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What Is a Case Study? | Definition, Examples & Methods

Published on May 8, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on January 30, 2023.

A case study is a detailed study of a specific subject, such as a person, group, place, event, organization, or phenomenon. Case studies are commonly used in social, educational, clinical, and business research.

A case study research design usually involves qualitative methods , but quantitative methods are sometimes also used. Case studies are good for describing , comparing, evaluating and understanding different aspects of a research problem .

Table of contents

When to do a case study, step 1: select a case, step 2: build a theoretical framework, step 3: collect your data, step 4: describe and analyze the case.

A case study is an appropriate research design when you want to gain concrete, contextual, in-depth knowledge about a specific real-world subject. It allows you to explore the key characteristics, meanings, and implications of the case.

Case studies are often a good choice in a thesis or dissertation . They keep your project focused and manageable when you don’t have the time or resources to do large-scale research.

You might use just one complex case study where you explore a single subject in depth, or conduct multiple case studies to compare and illuminate different aspects of your research problem.

Once you have developed your problem statement and research questions , you should be ready to choose the specific case that you want to focus on. A good case study should have the potential to:

Unlike quantitative or experimental research , a strong case study does not require a random or representative sample. In fact, case studies often deliberately focus on unusual, neglected, or outlying cases which may shed new light on the research problem.

However, you can also choose a more common or representative case to exemplify a particular category, experience or phenomenon.

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While case studies focus more on concrete details than general theories, they should usually have some connection with theory in the field. This way the case study is not just an isolated description, but is integrated into existing knowledge about the topic. It might aim to:

To ensure that your analysis of the case has a solid academic grounding, you should conduct a literature review of sources related to the topic and develop a theoretical framework . This means identifying key concepts and theories to guide your analysis and interpretation.

There are many different research methods you can use to collect data on your subject. Case studies tend to focus on qualitative data using methods such as interviews , observations , and analysis of primary and secondary sources (e.g., newspaper articles, photographs, official records). Sometimes a case study will also collect quantitative data.

The aim is to gain as thorough an understanding as possible of the case and its context.

In writing up the case study, you need to bring together all the relevant aspects to give as complete a picture as possible of the subject.

How you report your findings depends on the type of research you are doing. Some case studies are structured like a standard scientific paper or thesis , with separate sections or chapters for the methods , results and discussion .

Others are written in a more narrative style, aiming to explore the case from various angles and analyze its meanings and implications (for example, by using textual analysis or discourse analysis ).

In all cases, though, make sure to give contextual details about the case, connect it back to the literature and theory, and discuss how it fits into wider patterns or debates.

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Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Assignments

A case study research paper examines a person, place, event, condition, phenomenon, or other type of subject of analysis in order to extrapolate  key themes and results that help predict future trends, illuminate previously hidden issues that can be applied to practice, and/or provide a means for understanding an important research problem with greater clarity. A case study research paper usually examines a single subject of analysis, but case study papers can also be designed as a comparative investigation that shows relationships between two or more subjects. The methods used to study a case can rest within a quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-method investigative paradigm.

Case Studies. [email protected] Colorado State University; Mills, Albert J. , Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010 ; “What is a Case Study?” In Swanborn, Peter G. Case Study Research: What, Why and How? London: SAGE, 2010.

How to Approach Writing a Case Study Research Paper

General information about how to choose a topic to investigate can be found under the " Choosing a Research Problem " tab in the Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper writing guide. Review this page because it may help you identify a subject of analysis that can be investigated using a case study design.

However, identifying a case to investigate involves more than choosing the research problem . A case study encompasses a problem contextualized around the application of in-depth analysis, interpretation, and discussion, often resulting in specific recommendations for action or for improving existing conditions. As Seawright and Gerring note, practical considerations such as time and access to information can influence case selection, but these issues should not be the sole factors used in describing the methodological justification for identifying a particular case to study. Given this, selecting a case includes considering the following:

Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. “Building Theories from Case Study Research.” Academy of Management Review 14 (October 1989): 532-550; Emmel, Nick. Sampling and Choosing Cases in Qualitative Research: A Realist Approach . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2013; Gerring, John. “What Is a Case Study and What Is It Good for?” American Political Science Review 98 (May 2004): 341-354; Mills, Albert J. , Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010; Seawright, Jason and John Gerring. "Case Selection Techniques in Case Study Research." Political Research Quarterly 61 (June 2008): 294-308.

Structure and Writing Style

The purpose of a paper in the social sciences designed around a case study is to thoroughly investigate a subject of analysis in order to reveal a new understanding about the research problem and, in so doing, contributing new knowledge to what is already known from previous studies. In applied social sciences disciplines [e.g., education, social work, public administration, etc.], case studies may also be used to reveal best practices, highlight key programs, or investigate interesting aspects of professional work.

In general, the structure of a case study research paper is not all that different from a standard college-level research paper. However, there are subtle differences you should be aware of. Here are the key elements to organizing and writing a case study research paper.

I.  Introduction

As with any research paper, your introduction should serve as a roadmap for your readers to ascertain the scope and purpose of your study . The introduction to a case study research paper, however, should not only describe the research problem and its significance, but you should also succinctly describe why the case is being used and how it relates to addressing the problem. The two elements should be linked. With this in mind, a good introduction answers these four questions:

Each of these questions should be addressed in no more than a few paragraphs. Exceptions to this can be when you are addressing a complex research problem or subject of analysis that requires more in-depth background information.

II.  Literature Review

The literature review for a case study research paper is generally structured the same as it is for any college-level research paper. The difference, however, is that the literature review is focused on providing background information and  enabling historical interpretation of the subject of analysis in relation to the research problem the case is intended to address . This includes synthesizing studies that help to:

III.  Method

In this section, you explain why you selected a particular case [i.e., subject of analysis] and the strategy you used to identify and ultimately decide that your case was appropriate in addressing the research problem. The way you describe the methods used varies depending on the type of subject of analysis that constitutes your case study.

If your subject of analysis is an incident or event . In the social and behavioral sciences, the event or incident that represents the case to be studied is usually bounded by time and place, with a clear beginning and end and with an identifiable location or position relative to its surroundings. The subject of analysis can be a rare or critical event or it can focus on a typical or regular event. The purpose of studying a rare event is to illuminate new ways of thinking about the broader research problem or to test a hypothesis. Critical incident case studies must describe the method by which you identified the event and explain the process by which you determined the validity of this case to inform broader perspectives about the research problem or to reveal new findings. However, the event does not have to be a rare or uniquely significant to support new thinking about the research problem or to challenge an existing hypothesis. For example, Walo, Bull, and Breen conducted a case study to identify and evaluate the direct and indirect economic benefits and costs of a local sports event in the City of Lismore, New South Wales, Australia. The purpose of their study was to provide new insights from measuring the impact of a typical local sports event that prior studies could not measure well because they focused on large "mega-events." Whether the event is rare or not, the methods section should include an explanation of the following characteristics of the event: a) when did it take place; b) what were the underlying circumstances leading to the event; and, c) what were the consequences of the event in relation to the research problem.

If your subject of analysis is a person. Explain why you selected this particular individual to be studied and describe what experiences they have had that provide an opportunity to advance new understandings about the research problem. Mention any background about this person which might help the reader understand the significance of their experiences that make them worthy of study. This includes describing the relationships this person has had with other people, institutions, and/or events that support using them as the subject for a case study research paper. It is particularly important to differentiate the person as the subject of analysis from others and to succinctly explain how the person relates to examining the research problem [e.g., why is one politician in a particular local election used to show an increase in voter turnout from any other candidate running in the election]. Note that these issues apply to a specific group of people used as a case study unit of analysis [e.g., a classroom of students].

If your subject of analysis is a place. In general, a case study that investigates a place suggests a subject of analysis that is unique or special in some way and that this uniqueness can be used to build new understanding or knowledge about the research problem. A case study of a place must not only describe its various attributes relevant to the research problem [e.g., physical, social, historical, cultural, economic, political], but you must state the method by which you determined that this place will illuminate new understandings about the research problem. It is also important to articulate why a particular place as the case for study is being used if similar places also exist [i.e., if you are studying patterns of homeless encampments of veterans in open spaces, explain why you are studying Echo Park in Los Angeles rather than Griffith Park?]. If applicable, describe what type of human activity involving this place makes it a good choice to study [e.g., prior research suggests Echo Park has more homeless veterans].

If your subject of analysis is a phenomenon. A phenomenon refers to a fact, occurrence, or circumstance that can be studied or observed but with the cause or explanation to be in question. In this sense, a phenomenon that forms your subject of analysis can encompass anything that can be observed or presumed to exist but is not fully understood. In the social and behavioral sciences, the case usually focuses on human interaction within a complex physical, social, economic, cultural, or political system. For example, the phenomenon could be the observation that many vehicles used by ISIS fighters are small trucks with English language advertisements on them. The research problem could be that ISIS fighters are difficult to combat because they are highly mobile. The research questions could be how and by what means are these vehicles used by ISIS being supplied to the militants and how might supply lines to these vehicles be cut off? How might knowing the suppliers of these trucks reveal larger networks of collaborators and financial support? A case study of a phenomenon most often encompasses an in-depth analysis of a cause and effect that is grounded in an interactive relationship between people and their environment in some way.

NOTE:   The choice of the case or set of cases to study cannot appear random. Evidence that supports the method by which you identified and chose your subject of analysis should clearly support investigation of the research problem and linked to key findings from your literature review. Be sure to cite any studies that helped you determine that the case you chose was appropriate for examining the problem.

IV.  Discussion

The main elements of your discussion section are generally the same as any research paper, but centered around interpreting and drawing conclusions about the key findings from your analysis of the case study. Note that a general social sciences research paper may contain a separate section to report findings. However, in a paper designed around a case study, it is common to combine a description of the results with the discussion about their implications. The objectives of your discussion section should include the following:

Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings Briefly reiterate the research problem you are investigating and explain why the subject of analysis around which you designed the case study were used. You should then describe the findings revealed from your study of the case using direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results. Highlight any findings that were unexpected or especially profound.

Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important Systematically explain the meaning of your case study findings and why you believe they are important. Begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most important or surprising finding first, then systematically review each finding. Be sure to thoroughly extrapolate what your analysis of the case can tell the reader about situations or conditions beyond the actual case that was studied while, at the same time, being careful not to misconstrue or conflate a finding that undermines the external validity of your conclusions.

Relate the Findings to Similar Studies No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. The discussion section should relate your case study results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for choosing your subject of analysis. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your case study design and the subject of analysis differs from prior research about the topic.

Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings Remember that the purpose of social science research is to discover and not to prove. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations revealed by the case study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. Be alert to what the in-depth analysis of the case may reveal about the research problem, including offering a contrarian perspective to what scholars have stated in prior research if that is how the findings can be interpreted from your case.

Acknowledge the Study's Limitations You can state the study's limitations in the conclusion section of your paper but describing the limitations of your subject of analysis in the discussion section provides an opportunity to identify the limitations and explain why they are not significant. This part of the discussion section should also note any unanswered questions or issues your case study could not address. More detailed information about how to document any limitations to your research can be found here .

Suggest Areas for Further Research Although your case study may offer important insights about the research problem, there are likely additional questions related to the problem that remain unanswered or findings that unexpectedly revealed themselves as a result of your in-depth analysis of the case. Be sure that the recommendations for further research are linked to the research problem and that you explain why your recommendations are valid in other contexts and based on the original assumptions of your study.

V.  Conclusion

As with any research paper, you should summarize your conclusion in clear, simple language; emphasize how the findings from your case study differs from or supports prior research and why. Do not simply reiterate the discussion section. Provide a synthesis of key findings presented in the paper to show how these converge to address the research problem. If you haven't already done so in the discussion section, be sure to document the limitations of your case study and any need for further research.

The function of your paper's conclusion is to: 1) reiterate the main argument supported by the findings from your case study; 2) state clearly the context, background, and necessity of pursuing the research problem using a case study design in relation to an issue, controversy, or a gap found from reviewing the literature; and, 3) provide a place to persuasively and succinctly restate the significance of your research problem, given that the reader has now been presented with in-depth information about the topic.

Consider the following points to help ensure your conclusion is appropriate:

Note that, depending on the discipline you are writing in or the preferences of your professor, the concluding paragraph may contain your final reflections on the evidence presented as it applies to practice or on the essay's central research problem. However, the nature of being introspective about the subject of analysis you have investigated will depend on whether you are explicitly asked to express your observations in this way.

Problems to Avoid

Overgeneralization One of the goals of a case study is to lay a foundation for understanding broader trends and issues applied to similar circumstances. However, be careful when drawing conclusions from your case study. They must be evidence-based and grounded in the results of the study; otherwise, it is merely speculation. Looking at a prior example, it would be incorrect to state that a factor in improving girls access to education in Azerbaijan and the policy implications this may have for improving access in other Muslim nations is due to girls access to social media if there is no documentary evidence from your case study to indicate this. There may be anecdotal evidence that retention rates were better for girls who were engaged with social media, but this observation would only point to the need for further research and would not be a definitive finding if this was not a part of your original research agenda.

Failure to Document Limitations No case is going to reveal all that needs to be understood about a research problem. Therefore, just as you have to clearly state the limitations of a general research study , you must describe the specific limitations inherent in the subject of analysis. For example, the case of studying how women conceptualize the need for water conservation in a village in Uganda could have limited application in other cultural contexts or in areas where fresh water from rivers or lakes is plentiful and, therefore, conservation is understood more in terms of managing access rather than preserving access to a scarce resource.

Failure to Extrapolate All Possible Implications Just as you don't want to over-generalize from your case study findings, you also have to be thorough in the consideration of all possible outcomes or recommendations derived from your findings. If you do not, your reader may question the validity of your analysis, particularly if you failed to document an obvious outcome from your case study research. For example, in the case of studying the accident at the railroad crossing to evaluate where and what types of warning signals should be located, you failed to take into consideration speed limit signage as well as warning signals. When designing your case study, be sure you have thoroughly addressed all aspects of the problem and do not leave gaps in your analysis that leave the reader questioning the results.

Case Studies. [email protected] Colorado State University; Gerring, John. Case Study Research: Principles and Practices . New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007; Merriam, Sharan B. Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education . Rev. ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1998; Miller, Lisa L. “The Use of Case Studies in Law and Social Science Research.” Annual Review of Law and Social Science 14 (2018): TBD; Mills, Albert J., Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010; Putney, LeAnn Grogan. "Case Study." In Encyclopedia of Research Design , Neil J. Salkind, editor. (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010), pp. 116-120; Simons, Helen. Case Study Research in Practice . London: SAGE Publications, 2009;  Kratochwill,  Thomas R. and Joel R. Levin, editors. Single-Case Research Design and Analysis: New Development for Psychology and Education .  Hilldsale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992; Swanborn, Peter G. Case Study Research: What, Why and How? London : SAGE, 2010; Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research: Design and Methods . 6th edition. Los Angeles, CA, SAGE Publications, 2014; Walo, Maree, Adrian Bull, and Helen Breen. “Achieving Economic Benefits at Local Events: A Case Study of a Local Sports Event.” Festival Management and Event Tourism 4 (1996): 95-106.

Writing Tip

At Least Five Misconceptions about Case Study Research

Social science case studies are often perceived as limited in their ability to create new knowledge because they are not randomly selected and findings cannot be generalized to larger populations. Flyvbjerg examines five misunderstandings about case study research and systematically "corrects" each one. To quote, these are:

Misunderstanding 1 :  General, theoretical [context-independent] knowledge is more valuable than concrete, practical [context-dependent] knowledge. Misunderstanding 2 :  One cannot generalize on the basis of an individual case; therefore, the case study cannot contribute to scientific development. Misunderstanding 3 :  The case study is most useful for generating hypotheses; that is, in the first stage of a total research process, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building. Misunderstanding 4 :  The case study contains a bias toward verification, that is, a tendency to confirm the researcher’s preconceived notions. Misunderstanding 5 :  It is often difficult to summarize and develop general propositions and theories on the basis of specific case studies [p. 221].

While writing your paper, think introspectively about how you addressed these misconceptions because to do so can help you strengthen the validity and reliability of your research by clarifying issues of case selection, the testing and challenging of existing assumptions, the interpretation of key findings, and the summation of case outcomes. Think of a case study research paper as a complete, in-depth narrative about the specific properties and key characteristics of your subject of analysis applied to the research problem.

Flyvbjerg, Bent. “Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research.” Qualitative Inquiry 12 (April 2006): 219-245.

Fulcher & Scott: Sociology 4e

Case studies.

This resource has been authored by Dr Susie Scott, Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Sussex.

Click on the links below for short case studies with questions to test yourself on each chapter.

You may also like to see some model answers to case questions to help you when answering the questions at the end of each case study.

case study examples in sociology

Research Methods in Sociology: Types and Examples

Updated March 10, 2023

The Indeed Editorial Team comprises a diverse and talented team of writers, researchers and subject matter experts equipped with Indeed's data and insights to deliver useful tips to help guide your career journey.

Sociologists are scientists who study human social behaviors. They contribute important knowledge about how people interact at varying social levels, from small groups like family units to major institutions like the government or even entire cultures. However, it’s important for sociologists to understand the different research methods used in the social sciences so they can be sure their research produces accurate and meaningful conclusions. 

In this article, we discuss why research is important in the social sciences and outline several types of research methods in sociology.

Why is research important in sociology?

Research is important in sociology because it allows these professionals to ask important questions about social structures and contribute new knowledge to their field of study. Sociology research may inform public policies that have a direct impact on the people living within a society, so it is important for social researchers to use effective research methods that produce scientifically conclusive evidence.

The scientific method in sociology

Sociology researchers apply the scientific method to conduct their studies. The scientific method is a process by which researchers ask questions, identify problems and seek answers to solve those issues. The steps of the scientific method are:

Select a topic.

Define the problem.

Research existing sources.

Formulate a hypothesis.

Choose a research method and design a study.

Collect data.

Analyze the results.

Report the findings.

By using the scientific method along with effective research strategies, sociologists can learn about human social structures and share their knowledge with others.

Types of data in sociology research

In sociology, researchers often categorize their data into the following four categories:

Primary data: Primary data refers to information collected directly by the researcher themselves. This type of data often comes from surveys, interviews and observational studies.

Secondary data: Secondary data is information gleaned from previous researchers in sociology. This might include data from books, government data or scholarly journals.

Qualitative data: Qualitative data refers to information that is challenging to quantify in numerical terms. Researchers often derive numerical data from visual and auditory observation.

Quantitative data: Quantitative data is information in numerical form. Researchers often collect this type of data through statistical methods, especially surveys.

Types of research methods in sociology

Sociologists may use different research methods depending on their topic of study. Here are some common research techniques social scientists may use:

A survey is a structured questionnaire used to gather data from a select group of people. Researchers pre-write surveys with a limited number of questions that may be close-ended or open-ended depending on the information the researcher wants to collect. Some surveys are self-completed, meaning that the survey participant records their answer and submits it to the researcher. Other times, a researcher may administer the survey directly, such as in an interview. Surveys can be an effective method of collecting self-reported data from a large population of participants.

A census is an example of a survey used by social science researchers. The census requires participants to self-report their demographic information, which the government uses to determine government representation and how to distribute federal funds to local communities.

Participant observation

Participant observation is a type of field research. It's a research method in which the sociologist actively participates in the research group and records their observations. Some researchers perform overt participant observation, in which the population for the study is aware of the researcher and the study. Others may use covert participant observation, in which the population does not know the researcher is there to study them. This research method is effective for gathering evidence through direct observation of how people interact in a particular setting.

For example, a researcher interested in learning about the study habits of college students might visit a campus coffee shop or library to observe their behavior. They might note the number of students who study in these locations, the time of day most students prefer to study, whether the students prefer to study in groups or alone and how long their study sessions tend to last. To participate more directly, the researcher may ask to join a weekly study group and assess how the students interact in each meeting during the semester.

Secondary analysis

A secondary analysis examines data collected by other researchers. Researchers may use this method if they have limited resources to conduct another kind of study, or when compiling a cross-study called a meta-analysis that examines an extensive collection of previous research. This kind of study may allow researchers to connect the findings of multiple scientists in a single study to either support a new hypothesis, develop a new perspective on previous work or reveal a different direction for additional research.

An example of a secondary analysis may be a researcher conducting a meta-analysis that analyzes every study on the academic achievement of Puerto Rican American third-grade students in New York City within the last 10 years. The researcher may compare the findings across these studies to determine how the academic achievement for this population has improved or declined within the specified time period. Based on their findings, the researcher may consider what social factors contributed to the changes in academic performance and propose additional research into those factors.


An experimental study typically takes place in a controlled environment, such as a laboratory. Since researchers minimize the influence of outside forces within the environment, this research method may help them identify causal relationships between the experimental groups.

An example of a research experiment in sociology may be a scientist studying how individuals subconsciously change their speech patterns when talking to someone they perceive as an authority figure. The sociologist might recruit participants and give them a task to complete in a lab environment. They may record the interaction and study how the vocal patterns of the participants change the accommodate the participant who seems to have the most authority on completing the task. Since the researcher conducted the study in the lab and created the conditions for the task, they minimize the risk of environmental disruptions.

Structured interviews

A structured interview is similar to a survey. The researcher prepares a list of questions ahead of the interview and verbally asks the participant questions. The researcher typically standardizes this type of interview to ask the same questions across multiple participants so they can gather quantitative data on a topic. For example, a researcher may interview multiple college freshmen to collect data about their satisfaction with dining hall options.

Unstructured interviews

An unstructured interview is a less formal style of interview. This style of interview may be respondent-led, meaning that the participant drives much of the conversation with minimal prompting from the researcher. This research method may be effective for collecting qualitative information. A researcher may use this method as part of a case study about a particular individual who might recall their personal experience with a significant event.

For example, a researcher studying the cultural significance of a traditional dish may interview three generations of women who have prepared the dish. Since the dish belongs to the women and their family tradition, the unstructured interview style allows them to tell their story as it feels natural to them. The researcher preserves the narrative of the participants by minimizing their own influence over the direction of the conversation.

Semi-structured interviews

A semi-structured interview includes both structured and unstructured portions. The interviewer may prepare some questions before the interview but expects to ask follow-up questions based on the respondent's answers. This style of interviewing may allow the researcher to collect quantitative and qualitative data. Researchers may also use semi-structured interviews when the participant's narrative or perspective is important to the research.

For example, if the researcher is studying how individuals use their gardens for creative expression, they may prepare a list of questions they plan to ask each individual, but they may also vary their questions based on the responses of each participant. Allowing more open-ended conversation may add depth to the researcher's understanding of how each participant perceives their garden, while using some structured questions may contribute to consistency across each interview.

Case studies

A case study is a research method that examines a single case or example of something. In sociology, a case study may apply to the behaviors of a select group of individuals, or to a specific cultural group. Case studies are used to gain in-depth knowledge of one particular group, so researchers might not be able to generalize their findings to other groups, even if they share similar characteristics.

An example of a case study may be a study looking at how a summer camp program for the children of deaf adults affected the camper's self-identity within the deaf community. Since the study focuses on the campers in one particular summer program, the findings may not apply to campers in another program, but it may provide insight into how the program activities shaped the identities of the participants.

Longitudinal studies

Longitudinal studies examine a sample of people across a long period of time. The researcher may collect additional data from the study participants at consistent intervals throughout the study. This research method can help researchers understand how variables change over time.

For example, a researcher may be interested in studying the social integration of children with cerebral palsy during their school years. They may include 100 participants in the study, and they may ask each participant to complete a questionnaire at the end of every school year to collect information about how well each participant got along with their peers. This study might begin when the participants start kindergarten and continue until they graduate from high school.

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All You Wanted to Know About How to Write a Case Study

case study examples in sociology

What do you study in your college? If you are a psychology, sociology, or anthropology student, we bet you might be familiar with what a case study is. This research method is used to study a certain person, group, or situation. In this guide from our dissertation writing service , you will learn how to write a case study professionally, from researching to citing sources properly. Also, we will explore different types of case studies and show you examples — so that you won’t have any other questions left.

What Is a Case Study?

A case study is a subcategory of research design which investigates problems and offers solutions. Case studies can range from academic research studies to corporate promotional tools trying to sell an idea—their scope is quite vast.

What Is the Difference Between a Research Paper and a Case Study?

While research papers turn the reader’s attention to a certain problem, case studies go even further. Case study guidelines require students to pay attention to details, examining issues closely and in-depth using different research methods. For example, case studies may be used to examine court cases if you study Law, or a patient's health history if you study Medicine. Case studies are also used in Marketing, which are thorough, empirically supported analysis of a good or service's performance. Well-designed case studies can be valuable for prospective customers as they can identify and solve the potential customers pain point.

Case studies involve a lot of storytelling – they usually examine particular cases for a person or a group of people. This method of research is very helpful, as it is very practical and can give a lot of hands-on information. Most commonly, the length of the case study is about 500-900 words, which is much less than the length of an average research paper.

The structure of a case study is very similar to storytelling. It has a protagonist or main character, which in your case is actually a problem you are trying to solve. You can use the system of 3 Acts to make it a compelling story. It should have an introduction, rising action, a climax where transformation occurs, falling action, and a solution.

Here is a rough formula for you to use in your case study:

Problem (Act I): > Solution (Act II) > Result (Act III) > Conclusion.

Types of Case Studies

The purpose of a case study is to provide detailed reports on an event, an institution, a place, future customers, or pretty much anything. There are a few common types of case study, but the type depends on the topic. The following are the most common domains where case studies are needed:

case study

Case Study Format

The case study format is typically made up of eight parts:

How to Write a Case Study

Let's discover how to write a case study.

case study

Setting Up the Research

When writing a case study, remember that research should always come first. Reading many different sources and analyzing other points of view will help you come up with more creative solutions. You can also conduct an actual interview to thoroughly investigate the customer story that you'll need for your case study. Including all of the necessary research, writing a case study may take some time. The research process involves doing the following:


Although your instructor might be looking at slightly different criteria, every case study rubric essentially has the same standards. Your professor will want you to exhibit 8 different outcomes:

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Case Study Outline

Let's look at the structure of an outline based on the issue of the alcoholic addiction of 30 people.


Writing a Case Study Draft

After you’ve done your case study research and written the outline, it’s time to focus on the draft. In a draft, you have to develop and write your case study by using: the data which you collected throughout the research, interviews, and the analysis processes that were undertaken. Follow these rules for the draft:

case study

Use Data to Illustrate Key Points in Your Case Study

Even though your case study is a story, it should be based on evidence. Use as much data as possible to illustrate your point. Without the right data, your case study may appear weak and the readers may not be able to relate to your issue as much as they should. Let's see the examples from essay writing service :

‍ With data: Alcoholism is affecting more than 14 million people in the USA, which makes it the third most common mental illness there. Without data: A lot of people suffer from alcoholism in the United States.

Try to include as many credible sources as possible. You may have terms or sources that could be hard for other cultures to understand. If this is the case, you should include them in the appendix or Notes for the Instructor or Professor.

Finalizing the Draft: Checklist

After you finish drafting your case study, polish it up by answering these ‘ask yourself’ questions and think about how to end your case study:

Problems to avoid:

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How to Create a Title Page and Cite a Case Study

Let's see how to create an awesome title page.

Your title page depends on the prescribed citation format. The title page should include:

Here is a template for the APA and MLA format title page:

There are some cases when you need to cite someone else's study in your own one – therefore, you need to master how to cite a case study. A case study is like a research paper when it comes to citations. You can cite it like you cite a book, depending on what style you need.

Citation Example in MLA ‍ Hill, Linda, Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker. HCL Technologies. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing, 2008. Print.
Citation Example in APA ‍ Hill, L., Khanna, T., & Stecker, E. A. (2008). HCL Technologies. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing.
Citation Example in Chicago Hill, Linda, Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker. HCL Technologies.

Case Study Examples

To give you an idea of a professional case study example, we gathered and linked some below.

Eastman Kodak Case Study

Case Study Example: Audi Trains Mexican Autoworkers in Germany

To conclude, a case study is one of the best methods of getting an overview of what happened to a person, a group, or a situation in practice. It allows you to have an in-depth glance at the real-life problems that businesses, healthcare industry, criminal justice, etc. may face. This insight helps us look at such situations in a different light. This is because we see scenarios that we otherwise would not, without necessarily being there. If you need custom essays , try our research paper writing services .

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rhetorical analysis

What Is a Case Study?

An in-depth study of one person, group, or event

Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology.

case study examples in sociology

Cara Lustik is a fact-checker and copywriter.

case study examples in sociology

Verywell / Colleen Tighe

Benefits and Limitations

Types of case studies, how to write a case study.

A case study is an in-depth study of one person, group, or event. In a case study, nearly every aspect of the subject's life and history is analyzed to seek patterns and causes of behavior. Case studies can be used in various fields, including psychology, medicine, education, anthropology, political science, and social work.

The purpose of a case study is to learn as much as possible about an individual or group so that the information can be generalized to many others. Unfortunately, case studies tend to be highly subjective, and it is sometimes difficult to generalize results to a larger population.

While case studies focus on a single individual or group, they follow a format similar to other types of psychology writing. If you are writing a case study, it is important to follow the rules of APA format .  

A case study can have both strengths and weaknesses. Researchers must consider these pros and cons before deciding if this type of study is appropriate for their needs.

One of the greatest advantages of a case study is that it allows researchers to investigate things that are often difficult to impossible to replicate in a lab. Some other benefits of a case study:

On the negative side, a case study:

Researchers may choose to perform a case study if they are interested in exploring a unique or recently discovered phenomenon. The insights gained from such research can help the researchers develop additional ideas and study questions that might be explored in future studies.

However, it is important to remember that the insights gained from case studies cannot be used to determine cause and effect relationships between variables. However, case studies may be used to develop hypotheses that can then be addressed in experimental research.

Case Study Examples

There have been a number of notable case studies in the history of psychology. Much of  Freud's work and theories were developed through the use of individual case studies. Some great examples of case studies in psychology include:

Such cases demonstrate how case research can be used to study things that researchers could not replicate in experimental settings. In Genie's case, her horrific abuse had denied her the opportunity to learn language at critical points in her development.

This is clearly not something that researchers could ethically replicate, but conducting a case study on Genie allowed researchers the chance to study phenomena that are otherwise impossible to reproduce.

There are a few different types of case studies that psychologists and other researchers might utilize:

The three main case study types often used are intrinsic, instrumental, and collective. Intrinsic case studies are useful for learning about unique cases. Instrumental case studies help look at an individual to learn more about a broader issue. A collective case study can be useful for looking at several cases simultaneously.

The type of case study that psychology researchers utilize depends on the unique characteristics of the situation as well as the case itself.

There are also different methods that can be used to conduct a case study, including prospective and retrospective case study methods.

Prospective case study methods are those in which an individual or group of people is observed in order to determine outcomes. For example, a group of individuals might be watched over an extended period of time to observe the progression of a particular disease.

Retrospective case study methods involve looking at historical information. For example, researchers might start with an outcome, such as a disease, and then work their way backward to look at information about the individual's life to determine risk factors that may have contributed to the onset of the illness.

Where to Find Data

There are a number of different sources and methods that researchers can use to gather information about an individual or group. Six major sources that have been identified by researchers are:

Section 1: A Case History

This section will have the following structure and content:

Background information : The first section of your paper will present your client's background. Include factors such as age, gender, work, health status, family mental health history, family and social relationships, drug and alcohol history, life difficulties, goals, and coping skills and weaknesses.

Description of the presenting problem : In the next section of your case study, you will describe the problem or symptoms that the client presented with.

Describe any physical, emotional, or sensory symptoms reported by the client. Thoughts, feelings, and perceptions related to the symptoms should also be noted. Any screening or diagnostic assessments that are used should also be described in detail and all scores reported.

Your diagnosis : Provide your diagnosis and give the appropriate Diagnostic and Statistical Manual code. Explain how you reached your diagnosis, how the client's symptoms fit the diagnostic criteria for the disorder(s), or any possible difficulties in reaching a diagnosis.

Section 2: Treatment Plan

This portion of the paper will address the chosen treatment for the condition. This might also include the theoretical basis for the chosen treatment or any other evidence that might exist to support why this approach was chosen.

This section of a case study should also include information about the treatment goals, process, and outcomes.

When you are writing a case study, you should also include a section where you discuss the case study itself, including the strengths and limitiations of the study. You should note how the findings of your case study might support previous research. 

In your discussion section, you should also describe some of the implications of your case study. What ideas or findings might require further exploration? How might researchers go about exploring some of these questions in additional studies?

Here are a few additional pointers to keep in mind when formatting your case study:

A Word From Verywell

Case studies can be a useful research tool, but they need to be used wisely. In many cases, they are best utilized in situations where conducting an experiment would be difficult or impossible. They are helpful for looking at unique situations and allow researchers to gather a great deal of information about a specific individual or group of people.

If you have been directed to write a case study for a psychology course, be sure to check with your instructor for any specific guidelines that you are required to follow. If you are writing your case study for professional publication, be sure to check with the publisher for their specific guidelines for submitting a case study.

Simply Psychology. Case Study Method .

Crowe S, Cresswell K, Robertson A, Huby G, Avery A, Sheikh A. The case study approach . BMC Med Res Methodol . 2011 Jun 27;11:100. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-11-100

Gagnon, Yves-Chantal.  The Case Study as Research Method: A Practical Handbook . Canada, Chicago Review Press Incorporated DBA Independent Pub Group, 2010.

Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research and Applications: Design and Methods . United States, SAGE Publications, 2017.

By Kendra Cherry Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn about psychology.

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Sociology Case Studies Samples That Help You Write Better, Faster & with Gusto

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Case Studies

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Imagine it's your birthday and you come home to find your family has bought you your favourite cake, as they do every year.

Now imagine that your neighbour, on their birthday, cuts into a large apple pie instead of a cake. Everyone on your street gets cakes on their birthday except this one neighbour. This intrigues you and you start researching this unusual tradition. Why not a birthday cake? Is there some cultural or historical significance behind celebrating with a pie? If so, why is it an apple pie? Would having a cherry pie, for example, hold the same meaning?

The point of this (seemingly random) scenario is to understand why researchers may choose to use case studies in their research. To give you a good understanding of case studies, we will be looking at:

Definition of case study research

Case studies are a research method sometimes used by sociologists. Research that takes the form of a case study can also be called a case study design. Let's examine the definition of a case study.

Description of case studies

Case studies are used in a wide range of academic research areas. For instance, they can be used to study the intricacies of a particular medical phenomenon or to investigate a certain historical event.

In social research, such as in sociology, case studies are a good way to investigate social phenomena or to understand how certain processes and groups within society operate.

A researcher could study the details of a serial killer's deviance (focusing on one individual) or explore the integration of asylum seekers and refugees in a particular neighbourhood (focusing on a specific group of people).

Let's consider some common features or characteristics of case studies.

Methodology of case studies

Case studies can use methodological pluralism (using a wide range of research methods) to achieve triangulation (cross-checking of data to increase validity).

Due to the use of methodological pluralism, case studies can produce both quantitative and qualitative data.

Case studies can sometimes also be longitudinal studies (researchers studying the data at regular intervals over a long period of time).

The sample of the case study (the person, group, event, etc that is being studied) is often chosen because they are unique or exceptional in some way, and researchers want to learn more. For instance, researchers may choose to study a group of 15 delinquent children in a certain school because they deviate from behavioural norms.

Data found from case studies can be used to formulate new social theories or to test the validity of existing theories.

Check out Longitudinal Studies for more information.

Because case studies have a narrow focus , they are not used to make wider claims about populations. However, although the focus is narrow, the scope of the project can be very extensive, e.g. if a researcher is studying a person's social development throughout childhood and adolescence.

Using case studies with other research methods

Case studies can be used to follow up on a survey to provide more depth to the investigation. A case study can also precede a survey to establish whether a phenomenon merits further research.

Methodological pluralism in case studies

Researchers can use methodological pluralism in case studies to obtain a wide range of data using a wide range of research methods. Although the research methods used vary from case to case, they may include the following:



Examining videos and photos

Studying documents such as historical records or letters

Examples of case studies

Case studies are relevant not only to sociology but to many different fields, including history, politics, economics, law, and the media . Some well-known examples of case studies include research on:

A community

Karen O'Reilly's (2000) and Michaela Benson's (2011) research of expatriate Briton communities in Costa del Sol, Spain. They examined groups of British people in Spain, who were notorious for being drunkards.

Researchers dove behind the stereotypes of British expatriates in Costa del Sol and studied their everyday experiences. They also studied expats' reasons for migrating to Spain and found complex accounts of expatriate life through interviews .

Stephen Ball's (1981) study into underperforming working-class students at Beachside Comprehensive examined in detail why working-class students were not performing well in school. Ball carried out participant observation at the school for three years. Upon observing two groups of students, he found there was some differentiation between students, which harmed working-class students' education.

An organisation

Simon Holdaway's (1982, 1983) study of police service, w hilst serving as a sergeant. Holdaway carried out a covert ethnographic study of police work in the London Metropolitan Police Service.

The study is considered ground-breaking. Holdaway is referred to by some sociologists as a police research pioneer.

Graham Allison's (1971) study of the Cuban Missile Crisis. He wrote the ' Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis ', analysing the historical events of 1962.

It was used as a case study to study governmental and political decision-making in further detail. The book is well-known in the study of international relations.

Advantages and disadvantages of case study method in sociology

Gauging the suitability of a case study for a research project depends on several considerations.

Case Studies, Hand ticking an option on a survey, StudySmarter

Advantages of case studies

Interpretivist sociologists favour case studies because they generate detailed, qualitative data and bring in-depth insights to the investigation.

Case studies that use methodological pluralism are highly valid as they have achieved triangulation.

Researchers can gather both qualitative and quantitative data.

It is comparably cheaper to study a small sample compared to researching a large sample.

Disadvantages of case studies

Case studies are criticised by positivists for small and unrepresentative sample sizes, meaning that findings cannot be generalised to the wider population.

Positivists also state case studies are difficult to replicate because of the unique circumstances of each case study.

Researcher bias and influence may affect the validity of the findings.

It can still be expensive and time-consuming to carry out a case study.

Depending on the nature of the case study, there may be ethical concerns , especially around sensitive information.

Case Studies - Key takeaways

Frequently Asked Questions about Case Studies

--> what is a case study.

A case study is an in-depth investigation focused on an individual person, group, community, organisation, situation, or event. 

--> What is the purpose of case study research?

Case studies are used in a wide range of academic research areas. For instance, they can be used to study the intricacies of a particular medical phenomenon or to investigate a certain historical event. 

--> What is case study research?

Case study research is research obtained through the case study design. A case study design is a research method.

--> Why is the case study method used in sociology?

--> how do you write a case study.

To write a case study, one must choose a topic, pick a methodology, choose a sample, conduct the study, analyse their data, and write up their findings.

Final Case Studies Quiz

Case studies quiz - teste dein wissen.

What are case studies?

Show answer

Case studies are in-depth investigations focused on an individual person, group, community, organisation, situation, or event.  

Show question

Research that takes the form of a case study can also be called a _____.

Case study design

What is methodological pluralism?

Methodological pluralism is the use of a wide range of research methods.

Why do case studies use methodological pluralism?

To achieve triangulation.

Case studies can only produce qualitative data. True or false?

How can data from case studies be used?

Data found from case studies can be used to formulate new social theories of to test the validity of existing theories.

Case studies have a ____ focus but ____ scope.

Narrow, extensive.

A researcher wants to study 100 delinquent schoolchildren. Why might it not be a good idea to use a case study design?

Any of the following:

Which kind of sociologists favour case studies and why?

Interpretivist sociologists favour case studies because they generate detailed, qualitative data and bring in-depth insights into the investigation. 

Case studies that use methodological pluralism are high in _____ as they have achieved triangulation.

It is often comparably cheaper to study a small sample compared to a large sample. True or false?

What kind of sociologists criticise case studies and why?

Case studies are criticised by positivists for small and unrepresentative sample sizes, meaning that findings cannot be generalised to the wider population. 

According to positivists, why are case studies difficult to replicate?

Positivists state case studies are difficult to replicate because of the unique circumstances of each case study.

What can affect the validity of the findings of a case study?

Researcher bias and influence.

In sociology, what are case studies good for?

Case studies are a good way to investigate social phenomena or to understand how certain processes and groups within society operate.

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Sample Sociology Case Studies on Sociology

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The society is one of the social scenes that have realized tremendous changes in the recent and the far past. A lot of changes are experienced in various sectors and dimensions of the society including the social composition and perceptions about different phenomena over the earth’s surface. Several kinds of literature have investigated the different social aspects of the human society to delineate trends and developments taking place within. Early scholars such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels among others have concentrated a lot of their studies on the genesis and development of the society by focusing on a wide variety of phenomena. Karl Marx, for instance, developed theories that focused on the perspectives of the materialistic nature of the humans. A lot of economic patterns and perspectives have been illustrated in many of these theories including the modes of production in different societies, the forces as well as relations that facilitates production mechanisms in various spheres, the aspects of division of labour in the society, different societal ideologies and the role of different classes in various societies. These factors have led to the stratification of the society based on different considerations. Each stratum is influenced by a different perspective and changes through time.

Karl Marx particularly focussed his attention on the struggles among different classes of people to acquire wealth and thus climb the economic ladder (Kellner, 2005). Such struggles have led to the emergence of the bourgeois class especially in the modern societies composed of the high class. The less endowed or less fortunate class, on the other hand, has lived to serve the bourgeois class in various perspectives including the businesses and other sectors of production. The class is a critical factor in the current society and has influenced various forms of relations at different levels of the society. The advent of the current modern society has brought into play various factors both in the social and economic spheres. This paper focusses on some of the social factors that have had significant impacts on the social dimensions of the society.

The perspective of the Marxism is associated with the works of Karl Max, a German scholar and economist who put forward the hypothesis of class struggle. Among the factors that are considered integral to this research are the Marxists ideologies and their influences on the human societies, feminism and post-modernism. These perspectives shall be cross-checked with other influencing factors such as the media, education, health, family and gender.  The Marxists perspectives on class and struggle can be explained in the context of theory and the political practice of the society, the strategy and tactics of the bourgeois class in the society among others. As (Kellner, 2005) observes, these struggles are what has brought into place the aspect of development and economic growths in various societies. The Marxists perspectives look into the rise of capitalism as a productive means in which the society has to develop towards, the rise of the bourgeois society characterised by the emergence and development of classes based on the differences in wealth ownership and generation.

This was seen as a revolution geared towards overthrowing the industrial proletariats who dominated the pre-industrial period. These factors were to be influenced by the aspects of modernity, globalization and the growth in the political, economic, social, philosophical and historical revolutions in political scenes and spheres. The modern capitalistic societies have been associated with various developments that have changed and modified the human society to attain certain stratification influenced not only by the among of wealth amerced by an individual but also propagated by other factors such as the media, education and professionalism.

Different societies are characterised by different social groups that are influenced by wealth and knowledge. Marxists believe in the power of an individual or society based on the amount of wealth amerced or acquired. These perspectives led to the emergence and development of capitalistic markets and perspectives that rule various societies in the modern world. Capitalism is concerned with the need to acquire and generate more wealth (what Marxian revolutionists refer to as wealth accumulation) (Riddell, 2006). Class integrations are influenced by the human quest and demand for power and regard. The industrial age (Riddell, 2006) was characterised by the rise in economic developments in the West influenced by the increase in knowledge through education.

As the industries began to develop and increase in number especially in Europe during the industrial age, there was great demand for additional skilled labour to manage the industries productively and operate the machines that were being invented continuously to aid in industrial productivity. As a result, the need for education escalated in various societies to provide the desired labour at the industries. The current societies are structured in this manner. Even today, education places a very critical role in ensuring that development prospects are attained in each society. The Marxists capitalistic society that is seen in almost all parts of the world currently continues to demand a skilled labour force that would steer developments in the industrial and economic sectors of these societies. Education, therefore, places an integral role in shaping the different phases of the societies by providing the necessary means and expertise to aid in wealth accumulation within the capitalistic societies.

The educated and skilled people are expected to get good jobs, be productive and hence have improved lifestyles. In fact, the educated class today are considered the bourgeois class due to the high-income levels associated with them. Such classes and dominations are associated propelled by the media and affects the perspectives of the societies by changing the views and opinions about wealth creation and power in the society. For instance, the media associated the educated with great wealth, skills and knowledge that are necessary to generate wealth. As a result, people in different societies seek to attain education as a means of acquiring wealth and power.

Proponents of feminism tend to advocate for gender equality in the society achieved through equal treatments and considerations for various opportunities arising in the society (Freedman, 2001). Feminism is related to the society’s perspectives on different gender classes and categories represented within them. Feminists believe in the existence of a biased relationship between different genders categories. Two gender classes were most common in the ancient societies: men and women. However, the post-modern society is characterised by the rise of yet another gender category: the transgender. The transgender is a voluntary transfer of one’s gender category/class/ perspective as either male or female without changing their biological perspectives.

Feminists argue from the perspective that there exists a bias in the society regarding how different gender classes are perceived, viewed and regarded depending on their sexes/ biological characteristics. Particularly, feminists advocate amplifying the voice of women and the female members of the society based on an assumption that this gender category is less revered less appreciated and whose voice is often suppressed by the dominating male society. As Freedman (2001) highlights, feminism is not anti-patriarchy but rather advocates for equal and fair treatments among various member of the society in which we live.

Strong feminists’ movements have emerged in the recent past to advocate for fair and equal treatments for men and women. Feminists’ movements developed following the feelings of suppression of the female voice and have been propelled by the rise in global awareness through the media, as well as education developments in the society. Men are portrayed by the media as muscular and strong. Besides, the media portrays men as intelligent beings who are liable to making well-informed decisions compared to their female counterparts. Due to this, the society, therefore, regards men more than women. To illustrate this aspect, in most patriarchal societies such as the Muslim regions women are treated in a far different way compared to men. This is because women are considered a weaker sex that depends on men to live.

The media associates women with beauty and sex while men are created as the homeowners, decision makers and powerful members of the society who owns wealth and property while women live under their mercies (Frosh, Phoenix & Pattman, 2001). Such perceptions led to the tremendous violation of women’s rights in various perspectives. For instance, most women have been violated sexually especially in patriarchal societies such as the Middle East. Besides their voices have been suppressed to discourage them from making any independent decisions. Violence against women in various societies is the primary factor that has prompted most feminists in the contemporary times to push even harder for women’s liberation in various societies. The media has helped a lot in unveiling the injustices committed to the female gender in the societies including in workplaces where women are considered a slow learners who can hold junior offices while the senior ranks are held by men (Frosh, Phoenix & Pattman, 2001) and the regard accorded to the male child in various societies compared to the female children (Pernisco, 2010).


The post-modern era is associated with the modern societies where human knowledge and characters have greatly increased regarding various events and activities being conducted within space and time. Although postmodernism is not considered a new dimension to social analysis and approaches anymore, it is associated with the various changes in perceptions about how the society viewed certain aspects (Hossain & Karim, 2013). For instance, the manner in which people of different gender categories are perceived by the society has greatly changed. Among these are human rights that apply both the men and women in various regions of the world. Increased awareness of the dimensions of the society has demonstrated the female gender as an equally important person that can undertake similar tasks carried out by men. The post-modern period has also increased the chances for education especially among the female gender, increased their chances of employment as well as participation in various social events (Hossain & Karim, 2013). The media and education are among the factors that have opened avenues to enable the female gender to gain a considerable position in the society by increasing her participation in decision-making and leadership positions. The role of female gender in the families has also changed from the traditional caretaker to a provider entrusted with the welfare of their families.

The social systems of the society have undergone a series of changes and challenges as the society changes from one stage to another. Various factors and perspectives have been found to play an integral role in determining the direction and nature of the transformations taking place within different societies. Among these are the perspectives such as the views on Marxism, feminism and the post-modern perceptions about the society in general. The perspectives mentioned have been augmented and developed with the assistance of the media, education and the society in general. As a result, they have also changed the society’s settings and compositions by redefining the laws, norms and behavioural characteristics of different societies as has been demonstrated in the text.

Part two: research methods

A wide array of methodologies are available for use in social researches. The choice of a suitable research methodology will be made based on the needs of the research and the objectives set to be achieved by the research. This section describes some of the common methodologies used in various social studies researches around the globe.

Case study researches are a preferred social research method in various studies, especially about the different societies.  Case studies are conducted in situations where the social scientists are curious about their societies and seek to find out more concerning these societies. Case studies are often scheduled to probe in depth understanding of various phenomena affecting the society. The intent or objective of case studies is often unlimited since they look at a wide variety of factors eminent in the social society (Crano & Brewer, 2002). For instance, a person can conduct a case study research to determine the perception of a given society towards the female gender. Such researches will be confined to the particular society and not to other regions. Although the findings of case studies can be generalised, they are often limited to particular societies or regions where the studies were conducted

Any social setting everywhere is a suitable place for scientific research. Due to the differences in social settings of various societies and regions, there exists a great deal of diverse issues that can be probed through research and development. Case studies researches offer just the relevant opportunity to probe these characteristics in a more scientific and outstanding manner through research. It is for the ability of case studies researches to adopt the incorporate different research methodologies and styles in accomplishing its desires that it is the most revered and common research technique used by most researchers in the world. Case studies accord the researchers an ability to engage at a personal level with the research by creating close contacts between the persons and the communities/ societies being studied. In this way, therefore, the researchers can generate adequate information to aid in making elaborate and well-informed conclusions about different aspects being studied by the research (Crano & Brewer, 2002).  In sociological studies, cases can vary in degree and number of participants. For instances, researchers can decide to conduct their studies on a particular type of entity e.g. a person, company or other factors in the society that interests his curiosity. The research elements can also be envisioned in the form of a group of people with shared characteristics, classes or category of people such as gangs, a particular sex or students, etc. Some case studies, besides, are inclined towards developing an ecological niche and carrying out research to provide a better understanding of these niches. Case study researches often generate a great deal of information and knowledge since they concentrate on narrowed perspectives to research a great deal of content.  Case study is, therefore, the most popular research method used by social scientists

Action research

Action researches are also another common research method that has grown in importance and preference especially in the current societies where human needs and choices have increased several folds. Action researches are conducted with a particular intention in mind. Actin researches are conducted for a particular reason or purpose that has been preconceived before. In action researches, the researcher becomes part of the research team as well as the participant in the population being studied. Action researches are an integral form of research for social scientists. However, the researcher can be biased during participation to manipulate the society’s behaviour to suite his desired outcomes (Crano & Brewer, 2002). Action researches are common in anthropological studies of different societies where the researcher lives among the society and makes observations from within than from far away.  For instance, a researcher can be interested in studying the social characteristics of a pastoralist’s society with an aim of introducing certain development projects such as a water project or a project that is aimed at stabilising the society’s movements. In such cases, the researcher will have to study the particular community or society at a closed range, probably by living amongst them to study their patterns of movements and factors that facilitate or prompt their movements. The findings of such research can then be used to inform decisions on the best projects to be developed in the regions to achieve the intended functions.

Ethical issues

Ethics is an integral factor that researchers must observer while carrying out their researches in different places and with different persons. Ethics entails the observance of research requirements and purposes to avoid irregular practice and abuse of professionalism while conducting the research. The most common ethical issue that social researchers must observe is the need to maintain the anonymity of the participants. This ensures the safety of the participants as well as the information provided for the research. Anonymity can be obtained by according pseudonyms to the participants so that their real names and positions are not included in the study. Anonymity is often observed by researchers to accord the participants the required respect and privacy (Crano & Brewer, 2002). Another factor considered in social researches is avoidance of coercion through deception, force of intimidation during research especially where the participants are not interested in taking part in the study. This would lead to biased findings and unreliable outcomes that would distort the information availed from the research conducted.

Crano, W.D. & Brewer, M.B. 2002. Principles and Methods of Social Research . (2 nd Ed.). Mahwah, New Jersey & London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Freedman, J. 2001. Concepts in the Social Sciences : Feminism. Buckingham, Philadelphia:

Open University Press

Hossain, D.H & Karim, M.M.S. 2013. Postmodernism: Issues and Problems. Asian journal of social sciences & humanities , 2(2): 173-181.

Kellner, D. 2005. Western Marxism” in Modern Social Theory: An Introduction , A. Harrington. (ed). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, PP. 154-174.

Riddell, W.C. 2006. The Impact of Education on Economic and Social Outcomes: An Overview of Recent Advances in Economics. Presented at Workshop on An Integrated Approach to Human Capital Development.   School of Policy Studies at Queen’s University and Statistics Canada. Canadian Policy Research Networks (CPRN)

Pernisco, N. (Ed). 2010. Social Media Impact and Implications on Society. The Student Journal for Media Literacy Education, 1(1): 1-17.

Stephen Frosh, Ann Phoenix, Rob Pattman. 2001. Young Masculinities: Understanding Boys in Contemporary Society . Palgrave Macmillan. (eBook). Accessed 2015 November 2 from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=ulsdBQAAQBAJ&dq=impacts+of+feminism+on+the+contemporary+society&lr=&source=gbs_navli

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15 Major Sociological Studies and Publications

From Research to Theory to Political Declarations

The following titles are considered extremely influential and are widely taught. From theoretical works to case studies and research experiments to political treatises, read on to discover some of the major sociological works that have helped define and shape the fields of sociology and the social sciences.

'The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism'

Considered a seminal text in both economic sociology and sociology in general, German sociologist/economist Max Weber  wrote "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism" between 1904 and 1905. (The work was translated into English in 1930.) In it, Weber examines the ways in which Protestant values and early capitalism intersected to foster the particular style of capitalism that's since become synonymous with the cultural identity of the United States.

The Asch Conformity Experiments

case study examples in sociology

The Asch Conformity Experiments (also known as the Asch Paradigm) conducted by Solomon Asch in the 1950s demonstrated the power of conformity in groups and showed that even simple objective facts cannot withstand the distorting pressure of group influence.

'The Communist Manifesto'

case study examples in sociology

" The Communist Manifesto " written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1848 has since been recognized as one of the world’s most influential political texts. In it, Marx and Engels present an analytical approach to class struggle and the problems of capitalism, along with theories about the nature of society and politics.

'Suicide: A Study in Sociology'

case study examples in sociology

French sociologist Émile Durkheim published "Suicide: A Study in Sociology" in 1897. This groundbreaking work in the field of sociology details a case study in which Durkheim illustrates how social factors affect the suicide rate. The book and study served as an early prototype for what a sociological monograph should look like.

'The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life'

case study examples in sociology

"The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life" by sociologist Erving Goffman (published in 1959) uses the metaphor of theater and stage acting to demonstrate the subtle nuances of human action and social interaction and how they shape everyday life.

'The McDonaldization of Society'

case study examples in sociology

First published in 2014, "The McDonaldization of Society" is a more recent work, but is considered influential nonetheless. In it, sociologist George Ritzer takes the central elements of Max Weber’s work and expands and updates them for the contemporary age, dissecting the principles behind the economic and cultural dominance of fast-food restaurants that's seeped into almost every aspect of our daily lives—much to our detriment.

'Democracy in America'

case study examples in sociology

Alexis de Tocqueville's "Democracy in America" was published in two volumes, the first in 1835, and the second in 1840. Available in both English and the original French ("De La Démocratie en Amérique"), this pioneering text is considered one of the most comprehensive and insightful examinations of American culture ever written. Focusing on a variety of topics including religion, the press, money, class structure , racism , the role of government, and the judicial system, the issues it examines are just as relevant today as they were it was first published.

'The History of Sexuality'

case study examples in sociology

"The History of Sexuality" is a three-volume series written between 1976 and 1984 by French sociologist  Michel Foucault whose main goal was to disprove the notion that Western society has repressed sexuality since the 17th century. Foucault raised important questions and presented provocative and lasting theories to counter those assertions.

'Nickel and Dimed: On Not Getting By In America'

case study examples in sociology

Originally published in 2001, Barbara Ehrenreich's "Nickel and Dimed: On Not Getting By In America" is based on her ethnographic research on low-wage jobs. Inspired in part by conservative rhetoric surrounding welfare reform, Ehrenreich decided to immerse herself ​in the world of low-wage earning Americans to give readers and policymakers a better understanding of the realities regarding the day-to-day subsistence of working-class wage earners and their families living at or below the poverty line.

'The Division of Labor in Society'

case study examples in sociology

"The Division of Labor in Society" was penned by Émile Durkheim in 1893. His first major published work, it's the one in which Durkheim introduces the concept of anomie  or the breakdown of the influence of social norms on individuals within a society.

'The Tipping Point'

case study examples in sociology

In his 2000 book, "The Tipping Point," Malcolm Gladwell examines how small actions at the right time, in the right place, and with the right people can create a "tipping point" for anything from a product to an idea to a trend that can be adopted on a mass scale to become part of mainstream society.

'Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity'

case study examples in sociology

Erving Goffman's "Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity" (published in 1963) centers on the concept of stigma and what it's is like to live as a stigmatized person. It's a look into the world of individuals who, regardless of how great or small the stigma they've experienced, are considered to be outside societal norms at least on some level.

'Savage Inequalities: Children in America's Schools'

case study examples in sociology

First published in 1991, Jonathan Kozol's "Savage Inequalities: Children in America’s Schools" examines the American educational system and the inequalities that exist between poor inner-city schools and more affluent suburban schools. It's considered a must-read for anyone interested in socio-economic inequality or the sociology of education .

'The Culture of Fear'

case study examples in sociology

"The Culture of Fear" ​was written in 1999 by Barry Glassner, a sociology professor at the University of Southern California. The book presents compelling evidence that attempts to explain why Americans are so engrossed with "fear of the wrong things." Glassner examines and exposes the people and organizations that manipulate Americans’ perceptions and profit from the often baseless anxieties they cultivate and encourage.

'The Social Transformation of American Medicine'

case study examples in sociology

Published in 1982, Paul Starr's "The Social Transformation of American Medicine" focuses on medicine and healthcare in the United States. In it, Starr examines the evolution of the culture and practice of medicine in America from the colonial era through the last quarter of the 20th century.

Updated by Nicki Lisa Cole, Ph.D.

case study examples in sociology

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An case study examples on sociology is a prosaic composition of a small volume and free composition, expressing individual impressions and thoughts on a specific occasion or issue and obviously not claiming a definitive or exhaustive interpretation of the subject.

Some signs of sociology case study:

The goal of an case study in sociology is to develop such skills as independent creative thinking and writing out your own thoughts.

Writing an case study is extremely useful, because it allows the author to learn to clearly and correctly formulate thoughts, structure information, use basic concepts, highlight causal relationships, illustrate experience with relevant examples, and substantiate his conclusions.

Examples List on Sociology Case Study

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Example Of Case Study On Sociology: Case Study Article

Type of paper: Case Study

Topic: Food , Social Issues , Hunger , Security , People , Soup , Banking , Society

Published: 02/20/2023


Description of Facts

Facts outlined in this article relates to hunger in America. The writer is attempting to establish the underlying issues of hunger facing society with respect to it being evidence of a social problem. It was emphasized that at first the phenomenon seemed to have emerged in response to the great depression events. However, since then there have been persistence and increases in hunger among the poor in the country. Essentially, the paradox of lack amidst plenty drew the attention of authorities, which designed many programs to address the problem. Subsequently, emergency food sources evolved in an effort either to reduce hunger or stop it entirely. These included food banks, pantries and soup kitchen. The questions that authorities still cannot find answers for are since after the depression why is hunger still prevalent in the society. It could then be that while it is a social problem how could social planners eliminate this menace. It would seem from the article that food banks, pantries and soup kitchens are not the solution to this problem. It was highlighted that the problem of food security in terms of being able to access reliable food affordability affects every one in seven households severely. There is no guarantee of eating three meals a day with the current economic situation. The truth is that there is no lack of food production, but rather the ability for people to purchase food to meet daily family requirements (Hunger and Food Security, n.d.).

Examination according to Rational- decision making model

Rational decision making relates to how the imitators utilized features of: Establishing criteria for resolving the problem, which seemed to be including farmers as resources in relieving hunger. Thorough system analysis was not conducted and is evident in the increased hunger in society. A better way of addressing this was conducting a task force evaluation into the reasons for persistent hunger and food insecurity

A solution was, however, selected, which brought temporary relief as in an emergency crisis.

No profound alternative solutions to the initial one was advanced even though it was obvious that people found no food security solutions. A better resolution seeking collaboration with human resource development for networking solutions.

Examination according to Design Thinking Model

These features encompass: - Empathizing, which can be identified by including farmers in the program whereby they were considered a food security resource for the hungry.

The problem was defined from a short term perspective.

The ideation related to utilizing food banks, pantries and soup kitchens The prototype can be viewed as the ultimate outcome of Federal food assistant programs based on household income These programs are continually evaluated by the department of human services for efficacy Articulate learning My learning from this article regarding approaches that have been made initially towards resolving the problem is that authorities seemed to be focusing on the producers of food, farmers, rather that the people who are affected by food insecurity. This seemed to be the failure of foodbanks, pantry and soup kitchen programs. The phycology of people receiving aid from government programs is that they want it to continue because it is free. Therefore, once food banks, pantries and soup kitchens are opened people will always go to receive free food. Food security in my opinion is more threatened because some food banks and panties do not always offer food of the high nutritional value. As such another phase of food security emerges in the society. A cycle of social problems manifests as disease, increased healthcare costs and a society where majority of people enjoy less than average health

Hunger and Food Security (n.d). Retrieved on March 13th, 2016 from : http://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/teaching-the-food- system/curriculum/_pdf/Hunger_and_Food_Security-Background.pdf

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Some (Relatively) Recent Examples of Participant Observation Studies

Table of Contents

Participant observation is one the main research methods on the A level sociology syllabus, but many of the examples in the main text books are painfully out of date.  This post provides some more recent examples of research studies which employed participant observation as their main research method.

Covert Participant Observation

Pearson’s (2009) covert participant observation study of blackpool football club’s supporters.

He chose Blackpool F.C. because it was close to Lancaster, where he was a student, and because of its reputation as having problems with football hooliganism. He seems to have been able to gradually insinuate himself into the supporters’ world by being recognised as a regular fan. Pearson played up his knowledge of the game and the club and was able to integrate himself into their world.

Pearson says of his research…’ whilst it was possible to avoid committing some individual offences, a refusal to commit crimes on a regular basis would have aroused suspicions and reduced research opportunities. As a result I committed ‘minor’ offences (which I tentatively defined as those would not cause direct physical harm to a research subject). My strategy was to commit only the offences which the majority of the research subjects were committing and that I considered necessary to carry out the research. Furthermore, whilst I would commit lesser offences with regularity, I would, if possible, avoid more serious ones.’ (Pearson, 2009).

Pearson’s research is a good example of covert research in which Pearson participated fully with the activities of the group…he was a ‘covert full member’ of the group he was observing.  

Overt Participant Observation

Khan’s (2011, 2014) ethnography of an elite high school in the united states.

The majority of ethnographic work seems to have been carried out with (on?) the poor and the marginalised, Khan’s work provides us with a rare ethnographic study of an elite institution.

Khan says: ‘ethnography is a method wherein the scholar embeds himself in the relations under study, spending long periods of time with research subjects. For me, it meant getting a job at St. Paul’s School… I moved into an apartment on campus, and… observed the daily life of the school. After my years at St. Paul’s I returned many times, and I sought out alumni to interview and discuss some of the things I’d learned (Khan 2014).

Privilege: The Making of an Adolescent Elite at St Paul’s School – link to Amazon. The first few reviews summarise aspects of the book!

Mears’s (2011) ethnography of the world of the fashion model

case study examples in sociology

‘Two and a half years would be spend in participant observation, or more like ‘observant participation’ (a term borrowed from Wacquant 2004) working for both agencies in the full range of modelling work, including five Fashion Weeks, hundreds of castings, and dozens of jobs in every type of modelling work – catwalk shows, magazine shoots in studios and outdoors…. I sat besides bookers at their table in the office drank with them at their favourite pubs, and hung out with them backstage at fashion shows. As I was nearing the end of the participant observation phase… and withdrawing from modelling work, I formally interviewed a sample of bookers, managers and accountants’ (Mears, 2013).

Sampson’s (2013) ethnographic research on international seafarers

In April 1999, Sampson boarded her first cargo ship. ‘Contrary to my fears, the crew of Swedish and Filipino seafarers welcomed me into their lives and for forty-two days I lived and worked alongside them, painting the ship with them, venturing ashore to Seamen’s bars with them, laughing with them, even dancing and singing with them’. (2013)

The above four examples of participant observation studies are all taken from Bryman’s (2016) research methods book. Bryman ranges several studies (23 in total) on a scale ranging from ‘full member’ through to ‘partially participating observer’ down to ‘non-participating observer with interaction’.

Anna Lora-Wainwright (2018) Resigned Activism – Living with Pollution in Rural China

NB – this isn’t ‘ordinary pollution’ she’s looking at – she studied three villages in total, all of which are coping with the effects of large-scale industrial pollution because of the heavy manufacturing or waste disposal that occurs in those areas. All of these villages have well over the national average of cancer deaths reported, and it’s obvious the pollution is the problem.

Lora-Wainwright focused on how people responded when they knew they were being subjected to a significant cancer risk from pollution – how they organised and protested, but also how they just coped on a day to day basis -living with things such as polluted water that’s going to give you cancer if you drink it.

She also focused on how this all ties in with the wider Chinese government’s industrialization agenda and the fact that the government would rather keep reports about such pollution quiet.

Bryman, Alan (2016) Social Research Methods, Oxford University Press

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Research Methods: Questionnaires

Last updated 15 Jun 2020

A questionnaire, or social survey, is a popular research method that consists of a list of questions.

If administered directly by the researcher to the subject in person then this is the same as a structured interview ; however, questionnaires can also be completed independently (self-completion questionnaires) and therefore administered in bulk, through the post or electronically for example. The method can use closed or open questions or indeed a mixture of the two, depending on what sort of data is desired and how the researcher intends to analyse it.

Reliability and Validity of Questionnaires

In the context of research, the reliability of a method refers to the extent to which, were the same study to be repeated, it would produce the same results. For this to be the case, samples need to be representative, questions or processes need to be uniform and data would generally need to be quantitative. Researchers need to be confident that if they repeat the same research and the result is different that what they are studying has genuinely changed and not just that their original method was not sufficiently reliable. If you take the example of opinion polls on people's voting preferences: if the support for parties changes by several points, the researchers (and their "customers") need to be confident that this is because people are really changing their minds about how they intend to vote; that it is not simply that the research method is unreliable and therefore changes between polls are likely and unpredictable. If that were the case it would render their data useless.

Questionnaires are generally considered to be high in reliability . This is because it is possible to ask a uniform set of questions. Any problems in the design of the survey can be ironed out after a pilot study . The more closed questions used, the more reliable the research.

Valid research reveals a true picture. Data that is high in validity tends to be qualitative and is often described as "rich". It seeks to provide the researcher with verstehen - a deep, true understanding of their research object. The validity of data produced by questionnaires can be undermined by the use of closed questions which limit respondents' answers.

In a questionnaire (or structured interview ) it is possible to ask open questions or closed questions. Closed questions are those with a limited number of possible responses, often "yes" or "no". Closed questions help to make data easier to analyse and more reliable. This is because closed questions produce quantitative data. However, restricting responses can impact validity. To try to overcome this, sociologists often broaden possible responses to closed questions, by, for example, ranking possible responses or indicating the degree of agreement with a statement. The latter is known as the Likert Scale, and is a way of quantifying qualitative data for ease of analysis. It is also possible to mix closed questions with an open "other (please specify)" option.

Open questions do not limit the possible answers that the responder can give, producing qualitative data which is generally considered to be higher in validity. This is because it can be detailed and the respondent can give their own views, rather than be limited by the assumptions of the researcher. However, such data can be very difficult to analyse. There is also the danger that options are simply limited during analysis rather than design (ie. the researcher puts the wide range of responses into a smaller number of categories in order to analyse them). This depends on the researcher's interpretation of the respondent's response which could be affected by subjectivity or the researcher's values.

Because questionnaires are usually used to produce quantitative data, they are generally thought to be more reliable than valid. However, they do have the advantage of being able to produce a mixture of reliable and valid data, known as triangulation .

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case study examples in sociology


  1. VCE Sociology Community & Social Movement Example Case Studies

    case study examples in sociology

  2. Sociology case study by AsSpirit

    case study examples in sociology

  3. Case Study Research Example : Case Study Education Examples

    case study examples in sociology

  4. Case Study Sociology

    case study examples in sociology

  5. Sociology Definition Of Case Study

    case study examples in sociology

  6. Sample Case Studies Used In Research

    case study examples in sociology


  1. SOC101_Lecture31

  2. 12 Sociology Project

  3. Sociology 101

  4. 4. Case Studies

  5. Doing Sociology : Research Methods (Ep 6) Ch 05

  6. Sociology Video Assignment


  1. What Is a Case Study?

    Example of a representative case study In the 1920s, two sociologists used Muncie, Indiana as a case study of a typical American city that supposedly exemplified the changing culture of the US at the time. Receive feedback on language, structure, and formatting Professional editors proofread and edit your paper by focusing on: Academic style

  2. Writing a Case Study

    For example, studying the case of an unforeseen incident, such as a fatal accident at a railroad crossing, can reveal hidden issues that could be applied to preventative measures that contribute to reducing the chance of accidents in the future.

  3. Conducting Case Study Research in Sociology

    The first case studies in the social sciences were likely conducted by Pierre Guillaume Frédéric Le Play, a 19th-century French sociologist and economist who studied family budgets. The method has been used in sociology, psychology, and anthropology since the early 20th century.

  4. Oxford University Press

    Chapter 1 What is sociology? Chapter 2 Theories and theorising Chapter 3 Methods and research Chapter 4 Socialization, identity, and interaction Chapter 5 Sex, gender, and sexuality Chapter 6 Racial and ethnic identities Chapter 7 Crime and deviance Chapter 8 Body, health, and medicine Chapter 9 Education Chapter 10 Communication and the media

  5. Research Methods in Sociology: Types and Examples

    A case study is a research method that examines a single case or example of something. In sociology, a case study may apply to the behaviors of a select group of individuals, or to a specific cultural group. Case studies are used to gain in-depth knowledge of one particular group, so researchers might not be able to generalize their findings to ...

  6. How to Write a Case Study: from Outline to Examples

    The title page should include: A title that attracts some attention and describes your study. The title should have the words "case study" in it. The title should range between 5-9 words in length. Your name and contact information. Your finished paper should be only 500 to 1,500 words in length.

  7. Case Study: Definition, Examples, Types, and How to Write

    Some great examples of case studies in psychology include: Anna O: Anna O. was a pseudonym of a woman named Bertha Pappenheim, a patient of a physician named Josef Breuer. While she was never a patient of Freud's, Freud and Breuer discussed her case extensively.

  8. PDF G L E N C O E Sociology YOU

    as case studies in sociology. As such, you may wish to invite students to conduct cross-cultural research to serve as a basis for comparison with the case study and further enrich their learning experience. A complete Answer Key appears in the back of the booklet. Following the Answer Key

  9. Sociology Case Study

    Sociology Case Studies Samples That Help You Write Better, Faster & with Gusto Writing Case Studies on Sociology is so much easier and fun when you have an expertly written example piece right in front of you. Fortunately, WePapers.com offers you full access to free Sociology Case Studies catalog you can use to succeed in the writing game.

  10. Sociology Case Study Examples That Really Inspire

    Sociology Innovation Time Management Confidentiality Public Effectiveness 1 Page Case Study On Medicine: Case Study When people die from an unknown cause, the mind will be triggered for an investigation on the disease. It will start from gathering information about the disease.

  11. Case Studies: Definition, Methodology & Examples

    Sociology Theories and Methods Case Studies Case Studies Case Studies American Identity Ethnic Groups in America Gender Roles Race and Ethnicity Sex Education Sex and Sexuality Sexuality in America Beliefs in Society Age and Religion Contemporary Religion Economic Development and Religion Ethnicity and Religion Sociology Fundamentalism

  12. Seven Examples of Field Experiments for Sociology

    2014 - The Domestic Abuse in the Lift Experiment A Swedish social experiment recently showed only one person of 53 reacting to what seemed like a scene of domestic abuse in a lift. Researchers set up a hidden camera in a lift while members of the group played an abusive boyfriend and his victim.

  13. Case Study

    A case study is where sociologists investigate in great detail a particular individual or group, as opposed to trying to gather a representative sample from the target population.

  14. Sample Sociology Case Studies on Sociology

    Sample Sociology Case Studies on Sociology Introduction The society is one of the social scenes that have realized tremendous changes in the recent and the far past. A lot of changes are experienced in various sectors and dimensions of the society including the social composition and perceptions about different phenomena over the earth's surface.

  15. 15 Critical Sociology Studies and Books

    French sociologist Émile Durkheim published "Suicide: A Study in Sociology" in 1897. This groundbreaking work in the field of sociology details a case study in which Durkheim illustrates how social factors affect the suicide rate. The book and study served as an early prototype for what a sociological monograph should look like.

  16. Examples List on Sociology Case Study

    An case study examples on sociology is a prosaic composition of a small volume and free composition, expressing individual impressions and thoughts on a specific occasion or issue and obviously not claiming a definitive or exhaustive interpretation of the subject. Some signs of sociology case study: the presence of a specific topic or question.

  17. Sociology: Case Study Article Case Study Examples

    Example Of Case Study On Sociology: Case Study Article Type of paper: Case Study Topic: Food, Social Issues, Hunger, Security, People, Soup, Banking, Society Pages: 3 Words: 650 Published: 02/20/2023 ORDER PAPER LIKE THIS Description of Facts Facts outlined in this article relates to hunger in America.

  18. Some (Relatively) Recent Examples of Participant Observation Studies

    Anna Lora-Wainwright (2018) Resigned Activism - Living with Pollution in Rural China Lora-Wainwright spent from 2009-2013 studying how people in rural China cope when they know severe pollution is having a severely detrimental effect on their health.

  19. Research Methods: Questionnaires

    A questionnaire, or social survey, is a popular research method that consists of a list of questions. If administered directly by the researcher to the subject in person then this is the same as a structured interview; however, questionnaires can also be completed independently (self-completion questionnaires) and therefore administered in bulk, through the post or electronically for example.

  20. Case study examples sociology for australian thesis editing

    One-group design was used to convey major clauses of an argument, 13 17) sociology examples case study note how he came from and ask yourself whether you have more implications for the reader is an expression of rhetorical functions in expert and a posttest only. Built-in justifications. Use the following chapters will provide you with a skirt.