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The aim of this study was to analyse rural tourism as a tool for poverty reduction, by examining the role of the regulatory framework, including the public and the private sector; and how the participation in rural tourism activities shapes people’s livelihood outcomes in San Pedro de Colalao, Argentina. A case study was carried out, which sought to gain an in- depth understanding about people’s livelihoods, through the lens of the sustainable livelihoods framework. Mainly qualitative interviews were therefore conducted with rural dwellers involved in tourism related activities, between November and December 2018. The provincial government proved to take on an important role in increasing people’s human capital to generate employment opportunities, which have led to an additional income and therewith contribute to poverty reduction. However, the sustainability of such is debated, as these seem to be vulnerable to external threats. Additionally, a deficit involvement of the local government in providing infrastructure and protective measures, seems to have led to negative livelihood outcomes, including a restricted access to water and land.

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Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes

ISSN : 1755-4217

Article publication date: 1 November 2022

Issue publication date: 31 January 2023

This paper aims to study organisations involved in rural tourism during the COVID-19 crisis and draw out lessons for similar organisations.


A qualitative approach has been adopted to develop the case studies for the three organisations, and the popular crisis management model has been used to analyse their responses.

The three organisations studied responded well to survive the COVID-19 crisis, and, the responses were grouped into three broad themes, namely importance of a good team supporting the business, increased digital engagements and the need to diversify their customer bases.

Practical implications

Organisations working in tourism sector have been facing several crises concurrently. The findings of this study on rural tourism should hopefully provide feedback and guidance to face the future challenges that might emerge in the tourism sector.


This study would perhaps be one of the first to map the responses of organisations working in India during the COVID crisis, where rural tourism has slowly started to become a significant rural development strategy.


This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

Aithal, R. , Anil, R.K. and Angmo, D. (2023), "Rural tourism in India: case studies of resilience during crisis", Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes , Vol. 15 No. 1, pp. 63-73.

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited

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This article is part of the research topic.

China's Insurance and Green Economy Development in the Context of Sustainable Development

Evaluation of County-Level Rural Resilience from the Perspective of Evolutionary Resilience: A Case Study of Hunan Province, China

The final, formatted version of the article will be published soon.

With climate change and urbanization, rural regions face many problems that affect the sustainable development of rural areas. How to mitigate the dual external disturbance of climate change and urbanization has attracted much attention from governments and academia in recent years. However, most of the previous studies on rural resilience more focus on responding to natural disasters and climate change but less on responding to urbanization, and more on rural households, rural communities, and villages but less on county, city, and province. This paper constructs a multidimensional evaluation index system of rural resilience at the county level, uses the entropy weight-TOPSIS method to measure the rural resilience level in 68 county-level units of Hunan Province in southern China in 2009 and 2019, and further analyzes spatio-temporal difference of the composite resilience index and sub-resilience index as well as its major impact indicators in Hunan Province. The results showed that i. In the recent ten years, the resilience of rural areas in Hunan province has generally improved, but the regional difference is significant, the county resilience composite index ranged respectively from 0.15 to 0.415 in 2009 and from 0.316 to 0.806 in 2019. ii. The whole province presents currently that resilience in ecology and in society and in engineering is relatively stronger than in economy and in culture according to the structural dimension of the regional composite system, and that resilience in development and in adaptability is relatively stronger than in resistance according to the level dimension of the notion connotation of the evolutionary resilience. iii. the regional difference in rural resilience in Hunan is as follows the resilience of the Chang-Zhu-Tan region in central Hunan is strong, else it in North Hunan is stronger than in South Hunan, but it in West Hunan is lowest. In addition, further regional analysis shows that the rural areas in Hunan have a trend of balanced development, and the regional difference in rural resilience has decreased from 2009 to 2019. the dimensions and factor analysis of rural resilience in each region show the trend of decreasing differentiation and the tendency of developing toward equilibrium.

Keywords: County-level, rural resilience, Evaluation index system, the entropy weight-TOPSIS, Hunan Province

Received: 26 Dec 2022; Accepted: 19 May 2023.

Copyright: © 2023 Chang, DU, JIA and Tian. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Miss. Enhui JIA, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR China Prof. Yaping Tian, College of Geography and Tourism, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang Hunan, China

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