Japanese/Japanese writing system
The Japanese language uses three different systems for writing. There are two syllabaries— hiragana and katakana —which have characters for each basic mora (syllable). Along with the syllabaries, there are also kanji , which is a writing system based on Chinese characters. However, kanji have changed since their adoption, so it would not be recommended to learn both Chinese and Japanese writing at the same time.
- 3.1 Examples
- 4 Latin alphabet
- 5 Stroke order
- 8 Vertical and horizontal writing, and page order
- 9 Background reading
Kanji [ edit | edit source ]
The kanji are logograms (pictures representing words), or symbols, that each represent a morpheme (words or parts of words). Usually, each kanji represents a native Japanese morpheme as well as a loaned Chinese morpheme. This means that each kanji usually has two or more different pronunciations. The different pronunciations of a particular 漢字 ( かんじ ) ( kanji ) are called “readings.” It may seem daunting at first, but with extensive practice, knowing when to use which pronunciation will become second nature.
A 漢字 usually has two types of readings:
- 音読み ( おんよみ ) ( on'yomi )
- 訓読み ( くんよみ ) ( kun'yomi )
音読み readings are approximations of the Chinese pronunciations of that particular 漢字. This reading is mostly used for multi-kanji compound words, except for peoples' surnames where 訓読み-reading is used. A kanji may have multiple 音読み. Some kanji are of Japanese origin and thus do not have on-reading. 訓読み readings are the native Japanese sound(s) associated with that 漢字. There can be multiple or no kun readings for the same kanji.
Although there are over 50,000 漢字, the Japanese government has approved 2,136 so-called “daily use” 漢字, known as 常用漢字 ( じょうようかんじ ) ( jōyō kanji ) for publications, but usually about 3000 are recognized by an average adult.
Kana [ edit | edit source ]
While Chinese characters are useful for writing a language with so many homophones, the inflections of the Japanese language make it necessary to have a phonetic script to indicate the inflection. A set of Chinese characters, the man'yōgana , were used to represent pronunciation and write words that lacked Chinese characters. Around 800 A.D. these had developed into the cursive hiragana script.
This method of writing was used primarily for poetry or by women, and did not gain recognition as an acceptable way to record historical records or scholarly works. [ citation needed ]
Another script, the katakana also developed from Chinese characters, some from the same source as the hiragana , but others from different ones. This explains the similarities between some hiragana and katakana, while others are completely different. The katakana is primarily used for foreign loan-words. In other words, the katakana syllabary can be said to be the Japanese writing equivalent of writing in italics .
The two are collectively known as the kana ( 仮名 ( かな ) , e. false name). Both are syllabaries, so there are no isolated consonants, with one exception; the moraic nasal , which sounds similar to most pronunciations of the latin character “n.” Each of the kana contains 45 characters and are typically listed in a table formation called gojūonzu ( 五十 ( ごじゅう ) 音図 ( おんず ) , e. fifty sounds illustration) but the yi, ye, wi, wu, we sounds are obsolete in modern Japanese, so in fact only 45 sounds exist. n is not counted because it does not constitute a mora.
Punctuation [ edit | edit source ]
Common punctuation marks are the comma "、" which connects two sentences, and the full stop "。" which indicates the end of a sentence. To separate words that the reader might not otherwise know how to read (most often in the case of foreign words written consecutively in katakana), a middle point "・" is used. Instead of quotation marks, the brackets "「" and "」", and "『" and "』" (for quotes inside of quotes) are used.
Examples [ edit | edit source ]
Latin alphabet [ edit | edit source ].
The Latin alphabet (ローマ字, rōmaji ) is not part of the Japanese language but it is used as a fashionable way of writing words, mostly nouns such as the name of a company, business, sports team, etc. Rōmaji is also used for the transliteration of Japanese and to input Japanese text online and in word processors. There are two competing transliteration methods: the Kunrei-shiki developed by the Japanese government in the mid-20 th century and taught in elementary school; and the more widely used Hepburn-shiki developed by Reverend James Curtis Hepburn in the late 19 th century.
Stroke order [ edit | edit source ]
Japanese characters were originally written by brush, and later by pen and pencil, so the stroke order is important. When writing by hand, and particularly in cursive or calligraphic styles, using proper stroke order is crucial. Additionally, some characters look very similar but are written differently. Students who practice both reading and writing can easily distinguish these characters, but students who only practice reading may find it difficult.
The East Asian Calligraphy wikibook has some material on stroke orders.
Mixed usage and notes of interest [ edit | edit source ]
There are instances where kanji, hiragana, and katakana may be replaced by another writing style. Frequently, words that have kanji are written in hiragana. Some kanji are simply rarely used but their reading is known. The swallow is called tsubame and has the kanji "燕", but since it is obscure, the word will generally be written out with hiragana: "つばめ".
When writing for an audience that isn't expected to know certain kanji (such as in texts aimed at young people or kanji outside the standard set), their reading is often added on top of, or to the right of the characters, depending on whether they are written horizontally or vertically, respectively. This form of writing is called furigana (振り仮名) or yomigana (読み仮名).
Since kanji can have several different readings, it may not be straightforward to determine how to read a certain word. This problem is particularly pronounced in place names where readings may be highly irregular and archaic.
Though katakana are principally used for loan words from other languages, it can be used for stylistic purposes. Either to highlight a certain word, or give it a different feel (e.g. make it look more hip). Furthermore, since some personal names don't have kanji, but are written in hiragana, personal name readings are generally written in katakana to indicate that these are not the name itself, but simply the pronunciation.
Ateji [ edit | edit source ]
The word "club", as it is borrowed from English, will typically be written in katakana as クラブ; however, the kanji 倶楽部 kurabu will also sometimes be used; this use of kanji for phonetic value is called 当て字 ateji . Other times, typically in older texts, grammatical particles are also written in kanji, as in 東京迄行く Tokyo made iku ([I] go to Tokyo), where まで made (to/till) is written in kanji (迄) instead of hiragana.
Numerals [ edit | edit source ]
The Arabic numerals, called Arabia sūji (アラビア数字) or san'yō sūji (算用数字) in Japanese, are used in most circumstances (e.g. telephone numbers, pricing, zip codes, speed limit signs and percentages). Kanji numerals can still be found, however, in more traditional situations (e.g. on some restaurant menus, formal invitations and tomb stones).
Vertical and horizontal writing, and page order [ edit | edit source ]
Traditionally, Japanese is written in a format called 縦書き tategaki , or vertical writing . In this format, the characters are written in columns going from top to bottom. The columns are ordered from right to left, so at the bottom of each column the reader returns to the top of the next column on the left of the preceding one. This copies the column order of Chinese.
Modern Japanese also uses another writing format, called 横書き yokogaki , or horizontal writing . This writing format is identical to that of European languages such as English, with characters arranged in rows which are read from left to right, with successive rows going downwards.
There are no set rules for when each form has to be used, but usage tends to depend on the medium, genre, and subject. Tategaki is generally used to write essays, novels, poetry, newspapers, comics, and Japanese dictionaries. Yokogaki is generally used to write e-mails, how-to books, and scientific and mathematical writing (mathematical formulas are read from left to right, as in English).
Materials written in tategaki are bound on the right, with the reader reading from right to left and thus turning the pages from left to right to progress through the material. Materials written with yokogaki are bound on the left and the pages are turned from right to left, as in English.
Background reading [ edit | edit source ]
- Okurigana Kana used as suffixes to kanji stems for verb conjugations. Historically, katakana was used. Nowadays, hiragana is used.
- Katakana Angular script simplified down to constituent elements from kanji by monastary students. Historically used as okurigana by the educated and government. Nowadays used mainly for writing foreign words.
- Hiragana Cursive script historically used for informal writing and literature. It became popular among women since they were denied higher education. Hence it also became known as 女手(おんなで) "onnade" (female hand -> women's writing). Nowadays, it has replaced katakana as okurigana and for writing native japanese words.
- Hentaigana These are the remaining variants of hiragana that were not accepted as part of the standardized hiragana syllabary.
- Iroha poem This famous poem is written using each mora (syllable) just once. It became the system used to organize the kana syllabary prior to reforms in the 19th century Meiji period, when it became reorganized into its current arrangement. ("n" was not part of the syllabary at the time. It was added later, and interestingly it's actually a hentaigana for "mu")
- Rōmaji Roman characters (including Arabic numerals) There are three different systems.
All items (3)
Japanese writing system (Q190502)
- Han + Hiragana + Katakana
Wikipedia (52 entries).
- afwiki Japannese skryfstelsel
- alswiki Japanische Schrift
- arwiki نظام كتابة ياباني
- astwiki Escritura xaponesa
- bewiki Японская пісьменнасць
- bgwiki Японска писменост
- bnwiki জাপানি লিখন পদ্ধতি
- cawiki Escriptura japonesa
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- diqwiki Sistemê nuştışê Japoni
- dsbwiki Japaniske pismo
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- enwiki Japanese writing system
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- fawiki سامانه نگارش زبان ژاپنی
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- idwiki Sistem penulisan bahasa Jepang
- itwiki Sistema di scrittura giapponese
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- kawiki იაპონური დამწერლობა
- kkwiki Жапон жазуы
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- lawiki Scriptura Iaponica
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- ltwiki Japonų raštas
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- mswiki Sistem tulisan Jepun
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- nnwiki Japansk skrift
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- pamwiki Japanese writing system
- plwiki Pismo japońskie
- ptwiki Escrita japonesa
- rowiki Scrierea japoneză
- ruwiki Японская письменность
- skwiki Japonské písmo
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- suwiki Sistim tulis Jepang
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Wikibooks (5 entries)
- arwikibooks يابانية/أنظمة الكتابة
- enwikibooks Japanese/Japanese writing system
- jawikibooks 日本語/文字
- ukwikibooks Японська мова/Японська система письма
- zhwikibooks 日语/文字
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Borne as it is from the partnership between the American Hasbro and the Japanese TakaraTomy , Transformers has from its inception been a bilingual franchise, split cardinally between English, the language of this wiki, and the Japanese language (日本語 Nihongo ). The road between the two does not always run smooth, and many quirks of the Transformers franchise can be ascribed to this friction.
Japanese: a crash course
" Kana " (仮名) is the colloquial term for the portion of the modern Japanese writing system correlating directly to mouth noises (read: letters, kinda sorta). Kana can be written using two native systems: the " hiragana " (ひらがな) script used primarily for Japanese words, and the " katakana " (カタカナ) script used primarily for loanwords or foreign words, as well as for denoting emphasis. Kana is a primarily syllabic script; with the exception of six kana, each symbol represents a consonant-vowel pair, such as ど do , は ha , ぐ gu , and け ke .
These basic kana are in turn modified by the " dakuten " ( ﾞ), which resembles a quotation mark and transforms a voiceless kana such as "ka" into a voiced "ga" and changes the soft "f-" series into the "b-" series; and the " handakuten " ( ﾟ), which resembles a degree sign and modifies the soft "f-" series of kana into the hard "p-" series.
- トランスフォーマー ( toransufōmā , Transformer in katakana)
ト = To ラ = ra ン = n ス = su フォー = fō マー = mā
Due to the influence of the Chinese language , Japanese also uses " kanji " (漢字), a kind of script where each character represents an entire concept and can function as a word unto itself. These kanji often have two pronunciations, one the Japanese word for the specific concept (訓読み kun'yomi ) and another based on the borrowed Chinese word (音読み on'yomi ), but can sometimes have additional pronunciations. Single kanji can then be compounded into more complex concepts; for example, the Japanese word for telephone, denwa , is made up of the symbols "電話", which separately mean "electric" and "talk".
- 生命体 sei mei tai ("lifeform")
生 = "living" 命 = "life force", inochi as a kun'yomi 体 = "body, figure"
- 司令官 shi rei kan (" Commander ")
司 = "official" or "director" 令 = "law" or "command" 官 = "governor/bureaucrat" Kana and kanji
- 超ロボット生命体 トランスフォーマー (" Super Robot Lifeform Transformer ")
超 ( chō , "super-") ロボット ( robotto , katakana) 生命体 ( seimeitai , "lifeform", kanji with on'yomi) トランスフォーマー ( toransufōmā , Transformer in katakana)
" Furigana " ( 振 ( ふ ) り 仮名 ( がな ) ) is a kind of Japanese reading aid that employs superscript, known as " ruby text " (ルビ), to provide a pronunciation guide for particularly difficult words. Now as you can probably guess from reading the above, it is usually used to provide the kana to sound out kanji in educational contexts. What does this have to do with Transformers ? In the wider world, furigana see another use: PUNS.  In this context, furigana can be used to impart a sort of "side B" to a phrase in a manner that can be thought of as dimly analagous to comedy footnotes  in English.
- ブルー 偉大なる ( ビッグ ) 司令官 ( コンボイ ) (" Blue Big Convoy ")
ブルー = ( Burū , "Blue", katakana) 偉大なる司令官 ("Grand Commander" - standard reading)
ビッグコンボイ ("Big Convoy" - furigana pronunciation guide)
" Romanization " refers to the adaptation of languages or words that do not use Latin letters to the 26-character Latin alphabet used in English (among other, less important languages). Technically, the English-specific term would be "Anglicization".
Any writing system is, at best, an approximation of the sounds it represents. The modern Japanese writing system distinguishes between fewer phonemes than most, but this does not mean the language lacks those phonemes, merely that different sounds can be represented by the same symbols. English has more than twenty-six sounds denoted by character-combinations (ex. " ch " makes a sound that is not the combination of the mouth-movements for " c " and " h ", but a close cousin), but even those combinations are imperfect; the "oo" letter sequence represents different sounds in " cook " and " spook ". While Japanese does have official romanization systems, such as the Nihon-shiki , it can still be difficult to romanize a Japanese word to match its author's intent due to the sharing of phonemes and other artifacts of the differences between the English and Japanese languages.
Lost in Translation
Typical causes for friction between languages are mistakes in mechanical process of translation for perfectly straightforward material, wordplay that only makes sense to a native Japanese speaker, and, occasionally, terms with no coherent meaning to be had. In some rare cases, it even appears that mistranslation occurs on purpose .
Recall that from the perspective of an audience that does not speak the language, whether the words fit together at all is usually of no consequence so long as they are pronounceable, catchy, and easy to remember when buying their products .
Causes of translation errors
Actual Japanese people can often have their names romanized in several ways, all of which are, by default, equally valid: For example, the name of legendary Diaclone and Generation 1 toy designer Kōjin Ōno (大野 光仁 Ōno Kōjin ) can also be Romanized as "Kojin Ohno" or "Kouzin Ono". Japanese people who frequently interact with the Western world may settle for an "official" version for simplicity's sake; in that case, insisting on using an alternate Romanization would be considered pedantic and ignorant.
Since the vast majority of Transformers names used for the Japanese market are English or English-derived, romanizing them isn't particularly difficult— for example, Megatron 's Japanese name (メガトロン Megatoron ) is simply a transliteration of his Western name; the same applies to Thundercracker (サンダークラッカー Sandākurakkā ). Many characters whose names were changed for the Japanese market are still easy to decipher; for example, Jazz traditionally becomes "Meister" (マイスター Maisutā ), Sideswipe becomes "Lambor" (ランボル Ranboru ), and Optimus Prime becomes "Convoy" (コンボイ Konboi ).
One problem is posed by the Japanese use of the plural, which doesn't use an "s" suffix like it does in English. Thus, the Japanese name for the overall brand is literally "Transformer" (トランスフォーマー Toransufōmā ). However, since Takara uses the spelling "Transformers" every time the name is rendered in English, the plural "s" can be assumed to materialize in the transition from katakana to the Latin spelling in much the same way Optimus Prime's trailer appears and disappears every time he transforms. This doesn't always apply, however; some English-derived names with a plural in them may in fact keep the "s" suffix in their katakana spelling, such as Generations (ジェネレーションズ Jenerēshonzu ), resulting in an inconsistent appearance in the combination " Transformers: Generations ", where "Generations" uses the plural "s" but "Transformers" doesn't.
The Japanese writing system distinguishes between fewer phonemes than most. Foreign words in Japan frequently acquire creative spellings as a result of being rendered "down" into the Japanese spelling system.
In some cases where Takara has put the Latin spelling of the characters' names on their packaging , something was amiss: Whoever was responsible for the romanization screwed up, and the error was not caught in quality control either. The most common causes for bad romanization are a mix-up between /l/ and /r/ (which are approximated by the same sound in Japanese) and /v/ and /b/ (the /v/ sound doesn't exist in Japanese and is usually substituted by /b/). Another common issue is that /n/, if followed by /m/, /b/, and /p/, becomes /m/ in Japanese phonology.
- Minerva (ミネルバ) as "Minelba".
- Kraken (クラーケン) as "Clerken".
- Convoy (コンボイ) as "Comvoy", used on the packaging for Transformers: Mystery of Convoy .
- Similarly, various characters from Galaxy Force with "Convoy" in their names as "Conboy" on Takara's website 
- Variations of " Destron " (デストロン), including "Deathtron" and "Destoron".
- Transformers Collection Lambor (ランボル) as "Rambol" on Takara's website  (unlike the "Rijie" case listed below, Binaltech Lambor, released a few months after the Transformers Collection reissue , had his name spelled properly in English on his packaging, making this a definite error).
- Alternity Ultra Magnus (ウルトラマグナス) as "Ultla Magnus".
- Legends Targetmaster Misfire as "Targetmaster Missfire".
- Generations Selects Lobclaw (ロブクロウ) as "Seacons Lobclow".
Also worth mentioning is the lack of spaces for compound names in some cases, such as with the entire Super-God Masterforce line, which had "Superginrai", "Godginrai" or " Kingposeidon ", the Galaxy Force line, which had " Galaxyconvoy ", " Firstaid " or " Mastermegatron ", or Legends " Blue Bigconvoy ". This happens because the katakana spelling often does not have any separations between these name components (it is possible to use a "middle dot" ・, called a nakaguro, but its usage is not mandatory), and this structure may be carried over during the Romanization if the people in charge of the packaging design don't pay attention to it.
A particularly unusual case is that of the non -Japanese Generation 1 Action Master Elite " Omega Spreem " toy, which came out at a time when the original Transformers toy line had been canceled for the United States market and was primarily released in European markets . Intended as the same character as the older Generation 1 Omega Supreme toy, both "Supreme" and "Spreem" are possible transliterations of the katakana spelling スプリーム (though "Supreme" is obviously the only one that actually makes sense ). Why Hasbro UK would use a nonsensical transliteration of the Japanese spelling of the character's English name is lost in the mists of time; however, a partial explanation can be found in the Transformers Vault book: The design artwork for an unreleased standard (i.e. not Elite) Action Master version of Omega Supreme has his name (correctly spelled) written quite large on the top of the sheet in big black marker. However, there's also an illustrator's note written in very small pen/pencil next to the toy's design artwork, which misspells the character's name as "Omega Spreem", despite the correct spelling being in giant text directly above it (though to be fair, it's possible that the black marker text was added after the fact). When the toy was released, for some reason Hasbro used the nonsensical "Omega Spreem" spelling.
"Double blind" translation
Some times, the romanization is on point, the meaning of each word is more or less correct, and the sentence structure is technically acceptable, but no one in the room is fluent in the language and the wind just isn't at their backs, producing results that are... Off.
On occasion, some popular English catchphrases for the brand have been translated into Japanese and then re-translated back into English, producing a particularly brutal contrast with the "correct answer." A prime example is when the tagline "More than meets the eye" was translated into Japanese and then re-translated back into English for the packaging of the Japanese release of the Heroes of Cybertron line, producing the trainwreck, "The truth who the eyes met before!"
Translating the untranslatable
Much like in English, many Japanese Transformer names are corny puns. This becomes problematic very quickly when puns that work in Japanese do not in English:
- The name for Robots in Disguise Ruination 's Car Robots counterpart is derived from " Bruticus ", whose toy he is redecoed from, by shifting some of the sounds that make up the name. Thus, Burūtikasu (ブルーティカス) became Barudigasu (バルディガス). For years, the correct Romanization of said name was up in the air, with "Baldigus" and "Valdigus" being the most popular fan spellings, until his Unite Warriors toy provided an official Romanized spelling, as "Baldigus".
- Kiss Players " Autorooper " (オートルーパー Ōtorūpā ) is a portmanteau of "auto" (オート ōto ) and "trooper" (トルーパー torūpā ), the latter roughly pronounced "torooper" in Japanese. Any Romanization of the name misses out on at least half of the pun.
- Similar is the upgraded form of Galaxy Force First Aid (ファストエイド Fasuto Eido , Cybertron Red Alert), "First Gunner" (ファストガンナー Fasuto Gan'nā , Cybertron Defense Red Alert for Hasbro). To Japanese ears, "First" and "Fast" sound almost the same, thus making the upgrade a "fast gunner". Takara decided to keep the spelling from "First Aid" consistent in the Romanization, thus ending up with the somewhat nonsensical name "First Gunner".
- Galaxy Force Gagenda (ガゼンダ Gazenda ), Cyaana (シアーナ Shiāna ), and Sullow (スロー Surō ) are named with modifications of their primary colors: magenta (マゼンタ mazenta ), cyan (シアン shian ), and yellow (イェロー yerō ), the former two of which Japanese did not take from English but rather from Italian and Dutch, respectively. (An additional complication is Japanese adaptation of Italian and Dutch having evolved over time. Today, "magenta" would probably be rendered with greater sophistication as majenta (マジェンタ) and "cyaan" as shiān (シアーン).
- Robotmasters "Reverse Convoy" (リバースコンボイ) becomes "Rebirth Megatron" (リバースメガトロン), with the English words "Reverse" and "Rebirth" using the same katakana spelling. This makes considerably less sense in English.
As discussed above, the grammatical construction known as " furigana " doesn't really have a clean analogue in English. Thankfully this particularly elaborate form of wordplay is pretty rare in Transformers media, perhaps due to the younger-skewing demographics of the franchise. Rare, that is, with one prominent exception: the saga of the technicolor warrior monks known as the Primus Vanguard utilizes a truly dizzying array of furigana puns in the names of its major characters, up to and including Optimus Prime himself.
- Each officer of the Vanguard utilizes a classic Transformers title in their rank, with "Commander" ( 司令官 ( コンボイ ) shireikan ) being "pronounced" as "Convoy" (コンボイ Konboi ) while "Marshal" ( 元帥 ( プライム ) gensui ) becomes "Prime" (プライム Puraimu ).
- The puns go even further, as the officers' personal names (sandwiched between their assigned color and rank) are "spelled" as a highfalutin adjective, resulting in configurations such as " Blue Big Convoy " (ブルービッグコンボイ Buru Biggu Konboi ) being read "Blue Grand Commander" (ブルー 偉大なる ( ビッグ ) 司令官 ( コンボイ ) Buru Idainaru Shireikan ).
- The New Primus Vanguard , evil doppelgangers of the Primus Vanguard made out of Megatron clones, also got in on the pun action, with the classic " Emperor of Destruction "( 破壊大帝 ( メガトロン ) Hakai Taitei ) title, a stalwart of Japanese Transformers villains, being paired up with "Megatron"(メガトロン Megatoron ).
"High concept" names
And then there are the names that didn't mean much to begin with, or are so baroque that any Romanization would have to be either extremely liberal in order to make sense, or end up nonsensical either way. Accuracy is sometimes a low priority, as English-derived names are generally simply intended to sound "cool", not necessarily make sense to Japanese children. A familiar point of reference might be the atrocities we in the English market regularly inflict upon Latin.
- Cybertron Hot Shot 's Japanese Galaxy Force name (エクシリオン) is officially romanized as "Exillion". Hasbro later released a redeco as a separate character named Excellion , which makes only slightly more sense.
- "Deathsaurus" had a tendency to be the most popular and well-known (on account of it actually meaning something in either language), which led to it being used on the character's first Western toy in 2005, making it his official English-language name. Although, two later toys would give him the English names of "Dessaras" and "Dezarus", respectively, muddying the waters further.
- At BotCon 2015 , after decades of such back-and-forths, the designer of the original toy, our friend from earlier Kōjin Ōno, confirmed that the name was indeed always supposed to have been "Deathsaurus" (in a presentation that spelled his name as "Dethzarasu". Oy vey! ).
- Both "Giant" and "Gigantis" were cited as the origin for the same "gi" (ジャイ) part of the name.
- It was constructed to "match the length of" (read: vaguely rhyme with) the word "Transformer" (トランスフォーマー). The way this works is that "Transformer" picks up a couple more syllables in Japanese such that we have:
Frequent avenues of mistranslation
Because it looks cool.
We've all seen Japanese characters tacked onto English language goods to "look cool" on solely aesthetic grounds. Did you know that goes the other way too? Unsurprisingly this rarely produces intelligible results in either direction.
- The source of this gibberish was almost certainly blindly pecking out symbols that "looked cool" with character-replacement font "WordPerfect TrueType Japanese."
- The correct translation would be パトリック・リー ( Patorikku Rī ).
- Drift's original IDW character design sported ドリフト ( Dorifuto ), the katakana for his own name on the doors.
- These proved to become Drift's most iconic tats, reappearing on his Earth Wars character model and Adventure toy.
- Shattered Glass Drift 's hood was adorned with 定 ( tei , "decide") in a vague attempt to approximate "doom" .
- The Generations toy's broadsword was also molded with the rather cocky engraving 天下無双 ( tenka musō , "peerless"), which was naturally passed on to Drift's moldmates Shattered Glass Drift and Legends Deadlock .
Snappy English catchphrases of questionable intelligibility are a frequent stalwart of "cool" characters' dialogue in Japanese children's media.
- Star Saber often shouts "Let's say go!" This is a pun on "Let's seigō", where Japanese word seigō (整合), means, broadly, "coordinate," making it more or less his version of Optimus Prime's iconic "Transform and roll out!"
- Energon Cliffjumper is known to pepper his dialogue with English phrases, most frequently "Check it out, yo."
Bits of English often creep their way into Japanese theme songs as well, being something of a staple in Japanese pop music.
- The chorus of Satoko Shimonari 's theme for Fight! Super Robot Lifeform Transformers , titled " TRANSFORMER ", ends with the English phrase, "We hope the only world!"
- PRAISE BE TO DECEPTICON , JAM Project 's absolute banger of an image song for the Decepticons of Transformers Animated , prominently features a refrain of, well, "Praise be to Decepticon".
Furthermore, on many occasions, when Japanese Transformers cartoons have been translated and dubbed into English, the translations and scripts have been rushed, resulting in mind-boggling dialogue.
When the Omni Productions dub was produced for The Headmasters , Masterforce and Victory and when the Voicebox dub was produced for Armada and Energon , early, unpolished translations of the Japanese TV series were used for the final scripts. While these translations were (mostly) accurate, they were accurate in a tremendously literal sense, often not being adjusted to fit the English language properly. What resulted were incoherent lines of dialogue which sounded like a Babelfish translation of a web page.
In some rare cases, an official instance of mistranslation is both so blatant and so persistent that it appears to be done on purpose, usually for trademark reasons.
The prime example is Generation 1 Mirage , who got renamed into "Ligier" (リジェ) for the Japanese market, based on the real life car manufacturer who produced the car the original Mirage toy's alternate mode was based on. While the Generation 1 toy only spelled the name in katakana, with no official Romanized spelling supplied, both the more recent Robotmasters and Binaltech toys have used the official Romanization "Rijie"... which is, as a Romanization of the katakana spelling, about the furthest possible from "Ligier". Curiously enough, the Robotmasters toy's instructions do spell the name "Ligier", thus suggesting legal reasons for the alternate spelling.
A different case is the Generation 1 Constructicon Hook , who was renamed into "Gren" (グレン Guren ) for Japan. "Gren" is effectively a mangled version of the English word "crane" (クレーン Kurēn ) which didn't originate with Takara, but has been used at least in regional Japanese dialects (mostly in the Hiroshima area) since the Meiji period. So it's basically a reference to a traditional mutation of a loanword.
Around the onset of the Prime Wars Trilogy , Hasbro evidently discovered the quick and easy trademarking joys of aggressively literal Romanization.
- Titans Return Twinferno 's Titan Master is named " Daburu " after the Japanese rendition of the word "double" (ダブル), after Twinferno's original Generation 1 name, "Doublecross" (ダブルクロス).
- To add insult to injury, when the pair received " nemesis " recolors, they were given these names *backwards* in English spelling, producing the truly bizarre " Uriad " and " Uruaz ". 
Sometimes mistranslations don't originate with Takara or other official parties, but with (mostly Western) online retailers and their vendors. Historically, these vendors often received solicitations of new toys via fax in the era before easy machine translation cross-checks. Depending on the quality of the fax, the legibility of the katakana spelling of the new toys' names, the Japanese and/or English skills of the vendors and their familiarity with the Transformers brand , they may have just come up with very weird interpretations of the katakana spelling of the toys' names. The results can range from minor misspellings (such as "Conboy") to occasional random weirdness or complete gibberish.
Although these spellings aren't "official", they're often the first versions of these names fans read...and some of these names stick, even when the official Romanization is widely available.
- United Wheeljack's name got mangled as "Hoilgaru" (with the "garu" half possibly being misapplied from Wreck-Gar's name, who would be listed directly above Wheeljack in a list based on their Japanese ID numbers ).
- Adventure Ground Vehicon General was called "Grand Vehicon" by quite a few online stores. The reason for this is that TakaraTomy used the rather uncommon katakana spelling グランド ( gurando ) for "ground", which also happens to be the katakana spelling for "grand", instead of the more common グラウンド ( guraundo ). The name is spelled "Ground Vehicon General" in English on the toy's packaging, however.
- Coincidentally or not, Unite Warriors Grand Scourge , which also uses the katakana spelling グランド for the word "grand", was listed as "Ground Scourge" in some places.
- Legends Convobat , a portmanteau of " Convoy " and "bat", was listed as "Combo Bat" by several online retailers.
Things that are not mistranslation
Mild misspellings frequently occur due to poor linguistic replacement, especially when multiple sounds may not be distinguished in other languages. For example, the letters c/s/z and b/v are linguistically indistinguishable in Latin American Spanish. Similarly, the English ɹ , l , and v sounds do not exist in Japanese and are conflated with ɺ and b .
Conversely, a new spelling might be created to represent an otherwise rare sound in that language. For example, Japanese approximates an English rhotic vowel by extending the corresponding vowel sound,  resulting in " Load Zarak ". Using "ah" to facilitate the English "uh" results in Roadbaster . (Both cited examples can be found in the 2001 Transformers Generations guidebook.)
- Generation 1 Metroplex is named "Metroflex" (メトロフレックス) in Japan. That minimal difference could be due to a genuine human error, though: The only spelling difference between a Japanese "P" sound and a corresponding "F" sound is an additional small circle, called a diacritical mark (in this case, the difference is プ pu versus フ fu ). A poorly-printed paper copy or a simple case of misreading could have been all it took for such a change.
- Similarly, Generation 1 Blot's Japanese name (ブット) is "Boot" pronounced to rhyme with "foot" instead of "hoot". The structure of "Butto" suggests it derives from a typo of "Burotto" (ブロット), leaving out one katakana.
There are also spelling errors in background lettering found in the Generation 1 cartoon :
- In " Heavy Metal War ", Teletraan I 's files on the Decepticons (with the texts lifted directly from the show's production bible ) have Rumble's name misspelled "Ru n ble". (It's possible that this was an example of poor Romanization as well; the kana for "n" is pronounced as "m" when it's followed by a b, p, or m sound, so "runble" would have been the correct spelling in directly-romanized kana.)
- Furthermore, in " The Burden Hardest to Bear ", Galvatron opens an airlock aboard the Decepticon flagship, which has "AIR LO O K" written on it.
- Less certain is an instance in " Hoist Goes Hollywood ", where a chair with Tracks's name written on it has it misspelled as "Tr u cks". This could either be an extension of the recurring joke where the director constantly gets Hoist 's name wrong, or a true translation error (presumably stemming from a misunderstanding on the part of Japanese animators, as the English short "a" and short "u" sounds are identical to the Japanese ear). The world may never know.
- Likewise, newtronium from "Only Human" could have very well just been meant to be neutronium .
- ↑ Advanced puns.
- ↑ waka waka
- ↑ . Archived version of TakaraTomy's Galaxy Force website
- ↑ Archived version of TakaraTomy website listing for the TFC "Rambol" reissue
- ↑ Tweet by Masumi Kaneda : バイオレンスにジャイアント、ジャイガンティス、ジャガーなどを加えてアレンジしたと思います。それまでになく大きく強く破壊力があり凶暴でハッタリがきく。その一言で強大な悪の象徴であることを印象づける。あえて「トランスフォーマー」と並ぶような長いネーミングにしてみました。
- ↑ If you are wondering how authentic backwards spelling works in Japanese phonetic structure, Dairu (ダイル) would be reversed as " Ruida " (ルイダ) and Zauru would become " Ruuza " (ルウザ).
- ↑ Rhoticity in English varies by dialect. The Japanese rendition of English vowels differs less from the accents of England compared to the accents of North America.
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- About Transformers Wiki
- 1.1.1 Derived characters
- 1.1.2 References
- 2.1 Glyph origin
- 2.2.1 Pronunciation
- 220.127.116.11 Synonyms
- 2.2.3 Compounds
- 2.2.4 Descendants
- 2.3.1 Pronunciation
- 2.3.2 Definitions
- 2.4 References
- 3.1.1 Readings
- 3.1.2 Compounds
- 3.2.1 Pronunciation
- 18.104.22.168 Quotations
- 22.214.171.124 Derived terms
- 126.96.36.199 Descendants
- 188.8.131.52 Quotations
- 184.108.40.206 See also
- 3.3.1 Pronunciation
- 220.127.116.11 Derived terms
- 18.104.22.168 Derived terms
- 3.4.1 Pronunciation
- 22.214.171.124 Derived terms
- 126.96.36.199 Derived terms
- 3.6 References
- 4.1 Etymology
- 4.2.1 Compounds
- 4.3 References
- 5.1.1 Readings
- 5.2 Etymology
- 5.3 Pronunciation
- 5.5 References
- 6.1 Compounds
- 188.8.131.52 Quotations
- 184.108.40.206 Derived terms
- 220.127.116.11 Descendants
- 6.3.1 Alternative forms
- 18.104.22.168 Derived terms
- 22.214.171.124 Descendants
- 7.1 Han character
- 7.2 References
Translingual [ edit ]
Han character [ edit ].
神 ( Kangxi radical 113, 示 +5, 10 strokes in traditional Chinese and Korean , 9 strokes in mainland China and Japanese , cangjie input 戈火中田中 ( IFLWL ), four-corner 3520 6 , composition ⿰ 礻 申 ( G H T J V ) or ⿰ 示 申 ( K or U+FA19 ))
Derived characters [ edit ]
- 榊 , 𨕫 , 鰰 , 䨩 , 𥔻 , 䗝 , 𬷫
References [ edit ]
- KangXi: page 842 , character 3
- Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 24673
- Dae Jaweon: page 1261, character 2
- Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2392, character 1
- Unihan data for U+795E
- Unihan data for U+FA19
Chinese [ edit ]
- 神 (Written Standard Chinese ? )
- 神 (Cantonese)
- sîn (Min Nan)
- Shen (Chinese religion) (English)
Glyph origin [ edit ]
Phono-semantic compound ( 形聲 ／ 形声 ( xíngshēng ) , OC *hlin ): semantic 示 ( “ god ; deity ” ) + phonetic 申 ( OC *hlin , “ lightning ” ) .
Originally 申 in the oracle bone script and in some bronze inscriptions. The ancients feared the unpredictable lightning and considered it to be divine or of divine origin . 示 was added for specialization.
Etymology 1 [ edit ]
Possibly Sino-Tibetan ; compare Chepang ग्लीङ्ह ( gliŋh , “ spirit , mind , soul ” ) ( Schuessler, 2007 )
Pronunciation [ edit ]
- Mandarin ( Standard ) ( Pinyin ) : shén ( shen 2 ) ( Zhuyin ) : ㄕㄣˊ ( Chengdu , SP ) : sen 2 ( Dungan , Cyrillic and Wiktionary ) : шын (šɨn, I)
- Cantonese ( Guangzhou , Jyutping ) : san 4 ( Taishan , Wiktionary ) : sin 3
- Gan ( Wiktionary ) : siin 1
- Hakka ( Sixian , PFS ) : sṳ̀n ( Meixian , Guangdong ) : sen 2
- Jin ( Wiktionary ) : seng 1
- Min Bei ( KCR ) : sěng
- Min Dong ( BUC ) : sìng
- Min Nan ( Hokkien , POJ ) : sîn ( Teochew , Peng'im ) : sing 5
- Wu ( Wiktionary ) : zen (T3)
- Xiang ( Wiktionary ) : sen 2
- Hanyu Pinyin : shén
- Zhuyin : ㄕㄣˊ
- Tongyong Pinyin : shén
- Wade–Giles : shên 2
- Yale : shén
- Gwoyeu Romatzyh : shern
- Palladius : шэнь (šɛnʹ)
- Sinological IPA ( key ) : /ʂən³⁵/
- Sichuanese Pinyin : sen 2
- Scuanxua Ladinxua Xin Wenz : sen
- Sinological IPA ( key ) : /sən²¹/
- Cyrillic and Wiktionary : шын (šɨn, I)
- Sinological IPA ( key ) : /ʂəŋ²⁴/
- Jyutping : san 4
- Yale : sàhn
- Cantonese Pinyin : san 4
- Guangdong Romanization : sen 4
- Sinological IPA ( key ) : /sɐn ²¹ /
- Wiktionary : sin 3
- Sinological IPA ( key ) : /sin²²/
- Wiktionary : siin 1
- Sinological IPA ( key ) : /sɨn⁴²/
- Pha̍k-fa-sṳ : sṳ̀n
- Hakka Romanization System : siinˇ
- Hagfa Pinyim : sin 2
- Sinological IPA : /sɨn¹¹/
- Guangdong : sen 2
- Sinological IPA : /sən¹¹/
- Wiktionary : seng 1
- Sinological IPA ( old-style ) : /sə̃ŋ¹¹/
- Kienning Colloquial Romanized : sěng
- Sinological IPA ( key ) : /seiŋ²¹/
- Bàng-uâ-cê : sìng
- Sinological IPA ( key ) : /siŋ⁵³/
- Pe̍h-ōe-jī : sîn
- Tâi-lô : sîn
- Phofsit Daibuun : siin
- IPA ( Xiamen , Quanzhou , Jinjiang , Taipei ) : /ɕin²⁴/
- IPA ( Zhangzhou ) : /ɕin¹³/
- IPA ( Kaohsiung ) : /ɕin²³/
- Peng'im : sing 5
- Pe̍h-ōe-jī -like : sîng
- Sinological IPA ( key ) : /siŋ⁵⁵/
- Wiktionary : zen (T3)
- Sinological IPA ( key ) : /z̥əɲ²³/
- Wiktionary : sen 2
- Sinological IPA ( key ) : /sən¹³/
- Dialectal data
- Middle Chinese : /ʑiɪn/
- Old Chinese ( Baxter – Sagart ) : /*Cə.li[n]/ ( Zhengzhang ) : /*hlin/
Definitions [ edit ]
- 子 不 語 怪 、 力 、 亂 、 神 。 [ Classical Chinese , trad. ] 子 不 语 怪 、 力 、 乱 、 神 。 [ Classical Chinese , simp. ] From: The Analects of Confucius , c. 475 – 221 BCE Zǐ bù yǔ guài, lì, luàn, shén . [Pinyin] Confucius does not speak about strange phenomenon, violence, rebellion, and spirits .
- 西方 有 神 ， 名 曰 佛 。 [ Literary Chinese , trad. and simp. ] From: The Book of the Later Han , circa 5 th century CE Xīfāng yǒu shén , míng yuē Fó. [Pinyin] In the west there is a deity , they call him Buddha.
- 神 說 ：「 要 有 光 」， 就 有 了 光 。 [ MSC , trad. ] 神 说 ：“ 要 有 光 ”， 就 有 了 光 。 [ MSC , simp. ] From: 新標點和合本 ( Chinese Union Version with New Punctuation ), 創世記 (Genesis) 1:3 Shén shuō: “Yào yǒu guāng”, jiù yǒu le guāng. [Pinyin] And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.
- spirit ; soul ; mind
- expression ; countenance ; appearance
- supernatural ; magic ; psychic
- extraordinary ; unbelievable ; sublime
- a surname . Shen
Synonyms [ edit ]
Compounds [ edit ], descendants [ edit ].
- → Korean: 신(神) ( sin )
- → Vietnamese: thần ( 神 )
- → Chadong: sən²
Etymology 2 [ edit ]
- Mandarin ( Pinyin ) : shēn , shén ( Zhuyin ) : ㄕㄣ, ㄕㄣˊ
- Cantonese ( Jyutping ) : san 1
- Hanyu Pinyin : shēn
- Zhuyin : ㄕㄣ
- Tongyong Pinyin : shen
- Wade–Giles : shên 1
- Yale : shēn
- Gwoyeu Romatzyh : shen
- Sinological IPA ( key ) : /ʂən⁵⁵/
- Jyutping : san 1
- Yale : s ā n
- Cantonese Pinyin : san 1
- Guangdong Romanization : sen 1
- Sinological IPA ( key ) : /sɐn ⁵⁵ /
- Only used in 神荼 ( Shēnshū ).
- “ 神 ”, in 漢語多功能字庫 (Multi-function Chinese Character Database)  , 香港中文大學 (the Chinese University of Hong Kong ), 2014–
Japanese [ edit ]
Kanji [ edit ].
( grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji , shinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form 神 )
Readings [ edit ]
- Go-on : じん ( jin , Jōyō )
- Kan-on : しん ( shin , Jōyō )
- Kun : かみ ( kami , 神 , Jōyō ) ; かん ( kan , 神 , Jōyō † ) ← かん ( kan , historical ) ← かむ ( kamu , ancient ) ; こう ( kō , 神 , Jōyō † ) ← かう ( kau , historical )
- 神 ( しん ) 荼 ( と ) ( Shinto )
- 神楽 ( かぐら ) ( kagura )
- 神籬 ( ひもろぎ ) ( himorogi )
- 神子 ( みこ ) ( miko )
⟨kami 2 ⟩ → * /kamɨ/ → /kami/
From Old Japanese , ultimately from Proto-Japonic *kamuy .
Not related to 上 ( kami 1 → kami , “ top , upper ” ) or 髪 ( kami , “ hair ” ) . Possibly cognate with Korean 검 ( geom , “ god , spirit ” ) .
Often appears in compounds as kamu- or kan- , indicating that kami is a bound or fused form deriving from * /kamu.i/ . Note that this final i may be the Old Japanese emphatic nominative particle い ( i ) , likely cognate with Korean nominative particle 이 ( i ) . Such fusion has occurred in other Japanese terms, such as 目 ( me , “ eye ” , from ma + i ) or 酒 ( sake , “ sake , liquor ” , from saka + i ) .
Compare Ainu カムィ ( kamuy , “ god ” ) .
- ( Tokyo ) か み [káꜜmì] ( Atamadaka – )  
- IPA ( key ) : [ka̠mʲi]
Noun [ edit ]
神 ( かみ ) • ( kami )
- ( Shinto ) a spirit or an essence present in all things , the main subject of worship of Shinto
- ( by extension , religion ) a deity , god
- ( by extension ) thunder
- a Shinto shrine
- a person of outstanding talent or skill
- ( Internet slang , attributive ) something amazing ; great ; fantastic ; awesome 神 ( かみ ) 曲 ( きょく ) ― kami kyoku ― amazing song 神 ( かみ ) ゲー ― kami gē ― amazing game
Quotations [ edit ]
For quotations using this term, see Citations:神 .
Derived terms [ edit ]
- 神 ( かみ ) さびる ( kamisabiru ) , 神 ( かん ) さびる ( kansabiru )
- 神 ( かみ ) 降 ( お ) ろし ( kamioroshi )
- 神 ( かみ ) 風 ( かぜ ) ( kamikaze )
- 神 ( かみ ) 気 ( け ) ( kamike )
- 神 ( かみ ) 事 ( ごと ) ( kamigoto )
- 神 ( かみ ) 様 ( さま ) ( kamisama )
- 神 ( かみ ) 棚 ( だな ) ( kamidana )
- 神 ( かん ) 殿 ( どの ) ( kandono )
- 随神 ( かんながら ) ( kannagara )
- 神無 ( かんな ) 月 ( づき ) ( kannazuki )
- 雷 ( かみなり ) ( kaminari )
- 神 ( かん ) 主 ( ぬし ) ( kannushi )
- 神 ( こう ) 戸 ( べ ) ( Kōbe )
- 神 ( かみ ) 業 ( わざ ) ( kamiwaza )
- 犬 ( いぬ ) 神 ( がみ ) ( inugami )
- 氏 ( うじ ) 神 ( がみ ) ( ujigami )
- 狼 ( オオカミ ) ( ōkami )
- 男 ( おとこ ) 神 ( がみ ) ( otokogami )
- 祖 ( おや ) 神 ( がみ ) ( oyagami )
- 式 ( しき ) 神 ( がみ ) ( shikigami )
- 皇 ( すべら ) 神 ( がみ ) ( suberagami )
- 付喪神 ( つくもがみ ) ( tsukumogami )
- 鳴 ( な ) る 神 ( かみ ) ( narukami )
- 女 ( め ) 神 ( がみ ) ( megami )
- 八 ( や ) 百 ( お ) 万 ( よろず ) の 神 ( かみ ) ( yaoyorozu no kami )
- 疫 ( やく ) 病 ( びょう ) 神 ( がみ ) ( yakubyōgami )
- 大 ( おお ) 御 ( み ) 神 ( かみ ) ( ōmikami )
- → English: kami
Proper noun [ edit ]
神 ( かみ ) • ( Kami )
- ( Christianity ) God
See also [ edit ]
- 精 ( せい ) 霊 ( れい ) ( seirei )
From Middle Chinese 神 ( MC ʑiɪn ). The 漢音 ( kan'on , literally “ Han sound ” ) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese .
Compare modern Mandarin 神 ( shén ) .
- ( Tokyo ) し ん [shíꜜǹ] ( Atamadaka – ) 
- IPA ( key ) : [ɕĩɴ]
神 ( しん ) • ( shin )
- ( religion ) a deity , god , kami
- a mysterious or incomprehensible force , compare English act of God
- a mind , soul , spirit
- Short for 神道 ( shintō ) : Shinto
- 神 ( しん ) 具 ( ぐ ) ( shingu )
- 神 ( しん ) 仏 ( ぶつ ) ( shinbutsu )
Affix [ edit ]
- deity , god , kami
- mysterious or incomprehensible force
- mind , soul , spirit
- Short for 神戸 ( Kōbe , “ Kōbe (a city in Japan ) ” ) . 阪神 ( はんしん ) ( hanshin )
- 神 ( しん ) 意 ( い ) ( shin'i )
- 神 ( しん ) 威 ( い ) ( shin'i )
- 神 ( しん ) 韻 ( いん ) ( shin'in )
- 神 ( しん ) 火 ( か ) ( shinka )
- 神 ( しん ) 格 ( かく ) ( shinkaku )
- 神 ( しん ) 学 ( がく ) ( shingaku )
- 神 ( しん ) 官 ( かん ) ( shinkan )
- 神 ( しん ) 気 ( き ) ( shinki )
- 神 ( しん ) 曲 ( きょく ) ( shinkyoku )
- 神 ( しん ) 経 ( けい ) ( shinkei )
- 神 ( しん ) 権 ( けん ) ( shinken )
- 神 ( しん ) 魂 ( こん ) ( shinkon )
- 神 ( しん ) 札 ( さつ ) ( shinsatsu )
- 神 ( しん ) 事 ( じ ) ( shinji )
- 神 ( しん ) 主 ( しゅ ) ( shinshu )
- 神 ( しん ) 酒 ( しゅ ) ( shinshu )
- 神 ( しん ) 式 ( しき ) ( shinshiki )
- 神 ( しん ) 水 ( すい ) ( shinsui )
- 神 ( しん ) 髄 ( ずい ) ( shinzui )
- 神 ( しん ) 聖 ( せい ) ( shinsei )
- 神 ( しん ) 仙 ( せん ) ( shinsen )
- 神 ( しん ) 像 ( ぞう ) ( shinzō )
- 神 ( しん ) 体 ( たい ) ( shintai )
- 神 ( しん ) 託 ( たく ) ( shintaku )
- 神 ( しん ) 殿 ( でん ) ( shinden )
- 神 ( しん ) 道 ( とう ) ( shintō )
- 神 ( しん ) 罰 ( ばつ ) ( shinbatsu )
- 神 ( しん ) 秘 ( ぴ ) ( shinpi )
- 神 ( しん ) 父 ( ぷ ) ( shinpu )
- 神 ( しん ) 木 ( ぼく ) ( shinboku )
- 神 ( しん ) 明 ( めい ) ( shinmei )
- 神 ( しん ) 雷 ( らい ) ( shinrai )
- 神 ( しん ) 霊 ( れい ) ( shinrei )
- 神 ( しん ) 話 ( わ ) ( shinwa )
- 軍 ( ぐん ) 神 ( しん ) ( gunshin )
- 守 ( しゅ ) 護 ( ご ) 神 ( しん ) ( shugoshin )
- 祖 ( そ ) 神 ( しん ) ( soshin )
- 半 ( はん ) 神 ( しん ) ( hanshin )
- 阪 ( はん ) 神 ( しん ) ( Hanshin )
Etymology 3 [ edit ]
From Middle Chinese 神 ( MC ʑiɪn ).
The 呉音 ( goon , literally “ Wu sound ” ) reading, so likely the earlier borrowing from Middle Chinese .
- IPA ( key ) : [(d͡)ʑĩɴ]
神 ( じん ) • ( jin )
- ( rare ) Same as しん ( shin ) above
- 神 ( じん ) 器 ( き ) ( jinki ) , 神 ( じん ) 器 ( ぎ ) ( jingi )
- 神 ( じん ) 宮 ( ぐう ) ( jingū )
- 神 ( じん ) 事 ( じ ) ( jinji )
- 神 ( じん ) 社 ( じゃ ) ( jinja )
- 神 ( じん ) 通 ( ずう ) ( jinzū )
- 火 ( か ) 神 ( じん ) ( kajin )
- 水 ( すい ) 神 ( じん ) ( suijin )
- 天 ( てん ) 神 ( じん ) ( tenjin )
- 土 ( ど ) 神 ( じん ) ( dojin )
- 風 ( ふう ) 神 ( じん ) ( fūjin )
- 雷 ( らい ) 神 ( じん ) ( raijin )
- 竜 ( りゅう ) 神 ( じん ) ( ryūjin )
Etymology 4 [ edit ]
⟨mi 1 ⟩ → * /mʲi/ → /mi/
From Old Japanese .
Cognate with 御 ( mi- ) , an honorific prefix originally used to refer to gods and other high-status objects.
神 ( み ) • ( mi )
- ( rare ) a god or spirit
- 神 ( み ) 輿 ( こし ) ( mikoshi )
- 海神 ( わたつみ ) ( watatsumi )
- ^ “ 神 ”, in 漢字ぺディア ( Kanjipedia )  (in Japanese), 日本漢字能力検定協会 , 2015—2023
- ^ 1998 , NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 ( NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary ) (in Japanese), Tōkyō : NHK , →ISBN
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 2006 , 大辞林 ( Daijirin ) , Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō : Sanseidō , →ISBN
Korean [ edit ]
Etymology [ edit ].
From Middle Chinese 神 ( MC ʑiɪn ). Recorded as Middle Korean 신 ( sin ) ( Yale : sin ) in Hunmong Jahoe ( 訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회 ), 1527.
Hanja [ edit ]
神 ( eumhun 귀신 신 ( gwisin sin ) )
- Hanja form ? of 신 ( “ ghost ; spirit ; phantom ; god ” ) .
- 신경 ( 神經 , sin'gyeong )
- 신기 ( 神奇 , sin'gi , “ mysterious ”)
- 신령 ( 神靈 , sillyeong , “ gods ; deities ; divinities ”)
- 신비 ( 神祕 , sinbi , “ mystery ”)
- 신선 ( 神仙 , sinseon , “ celestial or divine being ; an immortal ”)
- 신성 ( 神聖 , sinseong , “ holiness , sacredness ”)
- 신점 ( 神占 , sinjeom , “ divination ”)
- 신화 ( 神話 , sinhwa , “A myth or legend .”)
- 귀신 ( 鬼神 , gwisin , “ ghost , spirit ”)
- 실신 ( 失神 , silsin , “ faint ”)
- 정신 ( 精神 , jeongsin , “ mind ; consciousness ; pneuma ; psyche ”)
- 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전／電子字典 . 
Okinawan [ edit ]
- On : しん ( shin )
- Kun : かみ ( kami , 神 )
From Proto-Ryukyuan *kami .
- ( Shuri - Naha ) か み [kàmí] ( Heiban - )
- IPA ( key ) : [kamʲi]
神 ( hiragana かみ , rōmaji kami )
- a spirit or an essence present in all things
- a god , deity
Old Japanese [ edit ]
- 神酒 ( mi 1 ki 1 ) , 神酒 ( mi 1 wa )
From Proto-Japonic *kamuy .
Can be parsed as a compound of unbound apophonic 神 ( kamu ) + い ( i (2) , emphatic nominative particle ) .
神 ( kami 2 ) ( kana かみ )
- ( by extension ) an Emperor or Empress regnant of Japan
- an evil spirit , such as a snake or wild beast
- 神さぶ ( kamusabu )
- 神しむ ( kamusimu )
- 神ぶ ( kamubu )
- 神風 ( kami 2 kaze, kamukaze )
- 随神 ( kamunagara )
- 神無月 ( kami 2 naduki 2 , kamunaduki 2 )
- 神の命 ( kami 2 no 2 mi 1 ko 2 to 2 )
- 神宮 ( kamumi 1 ya )
- 天つ神 ( ama tu kami 2 )
- 大神 ( opokami 2 )
- 大御神 ( opomi 1 kami 1 )
- 國つ神 ( kuni tu kami 2 )
- 皇神 ( sume 1 kami 2 )
- 鳴る神 ( narukami 2 )
- 火の神 ( pi 2 no 2 kami 2 , pono 2 kami 2 )
- 八百萬の神 ( yapoyo 2 ro 2 du no 2 kami 2 )
- Japanese: 神 ( kami )
Cognate with 御 ( mi 1 - ) , an honorific prefix originally used to refer to gods and other high-status objects.
Alternative forms [ edit ]
神 ( mi 1 ) ( kana み )
- 山祇 ( yamatumi 1 )
- 海神 ( watatumi 1 )
- Japanese: 神 , 霊 ( mi )
Vietnamese [ edit ]
神 : Hán Việt readings: thần    神 : Nôm readings: thần   , thằn  , thườn 
- chữ Hán form of thần ( “ deity ” ) .
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Nguyễn (2014).
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Nguyễn et al. (2009).
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Trần (2004).
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