• 1.1 Etymology
  • 1.2 Pronunciation
  • 1.3.1 Derived terms
  • 1.3.2 Related terms
  • 1.3.3 Translations
  • 1.4 Further reading

English [ edit ]

Etymology [ edit ].

From Ancient Greek βιβλιογραφία ( bibliographía , “ the act or habit of writing books ” ) , from βιβλιογράφος ( bibliográphos , “ a writer of books ” ) , from βιβλίον ( biblíon , “ small book ” ) + γράφω ( gráphō , “ I write ” ) .

Pronunciation [ edit ]

Noun [ edit ]

bibliography ( plural bibliographies )

Derived terms [ edit ]

Related terms [ edit ]

Translations [ edit ]

Further reading [ edit ].

bibliography wiki

See also : Research for what's currently going on, #Folksonomic bibliographies for more bibliographies

  • 2.1 Monographs
  • 2.2 Reviews and critiques in scientific publications
  • 2.3 Papers, Blog-articles etc.
  • 3.1 Proceedings
  • 3.2 Statistics
  • 3.3 Other bibliographies
  • 3.4 Folksonomic bibliographies
  • 4 Other Wiki pages within the Wikimedia chaos
  • 5.1 Serious Journalism about Wikipedia
  • 6 Related Topics (unsorted)
  • 7 Categories

Scientific publications [ edit ]

sorted by year and then by surname

2022 [ edit ]

  • Kilpatrick, Alastair M; Rahman, Farzana; Anjum, Audra; Shome, Sayane; Andalib, K M Salim; Banik, Shrabonti; Chowdhury, Sanjana F; Coombe, Peter; Astroz, Yesid Cuesta; Douglas, J Maxwell; Eranti, Pradeep; Kiran, Aleyna D; Kumar, Sachendra; Lim, Hyeri; Lorenzi, Valentina; Lubiana, Tiago; Mahmud, Sakib; Puche, Rafael; Rybarczyk, Agnieszka; Al Sium, Syed Muktadir; Twesigomwe, David; Zok, Tomasz; Orengo, Christine A; Friedberg, Iddo; Kelso, Janet F; Welch, Lonnie (24 June 2022). "Characterizing domain-specific open educational resources by linking ISCB Communities of Special Interest to Wikipedia". Bioinformatics 38 (Supplement_1): i19–i27. doi : 10.1093/bioinformatics/btac236 .  
  • Gordejeva, Jelizaveta; Zowalla, Richard; Pobiruchin, Monika; Wiesner, Martin: Readability of English, German, and Russian Disease-Related Wikipedia Pages: Automated Computational Analysis

2021 [ edit ]

  • Bürgin, Martin; Eichenberger, Linda; Zumstein, Marius (2020). Alternative Leistungsnachweise im Digital Flipped Classroom: Wikipedia als Plattform und Werkzeug universitärer Lehre. Zeitschrift für Religionskunde / Revue de didactique des sciences des religions, 8:186-201. Universität Zürich , Religionswissenschaftliches Seminar. ZORA URL:
  • van Dijk, Ziko (2021): Wikis und die Wikipedia verstehen. Eine Einführung . Bielefeld: Transcript 2021. DOI: 10.14361/9783839456453, URL (Open Access):

2020 [ edit ]

  • Брызгалин, Е. А., Войскунский, А. Е., Козловский, С. А. (2020). " Психологическая характеристика организационного поведения онлайн-волонтёров Википедии: теоретический обзор ". Организационная психология , 10(2):129–150.
  • Krzysztof Gajewski, Gender Gap in the Processes of Social Production of Knowledge. A Case of Polish Wikipedia, w: Mind the gap! Proceedings of the Sixth Argumentor Conference, red. Rozália Klára Bakó, Gizela Horváth, Oradea 2020.

2018 [ edit ]

  • Soler-Adillon, Joan and Pavlovic, Dragana and Freixa, Pere Wikipedia in higher education: Changes in perceived value through content contribution. Comunicar, 2018, vol. 26, n. 54, pp. 39-48. [Journal article (Paginated)] [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Oct. 2019].
  • F. Brigo, S. Lattanzi, G. Giussani, L. Tassi, N. Pietrafusa, C. A. Galimberti, R. Nardone, N. L. Bragazzi, O. Mecarelli: Italian Wikipedia and epilepsy: An infodemiological study of online information-seeking behavior. In: Epilepsy & behavior : E&B. [elektronische Veröffentlichung vor dem Druck] Februar 2018, DOI : 10.1016/j.yebeh.2018.01.037 doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2018.01.037 , PMID 29454607 .
  • F. Brigo, S. Lattanzi, N. Bragazzi, R. Nardone, M. Moccia, L. Lavorgna: Why do people search Wikipedia for information on multiple sclerosis? In: Multiple sclerosis and related disorders. [elektronische Veröffentlichung vor dem Druck] Februar 2018, DOI : 10.1016/j.msard.2018.02.001 doi:10.1016/j.msard.2018.02.001 , PMID 29428464 .
  • J. Lerner, A. Lomi: Knowledge categorization affects popularity and quality of Wikipedia articles. In: PloS one. Band 13, Nummer 1, 2018, S. e0190674, DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0190674 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0190674 , PMID 29293627 .
  • N. Mahroum, N. L. Bragazzi, K. Sharif, V. Gianfredi, D. Nucci, R. Rosselli, F. Brigo, M. Adawi, H. Amital, A. Watad: Leveraging Google Trends, Twitter, and Wikipedia to Investigate the Impact of a Celebrity's Death From Rheumatoid Arthritis. In: Journal of clinical rheumatology : practical reports on rheumatic & musculoskeletal diseases. [elektronische Veröffentlichung vor dem Druck] Februar 2018, DOI : 10.1097/RHU.0000000000000692 doi:10.1097/RHU.0000000000000692 , PMID 29461342 .
  • O. Modiri, D. Guha, N. M. Alotaibi, G. M. Ibrahim, N. Lipsman, A. Fallah: Readability and quality of wikipedia pages on neurosurgical topics. In: Clinical neurology and neurosurgery. Band 166, März 2018, S. 66–70, DOI : 10.1016/j.clineuro.2018.01.021 doi:10.1016/j.clineuro.2018.01.021 , PMID 29408776 .
  • P. Thomas: Canon wars: A semiotic and ethnographic study of a Wikipedia talk page debate concerning the canon of Star Wars . In: The Journal of Fandom Studies . Volume 6, Number 3, 2018, DOI : 10.1386/jfs.6.3.279_1 doi:10.1386/jfs.6.3.279_1 .

2017 [ edit ]

  • Frances Di Lauro & Rebecca Johinke (2017) Employing Wikipedia for good not evil: innovative approaches to collaborative writing assessment, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 42:3, 478-491, DOI: 10.1080/02602938.2015.1127322
  • Konieczny, P. (2017). Joining the Global Village: Teaching Globalization with Wikipedia. Teaching Sociology, 45(4), 368–378.
  • K. Ban, M. Perc, Z. Levnajić: Robust clustering of languages across Wikipedia growth. In: Royal Society open science. Band 4, Nummer 10, Oktober 2017, S. 171217, DOI : 10.1098/rsos.171217 doi:10.1098/rsos.171217 , PMID 29134106 .
  • J. Jirschitzka, J. Kimmerle, I. Halatchliyski, J. Hancke, D. Meurers, U. Cress: A productive clash of perspectives? The interplay between articles' and authors' perspectives and their impact on Wikipedia edits in a controversial domain. In: PloS one. Band 12, Nummer 6, 2017, S. e0178985, DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0178985 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0178985 , PMID 28575077 .
  • D. Lamprecht, K. Lerman, D. Helic, M. Strohmaier: How the structure of Wikipedia articles influences user navigation. In: The new review of hypermedia and multimedia. Band 23, Nummer 1, Januar 2017, S. 29–50, DOI : 10.1080/13614568.2016.1179798 doi:10.1080/13614568.2016.1179798 , PMID 28670171 .
  • T. S. Ledger: Introduction to anatomy on Wikipedia. In: Journal of anatomy. Band 231, Nummer 3, September 2017, S. 430–432, DOI : 10.1111/joa.12640 doi:10.1111/joa.12640 , PMID 28703298 .
  • L. A. Maggio, J. M. Willinsky, R. M. Steinberg, D. Mietchen, J. L. Wass, T. Dong: Wikipedia as a gateway to biomedical research: The relative distribution and use of citations in the English Wikipedia. In: PloS one. Band 12, Nummer 12, 2017, S. e0190046, DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0190046 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0190046 , PMID 29267345 .
  • M. A. Mouriño-García, R. Pérez-Rodríguez, L. E. Anido-Rifón: A Bag of Concepts Approach for Biomedical Document Classification Using Wikipedia Knowledge*. Spanish-English Cross-language Case Study. In: Methods of information in medicine. Band 56, Nummer 5, Oktober 2017, S. 370–376, DOI : 10.3414/ME17-01-0028 doi:10.3414/ME17-01-0028 , PMID 28816337 .
  • A. Oeberst, I. von der Beck, M. D Back, U. Cress, S. Nestler: Biases in the production and reception of collective knowledge: the case of hindsight bias in Wikipedia. In: Psychological research. [elektronische Veröffentlichung vor dem Druck] April 2017, DOI : 10.1007/s00426-017-0865-7 doi:10.1007/s00426-017-0865-7 , PMID 28417198 .
  • R. Priedhorsky, D. Osthus, A. R. Daughton, K. R. Moran, N. Generous, G. Fairchild, A. Deshpande, S. Y. Del Valle: Measuring Global Disease with Wikipedia: Success, Failure, and a Research Agenda. In: CSCW : proceedings of the Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work. Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work. Band 2017, 2017 Feb-Mar, S. 1812–1834, DOI : 10.1145/2998181.2998183 doi:10.1145/2998181.2998183 , PMID 28782059 .
  • M. A. Scaffidi, R. Khan, C. Wang, D. Keren, C. Tsui, A. Garg, S. Brar, K. Valoo, M. Bonert, J. F. de Wolff, J. Heilman, S. C. Grover: Comparison of the Impact of Wikipedia, UpToDate, and a Digital Textbook on Short-Term Knowledge Acquisition Among Medical Students: Randomized Controlled Trial of Three Web-Based Resources. In: JMIR medical education. Band 3, Nummer 2, Oktober 2017, S. e20, DOI : 10.2196/mededu.8188 doi:10.2196/mededu.8188 , PMID 29089291
  • L. Schmidt, J. Friedel, C. E. Adams: SEED: a tool for disseminating systematic review data into Wikipedia. In: Systematic reviews. Band 6, Nummer 1, Oktober 2017, S. 206, DOI : 10.1186/s13643-017-0607-3 doi:10.1186/s13643-017-0607-3 , PMID 29041959 .
  • S. Sciascia, M. Radin: What can Google and Wikipedia can tell us about a disease? Big Data trends analysis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. In: International journal of medical informatics. Band 107, November 2017, S. 65–69, DOI : 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2017.09.002 doi:10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2017.09.002 , PMID 29029693 .
  • T. Shafee, D. Mietchen, A. I. Su: Academics can help shape Wikipedia. In: Science. Band 357, Nummer 6351, August 2017, S. 557–558, DOI : 10.1126/science.aao0462 doi:10.1126/science.aao0462 , PMID 28798122 .
  • M. Tsvetkova, R. García-Gavilanes, L. Floridi, T. Yasseri: Even good bots fight: The case of Wikipedia. In: PloS one. Band 12, Nummer 2, 2017, S. e0171774, DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0171774 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0171774 , PMID 28231323
  • A. Watad, N. L. Bragazzi, F. Brigo, K. Sharif, H. Amital, D. McGonagle, Y. Shoenfeld, M. Adawi: Readability of Wikipedia Pages on Autoimmune Disorders: Systematic Quantitative Assessment. In: Journal of medical Internet research. Band 19, Nummer 7, Juli 2017, S. e260, DOI : 10.2196/jmir.8225 doi:10.2196/jmir.8225 , PMID 28720555 .
  • J. Xia, Y. Hou, Y. V. Chen, Z. C. Qian, D. S. Ebert, W. Chen: Visualizing Rank Time Series of Wikipedia Top-Viewed Pages. In: IEEE computer graphics and applications. Band 37, Nummer 2, 2017 Mar-Apr, S. 42–53, DOI : 10.1109/MCG.2017.21 doi:10.1109/MCG.2017.21 , PMID 28320644 .
  • S. Yenikent, P. Holtz, J. Kimmerle: The Impact of Topic Characteristics and Threat on Willingness to Engage with Wikipedia Articles: Insights from Laboratory Experiments. In: Frontiers in psychology. Band 8, 2017, S. 1960, DOI : 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01960 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01960 , PMID 29163323 .

2016 [ edit ]

  • Yu Suzuki and Satoshi Nakamura. 2016. Assessing the Quality of Wikipedia Editors through Crowdsourcing. In Proceedings of the 25th International Conference Companion on World Wide Web (WWW '16 Companion). International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee, Republic and Canton of Geneva, Switzerland, 1001-1006. DOI:
  • Krzysztof Gajewski, Wikipedia and the Problem of Authorship. Aaron Swartz's Hypothesis, w: Mens Sana. Rethinking the role of emotions. Proceedings of the Fourth Argumentor Conference, red. R. K. Bakó, G. Horváth, Oradea 2016, pp: 91-107.
  • Eva Gredel: Digitale Diskursanalysen: Kollaborative Konstruktion von Wissensbeständen am Beispiel der Wikipedia. In: Sylvia Jaki, Annette Sabban (Hrsg.), Wissensformate in den Medien . Berlin, Frank & Timme, S. 317-339.
  • A. M. Kilpatrick: The 5th ISCB Wikipedia Competition: Coming to a Classroom Near You? In: PLoS computational biology. Band 12, Nummer 12, Dezember 2016, S. e1005235, DOI : 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005235 doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005235 , PMID 28033360 .
  • S. Kim, S. Park, S. A. Hale, S. Kim, J. Byun, A. H. Oh: Understanding Editing Behaviors in Multilingual Wikipedia. In: PloS one. Band 11, Nummer 5, 2016, S. e0155305, DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0155305 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155305 , PMID 27171158 .
  • Arne Köhn, Florian Stegen and Timo Baumann (2016) "Mining the Spoken Wikipedia for Speech Data and Beyond" in _Proceedings of LREC_, Portoroz, Slovenia. URN: urn:nbn:de:gbv:18-228-7-2209 .
  • D. M. Lowe, N. M. O'Boyle, R. A. Sayle: Efficient chemical-disease identification and relationship extraction using Wikipedia to improve recall. In: Database : the journal of biological databases and curation. Band 2016, 2016, S. , DOI : 10.1093/database/baw039 doi:10.1093/database/baw039 , PMID 27060160 .
  • G. Masukume, L. Kipersztok, D. Das, T. M. Shafee, M. R. Laurent, J. M. Heilman: Medical journals and Wikipedia: a global health matter. In: The Lancet. Global health. Band 4, Nummer 11, November 2016, S. e791, DOI : 10.1016/S2214-109X(16)30254-6 doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(16)30254-6 , PMID 27765289 .
  • E. Park, T. Masupe, J. Joseph, A. Ho-Foster, A. Chavez, S. Jammalamadugu, A. Marek, R. Arumala, D. Ketshogileng, R. Littman-Quinn, C. Kovarik: Information needs of Botswana health care workers and perceptions of wikipedia. In: International journal of medical informatics. Band 95, 11 2016, S. 8–16, DOI : 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2016.07.013 doi:10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2016.07.013 , PMID 27697235 .
  • M. K. Sharma: Wikipedia use: Risk for developing technology addiction. In: Industrial psychiatry journal. Band 25, Nummer 1, 2016 Jan-Jun, S. 107–109, DOI : 10.4103/0972-6748.196054 doi:10.4103/0972-6748.196054 , PMID 28163416 .
  • J. D. Sharpe, R. S. Hopkins, R. L. Cook, C. W. Striley: Evaluating Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia as Tools for Influenza Surveillance Using Bayesian Change Point Analysis: A Comparative Analysis. In: JMIR public health and surveillance. Band 2, Nummer 2, Oktober 2016, S. e161, DOI : 10.2196/publichealth.5901 doi:10.2196/publichealth.5901 , PMID 27765731 .
  • Thomas, Paul (2016) " Wikipedia and participatory culture: Why fans edit ." In: Transformative Works and Cultures . Number 22, DOI : 10.3983/twc.2016.0902 doi:10.3983/twc.2016.0902 .
  • Tramullas, Jesús, Piedad Garrido-Picazo y Ana I. Sánchez-Casabón (2016) " Research on Wikipedia Vandalism: a brief literature review ." In: 4th Spanish Conference on Information Retrieval CERI 2016 , Granada. ACM, 2016. DOI: 10.1145/2934732.2934748,
  • E. Wulczyn, R. West, L. Zia, J. Leskovec: Growing Wikipedia Across Languages via Recommendation. In: Proceedings of the.. International World-Wide Web Conference. International WWW Conference. Band 2016, April 2016, S. 975–985, PMID 27819073 .
  • A. Yıldırım, S. Üsküdarlı, A. Özgür: Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia. In: PloS one. Band 11, Nummer 3, 2016, S. e0151885, DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0151885 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0151885 , PMID 26991442 .
  • J. Yun, S. H. Lee, H. Jeong: Intellectual interchanges in the history of the massive online open-editing encyclopedia, Wikipedia. In: Physical review. E. Band 93, Nummer 1, Januar 2016, S. 012307, DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.012307 doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.93.012307 , PMID 26871092 .
  • Y. Zhang, Y. H. Lin: Writing a Wikipedia Article on Cultural Competence in Health Care. In: Medical reference services quarterly. Band 35, Nummer 2, 2016, S. 175–186, DOI : 10.1080/02763869.2016.1152143 doi:10.1080/02763869.2016.1152143 , PMID 27054534 .

2015 [ edit ]

  • L. Barbe, L. Merzeau et V. Schafer (dir.), Wikipédia, objet scientifique non identifié , Intelligences numériques 1, Nanterre: Presses universitaires de Paris Nanterre, 2015, DOI : 10.4000/books.pupo.4079 doi:10.4000/books.pupo.4079 .
  • Tsikerdekis, Michael. (2015). Personal communication networks and their positive effects on online collaboration and outcome quality on Wikipedia. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67. 10.1002/asi.23429.
  • S. A. Azer, N. M. AlSwaidan, L. A. Alshwairikh, J. M. AlShammari: Accuracy and readability of cardiovascular entries on Wikipedia: are they reliable learning resources for medical students? In: BMJ open. Band 5, Nummer 10, Oktober 2015, S. e008187, DOI : 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008187 doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008187 , PMID 26443650 .
  • S. A. Azer: Is Wikipedia a reliable learning resource for medical students? Evaluating respiratory topics. In: Advances in physiology education. Band 39, Nummer 1, März 2015, S. 5–14, DOI : 10.1152/advan.00110.2014 doi:10.1152/advan.00110.2014 , PMID 25727464 .
  • F. Brigo, R. Erro: The readability of the English Wikipedia article on Parkinson's disease. In: Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology. Band 36, Nummer 6, Juni 2015, S. 1045–1046, DOI : 10.1007/s10072-015-2077-5 doi:10.1007/s10072-015-2077-5 , PMID 25596713 .
  • F. Brigo, W. M. Otte, S. C. Igwe, H. Ausserer, R. Nardone, F. Tezzon, E. Trinka: Information-seeking behaviour for epilepsy: an infodemiological study of searches for Wikipedia articles. In: Epileptic disorders : international epilepsy journal with videotape. Band 17, Nummer 4, Dezember 2015, S. 460–466, DOI : 10.1684/epd.2015.0772 doi:10.1684/epd.2015.0772 , PMID 26575365 .
  • F. Brigo, S. C. Igwe, R. Nardone, P. Lochner, F. Tezzon, W. M. Otte: Wikipedia and neurological disorders. In: Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia. Band 22, Nummer 7, Juli 2015, S. 1170–1172, DOI : 10.1016/j.jocn.2015.02.006 doi:10.1016/j.jocn.2015.02.006 , PMID 25890773 .
  • Borowiecki Karol J. and Navarrete Trilce (2015) "Change in Access after Digitization: Ethnographic Collections in Wikipedia" in ACEI working papers PDF
  • G. S. Chen, Y. Xiong: Wikipedia vs peer-reviewed medical literature for information about the 10 most costly medical conditions-III. In: The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. Band 114, Nummer 10, Oktober 2014, S. 764–765, DOI : 10.7556/jaoa.2014.148 doi:10.7556/jaoa.2014.148 , PMID 25288709 .
  • Y. H. Eom, P. Aragón, D. Laniado, A. Kaltenbrunner, S. Vigna, D. L. Shepelyansky: Interactions of cultures and top people of Wikipedia from ranking of 24 language editions. In: PloS one. Band 10, Nummer 3, 2015, S. e0114825, DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0114825 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0114825 , PMID 25738291 .
  • P. Ertl, L. Patiny, T. Sander, C. Rufener, M. Zasso: Wikipedia Chemical Structure Explorer: substructure and similarity searching of molecules from Wikipedia. In: Journal of cheminformatics. Band 7, 2015, S. 10, DOI : 10.1186/s13321-015-0061-y doi:10.1186/s13321-015-0061-y , PMID 25815062 .
  • G. Fairchild, S. Y. Del Valle, L. De Silva, A. M. Segre: Eliciting Disease Data from Wikipedia Articles. In: Proceedings of the.. International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media. International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media. Band 2015, Mai 2015, S. 26–33, PMID 28721308 .
  • E. Gabarron, A. Y. Lau, R. Wynn: Is There a Weekly Pattern for Health Searches on Wikipedia and Is the Pattern Unique to Health Topics? In: Journal of medical Internet research. Band 17, Nummer 12, Dezember 2015, S. e286, DOI : 10.2196/jmir.5038 doi:10.2196/jmir.5038 , PMID 26693859 .
  • Y. Gandica, J. Carvalho, F. Sampaio Dos Aidos: Wikipedia editing dynamics. In: Physical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics. Band 91, Nummer 1, Januar 2015, S. 012824, DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.012824 doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.91.012824 , PMID 25679673 .
  • J. M. Heilman, A. G. West: Wikipedia and medicine: quantifying readership, editors, and the significance of natural language. In: Journal of medical Internet research. Band 17, Nummer 3, März 2015, S. e62, DOI : 10.2196/jmir.4069 doi:10.2196/jmir.4069 , PMID 25739399 .
  • V. G. Herbert, A. Frings, H. Rehatschek, G. Richard, A. Leithner: Wikipedia–challenges and new horizons in enhancing medical education. In: BMC medical education. Band 15, März 2015, S. 32, DOI : 10.1186/s12909-015-0309-2 doi:10.1186/s12909-015-0309-2 , PMID 25879421 .
  • K. S. Hickmann, G. Fairchild, R. Priedhorsky, N. Generous, J. M. Hyman, A. Deshpande, S. Y. Del Valle: Forecasting the 2013-2014 influenza season using Wikipedia. In: PLoS computational biology. Band 11, Nummer 5, Mai 2015, S. e1004239, DOI : 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004239 doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004239 , PMID 25974758 .
  • Gabriele Hooffacker: Die Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Wikipedia vermitteln. Wissenskonstruktion und -dekonstruktion in der Hochschuldidaktik. In: medien + erziehung (1), 2015, S. 53–58 ( Abstract ).
  • M. Kämpf, E. Tessenow, D. Y. Kenett, J. W. Kantelhardt: The Detection of Emerging Trends Using Wikipedia Traffic Data and Context Networks. In: PloS one. Band 10, Nummer 12, 2015, S. e0141892, DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0141892 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0141892 , PMID 26720074 .
  • Koltzenburg Claudia: Nicht-propositionales Wissen aus Literaturlektüre und Bedingungen seiner Darstellbarkeit in Wikipedia-Einträgen zu literarischen Werken (wikified version @Wikiversity) , Open Access (PhD dissertation, Philosophische Fakultät, Tübingen University, Germany) ( Abstract en )
  • L. Koppen, J. Phillips, R. Papageorgiou: Analysis of reference sources used in drug-related Wikipedia articles. In: Journal of the Medical Library Association : JMLA. Band 103, Nummer 3, Juli 2015, S. 140–144, DOI : 10.3163/1536-5050.103.3.007 doi:10.3163/1536-5050.103.3.007 , PMID 26213506 .
  • D. Lamprecht, M. Strohmaier, D. Helic, C. Nyulas, T. Tudorache, N. F. Noy, M. A. Musen: Using ontologies to model human navigation behavior in information networks: A study based on Wikipedia. In: Semantic web. Band 6, Nummer 4, 2015, S. 403–422, DOI : 10.3233/SW-140143 doi:10.3233/SW-140143 , PMID 26568745 .
  • J. Launer: Setting the facts straight on Wikipedia. In: Postgraduate medical journal. Band 91, Nummer 1077, Juli 2015, S. 413–414, DOI : 10.1136/postgradmedj-2015-133574 doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2015-133574 , PMID 26082559 .
  • Karlik Marcin (2015): "Wikipedia 2001-2015 - czternaście lat innowacji w obszarze wolnego dostępu do wiedzy." In: A. Kołodziej-Durnas (eds.), "Reklama społeczna - między społecznymi problemami a innowacjami". University of Szczecin; Szczecin, ISBN 978-83-64277-41-2 , pp. 115–130.
  • M. A. Mouriño García, R. Pérez Rodríguez, L. E. Anido Rifón: Biomedical literature classification using encyclopedic knowledge: a Wikipedia-based bag-of-concepts approach. In: PeerJ. Band 3, 2015, S. e1279, DOI : 10.7717/peerj.1279 doi:10.7717/peerj.1279 , PMID 26468436 .
  • S. J. Park, J. W. Kim, H. J. Lee, H. Park, D. Han, P. Gloor: Exploration of Online Culture Through Network Analysis of Wikipedia. In: Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking. Band 18, Nummer 11, November 2015, S. 674–681, DOI : 10.1089/cyber.2014.0638 doi:10.1089/cyber.2014.0638 , PMID 26468763 .
  • A. Pfundner, T. Schönberg, J. Horn, R. D. Boyce, M. Samwald: Utilizing the Wikidata system to improve the quality of medical content in Wikipedia in diverse languages: a pilot study. In: Journal of medical Internet research. Band 17, Nummer 5, Mai 2015, S. e110, DOI : 10.2196/jmir.4163 doi:10.2196/jmir.4163 , PMID 25944105 .
  • U. Rechenberg, C. Josten, S. Klima: [Is it possible to enhance our expert knowledge from Wikipedia?]. In: Zeitschrift fur Orthopadie und Unfallchirurgie. Band 153, Nummer 2, April 2015, S. 171–176, DOI : 10.1055/s-0034-1396207 doi:10.1055/s-0034-1396207 , PMID 25874396 .
  • Barbara Rösch: Wie interagieren Nutzer mit Text- und Bildinformationen in einem Wikipedia-Artikel? In: Information – Wissenschaft & Praxis , Band 66, Heft 1, Februar 2015, S. 17–21, DOI : 10.1515/iwp-2015-0008 doi:10.1515/iwp-2015-0008 .
  • D. R. Schlegel, C. Crowner, P. L. Elkin: Automatically Expanding the Synonym Set of SNOMED CT using Wikipedia. In: Studies in health technology and informatics. Band 216, 2015, S. 619–623, PMID 26262125 .
  • Claudia Wagner, et al.: It's a Man's Wikipedia? Assessing Gender Inequality in an Online Encyclopedia. In: The International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media (ICWSM2015), Oxford, Mai 2015 ( arXiv:1501.06307 )
  • J. A. Vilensky, J. Steenberg: Anatomy and Wikipedia. In: Clinical anatomy. Band 28, Nummer 5, Juli 2015, S. 565–567, DOI : 10.1002/ca.22562 doi:10.1002/ca.22562 , PMID 25974249 .
  • R. West, A. Paranjape, J. Leskovec: Mining Missing Hyperlinks from Human Navigation Traces: A Case Study of Wikipedia. In: Proceedings of the.. International World-Wide Web Conference. International WWW Conference. Band 2015, 2015, S. 1242–1252, PMID 26634229 .
  • A. M. Wilson, G. E. Likens: Content Volatility of Scientific Topics in Wikipedia: A Cautionary Tale. In: PloS one. Band 10, Nummer 8, 2015, S. e0134454, DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0134454 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134454 , PMID 26275058 .

2014 [ edit ]

  • Steinmacher, Igor, Marco Aurelio Graciotto Silva, Marco Aurelio Gerosa, and David F. Redmiles. ‘A Systematic Literature Review on the Barriers Faced by Newcomers to Open Source Software Projects’. Information and Software Technology 59 (March 2015): 67–85. .
  • Flekova, Lucie, Oliver Ferschke, and Iryna Gurevych. ‘What Makes a Good Biography?’ In Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on World Wide Web - WWW ’14, 855–866. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press, 2014. .
  • Biuk-Aghai, Robert P., Cheong-Iao Pang, and Yain-Whar Si. ‘Visualizing Large-Scale Human Collaboration in Wikipedia’. Future Generation Computer Systems 31 (February 2014): 120–133. .
  • S. A. Azer: Evaluation of gastroenterology and hepatology articles on Wikipedia: are they suitable as learning resources for medical students? In: European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology. Band 26, Nummer 2, Februar 2014, S. 155–163, DOI : 10.1097/MEG.0000000000000003 doi:10.1097/MEG.0000000000000003 , PMID 24276492 .
  • M. D. Bould, E. S. Hladkowicz, A. A. Pigford, L. A. Ufholz, T. Postonogova, E. Shin, S. Boet: References that anyone can edit: review of Wikipedia citations in peer reviewed health science literature. In: BMJ. Band 348, März 2014, S. g1585, PMID 24603564 .
  • L. M. Cabrera-Hernández, C. Wanden-Berghe, C. Curbelo Castro, J. Sanz-Valero: The presence and accuracy of food and nutrition terms in the Spanish and English editions of Wikipedia: in comparison with the Mini Larousse encyclopaedia. In: Nutricion hospitalaria. Band 31, Nummer 1, Oktober 2014, S. 488–493, DOI : 10.3305/nh.2015.31.1.8179 doi:10.3305/nh.2015.31.1.8179 , PMID 25561146 .
  • J. F. Cordier: [Wikipedia: a reliable medical reference?]. In: La Revue du praticien. Band 64, Nummer 7, September 2014, S. 913, PMID 25362765 .
  • N. Farič, H. W. Potts: Motivations for contributing to health-related articles on Wikipedia: an interview study. In: Journal of medical Internet research. Band 16, Nummer 12, Dezember 2014, S. e260, DOI : 10.2196/jmir.3569 doi:10.2196/jmir.3569 , PMID 25498308 .
  • L. Fitterling: Wikipedia: proceed with caution. In: The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. Band 114, Nummer 5, Mai 2014, S. 334–335, DOI : 10.7556/jaoa.2014.066 doi:10.7556/jaoa.2014.066 , PMID 24777995 .
  • J. H. Fraser, N. Temple: Wikipedia vs peer-reviewed medical literature for information about the 10 most costly medical conditions-I. In: The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. Band 114, Nummer 10, Oktober 2014, S. 761, DOI : 10.7556/jaoa.2014.146 doi:10.7556/jaoa.2014.146 , PMID 25288707 .
  • N. Generous, G. Fairchild, A. Deshpande, S. Y. Del Valle, R. Priedhorsky: Global disease monitoring and forecasting with Wikipedia. In: PLoS computational biology. Band 10, Nummer 11, November 2014, S. e1003892, DOI : 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003892 doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003892 , PMID 25392913 .
  • E. Gurzell: Wikipedia vs peer-reviewed medical literature for information about the 10 most costly medical conditions-IV. In: The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. Band 114, Nummer 10, Oktober 2014, S. 765–766, DOI : 10.7556/jaoa.2014.149 doi:10.7556/jaoa.2014.149 , PMID 25288710 .
  • I. Halatchliyski, U. Cress: How structure shapes dynamics: knowledge development in Wikipedia–a network multilevel modeling approach. In: PloS one. Band 9, Nummer 11, 2014, S. e111958, DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0111958 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111958 , PMID 25365319 .
  • C. Harshaw, E. Marcinowski, J. Campbell: Communicating developmental psychobiology to the masses: why psychobiologists should contribute to Wikipedia. In: Developmental psychobiology. Band 56, Nummer 7, November 2014, S. 1439–1441, DOI : 10.1002/dev.21239 doi:10.1002/dev.21239 , PMID 25132415 .
  • R. T. Hasty, R. C. Garbalosa, V. A. Barbato, P. J. Valdes, D. W. Powers, E. Hernandez, J. S. John, G. Suciu, F. Qureshi, M. Popa-Radu, S. San Jose, N. Drexler, R. Patankar, J. R. Paz, C. W. King, H. N. Gerber, M. G. Valladares, A. A. Somji: Wikipedia vs peer-reviewed medical literature for information about the 10 most costly medical conditions. In: The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. Band 114, Nummer 5, Mai 2014, S. 368–373, DOI : 10.7556/jaoa.2014.035 doi:10.7556/jaoa.2014.035 , PMID 24778001 .
  • J. M. Heilman, J. De Wolff, G. M. Beards, B. J. Basden: Dengue fever: a Wikipedia clinical review. In: Open medicine : a peer-reviewed, independent, open-access journal. Band 8, Nummer 4, 2014, S. e105–e115, PMID 25426178 .
  • Thomas Holbach, Marcus Maurer: Wissenswerte Nachrichten. Agenda-Setting-Effekte zwischen Medienberichterstattung und Online-Informationsverhalten am Beispiel der EHEC-Epidemie. In: Publizistik , Band 59, 1/2014 ( Titel bei Springerlink ).
  • Katharina Jacob, Friedemann Vogel: Sprachkritik im Internet. Aushandlungsprozesse und Spracheinstellungen auf den Diskussionsseiten der deutschsprachigen Wikipedia. In: Aptum , Band 10(1), 2014, S. 1–32.
  • M. Koo: Complementary and alternative medicine on wikipedia: opportunities for improvement. In: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. Band 2014, 2014, S. 105186, DOI : 10.1155/2014/105186 doi:10.1155/2014/105186 , PMID 24864148 .
  • Arjan M. F. Kozica, Christian Gebhardt, Gordon Müller-Seitz, Stephan Kaiser: Organizational Identity and Paradox. An Analysis of the “Stable State of Instability” of Wikipedia’s Identity . In: Journal of Management Inquiry October , Band 13, 2014 ( Abstract ).
  • J. Kräenbring, T. Monzon Penza, J. Gutmann, S. Muehlich, O. Zolk, L. Wojnowski, R. Maas, S. Engelhardt, A. Sarikas: Accuracy and completeness of drug information in Wikipedia: a comparison with standard textbooks of pharmacology. In: PloS one. Band 9, Nummer 9, 2014, S. e106930, DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0106930 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0106930 , PMID 25250889 .
  • J. Leo, J. R. Lacasse: Wikipedia vs peer-reviewed medical literature for information about the 10 most costly medical conditions-II. In: The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. Band 114, Nummer 10, Oktober 2014, S. 761–764, DOI : 10.7556/jaoa.2014.147 doi:10.7556/jaoa.2014.147 , PMID 25288708 .
  • J. Maskalyk: Modern medicine comes online: How putting Wikipedia articles through a medical journal's traditional process can put free, reliable information into as many hands as possible. In: Open medicine : a peer-reviewed, independent, open-access journal. Band 8, Nummer 4, 2014, S. e116–e119, PMID 25426179 .
  • D. J. McIver, J. S. Brownstein: Wikipedia usage estimates prevalence of influenza-like illness in the United States in near real-time. In: PLoS computational biology. Band 10, Nummer 4, April 2014, S. e1003581, DOI : 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003581 doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003581 , PMID 24743682 .
  • Aileen Oeberst et al.: Knowledge Construction in Wikipedia: A Systemic-Constructivist Analysis. In: Journal of the Learning Sciences , Band 23, Nummer 2, 2014, doi:10.1080/10508406.2014.888352 ( Kurzfassung auf deutsch ).
  • A. Oeberst, I. von der Beck, S. Nestler: Reading about explanations enhances perceptions of inevitability and foreseeability: a cross-cultural study with Wikipedia articles. In: Cognitive processing. Band 15, Nummer 3, August 2014, S. 343–349, DOI : 10.1007/s10339-014-0603-7 doi:10.1007/s10339-014-0603-7 , PMID 24573307 .
  • J. Phillips, C. Lam, L. Palmisano: Analysis of the accuracy and readability of herbal supplement information on Wikipedia. In: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association : JAPhA. Band 54, Nummer 4, 2014 Jul-Aug, S. 406–414, DOI : 10.1331/JAPhA.2014.13181 doi:10.1331/JAPhA.2014.13181 , PMID 25063262 .
  • L. Rasberry: Wikipedia: what it is and why it matters for healthcare. In: BMJ. Band 348, April 2014, S. g2478, PMID 24714406 .
  • L. Rasberry: Citing wikipedia. In: BMJ. Band 348, März 2014, S. g1819, PMID 24603566 .
  • Thomas Roessing: Enzyklopädie-Amateure als Amateur-Journalisten: Wikipedia als Gateway für aktuelle Ereignisse. In: Studies in Communication | Media (SCM), Ausgabe 3(2), 2014, S. 205–227 ( PDF ).
  • A. Santillán, M.. Máñez, X. M. Meijome: [Use of Wikipedia by health professionals]. In: Gaceta sanitaria. Band 28, Nummer 6, 2014 Nov-Dec, S. 522, DOI : 10.1016/j.gaceta.2014.04.014 doi:10.1016/j.gaceta.2014.04.014 , PMID 25087118 .
  • G. W. Thompson, C. T. Kello: Walking across Wikipedia: a scale-free network model of semantic memory retrieval. In: Frontiers in psychology. Band 5, 2014, S. 86, DOI : 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00086 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00086 , PMID 24575064 .
  • S. Vandamme, F. De Turck: Algorithms for recollection of search terms based on the Wikipedia category structure. In: TheScientificWorldJournal. Band 2014, 2014, S. 454868, DOI : 10.1155/2014/454868 doi:10.1155/2014/454868 , PMID 24616630 .
  • Karl-Heinz Wellmann: Zwischen Befreiungs- und Produktideologie – Schwarmintelligenz am Beispiel der Wikipedia. In: Peter Kemper, Julika Tillmanns und Alf Mentzer (Hrsg.): „Wir nennen es Wirklichkeit“: Denkanstöße zur Netzkultur. Reclam Verlag, Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 978-3-15-020357-6
  • Sahut Gilles, Citez vos sources » : archéologie d'une règle au cœur du savoir wikipédien (2002-2008) , 'Études de communication' 1/ 2014 (n° 42), p. 97-110. URL : .

2013 [ edit ]

  • Mayer, Florian L.: Erfolgsfaktoren von Social Media: Wie "funktionieren" Wikis? Eine vergleichende Analyse kollaborativer Kommunikationssysteme im Internet, in Organisationen und in Gruppen. Dissertation im Fach Kommunikationswissenschaft, Otto-Friedrich-Universität Bamberg. Erschienen im Lit Verlag. ISBN 978-3-643-12210-0

2012 [ edit ]

  • Tunsch, Thomas : Informationswissenschaftliche Herausforderungen für kulturelle Gedächtnisorganisationen . In: EVA 2012 Berlin : 7.-9. November 2012 in den Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin am Kulturforum Potsdamer Platz; Elektronische Medien & Kunst, Kultur, Historie; die 19. Berliner Veranstaltung der Internationalen EVA-Serie Electronic Imaging & the Visual Arts; Konferenzband. – Berlin: Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gesellschaft z. Förderung angewandter Informatik, EVA Conferences International, 2012. ISBN 978-3-942709-05-7 , ISBN 978-3-942709-06-4 (CD-ROM) – S. 168-180

2011 [ edit ]

  • Lionel Scheepmans et Olivier Servais, Monographie ethnographique de la communauté des contributeurs actifs sur l'espace francophone de Wikipédia , Louvain-la-Neuve, UCL, 2011 (Mémoire de fin de master) On line access .
  • Tobias Lutzi. Et tu, Minerva? – Wikipedia und die Wissenschaft . In: Forschung & Lehre , December 2011 , pp. 946–947
  • Daniel K. Schneider , Benetos, K. & Ruchat, M. (2011). Mediawikis for research, teaching and learning. In T. Bastiaens & M. Ebner (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2011 (pp. 2084-2093). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. Wiki reprint version . (This is not really research, but an academic design paper)
  • Tunsch, Thomas : Kommunikation für Experten: Kulturelle Gedächtnisorganisationen und vernetzte Arbeitsgemeinschaften . In: EVA 2011 Berlin: 9.-11. November 2011 in den Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin am Kulturforum Potsdamer Platz; Elektronische Medien & Kunst, Kultur, Historie; die 18. Berliner Veranstaltung der Internationalen EVA-Serie Electronic Imaging & the Visual Arts; Konferenzband. – Berlin: Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gesellschaft z. Förderung angewandter Informatik, EVA Conferences International, 2011. ISBN 978-3-942709-01-9 , ISBN 978-3-942709-02-6 (CD-ROM) – S. 23-42

2010 [ edit ]

  • Daniela Pscheida (2010): Das Wikipedia-Universum. Wie das Internet unsere Wissenskultur verändert. transcript
  • Klaus Wannemacher (2010): Experiences and perspectives of Wikipedia use in higher education. In: International Journal Management in Education , Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 79-92.
  • Klaus Wannemacher, Frank Schulenburg (2010): Wikipedia in Academic Studies – Corrupting or Improving the Quality of Teaching and Learning? In: Martin Ebner, Mandy Schiefner (eds.): Looking Toward the Future of Technology-Enhanced Education: Ubiquitous Learning and the Digital Native . Hershey; New York: Information Science Reference, pp. 295–310.
  • Normann Witzleb (2010), Participants in the Community of Knowledge: Experiences with a Wikipedia Writing Assignment for Students in Brayden A. Morris and George M. Ferguson (eds) Computer-Assisted Teaching: New Developments (New York: Nova Sciene Publisher ) ISBN 978-1-60876-855-4
  • Ziko van Dijk (2010): The geek shall inherit the earth. Esperanto-movado kaj vikipedia komunumo en la epoko de la Interreto. In: Detlev Blanke, Ulrich Lins (ed.): La arto labori kune. Festschrift for Humphrey Tonkin. Universala Esperanto-Asocio. Rotterdam, pp. 574-584

2009 [ edit ]

  • Robert Neal Baxter (2009): New technologies and terminological pressure in lesser-used languages: The Breton Wikipedia, from terminology consumer to potential terminology provider. In: Language Problems and Language Planning 33 (no. 1, spring), pp. 60-80.
  • Kristine L. Callis, Lindsey R. Christ, Julian Resasco, David W. Armitage, Jeremy D. Ash, Timothy T. Caughlin, Sharon F. Clemmensen, Stella M. Copeland, Timothy J. Fullman, Ryan L. Lynch, Charley Olson, Raya A. Pruner, Ernane H.M. Vieira-Neto, Raneve West-Singh and Emilio M. Bruna: Improving Wikipedia: educational opportunity and professional responsibility In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Volume 24, Issue 4, April 2009, Pages 177-179, Online
  • Ziko van Dijk (2009): Wikipedia and lesser-resourced languages. In: Language Problems and Language Planning 33 (no. 3, fall), pp. 234-255.
  • A. Elia (2009): Can a collaborative Wiki Weblish Dictionary Project help academic writing of ICT language learners?” In Teaching Academic and Professional English Online. González-Pueyo, Isabel / Foz Gil, Carmen / Jaime Siso, Mercedes / Luzón Marco, María José (eds.), Peter Lang Publishing Group ( ISBN 978-3-03911-582-2 <a href="javascript:Pick it!ISBN: 978-3-03911-582-2"><img style="border: 0px none ;" src=" " alt="Pick It!" title='Titel anhand dieser ISBN in Citavi-Projekt übernehmen'></a> )
  • Joachim Kimmerle, Johannes Moskaliuk and Ulrike Cress (2009): Understanding Learning – the Wiki Way . Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration. New York, NY: ACM Press. [1]
  • Johannes Moskaliuk and Joachim Kimmerle (2009): Using wikis for organizational learning: Functional and psycho-social principles . Development and Learning in Organizations, 23 (4), 21-24. [2]
  • Johannes Moskaliuk, Joachim Kimmerle and Ulrike Cress (2009): Wiki-Supported learning and knowledge building: Effects of Incongruity between Knowledge and Information . Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 25 (6), 549-561. [3]
  • Đorđe Stakić (2009): Wiki technology - origin, development and importance , Infotheca, No. 1-2, Vol. X, Јune 2009. [4]
  • Felipe Ortega (2009): "Wikipedia: A quantitative analysis" . PhD. thesis. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería de Telecomunicación. Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain.
  • Klaus Wannemacher (2009): Articles as Assignments – Modalities and Experiences of Wikipedia Use in University Courses . In Marc Spaniol, Qing Li, Ralf Klamma, Rynson W. H. Lau (eds.), Advances in Web Based Learning – ICWL 2009. 8th International Conference. Aachen, Germany, August 19-21, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. P. 434–443.
  • Normann Witzleb : Engaging with the World: Students of Comparative Law Write for Wikipedia (2009) 9 Legal Education Review 83 – 97.

2008 [ edit ]

  • Erik W. Black (2008): Wikipedia and academic peer review. Wikipedia as a recognised medium for scholarly publication? Online-Information-Review. 2008; 32(1) (pp. 73-88). Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to engage in a thought experiment, exploring the use of Wikipedia or similar content-malleable systems for the review and dissemination of academic knowledge. By looking at other sources, the paper considers the current state of the academic peer-review process, discusses Wikipedia and reflects on dynamic content creation and management applications currently in use in academia. The traditional peer review process must be updated to match the rapid creation and diffusion of knowledge that characterizes the 21st century. The Wikipedia concept is a potential model for more rapid and reliable dissemination of scholarly knowledge. The implications of such a concept would have a dramatic effect on the academic community. This paper promotes a radical idea for changing the methods by which academic knowledge is both constructed and disseminated.
  • Steffen Blaschke and Klaus Stein (2008): Methods and Measures for the Analysis of Corporate Wikis . Proceedings of the 58th Annual Conference of the International Communication Association (ICA), May 22-26, Montréal, Canada.
  • Brendan Luyt, Tay Chee Hsien Aaron, Lim Hai Thian and Cheng Kian Hong (2008): Improving Wikipedia's accuracy: Is edit age a solution? . Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 59(2):318-330.
  • Ulrike Cress and Joachim Kimmerle (2008): A Systemic and Cognitive view on Collaborative Knowledge Building with Wikis. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 3 (2), 105-122. [5]
  • Andreas Harrer, Johannes Moskaliuk, Joachim Kimmerle and Ulrike Cress(2008): Visualizing Wiki-Supported Knowledge Building: Co-Evolution of Individual and Collective Knowledge. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Wikis 2008 (Wikisym). New York, NY: ACM Press. [6]
  • Johannes Moskaliuk and Joachim Kimmerle (2008): Analyse und Visualisierung von Prozessen der Wissenskonstruktion am Beispiel von Wikipedia. In J. Moskaliuk (Hrsg.), Konstruktion und Kommunikation von Wissen mit Wikis (S. 151-162). Boizenburg: Verlag Werner Hülsbusch.
  • Mayer, Florian/Schoeneborn, Dennis (2008): WikiWebs in der Organisationskommunikation. In: Stegbauer, Ch. und Jäckel, M. (Hg.). Social Software. Formen der Kooperation in computerbasierten Netzwerken. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. S. 137-153.
  • Johannes Moskaliuk, Joachim Kimmerle and Ulrike Cress (2008): Learning and Knowledge Building with Wikis: The Impact of Incongruity between People’s Knowledge and a Wiki’s Information. In G. Kanselaar, V. Jonker, P.A. Kirschner, & F.J. Prins (Eds.), International Perspectives in the Learning Sciences: Cre8ing a learning world. Proceedings of the International Conference of the Learning Sciences 2008, vol. 2. (pp. 99-106). Utrecht, The Netherlands: International Society of the Learning Sciences, Inc. [7]
  • Nielsen, Finn Årup (2008): Clustering of scientific citations in Wikipedia , Wikimania 2008. [8]
  • Felipe Ortega, Jesus M. Gonzalez-Barahona and Gregorio Robles (2008): On the Inequality of Contributions to Wikipedia . HICSS 2008 (TO APPEAR). [9]
  • Tunsch, Thomas : Museen und Wikis: Vorteile vernetzter Arbeitsgemeinschaften. – MAI-Tagung ("museums and the internet") 2008. URL: (Abgerufen: 19. Januar 2009, 15:50).
  • Tunsch, Thomas : Die Schöne und das Tier: Semantic Web und Wikis . – IN: EVA 2008 Berlin : Elektronische Bildverarbeitung & Kunst, Kultur, Historie, die 15. Berliner Veranstaltung der Internationalen EVA-Serie Electronic Imaging & the Visual Arts. Konferenzband. – Berlin : Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Gesellschaft z. Förderung angewandter Informatik, EVA Conferences International 2008. – S. 189-197. ISBN 978-3981215816
  • Klaus Wannemacher (2008): Wikipedia − Störfaktor oder Impulsgeber für die Lehre? In S. Zauchner, P. Baumgartner, E. Blaschitz, A. Weissenbäck (Hrsg.), Offener Bildungsraum Hochschule. Freiheiten und Notwendigkeiten. Münster, New York, München et al.: Waxmann. S. 147–156. [10]

2007 [ edit ]

  • Ebner, Martin (2007): Wikipedia Hype oder Zukunftshoffnung für die Hochschullehre , in: E-Learning: Strategische Implementierungen und Studiengang, Tagungsband zur 13. FNMA-Tagung, Verlag Forum Neue Medien Austria, 2007, S. 139-146
  • Firer-Blaess, Sylvain: Wikipedia : présentation et histoire (18th of july 2007), Wikipedia : entre communauté et réseau (25th of july 2007), Wikipedia, modèle pour une société hyperpanoptique (1st of august 2007), Wikipedia : hiérarchie et démocratie (11th of october 2007), [11] , articles taken from an MA thesis at the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Lyon .
  • Gabrilovich, Evgeniy; Markovitch, Shaul (2007): Computing Semantic Relatedness using Wikipedia-based Explicit Semantic Analysis . Proceedings of The 20th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI), Hyderabad, India, January 2007 [12]
  • Geser, Hans (2007): From printed to "wikified" encyclopedias: Sociological Aspects of an Incipient Cultural Revolution . Institute of Sociology at the University of Zurich.
  • Grotjahn, Henrik (2007): Qualitätsmessungen an der Wikipedia. Konstruktion von Qualität – eine Metaanalyse . Saarbrücken: VDM, ISBN 978-3-8364-3045-6
  • Möllenkamp, Andreas (2007): Wer schreibt die Wikipedia? Die Online-Enzyklopädie in der Vorstellungs- und Lebenswelt ihrer aktivsten Autoren . Magisterarbeit, Institut für Kulturwissenschaften, Universität Leipzig 2007 ( online )
  • Nielsen, Finn Årup (2007): Scientific citations in Wikipedia , First Monday, 12(8), 2007 august. [13]
  • Ortega, Felipe; Gonzalez-Barahona, Jesus M. (2007): Quantitative Analysis of the Wikipedia Community of Users . WikiSym 2007, Montreal, Canada. [14]
  • Ortega, Felipe; Gonzalez-Barahona, Jesus M.; Robles, Gregorio (2007): The Top Ten Wikipedias: A quantitative analysis using WikiXRay . ICSOFT 2007. [15]
  • Pentzold, Christian; Seidenglanz, Sebastian; Fraas, Claudia; Ohler, Peter (2007): Wikis. Bestandsaufnahme eines Forschungsfeldes und Skizzierung eines integrativen Analyserahmens . In: Medien und Kommunikationswissenschaft. 55(1), 61-79.
  • Philipp, Torsten (2007). Anwendung von Mancur Olsons "Logik des kollektiven Handelns" auf das Kollektivgut Wissen auf Wikipedia. [16]
  • Priedhorsky, Reid; Chen, Jilin Chen; Lam, Shyong (Tony) K.; Panciera, Katherine ; Terveen, Loren; Riedl, John (2007): Creating, Destroying, and Restoring Value in Wikipedia . Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of Minnesota. [17]
  • Schulenburg, Frank ; Raschka, Achim; Jungierek, Michail: Der „McDonald’s der Informationen“? Ein Blick hinter die Kulissen des kollaborativen Wissensmanagements in der deutschsprachigen Wikipedia , in: Bibliothek, Forschung und Praxis 31,2 (2007), ISSN 0341-4183, p. 225–230 (engl. The “McDonald’s of information”? A view behind the scenery of the collaborative knowledge management of the German language Wikipedia) — Published under CC-by-SA, Download (PDF, 562 KB) via Wikimedia Commons.
  • Schulenburg, Frank : Zu den Zielen und grundlegenden Funktionsweisen der freien Internetenzyklopädie Wikipedia und den Besonderheiten der deutschsprachigen Ausgabe , in: Gerhard Fuchs, Christian Müller, Harald Ritz und Uwe Saint-Mont (Hrsg.), Herausforderungen an die Wirtschaftsinformatik: Wissensmanagement, E-Business und ereignisgesteuerte Geschäftsprozesse in Echtzeit, Tagungsband zur AKWI-Fachtagung am 14.09.2007 an der Hochschule Fulda, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-936527-10-0 <a href="javascript:Pick it!ISBN: 978-3-936527-10-0"><img style="border: 0px none ;" src=" " alt="Pick It!" title='Titel anhand dieser ISBN in Citavi-Projekt übernehmen'></a> , p. 25–36.
  • Sundin, Olof; Haider, Jutta (2007): "Debating information control in web 2.0. The case of Wikipedia vs. Citizendium" , short paper, Proceedings of the 70th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (ASIST), Milwaukee (Wisconsin, USA), 18-25 October, 2007.
  • Tunsch, Thomas (2007): Museum Documentation and Possibilities, opportunities and advantages for scholars and museums . In: J. Trant and D. Bearman (eds). Museums and the Web 2007: Proceedings. Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics, published March 31, 2007 at
  • Tunsch, Thomas (2007): Museen und Wikipedia . In: Gesellschaft zur Förderung angewandter Informatik, EVA Conferences International (eds). EVA 2007 Berlin, die 14. Berliner Veranstaltung der Internationalen EVA-Serie Electronic Imaging & the Visual Arts. Berlin: Gesellschaft zur Förderung angewandter Informatik, EVA Conferences International. (7th—9th Nov 2007). 87. 15–21. ISBN 3-9809212-8-X
  • Viégas, Fernanda (2007): The Visual Side of Wikipedia . Proceedings of Hawaiian International Conference of Systems Sciences. Big Island, Hawaii.
  • Viégas, Fernanda; Wattenberg, Martin; Kriss, Jesse; van Ham, Frank (2007): Talk Before You Type: Coordination in Wikipedia . Proceedings of Hawaiian International Conference of Systems Sciences. Big Island, Hawaii.
  • Zesch, Torsten; Gurevych, Iryna (2007): Analysis of the Wikipedia Category Graph for NLP Applications. Proceedings of the TextGraphs-2 Workshop (NAACL-HLT). [18]
  • Zesch, Torsten; Gurevych, Iryna; Mühlhäuser, Max (2007): Comparing Wikipedia and German Wordnet by Evaluating Semantic Relatedness on Multiple Datasets. Proceedings of Human Language Technologies: The Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (NAACL-HLT). [19]
  • Zesch, Torsten; Gurevych, Iryna; Mühlhäuser, Max (2007): Analyzing and Accessing Wikipedia as a Lexical Semantic Resource. Biannual Conference of the Society for Computational Linguistics and Language Technology. pp. 213-221.

2006 [ edit ]

  • Martin, Jean-Pol (2006): "Gemeinsam Wissen konstruieren: am Beispiel der Wikipedia", In: Klebl, Michael, & Köck, Michael (Hgg.): Projekte und Perspektiven im Studium Digitale. Medienpädagogik, 3. Berlin: LIT Verlag, 157-164 [20]
  • Elia A. (2006), An analysis of Wikipedia digital writing ( ISBN 1-9324-32-61-2 ) Proceedings EACL 2006 Trento, - 11th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics – aprile 3-7, pp. 16-21
  • Pentzold, Christian (2006): Dispositiv, Diskurs, Diskursfragment. Zum Vorschlag eines diskurstheoretischen, Foucault-inspirierten Analyserahmens für die Online-Enzyklpädie Wikipedia. In: LINSE - Linguistik Server Essen. [21]
  • Bower, B., Woo, K., Roberts, M., Watters, P. (2006) Wiki Pedagogy - A Tale of Two Wikis. Paper presented at the ITHET Conference, Sydney Australia. [22]
  • Karim R. Lakhani, Andrew P. McAfee: Case-Study, Harvard Business School, Dezember 2006 [23]
  • Marieke Guy (2006): Wiki or Won't He? A Tale of Public Sector Wikis. in: Aridne Issue 49 October 2006.
  • Buriol, L.S., Castillo, C., Donato , D., Leonardi , S., and Millozzi , S. (2006): Temporal Analysis of the Wikigraph . To appear in Proceedings of the Web Intelligence Conference (WI), Hong Kong 2006. Published by IEEE CS Press. [24]
  • Forte, Andrea and Amy Bruckman. (2006) From Wikipedia to the classroom: exploring online publication and learning. Proceedings of the International Conference of the Learning Sciences , Vol 1. Bloomington, IN, pp. 182-188. [25]
  • Fuchs, Ulrich (2006). Freie Inhalte? - Idee und Realisierung am Beispiel der Wikipedia , in Ohly,Sieglerschmidt, Swertz (Hrsg.): Wissensorganisation und Verantwortung: Gesellschaftliche, ökonomische und technische Aspekte. Proceedings der 9. Tagung der Deutschen Sektion der Internationalen Gesellschaft für Wissensorganisation, Duisburg 5.-7. November 2004 , pp. 192-198, Ergon Verlag, Würzburg 2006 [26]
  • Gabrilovich, Evgeniy and Shaul Markovitch (2006). Overcoming the Brittleness Bottleneck using Wikipedia: Enhancing Text Categorization with Encyclopedic Knowledge . Proceedings of the 21st National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-06), pp. 1301-1306. [27]
  • Grzega, Joachim (2006), How Oonomasiologists Can Help with Contributing to Wikipedia, Onomasiology Online , Vol. 7, 1-15 [28] .
  • Kolbitsch, Josef, and Maurer, Hermann (2006). The Transformation of the Web: How Emerging Communities Shape the Information We Consume . In: Journal of Universal Computer Science, (12) 2, 187–213. [29] .
  • Kolbitsch, Josef, and Maurer, Hermann (2006). Community Building around Encyclopaedic Knowledge . In: Journal of Computing and Information Technology – CIT, Zagreb : Sveučilišni računski centar, Vol. 14, No. 3, rujan (September) 2006, pp. 175–190. [30] . [Communities]
  • Korfiatis, N., Poulos, M., & Bokos, G. (2006). Evaluating authoritative sources using social networks: An insight from wikipedia. Online Information Review: 30(3). [31]
  • Krizhanovsky, Andrew (2006). Synonym search in Wikipedia: Synarcher . In: 11-th International Conference "Speech and Computer" SPECOM'2006. Russia, St. Petersburg, June 25-29, pp. 474-477. [32] , [33] .
  • Levrel, Julien (2006). Wikipedia : Un dispositif médiatique de publics participants . In: Réseaux, n° 138.
  • Mehler, Alexander (2006): Text Linkage in the Wiki Medium - A Comparative Study. In: Proceedings of the EACL 2006 Workshop on New Text - Wikis and blogs and other dynamic text sources, Trento, Italy, April 3-7, pp. 1-8. [34] .
  • Niemann, Hans-Joachim (2006), "Was alle angeht, können nur alle lösen" – Über die weltweite Anwendung des Kritischen Rationalismus in Wiki-Projekten . In: Aufklärung und Kritik, Heft 1 (2006), S. 67-93 [35] .
  • Quiggin, John (2006), Blogs, wikis and creative innovation, International Journal of Cultural Studies , Vol. 9, No. 4, 481-496 [36] .
  • Rick, Jochen & Guzdial, Mark (2006). Situating CoWeb: A scholarship of application . In: International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 1(1):89–115. [37]
  • Schaffert, Sebastian: IkeWiki: A Semantic Wiki for Collaborative Knowledge Management. . In: 1st International Workshop on Semantic Technologies in Collaborative Applications STICA 06, Manchester, UK, June 2006. [38]
  • Schaffert, Sebastian; Bischof, Diana; Bürger, Tobias; Gruber, Andreas; Hilzensauer, Wolf; & Schaffert, Sandra: Learning with Semantic Wikis . In: First Workshop "SemWiki2006 - From Wiki to Semantics", co-located with the 3rd Annual European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC), Budva, Montenegro, 11th - 14th June, 2006 [39]
  • Wagner, Christian, Cheung, Karen, Ip, Rachael, and Bottcher, Stefan (2006). Building Semantic Webs for e-government with Wiki technology . In: Electronic Government, 3 (1), 36-55. [40] .

2005 [ edit ]

  • Bryant, Susan, Andrea Forte and Amy Bruckman. (2005). “Becoming Wikipedian: Transformation of participation in a collaborative online encyclopedia” Proceedings of GROUP International Conference on Supporting Group Work, 2005. pp 1.-10. [41]
  • Erpicum, Martin (2005) : d'Amour et de Neutralité : Ce(ux) qui résiste(nt) . pp. 1. -95. (Sociologist at the University of Liège, Belgium, Master Thesis) [communities, collaboration, history, quality] [42]
  • Frumkin, Jeremy (2005): The Wiki and the digital library . In: OCLC Systems and Services, 21(1), pp.18-22 [Wikis, Usage, Introduction]
  • Levrel, Julien (2005): Organisation de Wikipedia et motivations des participants . Preleminary Report in two parts .
  • Köster, Jan-Paul (2005): Wiki-Collaboration in a Corporate Context - Possible Applications for Wiki Tools in the Business Environment . Master's Thesis. Passau: Universität Passau (Lehrstuhl für Wirtschaftsinformatik).
  • Meijssen, Gerard (2005): Wikipedia: Localization in a Free Content Community . In: LISA, June 2005 [43]
  • Miller, Nora (2005): Wikipedia and The Disappearing “Author” . In: ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 62(1), 37-40 [44] [Wikis, Wikipedia, Collaboration]
  • Sanger, Larry (2005): The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir . In: DiBona; Cooper & Stone (Eds.): Open Sources 2.0. O'Reilly (in press. preprint here ) [Wikipedia, history, collaboration, quality]
  • Sauer IM, Bialek D, Efimova E, Schwartlander R, Pless G, Neuhaus P. "Blogs" and "wikis" are valuable software tools for communication within research groups. Artif Organs 29 (1): 82-3. [Blog; Wiki; Research organization; Intranet] [45]
  • Schäffler, Christoph (2005): WhenWikiWorks: Erfolgskonzepte für die Erstellung einer Wiki-basierten, öffentlichen Informationsplattform am Beispiel Wikicities . (Eisenstadt, University of Applied Sciences, diploma thesis)
  • Schlieker, Christian (2005): Wissen auf Explorative Untersuchung von Wissen in kollektiven Hypertexten . (diploma thesis) [46] [Comparison, collaboration]
  • Stvilia, B., Twidale, M. B., Smith, L. C., Gasser, L. (2005). Assessing information quality of a community-based encyclopedia. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Quality - ICIQ 2005. Cambridge, MA. 442-454. [47] [Quality Measurement Model]
  • Stvilia, B., Twidale, M. B., Gasser, L., Smith, L. C. (2005). Information quality in a community-based encyclopedia. In: S. Hawamdeh (Ed.), Knowledge Management: Nurturing Culture, Innovation, and Technology - Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Knowledge Management (pp. 101-113). Charlotte, NC: World Scientific Publishing Company. [48] [Analyzes information quality problem discussions and negotiations]
  • Tonkin, Emma (2005): Making the case for a Wiki : In: Ariadne 42 [49] [Wikis]
  • Voss, Jakob (2005): Measuring Wikipedia . In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics [50] [Wikipedia, Statistics]
  • Wagner, Christian; Bolloju, Narasimha (2005): Supporting Knowledge Management in Organizations with Conversational Technologies: Discussion Forums, Weblogs, and Wikis . In: Journal of Database Management, 16(2), i-viii [51] [Social Software, Knowledge Management]
  • Wagner, Christian (2005): Breaking the Knowledge Acquisition Bottleneck through Conversational Knowledge Management . In: Information Resources Management Journal [Wikis, Wikipedia, Knowledge Management] [52]

2004 [ edit ]

  • Michel Buffa, Peter Sander, Jean-Claude Grattarola (2004): Distant cooperative software development for research and education: three years of experience . In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Aided Learning in Engineering Education (CALIE 04) [53] [Wikis, collaboration, education]
  • Ebersbach, Anja & Glaser, Markus (2004): Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: The Wiki . In: International Journal of Information Ethics, 11 [54] [Wikis, Collaboration]
  • Emigh, William and Herring, Susan C. (2004). Collaborative Authoring on the Web: A Genre Analysis of Online Encyclopedias . Paper presented at the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. « Collaboration Systems and Technology Track », Hawai.
  • Kohl, Christian & Liebert, Wolf-Andreas (2004): Selbstorganisation der Wissenschaftsvermittlung: Quellentransparenz, Kontroversität und Qualitätssicherung in der Internet-Enzyklopädie Wikipedia . In: Fachsprache. international journal of LSP (ISSN 0256-2510), 2004, J. 26, N. 3-4, S. 133-148
  • Krowne, Aaron & Bazaz, Anil (2004): Authority Models for Collaborative Authoring . In: Proceedings of the 37th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. [55] [Collaboration]
  • Lih, Andrew (2004): Wikipedia as Participatory Journalism: Reliable Sources? Metrics for evaluating collaborative media as a news resource . In: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Online Journalism. [56] [Wikipedia, Quality]
  • Reagle, Joseph (2004): A Case of Mutual Aid: Wikipedia, Politeness, and Perspective Taking . Last retrieved April 15, 2005 from [Wikipedia, Collaboration]
  • Viégas, F.; Wattenberg, M. & Kushal, D. (2004): Studying Cooperation and Conflict between Authors with History Flow Visualization . In: Proceedings of the 2004 conference on Human factors in computing systems. New York: ACM [57] [Wiki, Wikipedia, Collaboration, Structure]
  • Voss, Jakob & Danowski, Patrick (2004): Bibliothek, Information und Dokumentation in der Wikipedia . In: Information: Wissenschaft und Praxis, 8, 457-462. [58] [Wikipedia, German]
  • Wagner, Christian (2004): Wiki: A Technology for Conversational Knowledge Management and Group Collaboration . In: Communications of the AIS, 13 Art. 19, 256-289 [59] [Wikis, Collaboration]

2003 [ edit ]

  • Aigrain, Philippe (2003): The Individual and the Collective in Open Information Communities . In: 16th BLED Electronic Commerce Conference. [Wikipedia, Communities]
  • Ciffolilli, Andrea (2003): Phantom authority, self–selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia . In: First Monday, 8(12). [60] [Wikipedia, Communities]
  • Mattison, David (2003): Quickiwiki, swiki, twiki, zwiki, and the plone wars: Wiki as PIM and collaborative content tool . In: Searcher: Magazine for Database Professionals 11(4), 32 [Wikis]
  • Paquet, Sébastien (2004): A Socio-Technological Approach to Sharing Knowledge Across Disciplines . Computer Science Ph.D. Thesis, Université de Montréal [Wikis, Scholarly Communication]
  • Thelen, T; Gruber, C:(2003): Kollaboratives Lernen mit WikiWikiWebs in: Kerres, M.; Voß, B (Hrsg.): Digitaler Campus. Vom Medienprojekt zum nachhaltigen Medieneinsatz in der Hochschule. (Reihe Medien in der Wissenschaft), Münster: Waxmann Verlag.

2002 [ edit ]

  • Aronsson, Lars (2002): Operation of a Large Scale, General Purpose Wiki Website: Experience from's first nine months in service . In: Carvalho, Jão Álvaro; Hübler, Arved & Baptista, Ana Alice (Eds.): Proceedings of the International ICCC/IFIP Conference on Electronic Publishing. Berlin: Verlag für Wissenschaft und Forschung, 27-37 [61] [Wikis]
  • Bergin, Joseph (2002): Teaching on the Wiki Web . In: ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 34(3) [?]
  • Moulthrop, S.; Bernstein, M. & Carton, S. (2002): Self-assembling hypertexts, weblogs, and Wikis. . In: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Hypertext 2002, 149 [Social Software]
  • Rick, Jochen & Guzdial, Mark & Carroll, Karen & Holloway-Attaway, Lissa & Walker, Brandy (2002). Collaborative learning at low cost: CoWeb use in English composition . In: Proceedings of CSCL 2002, pages 435–442.

2001 [ edit ]

  • Guzdial, Mark & Rick, Jochen & Kehoe, Colleen (2001). Beyond adoption to invention: Teacher-created collaborative activities in higher education . In: The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 10(3):265–279. [62]

2000 [ edit ]

  • Guzdial, Mark & Rick, Jochen & Kerimbaev, Bolot (2000). Recognizing and supporting roles in CSCW. In: Proceedings ACM CSCW 2000, pages 261–268. ACM Press. [63]

1999 [ edit ]

  • Guzdial, Mark (1999) Teacher and Student Authoring on the Web for Shifting Agency Presented at AERA 99 Session: How can CSCL (Computer Supported Collaborative Learning) change classroom culture and patterns of interaction among participants? [64]

Other relevant publications [ edit ]

not peer-reviewed or not only scientific but relevant

Monographs [ edit ]

  • Cunningham, Ward & Leuf, Bo (2001): The Wiki Way. Quick Collaboration on the Web . Addison Wesley ISBN 0-20171499-X
  • Ebersbach, Anja & Glaser, Markus & Heigl, Richard (2006): Wiki: Web Collaboration. (English) Springer ISBN 3-540-25995-3
  • Ebersbach, Anja & Glaser, Markus & Heigl, Richard (2005): WikiTools. Kooperation im Web. Springer ISBN 3-540-22939-6 [65]
  • Elia, A.(2008): Cogitamus Ergo sumus; Web 2.0 [email protected]: the case of Wikipedia. Roma: Aracne Editrice ISBN 978-88-548-1919-7
  • Jemielniak, Dariusz (2014): Common Knowledge: An Ethnography of Wikipedia Stanford: Stanford University Press ISBN 978-0-8047-8944-8
  • Mari, Alberto (2004): Web publishing con Blog e Wiki : realizzare siti dinamici con pochi clic del mouse . Apogeo ISBN 88-503-2292-
  • Möller, Erik (2004): Die heimliche Medienrevolution: Wie Weblogs, Wikis und freie Software die Welt verändern . Heise ISBN 3-936931-16-X
  • Moskaliuk, J.(Hrsg.) (2008): Konstruktion und Kommunikation von Wissen mit Wikis. Boizenburg: Verlag Werner Hülsbusch. ISBN 978-3-940317-29-2
  • Saorín, Tomás (2012): Wikipedia de la A a la W . Barcelona: Editorial UOC. ISBN 978-84-9029-012-5 (In Spanish)

Reviews and critiques in scientific publications [ edit ]

  • Chillingworth, Mark (2005): Wikipedia courts public input . In: Information World Review, 210, pp.24 [66]
  • Kolesar, Peter (2004): Wikipedia - encyklopedia s otvorenym obsahom pre vsetkych. (=WIKIPEDIA: an open source encyclopaedia for everybody). In: Kniznica, 5(9), pp.481
  • Coers, Rob (2004): Wikipedia: sympathiek maar ook betrouwbaar? (=The Wikipedia: a nice idea but is it reliable?). In: Bibliotheek, 16, pp.17

Papers, Blog-articles etc. [ edit ]

  • Bellomi F. & Bonato R. (2004): Lexical Authorities in an Encyclopedic Corpus: a Case Study with Wikipedia . Retrieved April 10, 2005 from [67] [Wikipedia, Strucure]
  • Houghton, Robert S. (2005): 123 Wiki: A Working Summary of Wiki Developments . Retrieved June 30, 2005 from [68] [Introduction, Usage, Strucure]
  • Wagner, Christian (2005): On the Impending Demise of Slashdot or Why the Wikipedia Model (Wiki Way) Beats the Slashdot Model . Short article presented at the Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, workshop on persistant conversations, January 2005 [69] [Wikipedia, Wiki, Weblog]
  • Juan Freire (2005): Análisis de la experiencia de adaptación al Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior . [70] (pdf) and [71] [Learning, Wiki]

Sources [ edit ]

Sources where to find more information and data

  • - download database dump of Wikimedia wikis

Proceedings [ edit ]

  • WikiSym 2005 Conference Proceedings
  • WikiSym 2006 Conference Proceedings
  • WikiSym 2007 Conference Proceedings
  • WikiSym 2008 Conference Proceedings
  • WikiSym 2009 Conference Proceedings
  • WikiSym 2010 Conference Proceedings

Statistics [ edit ]

  • - extensive Wikistat script by Erik Zachte
  • - Wikimedia statistics compiled from a variety of sources
  • WikiXRay - Python tool automating the quantitative analysis of any language edition of Wikipedia

Other bibliographies [ edit ]

  • (German)
  • Bibliography Wiki in education :
  • WikiPapers , a wiki research literature compilation (conference papers, journal articles, theses, datasets and tools)

Folksonomic bibliographies [ edit ]

  • Bibsonomy: wiki , wikipedia
  • CiteULike: wiki , wikipedia
  • Creoliste Biblioshare: wikipedia
  • The Library Thing: wiki , wikipedia
  • Wikipedia: Wikipedia in academic studies
  • Zotero: Wikipedia Research

Other Wiki pages within the Wikimedia chaos [ edit ]

  • de:Wikipedia:Wikipedistik/Bibliographie
  • en:Wikipedia:Wikipedia_in_academic_studies
  • Wiki Science on Wikibooks
  • Wiktionary/Share information , dedicated to Wiktionary

Unsorted [ edit ]

Put new publications here

  • Winkler, Stefan (2003). Selbstorganisation der Kommunikation Wissenschaft - Öffentlichkeit im virtuellen Raum , Koblenz, Forschungsstelle Wissenstransfer.
  • John M, Melster R (2004): Knowledge networks - Managing collaborative knowledge spaces . In: LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE 3096: 165-171
  • Chun, AHW (2004): The Agile Teaching/Learning Methodology and its e-learning platform . In: LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE 3143: 11-18
  • Krause, J. (2004): A Wiki-wiki way to work . In: ABA JOURNAL 90: 61-61 DEC 2004
  • Ebersbach, A, Glaser, M (2004): Towards Emancipatory Use of a Medium: The Wiki . In: International Journal of Information Ethics 2/2004.
  • Burrow A.L. (2004): Negotiating access within wiki: A system to construct and maintain a taxonomy of access rules . In: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Hypertext, pp.77-86.
  • Philippe Aigrain: The Individual and the Collective in Open Information Communities , extended abstract of invited talk at the 16th BLED Electronic Commerce Conference, 9-11 June 2003; [73]
  • Lowe, J.W.: Other People's Data and Wiki Web Sites . In: GeoSpatial Solutions 13 (6) , 42-47, 2003
  • Puls, Christoph; Bongulielmi, Luca & Henseler, Patrick: Leitfaden für den Aufbau einer unternehmensinternen Wissensbasis mit Hilfe von Wiki. ETH, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, Zentrum für Produktentwicklung, 2002.
  • Bairstow, J.: 2003 Is there a 'wiki' in your future? . In: Laser Focus World 39 (7) , 140
  • Ueli Preisig: Kooperative Wissensgenerierung in virtuellen Gemeinschaften zur Befriedigung von komplexen Informationsbedürfnissen am Beispiel Tourismus , Diplomarbeit Institut für Informatik, Universität Zürich. [74]
  • Schwall, Johannes : The wiki phenomenon (zu einem Seminar von Joachim Frenk)
  • Zhu, H.: Some Issues of Role-Based Collaboration . In: Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2003
  • Mitch, L. (2003). The People’s Encyclopedia. Science, 301(5), 1299. [75]
  • Emma Tonkin (30. Januar 2005): Making the Case for a Wiki . In: Ariadne 42
  • Münzberg, Marko (2004): Erfolgsfaktoren und Hemmnisse bei der Nutzung der innovativen Technologie Wiki für das Wissensmanagement in Klein- und Mittelunternehmen (=Success factors and impediments in the use of the innovative technology Wiki for knowledge management in small and mid-sized companies) . Unveröffentlichte Masterarbeit, FB Wirtschaft, FH Brandenburg

Serious Journalism about Wikipedia [ edit ]

  • Berinstein, Paula. Wikipedia and Britannica: The Kid’s All Right (And So’s the Old Man).

In: Searcher: The Magazine for Database Professionals 14(3), March 2006. [76] [Wikipedia, history, Wales, Sanger, Encyclopedia Britannica]

  • Krowne, Aaron. The FUD-based Encyclopedia: Dismantling fear, uncertainty, and doubt, aimed at Wikipedia and other free knowledge resources. In: Free Software Magazine, Word world. 2005-01-03. [77]
  • McHenry, Robert. The Faith-Based Encyclopedia . In: Tech Central Station, November 15, 2004. [78]
  • Poe, Marshall. "The Hive." In: The Atlantic Monthly, September, 2006. [79]
  • Sanger, Larry. Why Wikipedia Must Jettison its Anti-Elitism ., Dec 31 2004. [80]
  • Sanger, Larry. The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir . [81]
  • Vara, Vauhini (2005): From Wikipedia's Creator, a New Site for Anyone, Anything . In: Wall Street Journal (ISSN 0099-9660), 245 (2005) 60 , S. B1 [82] [Wikipedia, history, Wikicities, Wales, administration, economy, Wikia]
  • Levack, Kinley (2003): If Two Heads Are Better than One, Try 7,000 with Wikipedia. In: EContent (ISSN 1525-2531), 26 (2003) 4 , S. 12 [83] [Wikis, Wikipedia, Sanger, Wales, GFDL, history]

Related Topics (unsorted) [ edit ]

Free/Open Source Research, Collaborative Writing, Social Software Research...

This is a list of published scientific papers and theses only. Please include an English translation of the title and a summary, if possible.

  • Eric Scharff's PhD-thesis contains a study on using Swiki for creating course-material. [Chapter 8, I think] "Open Source Software: A Conceptual Framework for Collaborative Artifact and Knowledge Construction"
  • Baumgartner, Peter & Kalz, Marco (2004): Content Management Systeme aus bildungstechnologischer Sicht.In: Baumgartner, Peter; Häfele, Hartmut & Maier-Häfele, Kornelia: Content Management Systeme in e-Education. Auswahl, Potenziale und Einsatzmöglichkeiten. Studienverlag, Innsbruck PDF-Version [CMS in Education, Wikis in Education]
  • Beyerlein, Ingo: Raus aus dem Text… rein in den Kopf! - Die Analyse der kognitiven Struktur von Spickzetteln, deren Auswirkung auf die Erinnerungsleistung und daraus resultierende Implikationen für die Entwicklung eines Mapping- und Lernsoftware-Systems. Diplomarbeit 2004, Otto-Friedrich Universität Bamberg, Lehrstuhl für Pädagogische Psychologie, Betreuer: Prof. Dr. Detlef Berg

Categories [ edit ]

Works in the Wiki Research Bibliography are ordered in the following categories . The categories are not hierarchical classes but shown here as a tree to get a better overview.

  • Quality  : Quality issues, critics, management etc.
  • Semantics & KO  : Semantic Wikis and Knowledge Organization in a Wiki
  • Roles  : User roles in a Wiki/Wikipedia
  • Authorship  : Authorship in Wikis and Wikipedia
  • User Interaction  : Research focused on the interaction of users in a Wiki (discussion etc.)
  • Knowledge Management  : Use of Wikis and Wikipedia for knowledge management , for instance in corporations
  • Teaching & Learning  : Use of Wikis and Wikipedia for Teaching and Learning
  • Usability  : Usability of Wikis/Wikipedia
  • Usage as Corpus  : Usage of Wikipedia or other Wikis as a corpus for different research, for instance search engines, machine translation etc.
  • Ethics  : Ethical aspects
  • Software  : Technical aspects
  • History  : History of Wikis and Wikipedia
  • Relatives  : Not about Wikis but also relevant (similar systems, ancestors...)
  • General  : unsorted
  • Wikipedia  : general works about Wikipedia, unsorted

bibliography wiki

Database Formats

ConTeXt can read several different formats of bibliographic databases:

BibTeX .bib format

ConTeXt is independent from the BibTeX program, but can read .bib databases, if they’re not too polluted with non-standardized (LaTeX) commands. This format is the oldest, but supported by most bibliography management programs. The other supported formats use the same structure of records, just ported to different “languages”.

A BibTeX database is a text file, consisting of entries like:

@Article is an example for a common category, like @Book , @unpublished etc. Letter case doesn’t matter. The first argument reference must not contain spaces and is ended with a comma. Spacing within an entry doesn’t matter. If values consist of only one word, you don’t need quotes, otherwise you can also use brackets.

ConTeXt understands UTF-8 encoded bib files as well as old fashioned TeX accent combinations.

  • Title (also Title:en, Title:de etc.), Subtitle
  • Author (see manual for possible formats)
  • Journal, Type, Number, Volume, Pages, Review
  • Year, Month, Day
  • Warning, Comment, Note
  • author, editor: fields are parsed as "Firstname(s) Lastname", multiple entries separated by 'and' (see manual p.6/14)
  • keywords: separated by semicolons

MkII .bbl format

This intermediate format is still supported, but obsolete. Just an example to let you know what it means:

Since internally everything anyway are Lua tables, you can use them directly as a database format:

  • The mentioned database file formats are recognized by their extension: .bib, .bbl., .lua and .xml
  • default is the name for this database. If you load several files into the same name space, they get merged.
  • \definebtxrendering , \setupbtxrendering
  • default, none, cite, list: don’t sort, use original order
  • dataset, index: sort after dataset index
  • reference: sort by reference tag
  • key: sort by key (traditionally used in BibTeX as sortkey)
  • short: sort by short
  • authoryear: sort by author(s) and publication year

bib list rendering

See manual, p.24ff.

Predefined renderings include:

  • apa (by American Psychological Assoc.)
  • aps (used in physical sciences)
  • vancouver (used in biological sciences)
  • sbl (used in theology), external project

Note: Only apa, aps, and chicago styles are currently provided as a showcase.

Bibliography lists and citations are rendered in the language of the document ( \mainlanguage ). If an entry includes a language field, this can be used, depending on the rendering specification.

You can force the main language on all entries with \setupdelimitedtext [language=global] .

You can define and use translated titles with language modifiers, e.g. title:de or booktitle:fr .

Complex example

To see how the concepts play together, here a relatively complete example:

See p.31ff. of the manual. E.g.

The first argument defaults to the default citation rendering, as defined by \setupbtx[default:cite][alternative=num] .

Custom bibliographical styles

Users who wish to develop their own custom styles could start with the files in the distribution, copy them to different names and then modify them (e.g., the files publ-imp-apa.lua and publ-imp-apa.mkvi ). However, these files contain a number of advanced code to deal with the numerous exceptions and rules. Hence, in some cases, it may be easier to write your own custom style. Here, I will provide you with an example what a minimal setup will be to get you started. Once you have a style in place and understand what's needed, it is easy to experiment further.

For every style, you will need two files: one with the TeX setups and one with the Lua definitions. They have to follow the naming conventions that the bibliographic subsystem expects so they can be found. If your style is called mycustom , these two files should be publ-imp-mycustom.mkiv and publ-imp-mycustom.lua .

The Lua code

A minimal Lua file can be very brief. It has to contain a little bit of boiler plate with the required tables and the "categories" (i.e. publication types) that your bibliography will process. A minimal example will look like this:

For every type publicationtype you want processed, you need an entry categories.publicationtype . This entry needs to have a list of fields that will be processed, divided into "required" fields (that every entry needs to have) and "optional" fields (that they may or may not have). Every book needs to have a title, but not necessarily an author. Remember: only types that have a category will be processed. Only fields that are listed in the category will be processed.

The TeX code

The TeX file is where the formatting is done. Again, you need to start with a few lines that make the publ-imp-mycustom.mkiv file work:

This will make ConTeXt use your definitions. Further on, you include formatting directives for every type of publication you have included in your Lua file. If you want to modify the way the cite command will be displayed, these directives will be in the form \startsetups btx:mycustom:cite . For formatting the bibliographic list, they will be in the form \startsetups btx:mycustom:list:categroy . In our example, the only category is "book," so that's what our minimal definition will look like:

The most important command here is the btxflush : it will typeset the corresponding field of your bibliographic entry. You include it within formatting directives. As you can see, in our example, the author name will be typeset in blue; the title will be typeset in red. In the first section, btxdoif {author} checks whether there is a field "author"; if it exists, it will be typeset; if it doesn't exist, nothing happens. In the second example, the btxdoifelse {title} checks whether the field "title" exists. If it exists, the code within the first pair of braces will be executed, i.e., the title will be typeset in red. If it doesn't exist, the second pair of braces will be executed, and ConTeXt will typeset "No Title" in your document.

This should get you started with your custom style and let you experiment to your heart's content. The fields will be typeset in the order in which you include them in the setups. If you want to know more about these fields and about the commands that are available, check Chapter 6 of mkiv-publications.pdf .

Simple manual bibliography

If you don’t need bibliographical databases, but just references within one document, this approach might be enough for you:

Here’s a similar approach using \defineitemgroup .

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GNU Free Documentation License 1.2

LaTeX/Bibliography Management

For any academic/research writing, incorporating references into a document is an important task. Fortunately, LaTeX has a variety of features that make dealing with references much simpler, including built-in support for citing references. However, a much more powerful and flexible solution is achieved thanks to an auxiliary tool called BibTeX (which comes bundled as standard with LaTeX). Recently, BibTeX has been succeeded by BibLaTeX, a tool configurable within LaTeX syntax.

BibTeX provides for the storage of all references in an external, flat-file database. (BibLaTeX uses this same syntax.) This database can be referenced in any LaTeX document, and citations made to any record that is contained within the file. This is often more convenient than embedding them at the end of every document written; a centralized bibliography source can be linked to as many documents as desired (write once, read many!). Of course, bibliographies can be split over as many files as one wishes, so there can be a file containing sources concerning topic A ( a.bib ) and another concerning topic B ( b.bib ). When writing about topic AB, both of these files can be linked into the document (perhaps in addition to sources ab.bib specific to topic AB).

  • 1 Embedded system
  • 2.1 Referring more specifically
  • 2.2 Multiple citations
  • 2.3 Bibliography styles
  • 2.4 No cite
  • 2.5.1 Customization
  • 3.1 Authors
  • 3.2 Standard templates
  • 3.3 Non-standard templates
  • 3.4 Preserving case of letters
  • 3.5 A few additional examples
  • 3.6 Getting current LaTeX document to use your .bib file
  • 3.7 Why won't LaTeX generate any output?
  • 3.8 Including URLs in bibliography
  • 3.9 Customizing bibliography appearance
  • 3.10 Localizing bibliography appearance
  • 3.11 Showing unused items
  • 3.12 Getting bibliographic data
  • 3.13 Helpful tools
  • 3.14 Summary
  • 4.1 Using tocbibind
  • 4.2.1 As unnumbered item
  • 4.2.2 As numbered item
  • 5.1 Entry and field types in .bib files
  • 5.2.1 Printing separate bibliographies
  • 5.2.2 Example with prefix keys, subheadings and table of contents
  • 6.1 Using multibib
  • 6.2 Using bibtopic
  • 7 Notes and references

Embedded system [ edit | edit source ]

If you are writing only one or two documents and aren't planning on writing more on the same subject for a long time, you might not want to waste time creating a database of references you are never going to use. In this case you should consider using the basic and simple bibliography support that is embedded within LaTeX.

LaTeX provides an environment called thebibliography that you have to use where you want the bibliography; that usually means at the very end of your document, just before the \end{document} command. Here is a practical example:

OK, so what is going on here? The first thing to notice is the establishment of the environment. thebibliography is a keyword that tells LaTeX to recognize everything between the begin and end tags as data for the bibliography. The mandatory argument, which I supplied after the begin statement, is telling LaTeX how wide the item label will be when printed. Note however, that the number itself is not the parameter, but the number of digits is. Therefore, I am effectively telling LaTeX that I will only need reference labels of one character in length, which ultimately means no more than nine references in total. If you want more than nine, then input any two-digit number, such as '56', which allows up to 99 references.

Next is the actual reference entry itself. This is prefixed with the \bibitem{ cite_key } command. The cite_key should be a unique identifier for that particular reference, and is often some sort of mnemonic consisting of any sequence of letters, numbers and punctuation symbols (although not a comma). I often use the surname of the first author, followed by the last two digits of the year (hence lamport94 ). If that author has produced more than one reference for a given year, then I add letters after, 'a', 'b', etc. But, you should do whatever works for you. Everything after the key is the reference itself. You need to type it as you want it to be presented. I have put the different parts of the reference, such as author, title, etc., on different lines for readability. These linebreaks are ignored by LaTeX. The \textit{} command formats the title properly in italics.

Citations [ edit | edit source ]

To actually cite a given document is very easy. Go to the point where you want the citation to appear, and use the following: \cite{ cite_key } , where the cite_key is that of the bibitem you wish to cite. When LaTeX processes the document, the citation will be cross-referenced with the bibitems and replaced with the appropriate number citation. The advantage here, once again, is that LaTeX looks after the numbering for you. If it were totally manual, then adding or removing a reference would be a real chore, as you would have to re-number all the citations by hand.

Referring more specifically [ edit | edit source ]

If you want to refer to a certain page, figure or theorem in a text book, you can use the arguments to the \cite command:

The argument, "p. 215", will show up inside the same brackets. Note the tilde in [p.~215] , which replaces the end-of-sentence spacing with a non-breakable inter-word space. This non-breakable inter-word space is inserted because the end-of-sentence spacing would be too wide, and "p." should not be separated from the page number. The code \cite[215]{citation01} will produce the same result — in this case p.~ in front of the page number will be added automatically; but it will not be added for \cite[Cor.~2.5]{citation01} .

Multiple citations [ edit | edit source ]

When a sequence of multiple citations is needed, you should use a single \cite{} command. The citations are then separated by commas. Here's an example:

The result will then be shown as citations inside the same brackets, depending on the citation style.

Bibliography styles [ edit | edit source ]

There are several different ways to format lists of bibliographic references and the citations to them in the text. These are called citation styles , and consist of two parts: the format of the abbreviated citation (i.e. the marker that is inserted into the text to identify the entry in the list of references) and the format of the corresponding entry in the list of references, which includes full bibliographic details.

Abbreviated citations can be of two main types: numbered or textual. Numbered citations (also known as the Vancouver referencing system ) are numbered consecutively in order of appearance in the text, and consist in Arabic numerals in parentheses (1) , square brackets [1] , superscript 1 , or a combination thereof [1] . Textual citations (also known as the Harvard referencing system ) use the author surname and (usually) the year as the abbreviated form of the citation, which is normally fully (Smith 2013) or partially enclosed in parenthesis, as in Smith (2013) . The latter form allows the citation to be integrated in the sentence it supports.

Below you can see three of the styles available with LaTeX:

Here are some more often used styles:

However, keep in mind that you will need to use the natbib package to use most of these.

No cite [ edit | edit source ]

If you only want a reference to appear in the bibliography, but not where it is referenced in the main text, then the \nocite{} command can be used, for example:

A special version of the command, \nocite{*} , includes all entries from the database, whether they are referenced in the document or not.

Natbib [ edit | edit source ]

Using the standard LaTeX bibliography support, you will see that each reference is numbered and each citation corresponds to the numbers. The numeric style of citation is quite common in scientific writing. In other disciplines, the author-year style, e.g., (Roberts, 2003), such as Harvard is preferred. The natbib package is one possible way to get such an output. In fact, it can supersede LaTeX's own citation commands, as Natbib allows the user to easily switch between Harvard or numeric.

The first job is to add the following to your preamble in order to get LaTeX to use the Natbib package:

An example of useful options is:

Also, you need to change the bibliography style file to be used, so edit the appropriate line at the bottom of the file so that it reads: \bibliographystyle{plainnat} . Once done, it is basically a matter of altering the existing \cite commands to display the type of citation you want.

Customization [ edit | edit source ]

The main commands simply add a t for 'textual' or p for 'parenthesized', to the basic \cite command. You will also notice how Natbib by default will compress references with three or more authors to the more concise 1st surname et al version. By adding an asterisk (*), you can override this default and list all authors associated with that citation. There are some other specialized commands that Natbib supports, listed in the table here. Keep in mind that for instance abbrvnat does not support \citet* and will automatically choose between all authors and et al..

The final area that I wish to cover about Natbib is customizing its citation style. There is a command called \bibpunct that can be used to override the defaults and change certain settings. For example, I have put the following in the preamble:

The command requires six mandatory parameters.

  • The symbol for the opening bracket.
  • The symbol for the closing bracket.
  • The symbol that appears between multiple citations.
  • n - numerical style.
  • s - numerical superscript style.
  • any other letter - author-year style.
  • The punctuation to appear between the author and the year (in parenthetical case only).
  • The punctuation used between years, in multiple citations when there is a common author. e.g., (Chomsky 1956, 1957). If you want an extra space, then you need {,~} .

Some of the options controlled by \bibpunct are also accessible by passing options to the natbib package when it is loaded. These options also allow some other aspect of the bibliography to be controlled, and can be seen in the table (right).

So as you can see, this package is quite flexible, especially as you can easily switch between different citation styles by changing a single parameter. Do have a look at the Natbib manual , it's a short document and you can learn even more about how to use it.

BibTeX [ edit | edit source ]

I have previously introduced the idea of embedding references at the end of the document, and then using the \cite command to cite them within the text. In this tutorial, I want to do a little better than this method, as it's not as flexible as it could be. I will concentrate on using BibTeX .

A BibTeX database is stored as a .bib file. It is a plain text file, and so can be viewed and edited easily. The structure of the file is also quite simple. An example of a BibTeX entry:

Each entry begins with the declaration of the reference type, in the form of @ type . BibTeX knows of practically all types you can think of, common ones are: book , article , and for papers presented at conferences, there is inproceedings . In this example, I have referred to an article within a journal.

After the type, you must have a left curly brace ' { ' to signify the beginning of the reference attributes. The first one follows immediately after the brace, which is the citation key , or the BibTeX key . This key must be unique for all entries in your bibliography. It is this identifier that you will use within your document to cross-reference it to this entry. It is up to you as to how you wish to label each reference, but there is a loose standard in which you use the author's surname, followed by the year of publication. This is the scheme that I use in this tutorial.

Next, it should be clear that what follows are the relevant fields and data for that particular reference. The field names on the left are BibTeX keywords . They are followed by an equals sign (=) where the value for that field is then placed. BibTeX expects you to explicitly label the beginning and end of each value. I personally use quotation marks ("), however, you also have the option of using curly braces ('{', '}'). But as you will soon see, curly braces have other roles, within attributes, so I prefer not to use them for this job as they can get more confusing. A notable exception is when you want to use characters with umlauts (ü, ö, etc), since their notation is in the format \"{o} , and the quotation mark will close the one opening the field, causing an error in the parsing of the reference. Using \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc} in the preamble to the .tex source file can get round this, as the accented characters can just be stored in the .bib file without any need for special markup. This allows a consistent format to be kept throughout the .bib file, avoiding the need to use braces when there are umlauts to consider.

Remember that each attribute must be followed by a comma to delimit one from another. You do not need to add a comma to the last attribute, since the closing brace will tell BibTeX that there are no more attributes for this entry, although you won't get an error if you do.

It can take a while to learn what the reference types are, and what fields each type has available (and which ones are required or optional, etc). So, look at this entry type reference and also this field reference for descriptions of all the fields. It may be worth bookmarking or printing these pages so that they are easily at hand when you need them. Much of the information contained therein is repeated in the following table for your convenience.

+ Required fields, o Optional fields *1 (Clarification needed) *2 (Clarification needed)

Authors [ edit | edit source ]

BibTeX can be quite clever with names of authors. It can accept names in forename surname or surname, forename . I personally use the former, but remember that the order you input them (or any data within an entry for that matter) is customizable and so you can get BibTeX to manipulate the input and then output it however you like. If you use the forename surname method, then you must be careful with a few special names, where there are compound surnames, for example "John von Neumann". In this form, BibTeX assumes that the last word is the surname, and everything before is the forename, plus any middle names. You must therefore manually tell BibTeX to keep the 'von' and 'Neumann' together. This is achieved easily using curly braces. So the final result would be "John {von Neumann}". This is easily avoided with the surname, forename , since you have a comma to separate the surname from the forename.

Secondly, there is the issue of how to tell BibTeX when a reference has more than one author. This is very simply done by putting the keyword and in between every author. As we can see from another example:

This book has three authors, and each is separated as described. Of course, when BibTeX processes and outputs this, there will only be an 'and' between the penultimate and last authors, but within the .bib file, it needs the and s so that it can keep track of the individual authors.

Standard templates [ edit | edit source ]

Standard templates that can be directly copied and filled in. Optional entries are marked in the core by a ? prefix. Note that the % sign used in LaTeX for commenting lines does not work in BibTeX and creates invalid field name. In BibTeX, valid but unknown field names and names outside of an entry are ignored, leading to a popular commenting method. <--Be careful if you copy the following templates, the % sign is not valid to comment out lines in bibtex files. If you want to comment out a line, you have to put it outside the entry.-->

  • Required fields: author, title, journal, year.
  • Optional fields: volume, number, pages, month, note.
  • Required fields: author/editor, title, publisher, year.
  • Optional fields: volume/number, series, address, edition, month, note.
  • Required fields: title.
  • Optional fields: author, howpublished, address, month, year, note.
  • Required fields: author, title, booktitle, year.
  • Optional fields: editor, volume/number, series, pages, address, month, organization, publisher, note.
  • Required fields: author/editor, title, chapter and/or pages, publisher, year.
  • Optional fields: volume/number, series, type, address, edition, month, note.
  • Required fields: author, title, booktitle, publisher, year.
  • Optional fields: editor, volume/number, series, type, chapter, pages, address, edition, month, note.
  • Optional fields: author, organization, address, edition, month, year, note.
  • Required fields: author, title, school, year.
  • Optional fields: type (eg. "diploma thesis"), address, month, note.
  • Required fields: none
  • Optional fields: author, title, howpublished, month, year, note.
  • Required fields: author, title, year, school.
  • Optional fields: address, month, keywords, note.
  • Required fields: title, year.
  • Optional fields: editor, volume/number, series, address, month, organization, publisher, note.
  • Required fields: author, title, institution, year.
  • Optional fields: type, number, address, month, note.
  • Required fields: author, title, note.
  • Optional fields: month, year.

Non-standard templates [ edit | edit source ]

Preserving case of letters [ edit | edit source ].

In the event that BibTeX has been set by the chosen style not to preserve all capitalization within titles, problems can occur, especially if you are referring to proper nouns, or acronyms. To tell BibTeX to keep them, use the good old curly braces around the letter in question, (or letters, if it's an acronym) and all will be well! It is even possible that lower-case letters may need to be preserved - for example if a chemical formula is used in a style that sets a title in all caps or small caps, or if "pH" is to be used in a style that capitalises all first letters.

However, avoid putting the whole title in curly braces, as it will look odd if a different capitalization format is used:

For convenience though, many people simply put double curly braces, which may help when writing scientific articles for different magazines, conferences with different BibTex styles that do sometimes keep and sometimes not keep the capital letters:

As an alternative, try other BibTex styles or modify the existing. The approach of putting only relevant text in curly brackets is the most feasible if using a template under the control of a publisher, such as for journal submissions. Using curly braces around single letters is also to be avoided if possible, as it may mess up the kerning, especially with biblatex, [1] so the first step should generally be to enclose single words in braces.

A few additional examples [ edit | edit source ]

Below you will find a few additional examples of bibliography entries. The first one covers the case of multiple authors in the Surname, Firstname format, and the second one deals with the incollection case.

If you have to cite a website you can use @misc, for example:

The note field comes in handy if you need to add unstructured information, for example that the corresponding issue of the journal has yet to appear:

Getting current LaTeX document to use your .bib file [ edit | edit source ]

At the end of your LaTeX file (that is, after the content, but before \end{document} ), you need to place the following commands:

Bibliography styles are files recognized by BibTeX that tell it how to format the information stored in the .bib file when processed for output. And so the first command listed above is declaring which style file to use. The style file in this instance is plain.bst (which comes as standard with BibTeX). You do not need to add the .bst extension when using this command, as it is assumed. Despite its name, the plain style does a pretty good job (look at the output of this tutorial to see what I mean).

The second command is the one that actually specifies the .bib file you wish to use. The ones I created for this tutorial were called sample1.bib , sample2.bib , . . ., samplen.bib , but once again, you don't include the file extension. At the moment, the .bib file is in the same directory as the LaTeX document too. However, if your .bib file was elsewhere (which makes sense if you intend to maintain a centralized database of references for all your research), you need to specify the path as well, e.g \bibliography{/some/where/sample} or \bibliography{../sample1} (if the .bib file is in the parent directory of the .tex document that calls it).

Now that LaTeX and BibTeX know where to look for the appropriate files, actually citing the references is fairly trivial. The \cite{ ref_key } is the command you need, making sure that the ref_key corresponds exactly to one of the entries in the .bib file. If you wish to cite more than one reference at the same time, do the following: \cite{ ref_key1 , ref_key2 , ..., ref_keyN } .

Why won't LaTeX generate any output? [ edit | edit source ]

The addition of BibTeX adds extra complexity for the processing of the source to the desired output. This is largely hidden from the user, but because of all the complexity of the referencing of citations from your source LaTeX file to the database entries in another file, you actually need multiple passes to accomplish the task. This means you have to run LaTeX a number of times. Each pass will perform a particular task until it has managed to resolve all the citation references. Here's what you need to type (into command line):

  • latex latex_source_code.tex
  • bibtex latex_source_code.aux

(Extensions are optional, if you put them note that the bibtex command takes the AUX file as input.)

After the first LaTeX run, you will see errors such as:

The next step is to run bibtex on that same LaTeX source (or more precisely the corresponding AUX file, however not on the actual .bib file) to then define all the references within that document. You should see output like the following:

The third step, which is invoking LaTeX for the second time will see more errors like " LaTeX Warning: Label(s) may have changed. Rerun to get cross-references right. ". Don't be alarmed, it's almost complete. As you can guess, all you have to do is follow its instructions, and run LaTeX for the third time, and the document will be output as expected, without further problems.

If you want a pdf output instead of a dvi output you can use pdflatex instead of latex as follows:

  • pdflatex latex_source_code.tex

Note that if you are editing your source in vim and attempt to use command mode and the current file shortcut (%) to process the document like this:

  • :! pdflatex %
  • :! bibtex %

You will get an error similar to this:

  • I couldn't open file name 'current_file.tex.aux'

It appears that the file extension is included by default when the current file command (%) is executed. To process your document from within vim, you must explicitly name the file without the file extension for bibtex to work, as is shown below:

  • :! bibtex %:r (without file extension, it looks for the AUX file as mentioned above)

Another option exists if you are running Unix/Linux or any other platform where you have make . Then you can simply create a Makefile and use vim's make command or use make in shell. The Makefile would then look like this:

Including URLs in bibliography [ edit | edit source ]

As you can see, there is no field for URLs. One possibility is to include Internet addresses in howpublished field of @misc or note field of @techreport , @article , @book :

howpublished = "\url{}"

Note the usage of \url command to ensure proper appearance of URLs .

Another way is to use special field url and make bibliography style recognise it.

url = ""

You need to use \usepackage{url} in the first case or \usepackage{hyperref} in the second case.

Styles provided by Natbib (see below) handle this field, other styles can be modified using urlbst program. Modifications of three standard styles (plain, abbrv and alpha) are provided with urlbst.

If you need more help about URLs in bibliography, visit FAQ of UK List of TeX .

Customizing bibliography appearance [ edit | edit source ]

One of the main advantages of BibTeX, especially for people who write many research papers, is the ability to customize your bibliography to suit the requirements of a given publication. You will notice how different publications tend to have their own style of formatting references, to which authors must adhere if they want their manuscripts published. In fact, established journals and conference organizers often will have created their own bibliography style (.bst file) for those users of BibTeX, to do all the hard work for you.

It can achieve this because of the nature of the .bib database, where all the information about your references is stored in a structured format, but nothing about style. This is a common theme in LaTeX in general, where it tries as much as possible to keep content and presentation separate.

A bibliography style file ( .bst ) will tell LaTeX how to format each attribute, what order to put them in, what punctuation to use in between particular attributes etc. Unfortunately, creating such a style by hand is not a trivial task. Which is why Makebst (also known as custom-bib ) is the tool we need.

Makebst can be used to automatically generate a .bst file based on your needs. It is very simple, and actually asks you a series of questions about your preferences. Once complete, it will then output the appropriate style file for you to use.

It should be installed with the LaTeX distribution (otherwise, you can download it ) and it's very simple to initiate. At the command line, type:

LaTeX will find the relevant file and the questioning process will begin. You will have to answer quite a few (although, note that the default answers are pretty sensible), which means it would be impractical to go through an example in this tutorial. However, it is fairly straight-forward. And if you require further guidance, then there is a comprehensive manual available. I'd recommend experimenting with it and seeing what the results are when applied to a LaTeX document.

If you are using a custom built .bst file, it is important that LaTeX can find it! So, make sure it's in the same directory as the LaTeX source file, unless you are using one of the standard style files (such as plain or plainnat , that come bundled with LaTeX - these will be automatically found in the directories that they are installed. Also, make sure the name of the .bst file you want to use is reflected in the \bibliographystyle{style} command (but don't include the .bst extension!).

Localizing bibliography appearance [ edit | edit source ]

When writing documents in languages other than English, you may find it desirable to adapt the appearance of your bibliography to the document language. This concerns words such as editors , and , or in as well as a proper typographic layout. The babelbib package can be used here. For example, to layout the bibliography in German, add the following to the header:

Alternatively, you can layout each bibliography entry according to the language of the cited document:

The language of an entry is specified as an additional field in the BibTeX entry:

For babelbib to take effect, a bibliography style supported by it - one of babplain , babplai3 , babalpha , babunsrt , bababbrv , and bababbr3 - must be used:

Showing unused items [ edit | edit source ]

Usually LaTeX only displays the entries which are referred to with \cite . It's possible to make uncited entries visible:

Getting bibliographic data [ edit | edit source ]

Many online databases provide bibliographic data in BibTeX-Format, making it easy to build your own database. For example, Google Scholar offers the option to return properly formatted output, which can also be turned on in the settings page.

One should be alert to the fact that bibliographic databases are frequently the product of several generations of automatic processing, and so the resulting BibTex code is prone to a variety of minor errors, especially in older entries.

Helpful tools [ edit | edit source ]

bibliography wiki

  • BibDesk BibDesk is a bibliographic reference manager for Mac OS X. It features a very usable user interface and provides a number of features like smart folders based on keywords and live tex display.
  • BibSonomy — A free social bookmark and publication management system based on BibTeX.
  • BibTeXSearch BibTeXSearch is a free searchable BibTeX database spanning millions of academic records.
  • Bibtex Editor - An online BibTeX entry generator and bibliography management system. Possible to import and export Bibtex files.
  • Bibwiki Bibwiki is a Specialpage for MediaWiki to manage BibTeX bibliographies. It offers a straightforward way to import and export bibliographic records.
  • cb2Bib The cb2Bib is a tool for rapidly extracting unformatted, or unstandardized bibliographic references from email alerts, journal Web pages, and PDF files.
  • Citavi Commercial software (with size-limited free demo version) which even searches libraries for citations and keeps all your knowledge in a database. Export of the database to all kinds of formats is possible. Works together with MS Word and Open Office Writer. Moreover plug ins for browsers and Acrobat Reader exist to automatically include references to your project.
  • DokuWiki DokuWiki is a Bibtext plugin that allows for the inclusion of bibtex formatted citations in DokuWiki pages and displays them in APA format. Note: This Plugins is vulnerable to an XSS attack ->
  • Ebib — a BibTeX database manager for Emacs , well resolved and never more than a few keystrokes away.
  • JabRef is a Java program (under the GPL license) which lets you search many bibliographic databases such as Medline, Citeseer, IEEEXplore and arXiv and feed and manage your BibTeX local databases with your selected articles. Based on BiBTeX, JabRef can export in many other output formats such as html, MS Word or EndNote.
  • KBib Another BibTeX editor for KDE. It has similar capabilities, and slightly different UI. Features include BibTeX reference generation from PDF files, plain text, DOI, arXiv & PubMed IDs. Web queries to Google Scholar, PubMer, arXiv and a number of other services are also supported.
  • KBibTeX KBibTeX is a BibTeX editor for KDE to edit bibliographies used with LaTeX. Features include comfortable input masks, starting web queries (e. g. Google or PubMed) and exporting to PDF, PostScript, RTF and XML/HTML. As KBibTeX is using KDE's KParts technology, KBibTeX can be embedded into Kile or Konqueror.
  • Literatur-Generator is a German-language online tool for creating a bibliography (Bibtex, Endnote, Din 1505, ...).
  • Mendeley Mendeley is cost-free academic software for managing PDFs which can manage a bibliography in Open Office and read BibTeX.
  • Qiqqa Qiqqa is a free research manager that has built-in support for automatically associating BibTeX records with your PDFs and a 'BibTeX Sniffer' for helping you semi-automatically find BibTeX records.
  • Referencer Referencer is a Gnome application to organise documents or references, and ultimately generate a BibTeX bibliography file.
  • Synapsen — Hypertextual Card Index / Reference Manager with special support for BiBTeX / biblatex, written in Java.
  • Zotero Zotero is a free and open reference manager working as a standalone application, capable of importing and exporting bib files. Zotero has browser plugins for Chrome and Firefox.

Summary [ edit | edit source ]

Although it can take a little time to get to grips with BibTeX, in the long term, it's an efficient way to handle your references. It's not uncommon to find .bib files on websites that people compile as a list of their own publications, or a survey of relevant works within a given topic, etc. Or in those huge, online bibliography databases, you often find BibTeX versions of publications, so it's a quick cut-and-paste into your own .bib file, and then no more hassle!

Having all your references in one place can be a big advantage. And having them in a structured form, that allows customizable output is another one. There are a variety of free utilities that can load your .bib files, and allow you to view them in a more efficient manner, as well as sort them and check for errors.

Bibliography in the table of contents [ edit | edit source ]

If you are writing a book or report , you'll likely insert your bibliography using something like:

Or, if you are using BibTeX, your references will be saved in a .bib file, and your TeX document will include the bibliography by these commands:

Both of these examples will create a chapter-like (or section-like) output showing all your references. But even though the resulting “References” looks like a chapter or section, it will not be handled quite the same: it will not appear in the Table of Contents.

Using tocbibind [ edit | edit source ]

The most comfortable way of adding your bibliography to the table of contents is to use the dedicated package tocbibind that works with many standard document classes. Simply include this code in the preamble of your document:

This will include the Bibliography in the Table of Contents without numbering. If you want to have proper numbering, include the following code in the preamble:

The tocbibind package can also handle including the List of Figures, List of Tables and the Table of Contents itself in the Table of Contents. It has many options for numbering, document structure etc. to fit almost any scenario. See the tocbibind CTAN page for detailed documentation.

Other methods [ edit | edit source ]

As unnumbered item [ edit | edit source ].

If you want your bibliography to be in the table of contents, just add the following two lines just before the thebibliography environment:

(OR \addcontentsline { toc }{ section }{ Bibliography } if you're writing an article )

The first line just terminates the current paragraph and page. If you are writing a book , use \cleardoublepage to match the style used. The second line will add a line in the Table of Contents (first option, toc ), it will be like the ones created by chapters (second option, chapter ), and the third argument will be printed on the corresponding line in the Table of Contents; here Bibliography was chosen because it's the same text the thebibliography environment will automatically write when you use it, but you are free to write whatever you like. If you are using a separate bib file, add these lines between \bibliographystyle and \bibliography .

If you use hyperref package, you should also use the \phantomsection command to enable hyperlinking from the table of contents to bibliography.

This trick is particularly useful when you have to insert the bibliography in the Table of Contents, but it can work for anything. When LaTeX finds the code above, it will record the info as described and the current page number, inserting a new line in the Contents page.

As numbered item [ edit | edit source ]

If you instead want bibliography to be numbered section or chapter, you'll likely use this way:

Another even easier solution is to use \section inside of the \renewcommand block:

You may wish to use \renewcommand* { \refname }{ \vspace* { -1em }} followed by \vspace* { -1em } to counteract the extra space the blank \refname inserts.

If you are using BibTeX, the \bibliography command, and the book or report class, you will need to redefine \bibname instead of \refname like so.

biblatex [ edit | edit source ]

As we said before, biblatex is widely considered the successor of BibTeX. Intended as a full replacement for BibTeX, it is more configurable in its output and provides a multitude of new styles (for output) and fields (for the database) that can be used in a document. For now, refer to its comprehensive documentation on CTAN .

Entry and field types in .bib files [ edit | edit source ]

The following table shows most field types. Some field types are lists, either lists of person names , others are literal lists . A date can either be given in parts or full, some keys are necessary, page references are provided as ranges and certain special fields contain verbatim code. There are many kinds of titles .

Some entry types are hard to distinguish and are treated the same by standard styles:

  • @article is the same as hypothetic * @inperiodical and therefore encompasses existing @suppperiodical
  • @inbook = @bookinbook = @suppbook
  • @collection = @reference
  • @mvcollection = @mvreference
  • @incollection = @suppcollection = @inreference
  • @online = @electronic = @www
  • @report = @techreport
  • @thesis = @mastersthesis = @phdthesis

Some field types are defined, but the documentation does not say which entry types they can be used with. This is either because they depend on another field being set to be useful or they can always be used in a user-defined manner, but will never be used in standard styles:

  • abstract , annotation
  • entrysubtype
  • origdate , origlocation , origpublisher
  • origtitle , reprinttitle , indextitle
  • pagination , bookpagination
  • shortauthor , shorteditor , shorthand , shorthandintro , shortjournal , shortseries shorttitle

The only field that is always mandatory, is title . All entry types also require either date or year and they specify which of author and editor they expect or whether they can use both. Some field types can optionally be used with any entry type:

  • addendum , note

All physical (print) entry types share further optional field types:

  • eprint , eprintclass , eprinttype

Multimedia entry types

  • @performance

and legal entry types

  • @commentary
  • @jurisdiction
  • @legislation

are defined, but not yet supported (well).

The entry types @bibnote , @set and @xdata are special.

Printing bibliography [ edit | edit source ]

Presuming we have defined our references in a file called references.bib, we add this to biblatex by adding the following to the preamble:

Print the bibliography with this macro (usually at the end of the document body):

Printing separate bibliographies [ edit | edit source ]

We want to separate the bibliography into papers, books and others

If the bib entries are located in multiple files we can add them like this:

We can also filter on other fields, such as entrysubtype. If we define our online resources like this:

we filter with \printbibliography [title={Online resources}, subtype=inet]

Example with prefix keys, subheadings and table of contents [ edit | edit source ]

As the numbering of the bibliographies are independent, it can be useful to also separate the bibliographies using prefixnumbers such as a, b and c. In addition we add a main heading for the bibliographies and add that to the table of contents.

To make Hyperref links point to the correct bibliography section, we also add \phantomsection before printing each bibliography

To add each of the bibliographies to the table of contents as sub-sections to the main Bibliography, replace heading=subbibliography with heading=subbibintoc .

Multiple bibliographies [ edit | edit source ]

Using multibib [ edit | edit source ].

This package is for multiple Bibliographies for different sections in your work. For example, you can generate a bibliography for each chapter. You can find information about the package on CTAN [2]

Using bibtopic [ edit | edit source ]

The bibtopic-Package [3] is created to split the citations among more files, so that you can divide the bibliography into more parts. It generates a separate aux file for each bibliography section, so you will have to run bibtex on each of those (see the package documentation for more details).

Notes and references [ edit | edit source ]

  • ↑ The biblatex manual
  • ↑
  • ↑

This page uses material from Andy Roberts' Getting to grips with LaTeX with permission from the author.

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