• The A.V. Club
  • The Takeout
  • The Inventory

A Systematic Approach to Solving Just About Any Problem

Problems can be difficult to solve when we only know the issue and none of the steps to fix it. Sometimes it's even more daunting to figure out what those steps are at all. This guide will help you take just about any problem and figure out a plan to solve it and stay motivated when handling long-term issues.

Some problems, such as fixing a broken computer, can be pretty easy to solve if you have the right knowledge. Others, such as figuring out what you want to do with your life, can be very overwhelming because that answer is unique to you and takes time and experience to resolve—not to mention several other complications. Nonetheless, you can find solutions to simple and difficult problems alike by approaching them a particular way. While this approach to problem-solving isn't the only way, it's one way I've found particularly effective. Here are the basic steps you need to take to go from problem to solution:

In this guide we'll go over each step in detail and use each steps to solve a bizarre dilemma.

Understand the Problem

The 2023 Complete Python Certification Bootcamp Bundle

Comes with twelve different courses comprised of a huge number of lessons, and each one will help you learn more about Python itself, and can be accessed when you want and as often as you want forever, making it ideal for learning a new skill.

Understanding the problem you're trying to solve is often the most difficult step because it's easy to focus on the wrong part of the problem, or look at the problem too broadly. For example, if you're sick you may see the problem as being sick. You may be able to get more specific and say that you feel congested. The problem of congestion is more specific and therefore a bit better than knowing your sick, but it's a symptom that applies to many different illnesses and can't reveal the exact problem. You may have a cold, the flu, seasonal allergies, etc., but this one piece of information won't tell you enough to be sure. The problem is, both illness and congestion seem like the problems you want to solve because they're the things that are bothering you, but by seeking to solve either issue you're essentially taking shots in the dark. In order to properly understand the problem you have and make a real effort to solve it, you need to figure out what the problem really is. You need to break the problem down into its simplest form.

Let's look at another example.

The Case of the Stolen Leg: Part I

Pretend for a moment that you lost your leg in a horrible accident and have been living with a prosthetic leg for the past few years. One day you're visited by a traveling salesman who takes a liking to your fake leg and offers to buy it. You don't want to sell it, so he takes advantage of your disability, knocks you on the ground, and steals your leg. The obvious problem is that you're now missing a leg, but that's a problem with little specificity. Fortunately, this is an easy problem to understand because you know the cause: the traveling salesman stole it. That provides a simple solution as well: you need to find the salesman to retrieve your missing prosthetic leg.

That is an easy problem to distill because the cause is obvious, but let's say it's not. What if your leg went missing, suddenly, while you were asleep? You'd look for clues. Perhaps the culprit dropped an item or two along the way. Maybe someone saw him running out with the leg late at night and would be able to identify him. Maybe the tire treads on his car were unusual and could lead to more information. Regardless of what the clues are, when you're trying to solve any kind of problem you need to look for as much information as possible so you know you're focusing on the right things. If you wake up with a missing leg, you might quickly realize that someone stole it but that clue isn't specific enough to be very helpful. It's only enough to help you look for the right kinds of clues.

This is very similar to solving the problem of your congestion. It may seem silly to draw correlations between figuring out an illness and solving the mystery of a stolen prosthetic—and in some ways it is—but the process is pretty much the same. If you're trying to figure out the root cause of illness, you simply search for clues and gather information based on what you find. You might ask what other symptoms you have until those symptoms point to a particular illness. (Or you might just go see a doctor, because you don't want to mess around with your health.)

Regardless of the type of problem, the first thing you need to do is reduce it to its simplest and purest form so you know exactly what you're dealing with. While you're doing this, you need to ask yourself questions to make sure you're focusing on the right things. Once you have your correct and simplified problem, you can move on and put together a plan to actually solve it.

Create a Plan

A problem is just a problem if you don't have any means of finding the solution. You may know the result you're looking for, but if you don't have steps to get there it'll be too far to reach. To get from point A to point B, you need a plan with actionable steps. To figure out those steps, you need to ask yourself what's barring you from moving forward and make that step one. Step one will open doors to other steps. Consider which steps will open more doors, add them to the plan, and keep doing that until you get to your solution. Things will change as you act on the plan and you'll need to adapt, so it's best to keep your plan somewhat open-ended and try to include steps that involve preparing for trouble you can foresee. Obviously this is a bit vague, so let's get back to our story.

The Case of the Stolen Leg: Part II

The problem that needs solving is pretty clear: you've lost your prosthetic leg and you want to get it back. But then you stop—mentally, of course, as you're not going very far with one leg. How are you going to get your leg back? You know the result you want, but achieving it seems impossible. This is not because the traveling salesman has a leg up on you, so to speak, but because you're looking at point A—your missing leg—and point B—catching the salesman and getting your leg back. There's a lot of distance between those two points, and you're not going to get there without some actionable steps in between. What you need is a plan.

How do you put together a plan to recover your leg? You need to avoid thinking about the ultimate outcome and more about the most urgent issue at hand. If your leg has been stolen and you're lying on the ground, what's the first thing you need to do? Get up off the ground. After that? Call for help, as you can't give chase too easily in your condition. So, solving the case of the stolen leg might look something like this:

This plan has steps that work nicely if you know the exact outcome. When you know your outcome, you can outline steps like these because you know exactly where you're going to end up. Technical problems are uniformly simple in this way, but when you're dealing with people you don't have this type of predictability. Generally there's a variable level of capriciousness you have to account for when outlining your solutions. If you do not account for the unexpected, your plan will eventually render itself useless. Obviously, this is something you do not want to happen.

Keep Yourself Motivated

If you end up with a useless plan, it's hard to stay motivated because you might think you've failed. You haven't, but you've just fallen into a common trap of creating a plan that isn't flexible enough to account for surprises along the way. You not only need to make your plans flexible, but you want to try and plan for surprises as well. You won't always know what they are, but you can make educated guesses and be a little more prepared to deal with issues when they arise. This will help keep you motivated when solving problems that take more time, as these surprises won't be so devastating if you're ready for them. Again, this is a bit vague. Let's take a look at how we can use these strategies to get our stolen leg back.

The Case of the Stolen Leg: Part III

Suppose you check every hotel and motel in town but do not locate the salesman. Assuming you've received 100% honest information and he's truly not patronizing any of the local accommodations, your plan becomes useless. This is fine, as most problems you'll encounter will throw you a few surprises and your plan will have to change. The important thing is that you recognize these surprises. In the case of the leg thief salesman, your first instinct failed you and you need more information. At this point you might be kicking yourself—figuratively, of course—because you could've asked everyone you met at the hotels for more information instead of just trying to find out if he'd purchased a room. If you'd collected that information, you might have found out that someone saw him frequenting their favorite coffee shop. You'd then be able to easily change your plan to visit the coffee shop, talk to the baristas, and learn that he's staying with his old aunt who lives on the outskirts of town. With this information, you'd be able to visit his old aunt and catch him before he departed into the sunset with your prosthetic leg.

That's a happy ending to the story, but let's say things didn't work out so well. Let's say you do actually fail and don't get your leg back. Having a plan doesn't mean you eventually get what you want and always succeed. For that reason, it helps to account for failure as well. In a case like this, you can buy another prosthetic leg. It might not be an ideal outcome, but at least you'll be able to get a replacement—even if it's at your own expense. Knowing you won't be legless for too long can reduce the anxiety that comes with taking a chance. You know that if you fail, you'll still be okay.

Let's take a look at what we just did:

Following those steps is generally the easiest way to solve a problem. Of course, a stolen prosthetic leg is not a situation most of us are going to encounter during our lives. Before we wrap things up, let's take a look at a couple of practical examples and how this process applies to them.

A Couple of More Practical Examples

Since you're unlikely to find yourself hunting down prosthetic leg thieves, we're going to take a quick look at breaking down and solving a simple technical problem as well as a complicated life problem.

Breaking Down a Technical Problem

Consider a broken computer that needs to be fixed. All you know is that the computer turns on and makes a strange noise, but it refuses to boot up. You don't know anything more than this, but you still want to fix the computer. With most problems, you have to do a little research to figure out what's truly wrong. This is a lot more fun if you look at it like solving a mystery and use the clues you have to find new clues until you have the answer you're looking for. In the case of the broken computer, consider what you already know: the computer won't boot up and it's making a strange noise. In this case, you're not necessarily being detailed enough. What does the noise sound like? For the purposes of this example, it sounds like clicking—almost like a ticking clock. From here you can easily search online for more information about a broken computer making a clicking noise and you'll discover that the broken component is likely the hard drive. Now you know the actual problem: your hard drive is dead. The solution: it needs to be replaced.

From here you can move forward and plan how to solve it. Your plan might look something like this:

Breaking Down a Complicated Life Problem

Life problems, or problems that less technical and uniform in their solutions, can be a little more difficult to pin down but the process is nonetheless the same. Let's say you've been working as a real estate agent for several years but your real dream in life is to become a painter. That's a particularly big shift in careers, but your happiness is important to you and you're ready to try.

In the worst case scenario, your problem is likely that you want to become a painter but you don't know how. This is about as vague as you can get, but it's not a bad clue to start with. If you don't know how to do something, just ask someone who does. While it's unlikely that you won't be able to ask the advice of another painter, or read their advice in a book or on the internet, let's pretend those options don't exist. If all you have is yourself and need another clue, you can always look to a similar problem you've solved in the past, even if you didn't intend to solve it. Even though your experience as a real estate agent seems irrelevant, it's not. You still had to get that job, somehow, and maintain your position for several years. How did you do that? You had some knowledge that made you seem somewhat attractive to an employer and you convinced them to take a chance on you. Throughout the years you gained experience and success, making it easy to find work and make money as a real estate agent. If you want to work as a painter, which is also a job, you need those same basic things. The problem, in the worst case, is that you are unemployable as a painter because you have no talent or experience. That's the real problem you need to solve.

How can we create a plan to make your dream of becoming a painter come true? We know he the problem is that you don't have the requisite experience or talent to become a painter, so what is the most urgent need? You need to gain experience and talent. Once you have those things, you need to use that experience and talent to find work and become more and more successful. Your plan might look like this:

This is a pretty basic plan, but that's the idea. When you're breaking down a problem into a plan, you only want to get as specific as is necessary to move forward. If you get too specific, surprises will often trip you up. If you're not specific enough, you won't know what to do next. The goal is to create steps that keep you moving but don't trap you when the situation changes. Being too narrow-minded with your goals can make it easy to miss the right choices .

All you really need to do to solve any problem is distill it into its simplest form, create a plan that consists of actionable steps to solve the problem, and make that plan flexible enough so that you don't become discouraged. Doing these things won't necessarily make the problem easier to solve, but it will clarify the unknown and provide a means of actually achieving the solution.

Got any great tricks you use to make problem-solving an easier task? Let's hear ‘em in the comments.

Photos by Francesco Pappalardo , Aviya Serfaty , F Delventhal , Monica Arellano-Ongpin , keith011764 , Dan Previte , and Stephanie Watson .

You can follow Adam Dachis, the author of this post, on Twitter and Facebook . If you'd like to contact him, Twitter is the most effective means of doing so.


Starting a Business

Growing a Business

Business News

Science & technology.

Money & Finance

Green Entrepreneur

Copyright © 2023 Entrepreneur Media, Inc. All rights reserved. Entrepreneur® and its related marks are registered trademarks of Entrepreneur Media Inc.

Problem Solved

Stop startup problems before they even begin. Here are 5 common mistakes that can sabotage your business--and how to avoid them.

By Rosalind Resnick • Jun 1, 2008

Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own.

Reprinted with permission from Getting Rich Without Going Broke: How to Use Luck, Logic and Leverage to Build Your Own Successful Business by Rosalind Resnick (©2007). All rights reserved.

Rosalind Resnick, the founder and CEO of Axxess Business Consulting, a New York City consulting firm that advises startups and small businesses, is the co-founder and former CEO of NetCreations, a two-person homebased web design firm that grew to a $58 million public company and was acquired for $111 million in cash in 2001. In this excerpt from her book Getting Rich Without Going Broke: How to Use Luck, Logic and Leverage to Build Your Own Successful Business (PageFree Publishing), Resnick shares her secrets for building a multimillion-dollar business.

Continue reading this article — and all of our other premium content with Entrepreneur+

For just $5, you can get unlimited access to all Entrepreneur’s premium content. You’ll find:

Related Topics

Editor's pick, most popular, honeymoon couple says they were stranded at sea by snorkeling company. 'they were so scared.'.

The newlyweds sued Sail Maui for leaving them behind in deep choppy water for two hours.

By Jonathan Small

FBI Investigating Woman's Death on a Carnival Cruise

The Federal Bureau of Investigation announced Sunday that it is looking into a 'suspicious death' in February on the Carnival Sunshine.

By Steve Huff

Carnival Cruise Wants Passengers to Have Fun in the Sun — But Do This, and You'll Get Burned With a New $500 Fee

The cruise line's updated contract follows a spate of unruly guest behavior across the tourism industry.

By Amanda Breen

'Degrading' and 'Offensive': Internet Divided After Barbara Corcoran Shoots Money Gun At Employees

The "Shark Tank" star was looking to treat employees for Employee Appreciation Day.

By Emily Rella

Man Charged Over Stabbing and Attempted Door Opening on United Airlines Flight

Francisco Severo Torres allegedly tried to stab a crew member with a broken spoon.

'My Brain Is Literally Going To Explode': Viral Video Sparks Debate Over Whether or Not Renters Should Tip Landlords

A TikTok is making its rounds showing a mock scenario where a tenant is asked to give a tip to their landlord.

Successfully copied link

Please enable JavaScript.

Coggle requires JavaScript to display documents.

Problem-solving Approach (Key features (Promotes personal agency (C is the…

concrete view of what C wants diff/same abt life

Problem Solving P-A-D-I (Problem Solving Skills)

Uploaded by, document information, original title, available formats, share this document, share or embed document, sharing options.

Did you find this document useful?

Is this content inappropriate, original title:, reward your curiosity.

problem solving approach padi

What Is Problem-Solving Therapy?

problem solving approach padi

Daniel B. Block, MD, is an award-winning, board-certified psychiatrist who operates a private practice in Pennsylvania.

problem solving approach padi

Verywell / Madelyn Goodnight


Things to consider, how to get started.

Problem-solving therapy is a form of therapy that provides patients with tools to identify and solve problems that arise from life stressors, both big and small. Its aim is to improve your overall quality of life and reduce the negative impact of psychological and physical illness.

Problem-solving therapy can be used to treat depression , among other conditions. It can be administered by a doctor or mental health professional and may be combined with other treatment approaches.

Problem-solving therapy is based on a model that takes into account the importance of real-life problem-solving. In other words, the key to managing the impact of stressful life events is to know how to address issues as they arise. Problem-solving therapy is very practical in its approach and is only concerned with the present, rather than delving into your past.

This form of therapy can take place one-on-one or in a group format and may be offered in person or online via telehealth . Sessions can be anywhere from 30 minutes to two hours long. 

There are two major components that make up the problem-solving therapy framework:

A positive problem-solving orientation means viewing things in an optimistic light, embracing self-efficacy , and accepting the idea that problems are a normal part of life. Problem-solving skills are behaviors that you can rely on to help you navigate conflict, even during times of stress. This includes skills like:

Problem-solving therapy is all about training you to become adaptive in your life so that you will start to see problems as challenges to be solved instead of insurmountable obstacles. It also means that you will recognize the action that is required to engage in effective problem-solving techniques.

One problem-solving technique, called planful problem-solving, involves following a series of steps to fix issues in a healthy, constructive way:

Other techniques your therapist may go over include:

What Problem-Solving Therapy Can Help With

Problem-solving therapy addresses issues related to life stress and is focused on helping you find solutions to concrete issues. This approach can be applied to problems associated with a variety of psychological and physiological symptoms.

Problem-solving therapy may help address mental health issues, like:

This form of therapy is also helpful for dealing with specific life problems, such as:

Your doctor or mental healthcare professional will be able to advise whether problem-solving therapy could be helpful for your particular issue. In general, if you are struggling with specific, concrete problems that you are having trouble finding solutions for, problem-solving therapy could be helpful for you.

Benefits of Problem-Solving Therapy

The skills learned in problem-solving therapy can be helpful for managing all areas of your life. These can include:

This form of therapy was initially developed to help people combat stress through effective problem-solving, and it was later adapted to specifically address clinical depression. Today, much of the research on problem-solving therapy deals with its effectiveness in treating depression.

Problem-solving therapy has been shown to help depression in: 

Problem-solving therapy also appears to be effective as a brief treatment for depression, offering benefits in as little as six to eight sessions with a therapist or another healthcare professional. This may make it a good option for someone who is unable to commit to a lengthier treatment for depression.

Problem-solving therapy is not a good fit for everyone. It may not be effective at addressing issues that don't have clear solutions, like seeking meaning or purpose in life. Problem-solving therapy is also intended to treat specific problems, not general habits or thought patterns .

In general, it's also important to remember that problem-solving therapy is not a primary treatment for mental disorders. If you are living with the symptoms of a serious mental illness such as bipolar disorder or schizophrenia , you may need additional treatment with evidence-based approaches for your particular concern.

Problem-solving therapy is best aimed at someone who has a mental or physical issue that is being treated separately, but who also has life issues that go along with that problem that has yet to be addressed.

For example, it could help if you can't clean your house or pay your bills because of your depression, or if a cancer diagnosis is interfering with your quality of life.

Your doctor may be able to recommend therapists in your area who utilize this approach, or they may offer it themselves as part of their practice. You can also search for a problem-solving therapist with help from the American Psychological Association’s (APA) Society of Clinical Psychology .

If receiving problem-solving therapy from a doctor or mental healthcare professional is not an option for you, you could also consider implementing it as a self-help strategy using a workbook designed to help you learn problem-solving skills on your own.

During your first session, your therapist may spend some time explaining their process and approach. They may ask you to identify the problem you’re currently facing, and they’ll likely discuss your goals for therapy.

Problem-solving therapy may be a short-term intervention that's focused on solving a specific issue in your life. If you need further help with something more pervasive, it can also become a longer-term treatment option.

Pierce D. Problem solving therapy - Use and effectiveness in general practice . Aust Fam Physician . 2012;41(9):676-679.

Cuijpers P, Wit L de, Kleiboer A, Karyotaki E, Ebert DD. Problem-solving therapy for adult depression: An updated meta-analysis . Eur Psychiatry . 2018;48(1):27-37. doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2017.11.006

Nezu AM, Nezu CM, D'Zurilla TJ. Problem-Solving Therapy: A Treatment Manual . New York; 2013. doi:10.1891/9780826109415.0001

Hatcher S, Sharon C, Parag V, Collins N. Problem-solving therapy for people who present to hospital with self-harm: Zelen randomised controlled trial . Br J Psychiatry . 2011;199(4):310-316. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.110.090126

Sorsdahl K, Stein DJ, Corrigall J, et al. The efficacy of a blended motivational interviewing and problem solving therapy intervention to reduce substance use among patients presenting for emergency services in South Africa: A randomized controlled trial . Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy . 2015;10(1):46. doi:doi.org/10.1186/s13011-015-0042-1

Kirkham JG, Choi N, Seitz DP. Meta-analysis of problem solving therapy for the treatment of major depressive disorder in older adults . Int J Geriatr Psychiatry . 2016;31(5):526-535. doi:10.1002/gps.4358

Garand L, Rinaldo DE, Alberth MM, et al. Effects of problem solving therapy on mental health outcomes in family caregivers of persons with a new diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or early dementia: A randomized controlled trial . Am J Geriatr Psychiatry . 2014;22(8):771-781. doi:10.1016/j.jagp.2013.07.007

Hopko DR, Armento MEA, Robertson SMC, et al. Brief behavioral activation and problem-solving therapy for depressed breast cancer patients: Randomized trial . J Consult Clin Psychol . 2011;79(6):834-849. doi:10.1037/a0025450

Nieuwsma JA, Trivedi RB, McDuffie J, Kronish I, Benjamin D, Williams JW. Brief psychotherapy for depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis . Int J Psychiatry Med . 2012;43(2):129-151. doi:10.2190/PM.43.2.c

By Arlin Cuncic Arlin Cuncic, MA, is the author of "Therapy in Focus: What to Expect from CBT for Social Anxiety Disorder" and "7 Weeks to Reduce Anxiety."

By clicking “Accept All Cookies”, you agree to the storing of cookies on your device to enhance site navigation, analyze site usage, and assist in our marketing efforts.

The Journal of Negro Education (JNE), a refereed scholarly periodical, was founded at Howard University in 1932 to fill the need for a scholarly journal that would identify and define the problems that characterized the education of Black people in the United States and elsewhere, provide a forum for analysis and solutions, and serve as a vehicle for sharing statistics and research on a national basis. JNE sustains a commitment to a threefold mission: first, to stimulate the collection and facilitate the dissemination of facts about the education of Black people; second, to present discussions involving critical appraisals of the proposals and practices relating to the education of Black people; and third, to stimulate and sponsor investigations of issues incident to the education of Black people.

The Journal of Negro Education (JNE), a scholarly refereed journal, was founded at Howard University in 1932. It is one of the oldest continuously published periodicals by and about Black people. At the time of its inception, however, there was no publication that systematically or comprehensively addressed the enormous problems that characterized the education of Blacks in the United States and elsewhere.

This item is part of a JSTOR Collection. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions The Journal of Negro Education © 1985 Journal of Negro Education Request Permissions

problem solving approach padi

problem solving approach padi

Counselling: A Problem-Solving Approach

Counselling: A Problem-Solving Approach

Counselling :  a problem-solving approach /  by Anthony Yeo.

Goodreads Celebrates Women's History Month

Counselling: A Problem Solving Approach

Anthony yeo.

208 pages, Paperback

Published January 1, 1993

About the author

Profile Image for Anthony Yeo.

Ratings & Reviews

What do you think? Rate this book Write a Review

Friends & Following

Community reviews.

Profile Image for azzy..

Join the discussion

Can't find what you're looking for.


  1. Problem-solving Approach (Key features (Promotes personal agency (C is the…

    problem solving approach padi

  2. Five-step systematic approach to information problem solving (based on:...

    problem solving approach padi

  3. 😂 What is problem solving approach. What Is Problem Solving?. 2019-03-03

    problem solving approach padi

  4. Problem solving approach

    problem solving approach padi

  5. The Problem Solving Approach

    problem solving approach padi

  6. Systematic Problem Solving

    problem solving approach padi



  2. Teak wood crack problem solving by using Finger joint teak board

  3. Current Electricity

  4. Problem Solving Approach in NMR Spectroscopy

  5. Easy Problem solving Approach in Mass Spectrometry

  6. #229


  1. What Are the Six Steps of Problem Solving?

    The six steps of problem solving involve problem definition, problem analysis, developing possible solutions, selecting a solution, implementing the solution and evaluating the outcome. Problem solving models are used to address issues that...

  2. A Systematic Approach to Solving Just About Any Problem

    Problems can be difficult to solve when we only know the issue and none of the steps to fix it. Sometimes it's even more daunting to figure out what those steps are at all. This guide will help you take just about any problem and figure out...

  3. Problem Solved

    Stop startup problems before they even begin. Here are 5 common mistakes that can sabotage your business--and how to avoid them. Signing out of account, Standby... Stop startup problems before they even begin. Here are 5 common mistakes tha...

  4. An Introduction to PADI Task Templates

    The PADI approach to standards-based assessment moves from statements of

  5. Problem-solving Approach

    Problem-solving Approach · What is it? · not problem-centered approach · Key features · PADI · Non-pathologising · Collaborative · Mindful of Context.

  6. Problem Solving P-A-D-I (Problem Solving Skills)

    Problem Solving P-A-D-I (Problem Solving Skills). Uploaded by. MUHAMMAD FAUZI. 0 ratings

  7. Problem-Solving Therapy: Definition, Techniques, and Efficacy

    Problem-solving therapy addresses issues related to life stress and is focused on helping you find solutions to concrete issues. This approach

  8. Social Work Practice

    Counselling: A Problem-Solving Approach. Singapore: Armour Publishing. There are various practice models that influence the way social

  9. Identifying and Nurturing Potentially Gifted and Talented Minority Stu

    of critical thinking, creativity, and problem-solving activities that.

  10. Counselling: A Problem-Solving Approach

    The problem-solving approach; Difficulties counsellors face; How to avoid burnout; Strategies for problem solving; Delivering directives and applications.


    When solving a problem explaining the solution is important, because this shows that the pupil has understood the method. Thus, pupils' reasoning skills have to

  12. Counselling :a problem-solving approach /by Anthony Yeo

    Available in National Library (Singapore). Author: Yeo, Anthony, Length: x, 197 p. ;, Identifier: 9810044240.

  13. Counselling: A Problem Solving Approach by Anthony Yeo

    ... this is a useful book that offers an uncomplicated, four-step approach to problem-solving. The reader is provided knowledge and relevant

  14. a qualitative study of the impact of counselling psychology in adult

    The following counseling therapy approaches could be used as and when required to spice up the lessons, mainly: Problem- Solving Approach (PADI)