The Evaluation of Marketing Mix Elements: A Case Study
International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, March 2018, Vol.4, No.4
10 Pages Posted: 17 May 2018
Date Written: March 1, 2018
The paper aims to investigate the influencing of marketing mix (MM) elements (product, price, place or distribution, and promotion) on increasing the effectiveness of product promotion and their role to reduce the problems within the organization. The main important aspects of this paper are to discuss the theoretical part of MM, to provide some perspectives for the researchers, and to give some instructions for the marketing department in Al-Saaeda Company for medical equipment technologies. The researchers used the main related academic resources from the university library, and internet and they designed and distributed questionnaires on a random sample of Al-Saaeda Company for Medical Equipment Technologies customers and the company employees to measure the impact of promotion on the marketing of its product (Glucocard 01-mini plus). The main findings of this paper can be concluded as follows: 1. The promotion has a very high level of impact to increase the sales of products. 2. The good distribution of the product can affect positively on customer satisfaction. 3. The company's policy for promoting has a very good reflection on increasing the sales of products. The researchers recommended that the company must strengthen the level of promotions in its activities and departments, and the increase of sales points is very important, so the company must enhance its policies of distribution.
Keywords: Marketing Mix, 4P, Price, Place, Product, Promotion
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Thabit Thabit (Contact Author)
Ninevah university ( email ).
Al-Majmoaa St. Mosul, Ninevah 41002 Iraq
Street 100M Erbil, Kurdistan Region 0383-23 Iraq
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- DOI: 10.23918/ijsses.v4i4p100
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The Evaluation of Marketing Mix Elements: A Case Study
- Thabit H. Thabit , M. Raewf
- Published 1 March 2018
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A brief analysis of marketing mix. H&M’s case study
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Another element to keep in mind is the price that does not present great divergences in the countries where H&M offers its products.
Strategic marketing proposal at the local level
H&M Group also carries out a strategy of adapting its clothing lines to the cultural parameters and values of the country in which it will stablish its market. Therefore, we observe elements of what is known as local marketing, that is, it carries out localization strategies. This implies a greater approach to the consumer since they adapt to the tastes, preferences and local values.
Although it is true the statement made in the previous activity where we defended the homogenization of the world of fashion, it is no less true that clothing is directly affected by the values and customs of society. That is why the companies in the world of fashion are no strangers to it and a representative example of this strategy is that H&M adapts not only its product but also the publicity it carries out in countries with Islamic religion and culture.
Next, we can observe the advertising campaign of the company carried out in 2011 by Gisele Bündchen where it was adapted to the tenor of the country receiving it. In the image on the left we find the photograph as it was seen in the western market and in the right the aspect it presented in the markets of the East to adapt to the “sensitivities” of culture and spatially to the demands of the market of the GCC – are the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council that are: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE. 
Source: elaborated by Dos Aguas Consulting. H&M’s images
The Swedish company is committed to promoting multiculturalism and adapting to countries with deep-rooted social traditions, as far as clothing is concerned. In addition, we cannot ignore the fact that this helps them in their ability to compete with local businesses. Thus, in 2015 it carried out an advertising campaign “ Close the Loop ” in which it approached different cultures through clothing. 
Source: H&M’s images
However, not all the changes or adaptations made by H&M are due to demands derived from religious values or demands but rather to adapt to the demands of society. Thus, you could cite by way of example that the fashion chain had to change its range of products in the United States, adapting to the circumstance that male customers in the United States were less fashion conscious than Europeans. 
But not everything in marketing focuses on advertising, so when H&M entered the US market it realized that by locating in the suburbs he faced too much price competition. And so, adapted its global strategy and located stores in more exclusive places and in the city center where it continued to offer low prices. 
In conclusion, the marketing mix is the adapted combination of the different market variables on which each company acts in order to achieve the sales target established in its target market.
What can Dos Aguas Consulting do for you?
Marketing management involves taking a series of key decisions, such as: what to sell, to whom, how to reach the customer, at what price, how much to sell, how to make known, and how to organize the company. Dos Aguas Consulting can help you to answer these questions with our knowledge of the Spanish market and the profile of the Spanish consumer. In our work as a company specialized in advising and supporting international companies that want to invest in Spain, we can help you find clients and make a profitable business in the country. We can design your marketing strategy or adapt it to this market particularities. Local? Global? You decide! Get in touch with us , our trade and marketing advisors will help you!
 Statista (2018) Average number of employees (full time equivalent) at H&M worldwide from 2005 to 2017. Statista website. Available online ( link ) Last accessed: 07.11.2018
 Perceptions Everything (February 9th, 2014) Marketing Local vs. Marketing Global. Available online ( link ) Last accessed: 07.11.2018
 Leah Chernikoff (March 21st, 2011) Gisele Bündchen gets covered up for the Dubai version of her H&M campaign, Fashionista. Available online ( link ) Last accessed: 07.11.2018
 The Express Tribune (September 11th, 2015), Muslim girl in hijab unveils H&M’s new collection. Available online ( link ) Last accessed: 07.11.2018
 DUMITRESCU Luigi y VINEREAN Simona, “The Global Strategy of Global Brands”, S tudies in Business and Economics . Page:153. Available online ( link ) Last accessed: 07.11.2018
 DUMITRESCU Luigi y VINEREAN Simona, “The Global Strategy of Global Brands”, S tudies in Business and Economics . Page:154. Available online ( link ) Last accessed: 07.11.2018
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McDonald’s Marketing Mix (4Ps) Analysis
McDonald’s Corporation’s marketing mix (4Ps) involves approaches that meet business concerns in different markets around the world. The marketing mix defines the strategies and tactics that the fast-food restaurant company uses to reach target customers, in terms of products, place, promotion, and price (the 4Ps). In this business analysis case, McDonald’s has corporate standards that its marketing mix applies globally. For example, the company’s standards for productivity are implemented in the management of each company-owned and franchised location. McDonald’s also applies some variations in its marketing mix to suit the conditions of local or regional markets. For instance, the food service company’s promotion strategies and tactics focus on online media in countries where such media are most popular, and prioritize television in other markets. The specifics of the 4P variables define the strategies and tactics that McDonald’s uses in executing its marketing plan and achieving related strategic goals to grow the multinational restaurant chain business.
McDonald’s Corporation’s effectiveness in implementing its marketing mix contributes to the leading performance of its brand and business in the international fast-food restaurant industry. Strategic management considers how the 4Ps relate with the approaches of competitors like Burger King , Wendy’s , Dunkin’ Donuts, and Subway, as well as other firms in the food and beverage industry, such as Starbucks Coffee Company . McDonald’s marketing mix facilitates effective reach to target customers around the world. This condition supports the company’s leading global industry position, as well as the strength of its brand, despite the strong force of competitive rivalry shown in the Porter’s Five Forces analysis of McDonald’s Corporation .
McDonald’s Products (Product Mix)
As a food service business, McDonald’s has a product mix composed mainly of food and beverage products. This element of the marketing mix covers the organizational outputs (goods and services) that the company provides to its target markets. McDonald’s product mix has the following main product lines:
- Hamburgers and sandwiches
- Chicken and fish
- Snacks and sides
- Desserts and shakes
- Breakfast/All-day breakfast
Among the 4Ps, products are a fundamental determinant of McDonald’s brand and corporate image. The company is primarily known for its burgers. However, the business gradually expands its product mix. At present, customers can purchase other products like chicken and fish, desserts, and breakfast meals. McDonald’s generic strategy and intensive growth strategies influence the product lines included in this element of the marketing mix. In diversifying its product lines, the fast-food chain satisfies market demand and improves its revenues. In terms of risk, a more diverse product mix reduces the company’s dependence on just one or a few food service market segments. This element of McDonald’s marketing mix indicates that the firm innovates new products to attract more customers and improve its business stability.
Place/Distribution in McDonald’s Marketing Mix
This element of the marketing mix enumerates the venues or locations where products are offered and where customers can access them. Restaurants are the most prominent places where the company’s products are distributed. However, the fast-food business utilizes various places as part of this 4P variable. The main places through which McDonald’s distributes its products are as follows:
- McDonald’s mobile apps
- Postmates website and app, and others
McDonald’s restaurants are where the company generates most of its sales revenues. Some of these restaurants also manage kiosks to sell a limited selection of products, such as sundae and other desserts. Some kiosks are temporary, as in the cases of kiosks used in professional sports competitions and other seasonal events. This element of McDonald’s marketing mix also involves the company’s mobile apps. These virtual places are where customers can access information about the company’s food products and buy these products. For example, the company’s mobile apps for iOS and Android let customers claim special deals, find restaurant locations, place orders, and pay for such orders involving participating McDonald’s restaurants. Furthermore, customers can place their orders through the Postmates website and mobile app. This element of the marketing mix supports McDonald’s corporate vision and mission statements , especially in serving more customers around the world.
McDonald’s Promotion (Promotional Mix)
This element of the marketing mix defines the tactics that the food service business uses to communicate with customers. Among the 4Ps, this variable focuses on marketing communications with target customers. For example, the company provides new information to persuade consumers to purchase its new food products. McDonald’s uses the following tactics in its promotional mix, arranged according to significance in the business:
- Advertising (most significant)
- Sales promotions
- Public relations
- Direct marketing
Advertisements are the most notable among McDonald’s promotion tactics. The corporation uses TV, radio, print media, and online media for its advertisements. On the other hand, sales promotions are used to draw more customers to the company’s restaurants. For example, McDonald’s offers discount coupons and freebies for certain products and product bundles, as a way of attracting more consumers. In addition, the company’s public relations activities promote the fast-food business to the target market through goodwill and brand strengthening. For instance, the Ronald McDonald House Charities and the McDonald’s Global Best of Green environmental program support communities while boosting the value of the corporate brand. Occasionally, the company uses direct marketing, such as for corporate clientele, local governments, or community events and parties. In this element of its marketing mix, McDonald’s Corporation emphasizes advertising as its main approach to promote its products.
McDonald’s Prices and Pricing Strategies
This element of the marketing mix specifies the price points and price ranges of the company’s food and beverage products. The aim is to use prices to maximize profit margins and sales volume. McDonald’s uses a combination of the following pricing strategies:
- Bundle pricing strategy
- Psychological pricing strategy
In the bundle pricing strategy, McDonald’s offers meal sets and other product bundles for prices that are discounted, compared to purchasing each item separately. For example, customers can purchase a Happy Meal or an Extra Value Meal to optimize cost and product value. On the other hand, in psychological pricing, the company uses prices that appear more affordable, such as $__.99 for a meal instead of rounding it off to the nearest dollar. This pricing strategy encourages consumers to purchase the company’s food products based on perceived affordability. Thus, this element of McDonald’s marketing mix highlights the importance of bundle pricing and psychological pricing to encourage customers to buy more products.
- Abedian, M., Amindoust, A., Maddahi, R., & Jouzdani, J. (2022). A game theory approach to selecting marketing-mix strategies. Journal of Advances in Management Research, 19 (1), 139-158.
- Goi, C. L. (2009). A review of marketing mix: 4Ps or more? International Journal of Marketing Studies , 1 (1), 2.
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- Rahmani, K., Emamisaleh, K., & Yadegari, R. (2015). Quality function deployment and new product development with a focus on marketing mix 4P model. Asian Journal of Research in Marketing , 4 (2), 98-108.
- Steenkamp, J. B. (2017). Global Marketing Mix Decisions: Global Integration, Not Standardization. In Global Brand Strategy (pp. 75-109). Palgrave Macmillan UK.
- U.S. Department of Agriculture – Economic Research Service – Food Service Industry – Market Segments .
- U.S. Department of Commerce – International Trade Administration – Travel, Tourism, and Hospitality Industry .
- Van Waterschoot, W., & Van den Bulte, C. (1992). The 4P classification of the marketing mix revisited. The Journal of Marketing , 83-93.
- Yun-sheng, W. (2001). Perfection and innovation of 4P marketing mix – How to evaluate 4P marketing mix. Commercial Research , 5 , 6.
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How to Develop an Effective Marketing Mix | What are the Marketing Mix Elements
Updated on: 5 January 2023
Once you have identified your target audience and the competition, the next thing on your to-do list should be developing a marketing mix.
Every business needs its very own marketing mix to appeal to its customers. In this post, we will discuss the marketing mix definition, its importance, the elements of marketing mix and how to develop an effective marketing mix for your product or service.
For the ultimate list of marketing strategy planning tools with editable templates, you can click here or visit our Marketing Solutions
What is a Marketing Mix?
Marketing mix is a set of actions a business takes to build and market its product or service to its customers.
It helps to make sure that you are able to offer your customers the right product, at the right time and at the right place for the right price.
Whereas traditionally the marketing mix was executed through the 4 Ps of marketing , nowadays 3 more additional tools have been added to the mix, making it the 7 Ps of marketing. Businesses use a blend of these marketing mix elements to generate the response they want from their audience.
Importance of Marketing Mix
There are several benefits of the marketing mix that makes it important to businesses;
- Helps understand what your product or service can offer to your customers
- Helps plan a successful product offering
- Helps with planning, developing and executing effective marketing strategies
- Helps businesses make use of their strengths and avoid unnecessary costs
- Helps be proactive in the face of risks
- Help determine whether your product or service is suitable for your customers
- Helps identify and understand the requirements of customers
- Helps learn when and how to promote your product or service to your customers
What are the Elements of Marketing Mix
Developing the correct marketing mix for your product or service starts with understanding the Ps of Marketing.
The 4 Ps of Marketing Mix
Product is a good (such as music players, shoes etc.) or service (such as hotels, airlines, etc.) that is offered as a solution to satisfy the needs of your customer.
When developing the product , you need to consider its life cycle and plan for different challenges that may arise during the stages of it. Once the product reaches its final stage (sales decline phase), it’s time to reinvent the item to win the demand of the customers again.
The next element of the marketing mix is the price your customer is willing to pay for your product. This helps determine the profit you will be able to generate.
When setting a price for your product, consider how much you have spent on producing it, the price ranges of your competitors, and the perceived product value.
This is about the distribution center of the product and the methods used in distributing it to the customer.
Wherever this is, it should be easily accessible to the customer. For example, if you have a physical store, it should be located in a place that can be easily discovered by the customer. If you own a website to market your product, make sure it is easily navigable.
Promotion refers to the methods a business uses to gain the attention of the customers to their product. These includes sales promotions, customer service, public relations, advertising etc.
When creating your promotion strategy, consider the tactics used by your competitors, the channels that are most effective in reaching your customers, and whether they match the perceived value of your product.
The AIDA model is a principle widely used in marketing and advertising. It describes the stages an individual goes through during the buying process to become a customer.
The 7 Ps of Marketing Mix
7 Ps of marketing mix is an extended, modified version of the 4 Ps of marketing. This model is widely used in the service industry. It adds 3 more elements to the 4 Ps discussed above.
This refers to the people – both your customers and employees – who are directly related to the product or service.
While you need to study your target market to understand whether they are in need of the type of product you are offering, you need to hire the right people who are capable of giving their best to build it.
Systems and processes play an important role in building and delivering a quality service to your customer.
Make sure that you process is free of bottlenecks and blockers in order to reduce the unnecessary expenses associated with executing the service.
You can use process maps to map process steps and analyze them to identify where you need to make improvements.
Physical evidence refers to what the customers see when consuming your product or service. This could include your branding, packaging, the physical environment where you are selling your product etc.
Make sure that all physical aspects associated with your product or service adhere to its values.
How to Develop a Marketing Mix
Define your goal and set a budget.
Developing an effective marketing mix starts with setting the right goals. Establish what you want to achieve with your marketing plan; is it to grow sales? Acquire more customers? Build brand awareness?
Once you have set realistic and measurable goals, determine how much you are willing to spend on achieving your objectives.
Study Your Target Customer
In order to build a product or service that your customers would want to buy, you need to know who they are.
Find different segments in your target audience and create separate customer profiles for each. Refer to these when you are developing your strategies.
Identify Your Unique Selling Proposition
Clarify what your unique selling proposition is through customer surveys, interviews, focus groups etc.
Here you will identify the benefits your product or service will bring to your customer, and how you are better than anyone else in s olving their problems.
Understand Your Competition
Carry out a competitor analysis to understand the different strategies and tactics used by your competitors. This knowledge will be especially helpful when you are creating your pricing strategy.
Record important information about your competitors on a competitor profile like the one below
Learn how to conduct an effective competitor analysis .
Identify the Unique Features of Your Product
List down the unique qualities and the value of your product. You can build on these when you are marketing it to your customers.
You can use the mind map below when you are identifying the unique features of your product.
Create a Pricing Strategy
Using the competitor research you have done, build a pricing strategy. Make sure that you have not overpriced or underpriced your product.
Choose Your Distribution Channels & Promotional Methods
Choose the channels you will be distributing your product through based on the type of your product or service and your target customer.
And select the promotional techniques you want to choose based on your budget, and again the customer and your product.
Create your promotion campaign with this editable mind map template ,
Edit the Promotional Campaign Template
What are Your Thoughts on Developing an Effective Marketing Mix?
We’ve covered everything you need to know about a marketing mix and developing an effective one for your business.
What are your experiences in selecting the correct marketing mix for your business? Share your thoughts with us in the comment section below.
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10 Marketing Case Study Examples: Learn How to Master Them in Your Campaigns
What is a marketing case study?
- Introduction to the customer/client
- The problem the client needed to solve (should align with problems prospective clients also need to solve)
- The solution (and context of why your company/software was the right fit)
- Data from before and after implementing the solution
What are the different types of case studies in marketing?
Why should you use case studies, 1. email marketing case study: your therapy source.
2. Instagram marketing case study: Converse
3. Content marketing case study: porch.com
4. SEO case study: Zapier study by Ryan Berg
5. PPC case study: Google Ads and Saraf Furniture
6. Video marketing case study: L’Oréal and YouTube
7. Remarketing case study: AdRoll and Yoga Democracy
- 200% increase in conversions
- 50% reduction in CPA
- 19% of total revenue attributed to AdRoll
8. Influencer marketing case study: Trend and WarbyParker
9. Customer experience case study: App Annie and Coca-Cola
10. SaaS case study: Asana and Carta
Best practices: How to use case studies in your own marketing campaigns
Include a dedicated case study/customer stories page on your website
Build ctas into your case study pages, share case studies as part of your email marketing campaigns, when you’re thinking about buying a product, it’s easy to talk yourself out of it., never miss an update, supporting you at every customer touchpoint.
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Developing a Marketing Mix Strategy to Enhance Market Reach for a Leading Infused Water Manufacturing Firm
Mar 1, 2023
What You’ll Find in this Case Study
The marketing mix services in a marketing mix strategy, client profile, project background and marketing mix services solution offered, marketing mix services value delivered to the client.
Marketing elements are a set of tactical, controllable marketing tools used across organizations to produce the desired response from its target market. It forms the basis of a marketing plan and helps a company to influence the demand for its products and services. The four Ps of a successful marketing mix strategy are Product, Place, Price, and Promotion.
The four Ps are also the key marketing mix elements that play a crucial role in improving marketing effectiveness. A marketing mix strategy is a marketing plan designed to meet an organization’s marketing goals by leveraging the value offered delivered to its customers. The marketing mix elements that form a marketing mix strategy are interrelated and when combined they aid in establishing a product’s position within the target market. As a result, a detailed assessment of the roles of your product, price, promotion, and place plays a vital role in your overall marketing approach.
Quantzig’s digital analytics solutions will help you decode, analyze, and interpret digital data illustrating user behavior on websites and mobile applications. Request for more information to learn how you can leverage it for your business.
The mix forms the basis for determining the marketing strategy that suits your business goals. In fact, it is the first step to the creation of an effective marketing plan. One may wonder what makes it essential? The reason is that your marketing decisions have an impact on your positioning, targeting, and segmentation decisions.
The client is one of the leading infused water manufacturing firms located in the US.
A multitude of factors determines the success of a marketing strategy including key marketing mix elements such as product, place, and price. This makes it essential to identify the key marketing elements and develop a precise marketing strategy to distinguish oneself in a complex market.
The infused water manufacturer was facing immense competition from industry peers and adding to its woes was the fact that their marketing campaigns generated a negative ROI. To gain a deep understanding of the multiple drivers of profits and sales the infused water manufacturer approached Quantzig. Their main aim was to leverage our analytic expertise in identifying the key marketing mix elements that form the basis for developing successful marketing campaigns.
To know how you can benefit from marketing analytics. Get in touch with us today.
The solutions and recommendations offered by our marketing analytics experts empowered the infused water manufacturing firm to understand the impact of market mix elements on customer satisfaction. The client also succeeded in achieving the desired results by implementing the key marketing mix elements. Within a few months after the implementation of the marketing strategy, the client was able to able to witness a positive ROI.
Additionally, with the help of Quantzig’s marketing mix solutions, the infused water manufacturer was able to gain detailed insights into their customer’s behavioral patterns which enabled them to promote their brand effectively.
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Marketing Mix: definitions, analysis examples [Complete Guide 2023].
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The marketing mix aims at making your marketing positioning concrete . Often associated with the term “ 4Ps “, the objective of the marketing mix is to make your positioning tangible each time your brand is in contact with the consumer (the so-called “touchpoints”).
This article explains the difference between 4P and 7P , explains each facet of the marketing mix with numerous examples , and ends with a detailed case study .
To go even further, we suggest you consult our online resource , where we detail and illustrate all the factors to study for each of the 7Ps. We have also published case studies analyzed according to the 7Ps: Rimac electric car , high-end watchmaking , fruit juice , cosmetics .
Finally, don’t miss our free pdf marketing mix guide with tons of exemples. It’s free to download.
- The 4P: definition
- Difference between 4P and 7P
- P1: Product
- P3: Promotion
- P6: Process
- P7: Physical Evidence
- Complete case study (Ryanair)
- Marketing mix guide (free download)
Marketing mix: what are the 4Ps?
The term “marketing mix” is often associated with another acronym: the 4Ps. The two have become almost interchangeable since Philip Kotler popularized the concept. “4Ps” is the English acronym for the 4 operational facets of marketing that make your company’s positioning a reality. They all begin with the letter “p” in English:
- “Product” : all aspects related to the product (the Product Policy)
- “Price” : the price positioning of your product concerning its competitors (the Price Policy)
- “Promotion” : the aspects related to promotion such as advertising or the ways to make people aware of the existence of the product (the Communication Policy)
- “Placement” : aspects related to the distribution of your product (the Distribution Policy)
If Kotler popularized the 4Ps, its paternity goes to E. Jerome McCarthy (1960) . The latter’s genius was to summarize these 4 facets in the form of an acronym that has now become part of everyday marketing language. Since the 1970s, however, marketing has evolved considerably. The 4Ps have become, if not obsolete, at least seriously incomplete. In the 1980s, marketing theorists called for a revision of the 4Ps, leading to the birth of the 7Ps .
History: how the marketing mix went from 4Ps to 7Ps
- In 1960, McCarthy invented the 4P model (Product, Price, Place, Promotion)
- In 1987, Judd proposed a “human” component in the form of a fifth P (“people”).
- In 1986, Kotler added “political power” and public opinion (“public opinion formation”)
- It was in 1980 that the 7Ps took shape. Booms and Bitner proposed to add three “P’s”: “people” (to cover the human aspects of relationship marketing), “physical evidence” (a material component of the service), and the “process” part (interaction with the service user).
Marketing mix: what is the difference between the 4Ps and the 7Ps?
Digitalization has made the 4P’s seriously outdated. The 4Ps were indeed well adapted to a “physical” world but much less to e-commerce. They have therefore been supplemented by 3 new “P’s”:
- People : aspects related to human interactions through the multiple channels available today (primarily digital)
- Process : the processes put in place to guide interactions, especially those related to services.
- Physical Evidence: the tangible elements put forward to convince the customer (sales outlet layout, customer reviews, etc.)
To help you implement the marketing mix, we have prepared a detailed example at the end of this article.
A recent example (2023): the collaboration between Yayoi Kusama and Vuitton
The famous Japanese artist collaborates once again in 2023 with Louis Vuitton. This collaboration allows us to illustrate several facets of the marketing mix:
- Physical evidence : the Vuitton flagship store, already famous for its spectacular window displays , is adorned with a unique ephemeral decor. The facade is studded with round motifs, symbols of Yayoi Kusama’s work, and a huge inflatable effigy in her image.
- Product : the collaboration is realized through a special edition of the famous Vuitton bag. The monogrammed canvas is adorned with round patterns. This is not the first time that Vuitton has carried out this kind of collaboration. We will remember, for example, the one conducted with the article by Jeff Koons .
- Promotion : this collaboration is making news, which results in a spectacular staging of the sales outlet on the Champs-Elysees and a limited edition product. This operation can, therefore, also be analyzed from the perspective of the Promotion P.
Vuitton’s flagship store on Avenue des Champs Elysées in Paris, photographed in February 2023 during the collaboration with Yayoi Kusama.
The P in “Product” (Product Policy)
The first of the 7Ps is, of course, the product . The term product does not mean only a physical object. It can also be a service.
The chocolate maker Pierre Marcolini had materialized its collaboration with Kistuné by very original packaging.
To cover this first “P,” you will have to describe the product’s characteristics (design, packaging, functionalities), its place in the range, as well as the services that are attached to it (after-sales service, repair, end-of-life recycling).
Try to explain the characteristics of the product that make it different, unique, and that are part of its identity.
Also, think about the packaging, which is often an integral part of the customer experience , as it is at Apple.
The P in “Price” (Pricing Policy)
In the marketing mix of luxury watch brands, the pricing strategy is “value-based.” The price is determined according to the value perceived by the customer and is not the sum of the price of the components used.
The second of the 7Ps is central since it is about price.
Here, the aim is to describe how the company manages the different facets of “price” in its market . This starts with a description of the pricing strategy adopted by the company. The most well-known are the following:
- costs + margins: you add a margin to your production costs
- value-based: the price is determined according to the consumer’s perception of value
- competitive: you realize using the competition research and fix your price according to one of your competitors
The pricing strategy, once determined, will have to be declined in a “ price tactic .” The pricing tactic is the operational extension of the pricing strategy. It describes how, in concrete terms, the pricing strategy is applied in the field. In this respect, the strategy of Swiss watchmakers is fascinating. They create a shortage that supports demand by voluntarily limiting production and choosing to whom they want to sell. Some, like Patek Philippe, also support the price level by buying back their older models at a high price to increase their desirability. The price of the products then soars on the parallel market, creating speculative bubbles like the one we described in this survey. The graph below shows the effect of the pricing tactics of Rolex, Audemars Piguet, and Patek Philippe on the price of their men’s watches.
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Once the overall strategy is described, you will need to describe the other aspects of the marketing mix that depend on price:
- the pricing policy towards your intermediaries
- the discount policy towards your customers
- the payment policy and possible facilities offered to your customers to acquire your products
The P of “Promotion” (Communication Policy)
The third “P” is “Promotion.” It covers the aspects related to the company’s communication and the strategies used to make itself known on the market. The result is measured by the notoriety of the company among its target customers.
Electric hypercar manufacturer Rimac promotes its Nevera model by using YouTubers. Here Many Koshbin tries the vehicle in one of his YouTube videos (YouTube screenshot)
It is helpful to start by describing, in broad lines, the communication strategy followed by the company. What is the company’s position on advertising, and does it realize using advertising? Are specific media used (sponsoring, influencers, etc.)? If so, which channels are favored (digital, radio, TV, press, Out-Of-Home), and according to what logic are these channels selected?
When advertising investments are made, the repetition of messages plays a role in the persistence of the information in the consumer’s mind. Therefore, the analysis should try to clarify which repetition is aimed at, which will make it possible to deduce the advertising pressure that the company wants to impose and the importance of advertising in its global strategy.
In addition to advertising, the company can also promote itself through inbound marketing . It is, therefore, a matter of attracting prospects naturally. Inbound marketing is a tactic that materializes in the digital space. The goal is to improve natural referencing (SEO) to capture the attention of Internet users and attract them to the company’s website. It is, therefore, necessary to analyze whether the company invests in content marketing and, if so, which online media are privileged.
The P of “Place” (Distribution Policy)
The fourth “P” concerns the distribution policy (“Place” or “Placement” according to the 4P terminology). In this part, we analyze how the product or service is distributed. There are three main distribution strategies:
- direct distribution
- distribution via a third-party network
- hybrid (a mix of the 2 previous ones)
Perugina commercializes its “Baci” in large-scale distribution but also has some stores of its own (here the one in Perugia)
Nespresso distributes its coffee capsules through its own stores (direct distribution). Most food manufacturers sell their products through third-party networks (retailers). However, some of these manufacturers invest in their own stores ( Perugina , Lindt, M&M, ….). This is a hybrid strategy.
Once the broad lines have been drawn, the analysis of the marketing mix requires going into detail. It is advisable to study the opportunity of franchising, especially when the ambitions are high in terms of the geographical distribution of products. Covering a large territory requires significant resources. Therefore, a start-up with a product in high demand may have to turn to the franchise model to accelerate its deployment. This is a widespread model in the fast-food industry.
The Printemps store in Paris offers visibility to many brands and attracts foreign tourists. Crédits : gibs02 via Flickr.
Outsourced distribution (via a franchise network or third-party distributors) also has marketing coverage advantages. Some brands may naturally attract customer segments that could represent additional sales for your company. Regardless of the distribution strategy chosen, careful consideration must be given to the location of sales outlets (in the case of physical sales). The research on implementing physical commerce is of particular importance because of the decline in the number of visitors to physical sales outlets . Over the last 10 years, city centers have lost 50% of their pedestrian traffic, which inevitably affects profitability.
If the company opts for e-commerce (which seems essential), particular attention must be paid to the logistical aspects. In particular, request what logistical processes need to be implemented to meet customer expectations regarding product availability and delivery times. Customer requirements are constantly increasing. They are shaped by the delivery policies of the industry’s giants (Amazon and others), whose logistical excellence allows them to shorten delivery times even further. For SMEs that lack operational excellence, the use of third-party fulfillment services can be an enjoyable (but costly) alternative to compete with the giants.
The P of “People” (Relationship policy)
Starbucks had set up a co-creation platform allowing customers to propose ideas to the company. Customer interaction was also possible.
The relational policy (the fifth “P”) is part of the 3 new “Ps” proposed by Booms and Bitner in 1981. The recognition of the role of the human being coincides with the emergence of relational marketing . We understand that the human component can contribute positively to the quality of service and customer satisfaction/loyalty.
In this part of the marketing mix, we will focus on understanding how its marketing positioning can be materialized through its human component. We will study the human part in the success of the company, and the satisfaction of the customer, as well as the role, played by the employees to transmit the values of the brand.
In the digital era, the relational policy is no longer only in B2C. It also materializes through C2C (Consumer To Consumer) interactions. Customers become ambassadors for the company and sometimes even play essential roles. Ryanair, for example, has set up a customer advisory board . Hollister, a medical equipment manufacturer, has created its Vivre+ network to create links between patients through activities organized throughout France. The customer thus becomes an essential component of the marketing strategy. They become a full-fledged player, just like the employee.
The P of “Process” (the processes related to the service)
This part of the marketing mix is about describing and analyzing the processes surrounding the service. To make your analysis enjoyable, you should focus on the most distinctive elements of the processes.
Processes are a central component in the success of Ryanair’s low-cost business model.
In the case of a low-cost airline (see case study), we will look at the role of processes in the business model’s success .
When the marketing positioning is the opposite (luxury), the sales processes play a significant role. The attitude, gestures, and behavior of salespeople are codified to align with the values embodied.
Your marketing mix analysis can quickly skim over certain aspects and should go into detail when justified.
The P of “Physical evidence”
Abercrombie & Fitch used to emphasize the plastic qualities of its salespeople to attract customers.
The last of the 7Ps is called “physical evidence.” In the spirit of the marketing mix, it is the tangible elements with which the customer is in contact when he buys the product .
These elements can be linked to the sales outlet itself (its design, its layout, the sound/smell / visual atmosphere), the objects found there, or the employees themselves (specific clothes, for example). The brand Abercrombie & Fitch , for example, became famous for the olfactory and sound ambiance of its sales outlets. Its employees, chosen for their “visual” qualities, worked shirtless.
The brand Archiduchesse sends its products accompanied by some “goodies” (candies, stickers, key rings)
If we immediately think of the attributes of the sales outlet, we must not forget the digital space. Online reviews are now part of the “proof” that the customer integrates before making a decision. The delivery can also be an important moment to comfort the customer in his choice. In this article , we have given 3 examples of companies that use delivery as an emotional touchpoint with the customer: the wine estate Le Cazal that adds a sprig of wild thyme to its deliveries, Coolblue that sends a personalized postcard, and Archiduchesse that completes its orders with some “goodies.”
Case study: analysis of Ryanair’s marketing mix
In this research we propose to analyze the marketing mix of Ryanair, the Irish low-cost airline which is today the n°1 airline in Europe .
Marketing Mix guide (free download)
Written on 29/09/2021 by Pierre-Nicolas Schwab
Dr. Pierre-Nicolas Schwab is the founder of IntoTheMinds. He specializes in e-commerce, retail and logistics. He is also a research fellow in the marketing department of the Free University of Brussels and acts as a coach for several startups and public organizations. He holds a PhD in Marketing, a MBA in Finance, and a MSc in Chemistry. He can be contacted by email, Linkedin or by phone (+32 486 42 79 42)
20 February 2022
Amazing stuff. I really found this article very interesting and helpful. The case study at the end of the article really helped to drive home the points raised in each of the elements of the 7 Ps. I say a big thank you to Dr Pierre-Nicolas S. Merci beaucoup.
21 February 2022
You’re welcome. THank you for your kind words. You can find even more here : https://www.intotheminds.com/blog/en/marketing-mix-guide/
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Elaborative Marketing Mix of Apple Inc. – With Deep Dive in 4 Ps
By Aditya Shastri
Apple is a well-known technology brand with a worldwide reputation for its focus on technological innovation, high-quality product lines, and outstanding marketing. The company is involved in developing and designing hardware products such as iPhones, iPods, Mac, as w ell as the development of software and online services. Since 2010, Apple has been rated as the most valuable brand by Forbes every year.
In this blog, we shall discuss the Marketing Mix of Apple inc. in detail, covering all the 4ps strategies. Let us start by getting to know a bit more about Apple.
Apple is considered to be a multinational technology company, based in California that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services. It is considered as one of the great technology companies on par with Amazon, Google, Microsoft, and Facebook.
Steve Jobs’ vision helped Apple establish itself as the market’s leading technology brand. Now under the leadership of Tim Cook, Apple has grown faster in recent years. Apple is also the first brand with a market value of more than 2 trillion US dollars having its own operating system intact. Since we have a brief knowledge about the company, let’s dive deep into Apple’s marketing mix.
MARKETING MIX OF APPLE
A company’s marketing mix includes the strategies and tactics involved in implementing a marketing plan. Marketing mix focuses on specific 4Ps variables of product, price, place, and promotion.
In developing its marketing mix, Apple uses a strategy that promotes premium branding. This approach aims to focus on the premium brand and ensure that all 4Ps support the maintenance of a strong brand image.
Marketing mix thus holistically covers the marketing and business strategies that surround a business. Let us learn more about the marketing mix of Apple.
1. Apple Product Strategy
The company is known to have introduced new innovative products over the past few years. Apple products line over time to meet the needs of global customers. The product line of Apple includes both goods and services. The product element of the marketing mix indicates that Apple is in the consumer electronics business.
Here is a list of products offered by Apple :
- Apple watch
Services offered by apple
- Apple Music
- Apple news
- Apple books
- Apple arcade
- Apple podcasts
- Apple fitness+
The product mix of Apple focuses on quality rather than quantity. It focuses on the chosen products and continues to enhance them rather than branching bent designs to other products within the same category. Apple’s product strategy shows that it has diversified its business from computer technology business to information technology.
2. Apple Pricing Strategy
Apple has built the image of itself as a premium brand. Its product range includes only higher-end products and they only target people with high affordability. The company follows a premium pricing policy. Apple products are expensive and are considered a status symbol. Apple never prices lower than its competitors to maintain the image of a premium brand. Lowering the sale price will dilute the brand image.
One of the reasons Apple follows a premium pricing strategy is its high-end technology and superior quality products. Apple does not offer its product on sale and the price of the products is generally standard. Naturally, with such a huge fan following and brand image, the company charging higher prices for its products is justified.
3. Apple Place Strategy
Apple products are available almost everywhere across the globe. The company uses various distribution channels to serve the demands of global customers. They use both online and offline channels for distribution purposes. Apple stores: Apple has set up outlets in different locations where customers can purchase products directly from the company.
E-commerce platforms: Customers can purchase products directly through Apple’s official website and other online portals such as Amazon, Flipkart, etc. These portals are one of the biggest points of sale for Apple products.
Corporate resellers: Apple also has tie-ups with various corporate resellers who are authorized to sell Apple products. Due to the premium image, these stores are handpicked based on the size of the store, monthly sales, etc. The global availability of Apple products allows the company to target a larger customer base and also helps in creating brand awareness on a global scale.
4. Apple Promotion Strategy
The promotional strategy of Apple focuses on aggressive advertising using various channels like medium, TV, billboards, online ads, etc. It makes use of both conventional and non-conventional techniques to promote its product. The products are also promoted from its website and also from other online channels including social media.
In 1997, Steve Jobs launched the “Think Different” advertising campaign. He wanted to explain the value of apples in the fast-paced world. He said, “Apple’s core values is that [ we believe ] people with passion can change the world for the better.” The campaign inspired people to be confident about themselves and not only “think different” but be different and be proud of themselves.
As we all know that Apple targets a selected segment of society, the most focus of the promotional activities is on its products and therefore the differentiating factors which make it unique and better than its competitors. The promotion mix of Apple also uses public relations as a means to attract more customers.
The ads are simple and to the point with no irrelevant information. Commercial ads are run when a product is first launched and print ads run throughout the lifetime of the merchandise.
The primary goal of the promotional activities of Apple is to make the customer aware of the superior user experience of Apple products.
Watch this super interesting advertisement by Apple for iPhone 12
Meet iPhone 12 — Apple
The marketing mix of Apple focuses on simplicity and innovation and tries to connect to the hearts of its customers thereby making the brand the most valuable in the world.
We hope this case study provided you with some useful information on Apple’s marketing mix.
if you find it interesting share it among your friends and relatives along with that check out this institute to learn more about advertising strategy and marketing strategy visit the website for further details https://iide.co/
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Extensive Marketing Strategy Of IFCI – In-Depth Analysis
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