-term.

7. Consistency

How will this supplier ensure that they consistently provide high quality goods or services? Do they have a strong track record, or are they an industry newcomer with an innovative approach?

No one can be perfect all the time. However, the supplier should have processes or procedures in place to ensure consistency. Ask potential suppliers about their approach, and, if possible, get a demonstration and a test product.

The best business relationships are based on closely matching workplace values . This is why looking at the supplier's business culture is important. For example, what if your organization's most important value is quality, and your main supplier cares more about meeting deadlines? This mismatch could mean that they are willing to cut corners in a way that could be unacceptable to you.

Look out for suppliers that have received recognition within the industry for their cultural excellence, and use the Cultural Web to help identify the organization's values.

This refers to the supplier's commitment to sustainability , and their adherence to environmental laws and best practices. What are they doing to reduce their environmental footprint? Ask to see evidence of any green accolades or credentials they have earned.

Also, does this supplier treat their people – and the people around them – well? Do they have a reputation for Corporate Social Responsibility , and for doing business ethically ?

10. Communication

Find out how the supplier plans to keep in touch with you. Will their proposed communication approaches align with your preferred methods? And who will be your contact at this firm?

It's also important to find out how the supplier will handle communications in the event of a crisis. How quickly will they notify you if there's a supply disruption? How will that communication take place? And will you be able to reach senior people, if you need to?

Communication is particularly important if you're managing day-to-day functions that you outsource , or if you're dealing with freelancers or consultants who provide core services.

When you're researching suppliers, keep all of the information you generate in writing – particularly queries aimed directly at the supplier. This will mean that it's "on the record," so you can refer back to it later if there's a problem.

Ray Carter first developed his Seven Cs of Supplier Evaluation in 1995. He later added three more Cs.

You can use this model to evaluate the competency and viability of potential suppliers. This allows you to choose the firm that best meets your needs, and that aligns with your organization's values.

The 10 Cs are:

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What is criteria in problem solving?

about a problem or situation. Describe the problem and identify the parts of the problem. Summarize the problem, identify variables, and analyze how elements of the situation define the problem. Evaluate the relevance and importance of elements that define the problem and limit the solutions.

Table of Contents

How do you evaluate a solution?

The evaluation process can be divided into six stages:

How do you choose a solution?

2.Selecting the solution

What order should criteria be applied?

When analyzing possible solutions, in what order should criteria be applied? Screening criteria are applied first, and then evaluation criteria 8.

What are the 7 steps to problem solving?

Effective problem solving is one of the key attributes that separate great leaders from average ones.

What are the 5 steps to problem solving?

5 Steps to Better Problem-Solving

What is evaluating a solution?

SOLUTION EVALUATION. Solution Evaluation includes the processes to validate a full solution or a segment of a solution that is about to be or has already been implemented. Evaluation determines how well a solution meets the business needs expressed by stakeholders, including delivering value to the customer.

What is evaluation of possible solutions?

Evaluation allows us to consider the solution to a problem, make sure that it meets the original design criteria, produces the correct solution and is fit for purpose – before programming begins.

What makes a solution a solution?

A solution is a homogeneous type of mixture of two or more substances. A solution has two parts: a solute and a solvent. The solute is the substance that dissolves, and the solvent is the majority of the solution. … Solutions can exist in different phases – solid, liquid, and gas.

What are the four 4 criteria of choosing best solution?

In a Solution Selection Matrix, each solution is evaluated based on 4 criteria: Sigma Impact, Time Impact, Cost Impact, and Other Impact.

What is the criteria that must be considered when designing a solution?

DESIGN A SOLUTION OR PRODUCT. Students should make and compare different proposals in the light of the criteria they have selected. They must consider constraints—such as cost, time, trade-offs, and materials needed—and communicate ideas with drawings and simple models.

What factors should you consider in selecting the best solution?

Good designers consider these universal design criteria when choosing which possible solution to implement:

Which are Evaluation Criteria examples?

Evaluation Criteria

How many screening criteria must a possible solution pass?

Five categories of screening criteria are commonly applied to test a possible solution: • Suitability—solves the problem and is legal and ethical. Feasibility—fits within available resources. Acceptability—worth the cost or risk. Distinguishability—differs significantly from other solutions.

What is a well defined criteria element?

Five Elements of Well-defined Criteria. Regardless of the factors or variables selected, all well-defined evaluation criteria have five elements: short title, definition, unit of measure, benchmark, and formula. As we discuss each of these five elements, we will develop a sample evaluation criterion.

What are the 8 steps of problem solving?

8-Step Problem Solving Process

What are the 6 steps to problem solving?

Six step guide to help you solve problems

What are the principles of problem solving?

Seven Principles for Intelligent Problem Solving

What are the 4 parts of the problem solving process?

This problem-solving plan consists of four steps: details, main idea, strategy, and how. As students work through each step, they may use “graphic representations” to organize their ideas, to provide evidence of their mathematical thinking, and to show their strategy for arriving at a solution.

What are the 4 steps in problem solving?

Polya created his famous four-step process for problem solving, which is used all over to aid people in problem solving:

How do you use 5 Whys?

The method is remarkably simple: when a problem occurs, you drill down to its root cause by asking Why? five times. Then, when a counter-measure becomes apparent, you follow it through to prevent the issue from recurring.

What are four inputs to evaluate solutions?

Solution Performance

What is the best solution in decision making?

5 Steps to Good Decision Making

How do you assess business problems?

How to Assess and Resolve Business Process Issues

How do you evaluate alternative solutions?

Evaluating alternative solutions involves analysis, discussion, and review. Iterative cycles of analysis are sometimes necessary. Supporting analyses, experimentation, prototyping, piloting, or simulations may be needed to substantiate scoring and conclusions.

What do you need to focus on when evaluating solutions?

Each evaluation is distinct, but general considerations include:

How do you assess a problem?

There are four aspects to assessing the problem or concern you’re having:

What are the 3 types of solutions?

There are three different types of solutions: Isotonic Solution.Hypertonic Solution.Hypotonic Solution.

What are the properties of solution?

Properties of a Solution

How are solutions formed?

When one substance dissolves into another, a solution is formed. A solution is a homogeneous mixture consisting of a solute dissolved into a solvent . The solute is the substance that is being dissolved, while the solvent is the dissolving medium.

problem solving evaluation criteria examples

Graduated from ENSAT (national agronomic school of Toulouse) in plant sciences in 2018, I pursued a CIFRE doctorate under contract with Sun’Agri and INRAE ​​in Avignon between 2019 and 2022. My thesis aimed to study dynamic agrivoltaic systems, in my case in arboriculture. I love to write and share science related Stuff Here on my Website. I am currently continuing at Sun’Agri as an R&D engineer.

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Problem Solving Performance Review Phrases Examples

Related Evaluation Phrases

Problem Solving Sample Phrases To Write A Performance Appraisal Feedback

Dear visitor, if you share this problem solving phrases with your colleagues and friends, you will also become our favorite.


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    Ahemed Shamim Ansary December 20, 2022 Skill No Comments 10 Problem Solving Skills Examples: How To Improve (Last Updated On: December 20, 2022) Problem-solving skills have suitable examples and are inevitable that employers look for in candidates before and after employment.

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  20. Carter's 10 Cs of Supplier Evaluation

    In the following sections, we look at how you can apply Carter's 10 Cs model to find the supplier that will best fit your organization's needs and values. 1. Competency. First, look at how competent the supplier is. Make a thorough assessment of their capabilities, and measure them against your needs.

  21. Evaluation model of problem solving

    (5) Both examples show the decrease of target offsets and the increase of terminal problems. EXAMPLE 3. HANOI TOWER. From the above-mentioned evaluation vector and its evaluation principles, it is possible to evaluate a problem solving path through CPSN. The first selected example is the popular problem solving example Hanoi tower with three disks.

  22. What is criteria in problem solving?

    5 Steps to Better Problem-Solving. Step 1: Identify the Problem. As obvious as it may sound, the first step in the problem-solving process is to identify the root of the issue. …. Step 2: Generate potential solutions. …. Step 3: Choose one solution. …. Step 4: Implement the solution you've chosen. …. Step 5: Evaluate results. ….

  23. Problem Solving Performance Review Phrases Examples

    Positive Text Mode Edit Mode Problem Solving Sample Phrases To Write A Performance Appraisal Feedback Seeks to brainstorm on problems to try to find the right solutions. Evaluates all possible solutions and chooses the one that will deliver the best results. Knows how well to collaborate with others to find solutions to problems.

  24. Evaluation Comments for Problem Solving

    Negative Examples of Problem Solving Evaluation Comments: Is not good at solving problems Should use technology available to solve problems Should get better at determing the reason for a problem Is unable to manage more than one problem at a time Takes a long time before making a decision