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Creating a Chicago Style Bibliography | Format & Examples
Published on September 23, 2019 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on December 5, 2022.
A Chicago style bibliography lists the sources cited in your text. Each bibliography entry begins with the author’s name and the title of the source, followed by relevant publication details. The bibliography is alphabetized by authors’ last names.
A bibliography is not mandatory, but is strongly recommended for all but very short papers. It gives your reader an overview of all your sources in one place. Check with your instructor if you’re not sure whether you need a bibliography.
Always make sure to pay attention to punctuation (e.g., commas , quotation marks , parentheses ) in your citations.
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Table of contents
Chicago style bibliography examples, formatting the bibliography page, author names in the bibliography, bibliography vs reference list, frequently asked questions about the chicago bibliography.
Bibliography entries vary in format depending on the type of source . Templates and examples for the most common source types are shown below.
- Book chapter
- Journal article
- The edition is always abbreviated (e.g. 2nd ed. or rev. ed.).
- Only include the URL for books you consulted online.
- Use this format to cite a chapter in a multi-authored book. If all the chapters in a book were written by the same person, reference the whole book.
- Begin the citation with the author of the chapter. The editor who compiled the book is listed later.
- The page range identifies the location of the article within the journal issue.
- For articles accessed online, include a DOI (digital object identifier) where available, and a URL if not.
- If the author is unknown, list the organization or website name as author, and don’t repeat it later in the citation.
- If no publication date is listed, include an access date instead.
- The website name is not italicized, unless it is an online version of a newspaper or magazine .
The bibliography appears at the end of your text. The heading Bibliography is bolded and centred at the top of the page.
Unlike the rest of a Chicago format paper, the bibliography is not double-spaced. However, add a single line space between entries.
If a bibliography entry extends onto more than one line, subsequent lines should be indented ( hanging indent ), as seen in the example below. This helps the reader to see at a glance where each new entry begins.
There are further guidelines for formatting a Chicago style annotated bibliography , in which you write a paragraph of summary and source evaluation under each source.
Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.
Author names in the bibliography are inverted: The last name comes first, then the first name(s). Sources are alphabetized by author last name.
If a source has no named author, alphabetize by the first word of the title or organization name that starts the entry. Ignore articles (“the,” “a,” and “an”) for the purposes of alphabetization.
Sources with multiple authors
For sources with more than one author, only the first author’s name is inverted; subsequent names are written in the normal order.
For texts with up to 10 authors, all the authors’ names should be listed in the order they appear in the source, separated by commas .
If there are more than 10 authors, list the first seven, followed by “ et al. ”
Multiple sources by the same author
If you include multiple works from the same author, only include the author name in the first entry. In subsequent entries, replace the name with three em dashes , followed by the rest of the citation formatted as normal. List the entries in alphabetical order by title.
A reference list is mandatory in Chicago author-date style , where you cite sources in parentheses in the text. The only differences between a Chicago bibliography and a reference list are the heading and the placement of the date.
The reference list is headed “References.” In reference list entries, the publication date is placed immediately after the author’s name. This allows the reader to easily find a reference on the basis of the corresponding in-text citation.
In a Chicago style footnote , list up to three authors. If there are more than three, name only the first author, followed by “ et al. “
In the bibliography , list up to 10 authors. If there are more than 10, list the first seven followed by “et al.”
The same rules apply in Chicago author-date style .
To automatically generate accurate Chicago references, you can use Scribbr’s free Chicago reference generator .
In a Chicago footnote citation , when the author of a source is unknown (as is often the case with websites ), start the citation with the title in a full note. In short notes and bibliography entries, list the organization that published it as the author.
In Chicago author-date style , treat the organization as author in your in-text citations and reference list.
When an online source does not list a publication date, replace it with an access date in your Chicago footnotes and your bibliography :
If you are using author-date in-text citations , or if the source was not accessed online, replace the date with “n.d.”
- A reference list is used with Chicago author-date citations .
- A bibliography is used with Chicago footnote citations .
Both present the exact same information; the only difference is the placement of the year in source citations:
- In a reference list entry, the publication year appears directly after the author’s name.
- In a bibliography entry, the year appears near the end of the entry (the exact placement depends on the source type).
There are also other types of bibliography that work as stand-alone texts, such as a Chicago annotated bibliography .
In Chicago author-date style , your text must include a reference list . It appears at the end of your paper and gives full details of every source you cited.
In notes and bibliography style, you use Chicago style footnotes to cite sources; a bibliography is optional but recommended. If you don’t include one, be sure to use a full note for the first citation of each source.
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Reference List: Common Reference List Examples
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Alvarez, E., & Tippins, S. (2019). Socialization agents that Puerto Rican college students use to make financial decisions. Journal of Social Change , 11 (1), 75–85. https://doi.org/10.5590/JOSC.2019.11.1.07
Laplante, J. P., & Nolin, C. (2014). Consultas and socially responsible investing in Guatemala: A case study examining Maya perspectives on the Indigenous right to free, prior, and informed consent. Society & Natural Resources , 27 , 231–248. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920.2013.861554
Use the DOI number for the source whenever one is available. DOI stands for "digital object identifier," a number specific to the article that can help others locate the source. In APA 7, format the DOI as a web address. Active hyperlinks for DOIs and URLs should be used for documents meant for screen reading. Present these hyperlinks in blue and underlined text (the default formatting in Microsoft Word), although plain black text is also acceptable. Be consistent in your formatting choice for DOIs and URLs throughout your reference list. Also see our Quick Answer FAQ, "Can I use the DOI format provided by library databases?"
Jerrentrup, A., Mueller, T., Glowalla, U., Herder, M., Henrichs, N., Neubauer, A., & Schaefer, J. R. (2018). Teaching medicine with the help of “Dr. House.” PLoS ONE , 13 (3), Article e0193972. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0193972
For journal articles that are assigned article numbers rather than page ranges, include the article number in place of the page range.
For more on citing electronic resources, see Electronic Sources References .
Found in a Common Academic Research Database or in Print
Casler , T. (2020). Improving the graduate nursing experience through support on a social media platform. MEDSURG Nursing , 29 (2), 83–87.
If an article does not have a DOI and you retrieved it from a common academic research database through the university library, there is no need to include any additional electronic retrieval information. The reference list entry looks like the entry for a print copy of the article. (This format differs from APA 6 guidelines that recommended including the URL of a journal's homepage when the DOI was not available.) Note that APA 7 has additional guidance on reference list entries for articles found only in specific databases or archives such as Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global, and university archives. See APA 7, Section 9.30 for more information.
Found on an Open Access Website
Eaton, T. V., & Akers, M. D. (2007). Whistleblowing and good governance. CPA Journal , 77 (6), 66–71. http://archives.cpajournal.com/2007/607/essentials/p58.htm
Provide the direct web address/URL to a journal article found on the open web, often on an open access journal's website. In APA 7, active hyperlinks for DOIs and URLs should be used for documents meant for screen reading. Present these hyperlinks in blue and underlined text (the default formatting in Microsoft Word), although plain black text is also acceptable. Be consistent in your formatting choice for DOIs and URLs throughout your reference list.
Weinstein, J. A. (2010). Social change (3rd ed.). Rowman & Littlefield.
If the book has an edition number, include it in parentheses after the title of the book. If the book does not list any edition information, do not include an edition number. The edition number is not italicized.
American Nurses Association. (2015). Nursing: Scope and standards of practice (3rd ed.).
If the author and publisher are the same, only include the author in its regular place and omit the publisher.
Lencioni, P. (2012). The advantage: Why organizational health trumps everything else in business . Jossey-Bass. https://amzn.to/343XPSJ
As a change from APA 6 to APA 7, it is no longer necessary to include the ebook format in the title. However, if you listened to an audiobook and the content differs from the text version (e.g., abridged content) or your discussion highlights elements of the audiobook (e.g., narrator's performance), then note that it is an audiobook in the title element in brackets. For ebooks and online audiobooks, also include the DOI number (if available) or nondatabase URL but leave out the electronic retrieval element if the ebook was found in a common academic research database, as with journal articles. APA 7 allows for the shortening of long DOIs and URLs, as shown in this example. See APA 7, Section 9.36 for more information.
Poe, M. (2017). Reframing race in teaching writing across the curriculum. In F. Condon & V. A. Young (Eds.), Performing antiracist pedagogy in rhetoric, writing, and communication (pp. 87–105). University Press of Colorado.
Include the page numbers of the chapter in parentheses after the book title.
Christensen, L. (2001). For my people: Celebrating community through poetry. In B. Bigelow, B. Harvey, S. Karp, & L. Miller (Eds.), Rethinking our classrooms: Teaching for equity and justice (Vol. 2, pp. 16–17). Rethinking Schools.
Also include the volume number or edition number in the parenthetical information after the book title when relevant.
Freud, S. (1961). The ego and the id. In J. Strachey (Ed.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19, pp. 3-66). Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1923)
When a text has been republished as part of an anthology collection, after the author’s name include the date of the version that was read. At the end of the entry, place the date of the original publication inside parenthesis along with the note “original work published.” For in-text citations of republished work, use both dates in the parenthetical citation, original date first with a slash separating the years, as in this example: Freud (1923/1961). For more information on reprinted or republished works, see APA 7, Sections 9.40-9.41.
Citing Classroom Resources
If you need to cite content found in your online classroom, use the author (if there is one listed), the year of publication (if available), the title of the document, and the main URL of Walden classrooms. For example, you are citing study notes titled "Health Effects of Exposure to Forest Fires," but you do not know the author's name, your reference entry will look like this:
Health effects of exposure to forest fires [Lecture notes]. (2005). Walden University Canvas. https://waldenu.instructure.com
If you do know the author of the document, your reference will look like this:
Smith, A. (2005). Health effects of exposure to forest fires [PowerPoint slides]. Walden University Canvas. https://waldenu.instructure.com
A few notes on citing course materials:
- [Lecture notes]
- [Course handout]
- [Study notes]
- It can be difficult to determine authorship of classroom documents. If an author is listed on the document, use that. If the resource is clearly a product of Walden (such as the course-based videos), use Walden University as the author. If you are unsure or if no author is indicated, place the title in the author spot, as above.
- If you cannot determine a date of publication, you can use n.d. (for "no date") in place of the year.
Note: The web location for Walden course materials is not directly retrievable without a password, and therefore, following APA guidelines, use the main URL for the class sites: https://class.waldenu.edu.
Citing Tempo Classroom Resources
Smith, A. (2005). Health effects of exposure to forest fires [PowerPoint slides]. Walden University Brightspace. https://mytempo.waldenu.edu
Health effects of exposure to forest fires [Lecture notes]. (2005). Walden University Brightspace. https://mytempo.waldenu.edu
Feinman, Y. (2018, July 27). Alternative to proctoring in introductory statistics community college courses [Poster presentation]. Walden University Research Symposium, Minneapolis, MN, United States. https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/symposium2018/23/
Torgerson, K., Parrill, J., & Haas, A. (2019, April 5-9). Tutoring strategies for online students [Conference session]. The Higher Learning Commission Annual Conference, Chicago, IL, United States. http://onlinewritingcenters.org/scholarship/torgerson-parrill-haas-2019/
Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Leadership. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary . Retrieved May 28, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/leadership
When constructing a reference for an entry in a dictionary or other reference work that has no byline (i.e., no named individual authors), use the name of the group—the institution, company, or organization—as author (e.g., Merriam Webster, American Psychological Association, etc.). The name of the entry goes in the title position, followed by "In" and the italicized name of the reference work (e.g., Merriam-Webster.com dictionary , APA dictionary of psychology ). In this instance, APA 7 recommends including a retrieval date as well for this online source since the contents of the page change over time. End the reference entry with the specific URL for the defined word.
Osborne, C. S. (2010, June 29). Re: Environmental responsibility [Discussion post]. Walden University Canvas. https://waldenu.instructure.com
Retrieved From a Database
Nalumango, K. (2019). Perceptions about the asylum-seeking process in the United States after 9/11 (Publication No. 13879844) [Doctoral dissertation, Walden University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.
Retrieved From an Institutional or Personal Website
Evener. J. (2018). Organizational learning in libraries at for-profit colleges and universities [Doctoral dissertation, Walden University]. ScholarWorks. https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6606&context=dissertations
Unpublished Dissertation or Thesis
Kirwan, J. G. (2005). An experimental study of the effects of small-group, face-to-face facilitated dialogues on the development of self-actualization levels: A movement towards fully functional persons [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center.
For further examples and information, see APA 7, Section 10.6.
For legal references, APA follows the recommendations of The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation , so if you have any questions beyond the examples provided in APA, seek out that resource as well.
Name v. Name, Volume Reporter Page (Court Date). URL
Sample reference entry:
Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954). https://www.oyez.org/cases/1940-1955/347us483
In Brown v. Board of Education (1954), the Supreme Court ruled racial segregation in schools unconstitutional.
Note: Italicize the case name when it appears in the text of your paper.
Name of Act, Title Source § Section Number (Year). URL
Sample reference entry for a federal statute:
Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. § 1400 et seq. (2004). https://www.congress.gov/108/plaws/publ446/PLAW-108publ446.pdf
Sample reference entry for a state statute:
Minnesota Nurse Practice Act, Minn. Stat. §§ 148.171 et seq. (2019). https://www.revisor.mn.gov/statutes/cite/148.171
Sample citation: Minnesota nurses must maintain current registration in order to practice (Minnesota Nurse Practice Act, 2010).
Note: The § symbol stands for "section." Use §§ for sections (plural). To find this symbol in Microsoft Word, go to "Insert" and click on Symbol." Look in the Latin 1-Supplement subset. Note: U.S.C. stands for "United States Code." Note: The Latin abbreviation " et seq. " means "and what follows" and is used when the act includes the cited section and ones that follow. Note: List the chapter first followed by the section or range of sections.
Unenacted Bills and Resolutions
(Those that did not pass and become law)
Title [if there is one], bill or resolution number, xxx Cong. (year). URL
Sample reference entry for Senate bill:
Anti-Phishing Act, S. 472, 109th Cong. (2005). https://www.congress.gov/bill/109th-congress/senate-bill/472
Sample reference entry for House of Representatives resolution:
Anti-Phishing Act, H.R. 1099, 109th Cong. (2005). https://www.congress.gov/bill/109th-congress/house-bill/1099
The Anti-Phishing Act (2005) proposed up to 5 years prison time for people running Internet scams.
These are the three legal areas you may be most apt to cite in your scholarly work. For more examples and explanation, see APA 7, Chapter 11.
Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology , 39 (6). https://www.apa.org/monitor/2008/06/ideology
Note that for citations, include only the year: Clay (2008). For magazine articles retrieved from a common academic research database, leave out the URL. For magazine articles from an online news website that is not an online version of a print magazine, follow the format for a webpage reference list entry.
Baker, A. (2014, May 7). Connecticut students show gains in national tests. New York Times . http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/08/nyregion/national-assessment-of-educational-progress-results-in-Connecticut-and-New-Jersey.html
Include the full date in the format Year, Month Day. Do not include a retrieval date for periodical sources found on websites. Note that for citations, include only the year: Baker (2014). For newspaper articles retrieved from a common academic research database, leave out the URL. For newspaper articles from an online news website that is not an online version of a print newspaper, follow the format for a webpage reference list entry.
Walden University. (2013). An overview of learning [Video]. Walden University Canvas. https://waldenu.instructure.com
Use this format for online videos such as Walden videos in classrooms. Most of our classroom videos are produced by Walden University, which will be listed as the author in your reference and citation. Note: Some examples of audiovisual materials in the APA manual show the word “Producer” in parentheses after the producer/author area. In consultation with the editors of the APA manual, we have determined that parenthetical is not necessary for the videos in our courses. The manual itself is unclear on the matter, however, so either approach should be accepted. Note that the speaker in the video does not appear in the reference list entry, but you may want to mention that person in your text. For instance, if you are viewing a video where Tobias Ball is the speaker, you might write the following: Tobias Ball stated that APA guidelines ensure a consistent presentation of information in student papers (Walden University, 2013). For more information on citing the speaker in a video, see our page on Common Citation Errors .
Taylor, R. [taylorphd07]. (2014, February 27). Scales of measurement [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PDsMUlexaMY
Walden University Academic Skills Center. (2020, April 15). One-way ANCOVA: Introduction [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/_XnNDQ5CNW8
For videos from streaming sites, use the person or organization who uploaded the video in the author space to ensure retrievability, whether or not that person is the speaker in the video. A username can be provided in square brackets. As a change from APA 6 to APA 7, include the publisher after the title, and do not use "Retrieved from" before the URL. See APA 7, Section 10.12 for more information and examples.
See also reference list entry formats for TED Talks .
Edwards, C. (2015). Lighting levels for isolated intersections: Leading to safety improvements (Report No. MnDOT 2015-05). Center for Transportation Studies. http://www.cts.umn.edu/Publications/ResearchReports/reportdetail.html?id=2402
Technical and research reports by governmental agencies and other research institutions usually follow a different publication process than scholarly, peer-reviewed journals. However, they present original research and are often useful for research papers. Sometimes, researchers refer to these types of reports as gray literature , and white papers are a type of this literature. See APA 7, Section 10.4 for more information.
Reference list entires for TED Talks follow the usual guidelines for multimedia content found online. There are two common places to find TED talks online, with slightly different reference list entry formats for each.
TED Talk on the TED website
If you find the TED Talk on the TED website, follow the format for an online video on an organizational website:
Owusu-Kesse, K. (2020, June). 5 needs that any COVID-19 response should meet [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/kwame_owusu_kesse_5_needs_that_any_covid_19_response_should_meet
The speaker is the author in the reference list entry if the video is posted on the TED website. For citations, use the speaker's surname.
TED Talk on YouTube
If you find the TED Talk on YouTube or another streaming video website, follow the usual format for streaming video sites:
TED. (2021, February 5). The shadow pandemic of domestic violence during COVID-19 | Kemi DaSilvalbru [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PGdID_ICFII
TED is the author in the reference list entry if the video is posted on YouTube since it is the channel on which the video is posted. For citations, use TED as the author.
To include the Walden course catalog in your reference list, use this format:
Walden University. (2020). 2019-2020 Walden University catalog . https://catalog.waldenu.edu/index.php
If you cite from a specific portion of the catalog in your paper, indicate the appropriate section and paragraph number in your text:
...which reflects the commitment to social change expressed in Walden University's mission statement (Walden University, 2020, Vision, Mission, and Goals section, para. 2).
And in the reference list:
Walden University. (2020). Vision, mission, and goals. In 2019-2020 Walden University catalog. https://catalog.waldenu.edu/content.php?catoid=172&navoid=59420&hl=vision&returnto=search
Vartan, S. (2018, January 30). Why vacations matter for your health . CNN. https://www.cnn.com/travel/article/why-vacations-matter/index.html
For webpages on the open web, include the author, date, webpage title, organization/site name, and URL. (There is a slight variation for online versions of print newspapers or magazines. For those sources, follow the models in the previous sections of this page.)
American Federation of Teachers. (n.d.). Community schools . http://www.aft.org/issues/schoolreform/commschools/index.cfm
If there is no specified author, then use the organization’s name as the author. In such a case, there is no need to repeat the organization's name after the title.
In APA 7, active hyperlinks for DOIs and URLs should be used for documents meant for screen reading. Present these hyperlinks in blue and underlined text (the default formatting in Microsoft Word), although plain black text is also acceptable. Be consistent in your formatting choice for DOIs and URLs throughout your reference list.
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Basic Principles of Reference List Entries
A reference list entry generally has four elements: the author, date, title, and source. Each element answers a question:
- author: Who is responsible for this work?
- date: When was this work published?
- title: What is this work called?
- source: Where can I retrieve this work?
Answering these four questions will help you create a reference entry for any type of work, even if you do not see a specific example in the Publication Manual that matches it. Consistency in reference formatting allows readers to understand the types of works you consulted and the important reference elements with ease.
To learn more about content and format of the author, date, title, and source, visit the page on reference elements .
Correspondence between source and reference list entry
This figure shows the first page of a journal article. The locations of the reference elements are highlighted with different colors and callouts, and the same colors are used in the reference list entry to show how the entry corresponds to the source.
Additionally, the in-text citation for a work corresponds to the reference list entry . For example, the in-text citation for the work in the example is Botto and Rochat (2018) or (Botto & Rochat, 2018).
View the reference examples to see the basic principles of references in action.
This guidance is the same as in the 6th edition.
- Common Reference Examples Guide (PDF, 147KB)
- Creating an APA Style Reference List (PDF, 179KB)
- Scaffolded Reference Elements Worksheet (PDF, 150KB)
Punctuation in reference list entries
Use punctuation marks in reference list entries to group information.
- Ensure that a period appears after each reference element—that is, after the author, date, title, and source. However, do not put a period after a DOI or URL because it may interfere with link functionality. And if a title ends with a question mark, the question mark replaces the period.
- Use punctuation marks (usually commas or parentheses) between parts of the same reference element. For example, in a reference for a journal article, use a comma between each author’s last name and initials and between different authors’ names, between the journal name and the volume number, and between the journal issue number and the page numbers.
- Do not use a comma between the journal volume and issue numbers. Place the issue number in parentheses directly after the volume number instead.
- Italicize punctuation marks that appear within an italic reference element (e.g., a comma or colon within a book title). Do not italicize punctuation between reference elements (e.g., the period after an italic book title or the comma after an italic journal title).
Some works contain suggested citations. These citations often contain the information necessary to write an APA Style reference but need editing for style. For example, you may need to change the capitalization of the title or the punctuation between elements. You may also need to put elements in the proper order of author, date, title, and source.
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Go to Index
Notes and Bibliography: Sample Citations
Go to Author-Date: Sample Citations
The following examples illustrate the notes and bibliography system. Sample notes show full citations followed by shortened citations for the same sources. Sample bibliography entries follow the notes. For more details and many more examples, see chapter 14 of The Chicago Manual of Style . For examples of the same citations using the author-date system, follow the Author-Date link above.
1. Zadie Smith, Swing Time (New York: Penguin Press, 2016), 315–16.
2. Brian Grazer and Charles Fishman, A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015), 12.
3. Smith, Swing Time , 320.
4. Grazer and Fishman, Curious Mind , 37.
Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)
Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life . New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015.
Smith, Zadie. Swing Time . New York: Penguin Press, 2016.
For many more examples, covering virtually every type of book, see 14.100–163 in The Chicago Manual of Style .
Chapter or other part of an edited book
In a note, cite specific pages. In the bibliography, include the page range for the chapter or part.
1. Henry David Thoreau, “Walking,” in The Making of the American Essay , ed. John D’Agata (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 177–78.
2. Thoreau, “Walking,” 182.
Thoreau, Henry David. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay , edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.
In some cases, you may want to cite the collection as a whole instead.
1. John D’Agata, ed., The Making of the American Essay (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 177–78.
2. D’Agata, American Essay , 182.
D’Agata, John, ed. The Making of the American Essay . Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.
For more examples, see 14.103–5 and 14.106–12 in The Chicago Manual of Style .
1. Jhumpa Lahiri, In Other Words , trans. Ann Goldstein (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016), 146.
2. Lahiri, In Other Words , 184.
Lahiri, Jhumpa. In Other Words . Translated by Ann Goldstein. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016.
For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. For other types of e-books, name the format. If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the notes, if any (or simply omit).
1. Herman Melville, Moby-Dick; or, The Whale (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851), 627, http://mel.hofstra.edu/moby-dick-the-whale-proofs.html.
2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), chap. 10, doc. 19, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.
3. Brooke Borel, The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016), 92, ProQuest Ebrary.
4. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), chap. 3, Kindle.
5. Melville, Moby-Dick , 722–23.
6. Kurland and Lerner, Founder s ’ Constitution , chap. 4, doc. 29.
7. Borel, Fact-Checking , 104–5.
8. Austen, Pride and Prejudice , chap. 14.
Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice . New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle.
Borel, Brooke. The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016. ProQuest Ebrary.
Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.
Melville, Herman. Moby-Dick; or, The Whale . New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851. http://mel.hofstra.edu/moby-dick-the-whale-proofs.html.
For more examples, see 14.1 59 –63 in The Chicago Manual of Style .
In a note, cite specific page numbers. In the bibliography, include the page range for the whole article. For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins https://doi.org/. This URL is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser’s address bar.
1. Susan Satterfield, “Livy and the Pax Deum ,” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 170.
2. Shao-Hsun Keng, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem, “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality,” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 9–10, https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.
3. Peter LaSalle, “Conundrum: A Story about Reading,” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95, Project MUSE.
4. Satterfield, “Livy,” 172–73.
5. Keng, Lin, and Orazem, “Expanding College Access,” 23.
6. LaSalle, “Conundrum,” 101.
Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.
LaSalle, Peter. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95–109. Project MUSE.
Satterfield, Susan. “Livy and the Pax Deum .” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 165–76.
Journal articles often list many authors, especially in the sciences. If there are four or more authors, list up to ten in the bibliography; in a note, list only the first, followed by et al . (“and others”). For more than ten authors (not shown here), list the first seven in the bibliography, followed by et al .
7. Rachel A. Bay et al., “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures,” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May 2017): 465, https://doi.org/10.1086/691233.
8. Bay et al., “Predicting Responses,” 466.
Bay, Rachael A., Noah Rose, Rowan Barrett, Louis Bernatchez, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Jesse R. Lasky, Rachel B. Brem, Stephen R. Palumbi, and Peter Ralph. “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures.” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May 2017): 463–73. https://doi.org/10.1086/691233.
For more examples, see 14.1 68 – 87 in The Chicago Manual of Style .
News or magazine article
Articles from newspapers or news sites, magazines, blogs, and the like are cited similarly. Page numbers, if any, can be cited in a note but are omitted from a bibliography entry. If you consulted the article online, include a URL or the name of the database.
1. Rebecca Mead, “The Prophet of Dystopia,” New Yorker , April 17, 2017, 43.
2. Farhad Manjoo, “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera,” New York Times , March 8, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.
3. Rob Pegoraro, “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple,” Washington Post , July 5, 2007, LexisNexis Academic.
4. Tanya Pai, “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps,” Vox , April 11, 2017, http://www.vox.com/culture/2017/4/11/15209084/peeps-easter.
5. Mead, “Dystopia,” 47.
6. Manjoo, “Snap.”
7. Pegoraro, “Apple’s iPhone.”
8. Pai, “History of Peeps.”
Manjoo, Farhad. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times , March 8, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.
Mead, Rebecca. “The Prophet of Dystopia.” New Yorker , April 17, 2017.
Pai, Tanya. “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps.” Vox , April 11, 2017. http://www.vox.com/culture/2017/4/11/15209084/peeps-easter.
Pegoraro, Rob. “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple.” Washington Post , July 5, 2007. LexisNexis Academic.
Readers’ comments are cited in the text or in a note but omitted from a bibliography.
9. Eduardo B (Los Angeles), March 9, 2017, comment on Manjoo, “Snap.”
For more examples, see 14.1 88 – 90 (magazines), 14.191–200 (newspapers), and 14.208 (blogs) in The Chicago Manual of Style .
1. Michiko Kakutani, “Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges,” review of Swing Time , by Zadie Smith, New York Times , November 7, 2016.
2. Kakutani, “Friendship.”
Kakutani, Michiko. “Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges.” Review of Swing Time , by Zadie Smith. New York Times , November 7, 2016.
1. Kory Stamper, “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English,” interview by Terry Gross, Fresh Air , NPR, April 19, 2017, audio, 35:25, http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.
2. Stamper, interview.
Stamper, Kory. “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English.” Interview by Terry Gross. Fresh Air , NPR, April 19, 2017. Audio, 35:25. http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.
Thesis or dissertation
1. Cynthia Lillian Rutz, “ King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2013), 99–100.
2. Rutz, “ King Lear ,” 158.
Rutz, Cynthia Lillian. “ King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2013.
It is often sufficient simply to describe web pages and other website content in the text (“As of May 1, 2017, Yale’s home page listed . . .”). If a more formal citation is needed, it may be styled like the examples below. For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, include an access date (as in example note 2).
2. “About Yale: Yale Facts,” Yale University, accessed May 1, 2017, https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts.
3. Katie Bouman, “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole,” filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA, video, 12:51, https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.
5. “Yale Facts.”
6. Bouman, “Black Hole.”
Bouman, Katie. “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole.” Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51. https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.
Yale University. “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Accessed May 1, 2017. https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts.
For more examples, see 14. 20 5–10 in The Chicago Manual of Style . For multimedia, including live performances, see 14. 261–68 .
Social media content
Citations of content shared through social media can usually be limited to the text (as in the first example below). A note may be added if a more formal citation is needed. In rare cases, a bibliography entry may also be appropriate. In place of a title, quote up to the first 160 characters of the post. Comments are cited in reference to the original post.
Conan O’Brien’s tweet was characteristically deadpan: “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets” (@ConanOBrien, April 22, 2015).
1. Pete Souza (@petesouza), “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit,” Instagram photo, April 1, 2016, https://www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.
2. Chicago Manual of Style, “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993,” Facebook, April 17, 2015, https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.
3. Souza, “President Obama.”
4. Michele Truty, April 17, 2015, 1:09 p.m., comment on Chicago Manual of Style, “singular they.”
Chicago Manual of Style. “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993.” Facebook, April 17, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.
Personal communications, including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text or in a note only; they are rarely included in a bibliography.
1. Sam Gomez, Facebook message to author, August 1, 2017.
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Bibliography Examples, Definition and Types Made Simple
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A bibliography is an alphabetized list of all the sources used in an academic paper. You should compile a bibliography when writing an essay, article or research paper that relies heavily on source material. Learning how to write a bibliography with different types of sources may seem tricky, but when you see examples of each type, it’s easier than you think.
How To Write a Bibliography
So what is a bibliography — and what do you need to include? There are nine core elements to create bibliography entries, each with specific punctuation. They include (with their punctuation):
- “Title of source.” (piece of work)
- Title of container or main work,
- Other contributors,
- Publication date,
When written in a bibliography, it looks like this:
Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Source.” Title of Container, edited by Other Contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication Date, Location.
If you don’t have every element in your source, choose the ones you have and include them in the citation. For example:
Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Container, Publisher, Publication date, Location.
Bibliography Examples for Books
When quoting a book, the book itself is the title of the container. For example:
Smith, John Jacob Jingleheimer. Wu Xia and the Art of Scooter Maintenance, Springer, 2003.
Should the source have more than one author, your citation should appear as follows:
Smith, John Jacob Jingleheimer, and Cindy Lu. Wu Xia and the Art of Scooter Maintenance, Springer, 2003.
If there are more than two authors for your source, add et al. (a Latin abbreviation meaning “and others.”)
Smith, John Jacob Jingleheimer et al. Wu Xia and the Art of Scooter Maintenance , Springer, 2003.
Bibliography Examples for Newspaper and Magazine Articles
For newspapers and magazines, you should include the author, the article title (in quotation marks), the title of the newspaper or publication (in italics), the date of publication, and the page numbers from which the information was gathered.
Doe, John. "How Do You Measure a Year in the Life?" The Sun Times . 2 July 2010: 1-3.
Occasionally, you will come across a source without a listed author. This is especially common when citing newspaper articles and online articles. When this happens, you should simply move to the next step of your citation.
"Review: Wu Xia and the Art of Scooter Maintenance." Arts Review. 8 October 2003.
Bibliography Examples for Online Resources
When you are citing an online source, do your best to include the following: the author, the title of the article or page, the name of the website, the website publisher (if available), the date of publication, and the specific web address or URL.
Johnson, Mary Anne. "How to Bake the Perfect Souffle." Food Network , Television Food Network, 20 February 2013, www.foodnetwork.com/article/perfect_souffle.
Bibliography Examples for Interviews
If you are citing a personal interview that you conducted yourself, include the name of the interviewee, last name first. Then add “Personal interview,” who conducted the interview, and the date the interview was conducted. For example:
Johnson, Anne. Personal interview with Mary Smith. Aug 22 2019.
If you are citing an interview performed by someone else, your citation should begin with the interviewee’s name, last name first, just like the personal interview. What follows depends on the format of the interview. If it appears in a printed publication like a book or magazine, the title of the publication in italics comes next, followed by any volume or issue numbers in plain text, followed by the year, followed by the page numbers in which the interview appears. For example:
Johnson, Anne. Interview with Mary Smith. Amazing Interviews Magazine , vol. 4, no. 2, 2019, pp. 100-105.
If the interview has a title of its own, independent of the work it’s published in, be sure to include it in quotations in place of “Interview with Mary Smith.” For example:
Johnson, Anne. “Reflections on Being an Interview Subject.” Amazing Interviews Magazine , vol. 4, no. 2, 2019, pp. 100-105.
If the interview is one part of a television program or other broadcast medium, follow the same pattern above, but omit reference to volume, issue and page number. Instead, include the interviewer’s name as “By [name]” after the show’s title, along with year of broadcast.
Johnson, Anne. “Reflections on Being an Interview Subject.” TV’s Most Amazing Interviews , By Mary Smith, 2019.
Bibliography Examples for Films
When citing a film, the format starts with the film title in italics, followed by “Directed by [name of director or directors],” then the film studio and release year. You can include noteworthy performances just after the directors if you choose. Here’s one without performers:
A Citable Film . Directed by John Smith and Jane Doe, Moviemaking Studios, 2019.
And here’s one with performers:
A Citable Film II . Directed by John Smith and Jane Doe, performances by Anne Johnson and Mark Smith, Moviemaking Studios, 2019.
Bibliography Examples for Television
Citing a television show follows the same format as films, but includes the episode title and ideally a specific airing date. The format should be: title of episode in quotation marks; title of show in italics; any season or episode information that would help readers locate the episode; “written by” and “directed by” with names for each; production company; date of broadcast. For example:
“Episode Name.” Show Name season 1, episode 1, written by John Smith and Jane Doe, directed by Mark Johnson, Distribution Distributors, 1 Aug 2019.
If you watched the episode through a streaming service, you should include the service name in italics and a link after the date:
“Episode Name.” Show Name season 1, episode 2, written by John Smith and Jane Doe, directed by Mark Johnson, Distribution Distributors, 7 Aug 2019. TVFlix , www.notareallink.com/watch/67584974.
Bibliography for Speeches, Presentations, and Conferences
Citing speeches, lectures, conferences, and other spoken material is only slightly different from citing interviews and print material. The entry should follow this pattern: name of speaker, last name first; title of speech in quotation marks; name of event at which speech was given; date in day-month-year order; location. For example:
Smith, Anne. “The Many Wonders of Speaking at Conferences.” Conference on Speaking Conferences, 1 Aug 2019, Turkeyfoot Hotel, Rabbit Hash, KY.
If you want to cite conference proceedings rather than a specific speech or event, your citation should follow the pattern of: proceedings editor, last name first; conference title in italics; conference date and location, publisher, date of publication. Note that the date will often be in the title of the proceedings; if that is the case, there’s no need to include it at the end. Here’s an example:
Smith, Anne. Conference on Speaking Conferences Proceedings, August 2019 . Turkeyfoot Hotel, Rabbit Hash KY: Publication Publishing.
And an example without the date in the title:
Smith, Anne. Conference on Speaking Conferences Proceedings . 1 Aug 2019, Turkeyfoot Hotel, Rabbit Hash, KY: Publication Publishing, 22 Aug 2019.
Note that the italics end with the title. That helps separate a date that is part of the title from a date you have included yourself. Also, note that when citing the published proceedings of a conference, two dates are called for: the date of the conference itself and the date the proceedings were published.
Other Types of Bibliographies
The above examples follow MLA citation format , but you may need more specific instructions if you’re using a different style guide. These guides include the APA style (for social sciences) and the Chicago Manual of Style (for fine arts and business). If you’re writing a journalistic article, you may want to use the AP Stylebook for your citations.
Bibliography, Annotated Bibliography or Works Cited?
Despite the varying terms, the difference between a bibliography, an annotated bibliography and a works cited page is simple.
- A works cited page is a list of every work cited in the text of your paper.
- A bibliography is a list of every work you used while writing your paper, whether or not it was specifically cited.
- An annotated bibliography is a bibliography with a short note by the author explaining the significance of the source.
A Bibliography Doesn’t Need to Be Hard Work
Regardless of the format used, every bibliography citation has to have a minimum amount of identifying information. Write down the citation information for each source as you review it, whether or not you think you will actually use it; it will keep your notes more organized and help you find information quickly when you're actually writing. The more you practice citations, the less of a chore they will be at the end of a lengthy paper.
For further help with formatting and style, refer to these resources:
- How to Write a Bibliography for a School Project
- APA Citation and Formats
- Bibliography Examples for Students
- Copyright and Fair Use for Students
- Avoiding Plagiarism With Simple Tips and Techniques
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Citation Styles: A Brief Guide to APA, MLA and Turabian
Sample bibliography: apa.
- Journal Articles
- Magazine Articles
- Newspaper Articles
- Government Publications
- Other Materials
- In Text Citations
- Sample Bibliography: MLA
- Sample Bibliography: Turabian
- Creating an Annotated Bibliography
The basic format for a book citation requires listing the author's name, the title of the book, the publisher's name, and the date of publication. Edited books, when cited in full, will list the editor's name instead of an author’s name.
Becsey, L., Wachsberger, P., Samuels, S., et al (Directors). (2008). In the valley of Elah . [DVD]. Warner Home Video.
Ginsberg, J. P., Ayers, E., Burriss, L., & Powell, D. A. (2008). Discriminative delay Pavlovian eye-blink conditioning in veterans with and without post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders , 22 , 809-823. https://doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2007.08.009
Glantz, A. (2009). The war comes home: Washington's battle against America's veterans . University of California Press.
Jakupcak, M., Luterek, J., Hunt, S., Conybeare, D., & McFall, M. (2008). Post-traumatic stress and its relationship to physical health functioning in a sample of Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans seeking post-deployment VA health care. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease , 196 , 425-428.
Jensen, G. & Wiest, A. A. (2001). War in the age of technology myriad faces of modern armed conflict . New York University Press.
Killgore, W. D. S., Cotting, D. I., Thomas, J. L., Cox, A. L., McGurk, D., Vo, A. H., et al. (2008). Post-combat invincibility: Violent combat experiences are associated with increased risk-taking propensity following deployment. Journal of Psychiatric Research , 42 (13), 1112-1121. https://doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2008.01.001
Monson, C. M., Fredman, S. J., & Adair, K. C. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: Application to operation enduring and Iraqi freedom veterans. Journal of Clinical Psychology , 64 , 958-971. https://doi:10.1002/jclp.20511
Paulson, D. S., & Krippner, S. (2007). Haunted by combat : Understanding PTSD in war veterans including women, reservists, and those coming back from Iraq . Praeger Security International.
Tanielian, T. L., Jaycox, L., & Rand Corporation. (2008). Invisible wounds of war: Psychological and cognitive injuries, their consequences, and services to assist recovery . Rand.
United States. Congress. House Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on the Middle East and South Asia. (2007). Working in a war zone: Post traumatic stress disorder in civilians returning from Iraq . G.P.O.
Van Winkle, C. (2009). Soft spots: A marine's memoir of combat and post-traumatic stress disorder . St. Martin's Press.
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- Harvard Style Bibliography | Format & Examples
Harvard Style Bibliography | Format & Examples
Published on 1 May 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 7 November 2022.
In Harvard style , the bibliography or reference list provides full references for the sources you used in your writing.
- A reference list consists of entries corresponding to your in-text citations .
- A bibliography sometimes also lists sources that you consulted for background research, but did not cite in your text.
The two terms are sometimes used interchangeably. If in doubt about which to include, check with your instructor or department.
The information you include in a reference varies depending on the type of source, but it usually includes the author, date, and title of the work, followed by details of where it was published. You can automatically generate accurate references using our free reference generator:
Harvard Reference Generator
Table of contents
Formatting a harvard style bibliography, harvard reference examples, referencing sources with multiple authors, referencing sources with missing information, frequently asked questions about harvard bibliographies.
Sources are alphabetised by author last name. The heading ‘Reference list’ or ‘Bibliography’ appears at the top.
Each new source appears on a new line, and when an entry for a single source extends onto a second line, a hanging indent is used:
Reference list or bibliography entries always start with the author’s last name and initial, the publication date and the title of the source. The other information required varies depending on the source type. Formats and examples for the most common source types are given below.
- Entire book
- Book chapter
- Translated book
- Edition of a book
- Print journal
- Online-only journal with DOI
- Online-only journal without DOI
- General web page
- Online article or blog
- Social media post
Newspapers and magazines
- Newspaper article
- Magazine article
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When a source has up to three authors, list all of them in the order their names appear on the source. If there are four or more, give only the first name followed by ‘ et al. ’:
Sometimes a source won’t list all the information you need for your reference. Here’s what to do when you don’t know the publication date or author of a source.
Some online sources, as well as historical documents, may lack a clear publication date. In these cases, you can replace the date in the reference list entry with the words ‘no date’. With online sources, you still include an access date at the end:
When a source doesn’t list an author, you can often list a corporate source as an author instead, as with ‘Scribbr’ in the above example. When that’s not possible, begin the entry with the title instead of the author:
Though the terms are sometimes used interchangeably, there is a difference in meaning:
- A reference list only includes sources cited in the text – every entry corresponds to an in-text citation .
- A bibliography also includes other sources which were consulted during the research but not cited.
In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ‘ et al. ’
In Harvard style referencing , to distinguish between two sources by the same author that were published in the same year, you add a different letter after the year for each source:
- (Smith, 2019a)
- (Smith, 2019b)
Add ‘a’ to the first one you cite, ‘b’ to the second, and so on. Do the same in your bibliography or reference list .
To create a hanging indent for your bibliography or reference list :
- Highlight all the entries
- Click on the arrow in the bottom-right corner of the ‘Paragraph’ tab in the top menu.
- In the pop-up window, under ‘Special’ in the ‘Indentation’ section, use the drop-down menu to select ‘Hanging’.
- Then close the window with ‘OK’.
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.
Caulfield, J. (2022, November 07). Harvard Style Bibliography | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 27 February 2023, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/referencing/harvard-bibliography/
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Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts
Reference List: Basic Rules
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here .
This resource, revised according to the 7 th edition APA Publication Manual, provides fundamental guidelines for constructing the reference pages of research papers. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , (7 th ed.).
This page gives basic guidelines for formatting the reference list at the end of a standard APA research paper. Most sources follow fairly straightforward rules. However, because sources obtained from academic journals carry special weight in research writing, these sources are subject to special rules . Thus, this page presents basic guidelines for citing academic journals separate from its "ordinary" basic guidelines. This distinction is made clear below.
Note: Because the information on this page pertains to virtually all citations, we've highlighted one important difference between APA 6 and APA 7 with an underlined note written in red.
Formatting a Reference List
Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.
Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page "References" in bold, centered at the top of the page (do NOT underline or use quotation marks for the title). All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.
Basic Rules for Most Sources
- All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation.
- All authors' names should be inverted (i.e., last names should be provided first).
- For example, the reference entry for a source written by Jane Marie Smith would begin with "Smith, J. M."
- If a middle name isn't available, just initialize the author's first name: "Smith, J."
- Give the last name and first/middle initials for all authors of a particular work up to and including 20 authors ( this is a new rule, as APA 6 only required the first six authors ). Separate each author’s initials from the next author in the list with a comma. Use an ampersand (&) before the last author’s name. If there are 21 or more authors, use an ellipsis (but no ampersand) after the 19th author, and then add the final author’s name.
- Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
- For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.
- Note again that the titles of academic journals are subject to special rules. See section below.
- Italicize titles of longer works (e.g., books, edited collections, names of newspapers, and so on).
- Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as chapters in books or essays in edited collections.
Basic Rules for Articles in Academic Journals
- Present journal titles in full.
- Italicize journal titles.
- For example, you should use PhiloSOPHIA instead of Philosophia, or Past & Present instead of Past and Present.
- This distinction is based on the type of source being cited. Academic journal titles have all major words capitalized, while other sources' titles do not.
- Capitalize the first word of the titles and subtitles of journal articles , as well as the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and any proper nouns .
- Do not italicize or underline the article title.
- Deep blue: The mysteries of the Marianas Trench.
- Oceanographic Study: A Peer-Reviewed Publication
Please note: While the APA manual provides examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does not cover all conceivable sources. If you must cite a source that APA does not address, the APA suggests finding an example that is similar to your source and using that format. For more information, see page 282 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 7 th ed.
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Writing a Bibliography: MLA Format
Below are standard formats and examples for basic bibliographic information recommended by the Modern Language Association (MLA). For more information on the MLA format, see MLA Style Center .
Your list of works cited should begin at the end of the paper on a new page with the centered title, Works Cited . Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author's last name, using the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) If the author's name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A, An , or The .
For dates, spell out the names of months in the text of your paper, but abbreviate them in the list of works cited, except for May, June, and July. Use either the day-month-year style (22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and be consistent. With the month-day-year style, be sure to add a comma after the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.
Underlining or Italics ?
When reports were written on typewriters, the names of publications were underlined because most typewriters had no way to print italics. If you write a bibliography by hand, you should still underline the names of publications. But, if you use a computer, then publication names should be in italics as they are below. Always check with your instructor regarding their preference of using italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.
All MLA citations should use hanging indents, that is, the first line of an entry should be flush left, and the second and subsequent lines should be indented 1/2".
Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation
The MLA guidelines specify using title case capitalization - capitalize the first words, the last words, and all principal words, including those that follow hyphens in compound terms. Use lowercase abbreviations to identify the parts of a work (e.g., vol. for volume , ed. for editor ) except when these designations follow a period. Whenever possible, use the appropriate abbreviated forms for the publisher's name ( Random instead of Random House ).
Separate author, title, and publication information with a period followed by one space. Use a colon and a space to separate a title from a subtitle. Include other kinds of punctuation only if it is part of the title. Use quotation marks to indicate the titles of short works appearing within larger works (e.g., "Memories of Childhood." American Short Stories ). Also use quotation marks for titles of unpublished works and songs.
Allen, Thomas B. Vanishing Wildlife of North America . Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1974.
Boorstin, Daniel J. The Creators: A History of the Heroes of the Imagination . New York: Random, 1992.
Hall, Donald, ed. The Oxford Book of American Literacy Anecdotes . New York: Oxford UP, 1981.
Searles, Baird, and Martin Last. A Reader's Guide to Science Fiction . New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1979.
Toomer, Jean. Cane . Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton, 1988.
Encyclopedia & Dictionary
Pettingill, Olin Sewall, Jr. "Falcon and Falconry." World Book Encyclopedia . 1980.
Tobias, Richard. "Thurber, James." Encyclopedia Americana . 1991 ed.
Levinson, David, and Melvin M. Ember, eds. Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology. 4 vols. New York: Henry Holt, 1996. Print.
Magazine & Newspaper Articles
Hall, Trish. "IQ Scores Are Up, and Psychologists Wonder Why." New York Times 24 Feb. 1998, late ed.: F1+.
Kalette, Denise. "California Town Counts Down to Big Quake." USA Today 9 21 July 1986: sec. A: 1.
Kanfer, Stefan. "Heard Any Good Books Lately?" Time 113 21 July 1986: 71-72.
Trillin, Calvin. "Culture Shopping." New Yorker 15 Feb. 1993: 48-51.
Website or Webpage
Devitt, Terry. "Lightning injures four at music festival." The Why? Files . 2 Aug. 2001. 23 Jan. 2002 <http://whyfiles.org /137lightning/index.html>.
Dove, Rita. "Lady Freedom among Us." The Electronic Text Center . Ed. David Seaman. 1998. Alderman Lib., U of Virginia. 19 June 1998 <http://etext.lib.virginia.edu /subjects/afam.html>.
Lancashire, Ian. Homepage. 28 Mar. 2002. 15 May 2002 <http://www.chass.utoronto.ca:8080 /~ian/>.
Levy, Steven. "Great Minds, Great Ideas." Newsweek 27 May 2002. 10 June 2002 <http://www.msnbc.com /news/754336.asp>.
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How to Write a Bibliography
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A bibliography is a list of sources that were referenced to write an academic paper, a journal article, a book, a critique, an essay, or any other type of academic writing. Bibliographies differ in format and go by different names depending on what style of writing you are using, but they mostly include the same standard information. We’ll cover the basics to help you get started.
Bibliography Styles: Bibliography vs. Works Cited vs. Reference List
Each style guide has a different format for writing a bibliography. Make sure that the bibliography style you use matches the format of your paper.
bibliography - list of all sources consulted to write the paper, even those not cited or used directly (Chicago notes-bibliography style)
works cited - list of all sources actually cited within your paper (MLA style)
reference list/page - same as works cited; list of all sources actually cited within your paper (Chicago author-date style, APA style)
How to Write a Bibliography in MLA Format
The MLA (Modern Language Association) format is primarily used for English Literature and other disciplines of the humanities. This style typically uses a Works Cited page.
As you write your paper, keep track of all the studies, books, films, internet articles, and other sources you consulted while writing the paper. You’ll need to note:
place of publication
date of publication
When you include these sources in your works cited, they should be in alphabetical order.
Nine Core Elements
MLA revised its eighth edition, which created a container system using nine core elements. These nine core elements may be nested in containers. As works may be published in edited forms on different platforms, the container system lets you include all the necessary information to lead your reader to the exact source you used for your paper.
For each source, try to find as much information as possible about it. Follow these nine core elements in order, using the exact punctuation as shown (if you don’t have the information for one element, simply skip it):
Title of source.
Title of container,
Include the words “Works Cited” at the top of the page. Use a hanging indent for each entry. This helps separate the entries to make it easier for the reader.
How to Write a Bibliography in Chicago Style
The Chicago style format is primarily used for history texts. You may hear Chicago style called Turabian style. Turabian is simply the shorter student version of Chicago. There are two reference page styles for Chicago.
Author-Date Style Bibliography
The first is a simpler author-date style bibliography. This means the first element is the author’s name, and the second is the date of publication. You use the word “References” at the top of the page. Other elements follow as shown in this basic book format:
Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name.
The parenthetical citation follows this format:
(Smith 2010, 77)
Chicago’s notes-bibliography style means that either footnotes or endnotes are included throughout the text. The full source entry is then included in a bibliography at the end of the paper.
This example of a note entry shows how to format the note:
##. Author’s First and Last Names, Title of Book: Subtitle of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of Publication), pp.
The corresponding bibliography entry is formatted this way:
Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of Publication.
Each source follows the same basic format, but there’ll be differences depending on whether it’s a book, journal article or website. Use the word “Bibliography” at the top of the page.
How to Write a Bibliography in APA Style
The American Psychological Association (APA) style of writing is used for psychology and other sciences and social sciences. This style uses a references list.
For APA style , the format is similar to Chicago’s author-date style and uses the word “References” at the top of the page. The year follows the name of the author. However, place the year in parenthesis after the author. Then include the name of the book or article, the name of the magazine or journal (this does not apply if it’s a book), and the page numbers.
The basic APA reference list format follows this example:
Author, A.A. (2001). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
The in-text citation includes the author’s last name, year of publication and page number within parentheses.
(Author, year, p.#)
Different Styles, Different Formats
Always consult a handbook for any of these styles if you have any questions that weren't answered in this broad overview: Make sure you're using the most current edition. If you need help finding sources or other style tips for your paper, check out these great resources:
How to Find Credible Sources for Research
Tips on Writing an Essay in MLA Style
Writing Tips for APA-Style Research Papers
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A bibliography is a list of the books and other sources that are referred to in a scholarly work-such as an essay, term paper, dissertation, or a book. The bibliography comes at the end of the work.
There are different ways to format a bibliography, and the style that you use will depend on the discipline in which you are writing. For example, those who are writing in the field of literature use the Modern Language Association (MLA) style. Those who are writing in the social sciences use the American Psychological Association (APA) style. There are several other styles as well depending on the field or discipline.
The bibliography usually does list the references in alphabetical order, regardless of the style or format.
National Center for Learning Disabilities. (2014). What is IDEA? Retrieved from www.ncld.org/disability-advocacy/lear-ld-laws/idea/what-is-ldea
National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY). (2012). Response to intervention (RTI). Retrieved from nichcy.org/schools-administrators/rti#elements
National High School Center, National Center on Response to Intervention, and Center on Instruction. (2010). Tiered interventions in high schools: Using preliminary "lessons learned" to guide ongoing discussion. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research. PDF retrieved from http://www.betterhighschools.org/pubs/
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (NIH Publication No. 00-4769). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Nunn, G. D., & Jantz, P. B. (2009). Factors within response to intervention implementation training associated with teacher efficacy beliefs. Education , 129(4), 599-607. Available at http://www.projectinnovation.biz/education_2006.html
Dean, Cornelia. "Executive on a Mission: Saving the Planet." New York Times . New York Times, 22 May 2007. Web. 25 May 2009.
Gowdy, John. "Avoiding Self-organized Extinction: Toward a Co-evolutionary Economics of Sustainability." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 14.1 (2007): 27-36. Print.
Nordhaus, William D. "After Kyoto: Alternative Mechanisms to Control Global Warming." American Economic Review 96.2 (2006): 31-34. Print.
Uzawa, Hirofumi. Economic Theory and Global Warming . Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2003. Print.
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For example, an "About us" page on a website is usually written by the organization behind the website. When you really cannot determine the author, you may omit the "author" component from the reference. The reference then begins with the source title, as in this Bible citation. Blog post (unknown author) King James Bible. (2017).
Bibliography entries vary in format depending on the type of source. Templates and examples for the most common source types are shown below. Book Book chapter Journal article Website The edition is always abbreviated (e.g. 2nd ed. or rev. ed.). Only include the URL for books you consulted online. Formatting the bibliography page
For in-text citations of republished work, use both dates in the parenthetical citation, original date first with a slash separating the years, as in this example: Freud (1923/1961). For more information on reprinted or republished works, see APA 7, Sections 9.40-9.41. Book Chapters Reference Entry Video Writing Center instructional video
to find the examples in the . Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). More information on references and reference examples are in Chapters 9 and 10 of the . Publication . Manual as well as the Concise Guide to APA Styl e (7th ed.). Also see the Reference Examples. pages on . the APA Style website. Journal ...
Davidson's book provides a thorough examination of the major roles filled by the numerous pagan goddesses of Northern Europe in everyday life, including their roles in hunting, agriculture, domestic arts like weaving, the household, and death.
A reference list entry generally has four elements: the author, date, title, and source. Each element answers a question: author: Who is responsible for this work? date: When was this work published? title: What is this work called? source: Where can I retrieve this work?
Format Examples Books Format: Author's last name, first initial. (Publication date). Book title. Additional information. City of publication: Publishing company. Examples: Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of North America. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society. Boorstin, D. (1992).
Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order) Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015. Smith, Zadie. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press, 2016. For many more examples, covering virtually every type of book, see 14.100-163 in The Chicago Manual of Style.
Bibliography Examples for Books. When quoting a book, the book itself is the title of the container. For example: Smith, John Jacob Jingleheimer. Wu Xia and the Art of Scooter Maintenance, Springer, 2003. Should the source have more than one author, your citation should appear as follows: Smith, John Jacob Jingleheimer, and Cindy Lu. Wu Xia and ...
For a legal case citation, you need the name of the case, volume source page, and court date. Legal Case Example MacDonald v. Taubner. F.3d 131, 145 (1968). APA Annotated Bibliography In addition to your APA reference list, you might also be asked to create an annotated bibliography in APA.
Sample Bibliography: APA The basic format for a book citation requires listing the author's name, the title of the book, the publisher's name, and the date of publication. Edited books, when cited in full, will list the editor's name instead of an author's name. References Becsey, L., Wachsberger, P., Samuels, S., et al (Directors). (2008).
Reference list or bibliography entries always start with the author's last name and initial, the publication date and the title of the source. The other information required varies depending on the source type. Formats and examples for the most common source types are given below. Books Entire book Book chapter Translated book Edition of a book
Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work. For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.
Examples: Allen, Thomas B. Vanishing Wildlife of North America. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1974. Boorstin, Daniel J. The Creators: A History of the Heroes of the Imagination. New York: Random, 1992. Hall, Donald, ed. The Oxford Book of American Literacy Anecdotes. New York: Oxford UP, 1981. Searles, Baird, and Martin Last.
Want to learn how to write a bibliography without struggling every step of the way? Follow this simple guide!
A bibliography is a list of the books and other sources that are referred to in a scholarly work-such as an essay, term paper, dissertation, or a book. The bibliography comes at the end of the work.. There are different ways to format a bibliography, and the style that you use will depend on the discipline in which you are writing. For example, those who are writing in the field of literature ...