Nigeria's security crises - five different threats
- Published 19 July 2021
- Nigeria schoolgirl kidnappings
Nigeria is faced with an unprecedented wave of different but overlapping security crises - from kidnapping to extremist insurgencies - almost every corner of the country has been hit by violence and crime.
Audu Bulama Bukarti, a senior analyst on Sahel security at the Tony Blair Institute, says the scale of the insecurity threatens the very fabric of Nigerian society: "With every attack, human lives are lost or permanently damaged and faith in democracy and the country is diminishing."
When President Muhammadu Buhari was elected in 2015, he promised to protect citizens from terrorists and criminals. But there are less than two years left of his final term in office and the country is more unstable than it's been in decades.
Some have linked the recent surge of insecurity to the staggering poverty across the country. Youth unemployment currently stands at 32.5% and the country is in the middle of one of the worst economic downturns in 27 years.
Here are Nigeria's five biggest security threats:
Despite claiming during his first year in office that Islamist militant group Boko Haram had been "technically" defeated, President Buhari now admits that his government is failing to stop the insurgency, which began in the north-east.
Indeed, Boko Haram is expanding into new areas and taking advantage of Nigeria's poverty and other security challenges to fuel its extremist ideologies. According to the UN, by the end of 2020, conflict with the group had led to the deaths of almost 350,000 people and forced millions from their homes.
Boko Haram launches deadly raids, in some cases hoisting its flag and imposing extremist rule on local people. It levies taxes on farms and the sale of agricultural products. The once booming international fish market in the Chad Basin is now completely controlled by the group.
The challenge is made harder by Nigeria's ungoverned spaces - areas that are remote and largely ignored, where groups can torment rural communities without fear of reprisal.
In recent years, a splinter faction allied to the Islamic State group, called the Islamic State's West Africa Province, has surpassed Boko Haram in size and capacity. It now ranks among IS's most active affiliates in the region.
Both groups have so far resisted the government's military operations.
- ANALYSIS: Why Nigeria has failed to defeat Boko Haram
Clashes between herders and farmers
There have been violent disputes between nomadic animal herders and farmers in Nigeria for many years.
But disagreements over the use of land and water, as well as grazing routes, have been exacerbated by climate change and the spread of the Sahara Desert, as herders move further south looking for pasture. Thousands have been killed in clashes over limited resources.
Benue State, in the centre of the country, has recorded the deadliest attacks. Recently, seven people were killed when gunmen opened fire on a camp for those fleeing the conflict. Some have also blamed herders for kidnapping people and demanding a ransom.
The tension has led to some state governors banning grazing on open land, and thus creating friction with the central government.
In 2019, federal authorities launched a 10-year National Livestock Transformation Plan to curtail the movement of cattle and boost livestock production in an attempt to stop the conflict. But critics say a lack of political leadership, expertise and funding, plus delays are derailing the project.
- Could ranches solve Nigeria's deadly herder-farmer conflict?
Banditry and kidnapping
One of the scariest threats for families in Nigeria is the frequent kidnapping of schoolchildren from their classrooms and boarding houses.
More than 1,000 students have been abducted from their schools since December 2020, many only released after thousands of dollars are paid as ransom.
Some of the kidnappers are commonly referred to as "bandits" in Nigeria. These criminals raid villages, kidnap civilians and burn down houses.
Attacks by bandits have forced thousands of people to flee their homes and seek shelter in other parts of the country.
The north-west is the epicentre of these attacks. In Zamfara state alone, over 3,000 people have been killed since 2012 and the attacks are still going on. Hundreds of schools were closed following abductions at schools in Zamfara and Niger state, where children as young as three years old were seized.
By every indication, Nigeria's lucrative kidnapping industry is thriving - expanding into previously safe areas - and seemingly beyond the control of the country's army. It poses a real threat to trade and education, as well as the country's farming communities.
More on Nigeria's kidnapping crisis:
- Why schoolchildren are being abducted in Nigeria
- Why a $30m scheme failed to stop school abductions
- WATCH: Where kidnappers millions for a child's life
A separatist group called the Indigenous People of Biafra (Ipob) has been clashing with Nigeria's security agencies. Ipob wants a group of states in the south-east, mainly made up of people from the Igbo ethnic group, to break away and form the independent nation of Biafra.
The group was founded in 2014 by Nnamdi Kanu, who was recently arrested and is set to face trial on terrorism and treason charges. His arrest has been a major blow to the movement.
The idea of Biafra is not new. In 1967, regional leaders declared an independent state, which led to a brutal civil war and the death of up to a million people.
Supporters of Nnamdi Kanu's movement have been accused of launching deadly attacks on government offices, prisons and the homes of politicians and community leaders.
President Buhari has vowed to crush Ipob. Last month he tweeted that "those misbehaving today" would be dealt with in "the language they will understand".
The post was removed by Twitter for violating its rules after Mr Buhari faced a backlash online. The incident led to the suspension of Twitter in Nigeria.
- ANALYSIS: What Kanu's arrest means for Ipob
In the oil-producing south, security challenges are nothing new.
It is Nigeria's biggest foreign export earner, and militants in the Niger Delta have long agitated for a greater share of the profit. They argue the majority of the oil comes from their region and the environmental damage caused by its extraction has devastated communities and made it impossible for them to fish or farm.
For years, militants pressured the government by kidnapping oil workers and launching attacks on security personnel and oil infrastructure, like pipelines.
To address this, ex-president Umaru Musa Yar'Adua launched a presidential amnesty programme in 2009, which saw the formal end of the Niger Delta militants.
But armed cult groups still pose a security challenge in the region and industry officials have been warning that militancy is once again picking up.
Who are Boko Haram?
- 24 November 2016
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- 3 December 2020
How Islamic State has expanded into Central Africa
- 14 June 2021
Fewer boots: Radical rethink in fighting insurgencies
- 20 June 2021
#BringBackOurGirls explained two years on
- 13 April 2016
The Nigerian State and Insecurity
By the Africa Center for Strategic Studies
February 17, 2021
Nigeria faces a plethora of security challenges ranging from violent extremism, to farmer-herder conflict, banditry, a revived secessionist movement, police repression, piracy, and attacks on oil infrastructure, among others. In this roundtable discussion, experts representing diplomatic, scholarly, and practitioner perspectives discuss the links between these security challenges and Nigeria’s patronage-based state institutions. Key themes were the need to rethink the structure of the Nigerian state, identify means of strengthening national identity, harness the aspirations of youth to advance governance reform, create more accountability within the security services, and avoid the militarization of every security challenge.
- Olajumoke (Jumo) Ayandele, “Confronting Nigeria’s Kaduna Crisis,” Spotlight , Africa Center for Strategic Studies, February 2, 2021.
- Africa Center for Strategic Studies, “Boko Haram and the Islamic State in West Africa Target Nigeria’s Highways,” Infographic, December 15, 2020.
- Africa Center for Strategic Studies, “Boko Haram Violence against Civilians Spiking in Northern Cameroon,” Infographic, November 13, 2020.
- Africa Center for Strategic Studies, “#EndSARS Demands Nigerian Police Reform,” Infographic, November 10, 2020.
- Daniel Eizenga, “Chad’s Escalating Fight against Boko Haram,” Spotlight , Africa Center for Strategic Studies, April 20, 2020.
- Oluwakemi Okenyodo, “ Governance, Accountability, and Security in Nigeria ,” Africa Security Brief No. 31 , Africa Center for Strategic Studies, June 21, 2016.
More on: Police Sector Reform Militant Islamist Groups Nigeria
Bonaventure Ikechukwu Ozoigbo Directorate of General Studies, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria
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INSECURITY IN NIGERIA: GENESIS, CONSEQUENCES AND PANACEA
Insecurity is one of, if not the most glaring and much talked about thing in Nigeria today. Acts of insecurity occur on daily basis throughout the country. Right thinking and sane Nigerians are really concerned about this ugly trend. This paper digs into the root causes of insecurity in Nigeria, its effects on the country and proffers/suggests ways out of this nightmare. The causes amongst so many include fundamentally illiteracy, unemployment/joblessness, poor leadership, porous nature of our boarders, proliferation of arms, non-compliance with the rule of law. The effects are also there – underdevelopment, poverty, hunger, insurgency, militancy, youth restiveness, kidnapping, armed robbery, fear, drug abuse, political thuggery, etc. As part of the way out of this, this paper suggests that ‘career’ (technical) education be emphasized rather than the ‘degree’ (non-technical) education. Civics as a subject should be restored in the primary school curriculum; the country be restructured as demanded by most of the populace, community policing introduced and supported; rule of law and quality leadership firmly established and spirit of nationalism enshrined in the minds of the citizenry.
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Igbuzor, O. (2011). Peace and Security Education: A Critical Factor for Sustainable Peace and National Development, International Journal of Peace and Development Studies. Vol. 2 (1).
Kufor, J. (2012). Nigeria: Imbalanced Development Causes Insecurity in Nigeria, This Day Newspaper, Lagos.
Nwagboso, C. I. (2012). Security Challenges and Economy of Nigerian State (2007-2011), American International journal of Contemporary Research, Vol. 2 No. 6.
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Top 10 causes of insecurity in Nigeria and solutions to them
Insecurity in Nigeria is a significant reason why the growth and development of the country are affected. Even though the country is blessed, getting a lasting solution to this problem is still a major concern to the government and its citizens. Listed below are the major causes of insecurity in Nigeria and the solutions to them.
The country is blessed with lots of precious natural resources. Nigeria also has some of the best brains in the world . The unfortunate thing is that even though Nigeria is referred to as the giant of Africa, the country does not live up to its identity.
What are the causes of insecurity in Nigeria?
What are the causes of insecurity? A lot of things have been found as the cause of insecurity in Nigeria. Some of the problems in Nigeria and solutions are discussed below:
The overwhelming unemployment rate in the country is capable of causing panic. The issue is especially obvious when it comes to Nigerian youths. According to the statistics, every tenth young citizen of the country is officially unemployed.
Another statistic provided by the NBS as of 2019 showed that the unemployment rate in the country has risen to 23.1%. Considering unemployment in Nigeria's causes, effects, and solutions, it is evident that rapid population growth is a significant cause of this menace.
Also, the recent decline in the country's economy is another cause. Unfortunately, many people have been laid off, while new jobs are not created.
In 2021, Transparency International placed Nigeria in the 146th position out of 180 countries in the Corruption Perceptions Index, scoring 26 out of 100.
Corrupt Nigerian politicians have become a turn-off for international investors. Unfortunately, corruption has already become a part of life in the country. Unfortunately, it forms part of the economic problems in Nigeria today.
Different parts of the country have different speeds of development. Due to this, the country's oil-rich regions feel disturbed when the federal government use their oil and does not develop their society.
People of these regions feel cheated because of that. They want to take justice into their hands. That is why they vandalise oil pipelines.
4. Weak judicial system
The weak judicial system is one of the biggest causes of insecurities in Nigeria. People feel insecure when criminals and terrorists go free. Many evil-minded people think that money can buy freedom in the country; unfortunately, the corrupt system proves this line of thought.
Rich people can buy freedom in the country, which the poor masses do not feel secure about. Therefore, the judicial system in the country should be changed, and there may be only one answer to that – transparency.
5. "Open" borders
The country has borders that are poorly guarded. Insurgents from other countries can infiltrate the country with no problem. This situation is especially dangerous in the North East. The federal government cannot provide enough troops to secure the borders. Porous coastal borders are the main cause of terrorism in the country.
6. A high influx of arms
Smugglers use the porous coastal borders of the country to sell arms. The corruption and weak judicial systems only help smugglers to sell even more guns. They provide pistols, shotguns, assault rifles, grenades, and explosives against the people and military forces.
The uncontrolled circulation of arms and ammunition poses a danger to peace and the country's long-term social and economic development. It has also led to the displacement of several Nigerians from their communities and ancestral lands.
Narcotic trafficking is one of the causes of insecurity in Nigeria. Criminal groups are involved in smuggling illegal substances to Europe, Asia, South Africa, and North America.
Nigerian gangs are one of the largest distributors of opium in the world. Citizens should fight this criminal trafficking, which is not affecting just the country but the entire world.
The Walk Free Foundation of Global Slavery reports that about 875,500 citizens in the country are trapped in human trafficking. For instance, women in the country can be tricked into migrating to other regions.
They hope to find good jobs but are forced to sell their bodies for money instead of promised jobs. Some of them are even sold to foreign brothels.
9. Criminal situation
For the last few years, citizens have been victims of robberies, which sometimes happen in daylight. Organised criminal gangs take over the streets of the country. People do not feel safe when walking on the roads. Corrupt government officials cannot provide help to Nigerians to fight these criminals.
10. Terrorist threat
Terrorism in the country is not a new problem. Boko Haram and Niger Delta Avengers are two prominent terrorist organisations that cause the most damage to the country. The federal government keeps fighting with terrorists. Nigerian soldiers die every day for their country.
10 solutions to insecurity in Nigeria
Insecurity in Nigeria threatens life and property, hampers business activity and discourages local and foreign investors, leading to a deficit in the country's social and economic growth and development. Below are the 10 solutions to the insecurity that can help everyone live in peace.
- The government must generate new jobs to battle unemployment , and citizens must use their initiative to open up new opportunities for themselves.
- The issue of corruption can only come when we have selfless leaders who will go the extra mile to effect change in different tiers of government. Any corrupt person needs to be dealt with. As a result, everyone will have equal rights, and there will be more honesty and transparency.
- The most effective strategy for the federal government to address the issue of imbalance in the nation is to balance the development of all of its areas.
- Having a strict, just, and fair judicial policy is very important. Any criminal should not be allowed to go unpunished. The government must guarantee the transparency of a judge's judgement and authority.
- The federal government should add more soldiers to the border patrol in order to address the issue of "Open" borders. It should also teach citizens how to defend their areas from insurgents.
- It is risky how quickly deadly firearms, ammunition, and other weapons are distributed around the nation. The authorities can halt this by establishing guidelines for anybody who has a firearm. And if somebody is discovered to possess a weapon without authorisation from the government, they should be dealt with.
- Narcotics is one of the main contributors to crime and fear in the nation. To combat crime, the government should start working with other nations to educate their people about the danger of narcotics. Launching a global probe into the issue and establishing accountable organisations will be beneficial.
- Forced labour and human trafficking are major problems in this nation. The public should combat these crimes. Cases of slavery or human trafficking must be reported.
- The federal government needs to pay attention to the problem of illegal activity, ensure that the law is upheld, and punish those who break it.
- To get rid of the main terrorist organisations in the nation, the government needs to find a better option to deal with such problems. This can be accomplished by teaching the next generation about the negative effects of crime and how they influence society.
What are the types of insecurity in Nigeria?
There is professional insecurity, which primarily involves the fear of losing jobs, as well as social insecurity, involving the feeling of rejection and fear of relating to people. We also have economic insecurity, otherwise known as financial insecurity.
What are the dangers of insecurity?
The unfortunate thing is that when people are insecure, it can lead to several other things. Among others, people may find it difficult to trust one another.
Professionally, the fear of losing one's job can take a toll on a person's mental health, causing social anxiety, negative mood, and other health-related problems.
What is the major insecurity in Nigeria?
The Nigerian government has recently faced significant difficulties as a result of insecurity and terrorism. Among these serious insecurities are bombings, sporadic shootings of unarmed civilians, burning of churches and police stations, abductions of young girls and women, r*pe, armed robberies, political unrest, and murder.
What are the sources of insecurity in Nigeria?
Nigeria's main sources of insecurity are tribal conflict, poverty, diseases, bad governance and human rights abuses, and environmental degradation.
How do you fight insecurity?
In a nation like Nigeria, enforcing laws and upholding them is the greatest method to combat insecurity. Everyone should be aware of the value of preserving the peace and participating in worthwhile activities that will boost the nation's economy.
What are the most common insecurities?
Relationship, social, body image, career, and basic requirements insecurities are some of the most prevalent forms of insecurity.
What are the 5 sources of insecurity?
The major sources of insecurity are:
- Bad leadership in a country
- Diseases and poverty
- Lack of faith in everyone
- Being egotistical and greedy
- Hatred and tribal strife
The causes of insecurity in Nigeria, among other issues, are a significant challenge that leaves many citizens in perpetual fear every day.
READ ALSO: Types of cultism in Nigeria and their symbols: Interesting facts
Legit.ng recently published an article on various types of cultism in Nigeria and their symbols. A cult is a sect or social group that practises esoteric, individualised religion.
Cultism is a technique that involves performing rituals and is common among young people nowadays who are looking for quick and simple wealth. Although some cult leaders conceal their intents from followers, cultists have shared goals and ideologies that are either known to society or not.
Events of 2019
Officials count votes in front of voters during the presidential and parliamentary elections on February 23, 2019, at a polling station in Port Harcourt, southern Nigeria
© 2019 YASUYOSHI CHIBA/AFP via Getty Images
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Despite claims by federal authorities of increased security measures, an atmosphere of insecurity persisted across Nigeria in 2019. In May, President Muhammadu Buhari began his second four year term following general elections marred by political violence which killed at least 11 people .
The northeast Boko Haram conflict entered its tenth year, with renewed fighting between security forces and Boko Haram factions killing an estimated 640 civilians in 2019 alone. An estimated 27,000 people, including 37 aid workers , have been killed since the onset of the conflict in 2009,according to the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA).
The military’s decision in August to gather troops from countryside outposts into ‘super camps’ in the northeast impeded humanitarian access and left communities vulnerable to attacks. In the northeast, at least 223,ooo people are without security while 100,000 have been cut off from humanitarian access as a result of the military’s departure. Humanitarian actors have no access to an estimated 823,000 people, according to UNOCHA.
Elsewhere in the country, there were widespread kidnapping, banditry and recurring cycles of deadly violence between herdsmen and farmers.
The clampdown on peaceful protests, arrest and detention of activists, and media repression signified a renewed intolerance of free speech and dissent by Nigerian authorities.
China joined the rank of key international actors including the United Nations, United States and the United Kingdom providing support for the Nigerian government’s northeast counter insurgency measures.
Abuses by Boko Haram
Boko Haram killed at least 405 children and abducted at least 105 during 2018 and the group continued lethal attacks on civilians including suicide bombings and abductions . In January, at least 60 people were killed when Boko Haram fighters overran Rann, Borno state.
In February, just days before national elections, eight people were killed in a suicide bomb attack by suspected insurgents in Borno capital city, Maiduguri. Kashim Shettim, then-governor of the state survived an attack that killed at least three people while on a campaign tour to Gamboru Ngala, near the Cameroon border. A similar attack in September on the new state governor, Babagana Umaru Zulim killed four in Konduga, near Maiduguri. In June, triple suicide bombings in the same town killed some 30 and injured another 40. In July, at least 65 people were killed after Boko Haram fighters opened fire on a group of men attending a funeral in Nganzai, Borno state.
In July, Boko Haram fighters killed one and abducted six staff of the international aid group, Action Against Hunger. One of the abducted workers remained missing at time of writing.
Boko Haram maintained control of some villages near Lake Chad, northern Borno State . The splinter faction of the group known as the Islamic West Africa Province (ISWAP) overran dozens of army bases, killing dozens of soldiers since January.
Authorities continued to detain thousands of alleged Boko Haram members without trial in overcrowded military barracks in the northeast. In October, the authorities released 25 children held as Boko Haram suspects from Giwa barracks in Borno state after Human Rights Watch reported that children are being held in degrading and inhuman conditions in Giwa barracks. Nigerian authorities detained at least 418 children in 2018 for their or their parents’ alleged association with Boko Haram.
Conduct of Security Forces
There was little progress on accountability for security forces abuses. Neither the report of the Presidential Judicial Panel set up in August 2017 to investigate the military’s compliance with human rights obligations, allegations of war crimes, and other abuses nor that of a Presidential Panel of Inquiry set up in 2018 to investigate abuses by the Police Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) have been made public.
In March, the spokesperson for the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), Festus Okoye, accused soldiers of intimidation and unlawful arrest of election officials in Rivers State governorship elections. The Nigerian Army immediately announced the creation of a committee to investigate those allegations within two weeks, but was yet to publish a report at time of writing.
Security forces continued the crackdown on members of the Shia Islamic Movement of Nigeria (IMN) protesting the detention of their leader Sheikh Ibrahim El Zakzaky and his wife Ibraheema since December 2015, despite court orders for their release. In July, Nigerian police fired at the group’s procession in Abuja, Nigeria’s federal capital, killing 11. A journalist and a police officer were also killed in the violence, while dozens of IMN members were wounded or arrested.
In April, about 65 women were arrested in Abuja by a task force comprising officers from the city's environment and social development agency and local police during raids on night clubs. Women’s rights groups took to the streets to protest the raids and the allegations by some arrested women that policemen sexually abused, exploited and extorted them in custody. Twenty-nine women pleaded guilty to prostitution charges and were ordered to pay a fine of three thousand naira (about US$8.50) each.
Clashes between herders and farming communities continued in the Middle Belt, while other parts of the country faced general insecurity, including banditry and kidnappings for ransom. In February, clashes and reprisal attacks between the Fulani and Adara communities in Kajuru, Kaduna state killed more than 130 people .
In July, the federal government buckled under the weight of heavy widespread criticism and suspended the Ruga Settlements program under which special grazing zones and settlements were established for herdsmen across the country. Critics cited, among other flaws, lack of consultation with communities in proposed grazing zones.
In Zamfara state, incessant banditry attacks and kidnappings persisted despite the deployment of military troops in 2018 to tackle insecurity in the state. According to credible media reports, over 200 people were killed in the state by suspected bandits in the first 100 days of 2019 .
The Abuja-Kaduna highway, a major route out of Abuja to the northwest of the country became notorious for bandit attacks and kidnappings. The inspector general of police, Mohammed Adamu said in April that 1,071 people were killed in criminal attacks and 685 kidnapped across the country in the first quarter of 2019 alone.
Public Sector Corruption
The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) recorded some progress in the trial of corruption cases.
The supreme court affirmed in March, forfeiture orders granted by federal high courts in Lagos under the Advanced Fee Fraud Act and other Fraud related offences Act, of US$8.4 million and 2.4 billion naira [$66.6 million] allegedly traced by EFCC to Patience Jonathan, wife of former President Goodluck Jonathan.
In June, a Jigawa state high court sentenced Auwal Jibrin, a deputy director with INEC, to six years imprisonment, for unlawful enrichment and gratification, while another INEC official in the state Garba Ismaila received a seven-year jail term on the same charges.
A federal high court in July ordered the interim forfeiture to the government, of jewelry valued at an estimated $40 million recovered by the EFCC from the Abuja home of former petroleum minister Decani Alison-Madueke. The agency had in April secured a similar interim forfeiture order against the former minister’s alleged property in Port Harcourt. The court found that the property was “reasonably suspected to be proceeds of unlawful activity.”
Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity
Nigerian laws, policies and political discourse continued to reinforce intolerance same-sex relations and gender nonconformity throughout 2019. Nigerian law criminalizes same-sex conduct as well as public show of same-sex amorous relationships, same-sex marriages, and the registration of gay clubs, societies, and organizations. In January, Lagos state police spokesperson Dolapo Badmos, through her private Instagram account warned gay people to leave Nigeria or risk prosecution under the Same Sex Marriage Prohibition Act.
A Sharia (Islamic law) court in Kano in January fined 11 women charged under the state’s Immoral Acts law for allegedly planning a same-sex wedding. The victims were arrested in December, 2018 by local religious police, known as Hisbah.
Freedom of Expression, Media, and Association
Armed soldiers raided offices of Daily Trust newspapers in January, temporarily detaining staff for allegedly publishing classified military information.
In June, the Nigerian Broadcasting Commission (NBC) suspended the licenses of the African Independent Television (AIT) and Raypower Radio station for allegedly airing inflammatory and inciting programs against the government and broadcasting uncensored and unedited social media content. Shortly afterwards, the Department of State Security Services (DSS) declared a crackdown on social media users for posting materials described as threatening to the country’s peace and stability.
On August 3, DSS operatives arrested Omoyele Sowore , a 2019 presidential candidate and publisher of New York-based Nigerian news website, Sahara Reporters , accusing him of planning an insurrection aimed at a forceful takeover of government through his calls for nationwide protests tagged ‘Revolution Now.’ A federal high court in Abuja approved Sowore’s detention under the anti-terrorism law, for a renewable 45-day period, on August 8. Sowore was charged with treason, cybercrime, and money laundering offenses in September and was granted bail pending trial in October, under stringent terms.
The terms were later changed by the court , which issued an order for his release on November 6 after his lawyers satisfied the conditions. The DSS did not comply with the order for his release despite civil society protests. He remained in detention at time of writing.
Police clamped down on the “Revolution Now” protests across the country and the government said Amnesty International’s Nigeria office was on its security watch for allegedly tweeting a message by the protest organizers.
Following police violence during IMN protests in Abuja, the Nigerian government proscribed the Muslim Shia group , after a court ruled on July 26, that group’s activities amounted to “ acts of terrorism and illegality .”
Key International Actors
Forty UN agencies and international humanitarian organizations, including United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and United Nations Development Programme launched in January, the 2019 Nigeria Regional Refugee Response Plan (RRRP) with an appeal for $135 million to provide aid to civilians displaced by the Boko Haram insurgency in the Lake Chad Basin region.
In January, the Chinese government pledged 50 million Yaun ($5.5 million ) for the purchase of military equipment to support the Nigerian government’s counterinsurgency plans.
In August, UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary and Arbitrary Executions, Agnes Callamard visited Nigeria to examine violations of the right to life by state and non-state actors . She highlighted in a statement, growing insecurity and widespread failure by authorities to hold perpetrators accountable.
International actors, notably the UN, US, and UK continued to support the Nigerian government’s effort to tackle security challenges and provide humanitarian aid to vulnerable communities but failed to publicly condemn government security forces abuses. UK Foreign Secretary Jeremy Hunt visited northeast Nigeria in May , to reaffirm UK’s commitment to supporting Nigeria and its neighbors in the fight against Boko Haram. The UK provided over £200 million (approx. $259 million) in aid to Nigeria , of which about £100m was allocated to the north-east for security and humanitarian support, including training and capacity building for government forces deployed in the northeast.
The UK and US raised concerns during Nigeria’s 2018 Universal Peer Review about lack of progress on accountability for rights violations by security forces.
Nigeria was appointed to the Working Group on Communications for the UN Commission on the Status of Women, in March. On June 4, Tijjani Muhammad-Bande, Nigeria’s permanent representative to the UN was elected to a one-year term as president of the UN General Assembly’s 74th session starting September 2019.
In June, Nigeria a member of the UN Human Rights Council since 2017, voted against a resolution to extend the mandate of the Independent Expert on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, and abstained from the resolution to extend the mandate of the Special Rapporteur on Eritrea.
President Buhari reiterated his support to the International Criminal Court (ICC ), urging developed countries to “take the ICC more seriously in order to strengthen democracy and the rule of law” during the visit of Judge Chile Eboe-Osuji, president of the ICC, to Nigeria in June. The Office of the Prosecutor of the ICC continued its preliminary examination relating to the situation in Nigeria in 2019 .
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Causes And Effects Of Insecurity In Nigeria
Currently, some of Nigeria’s major problems are insecurity, poor leadership, and lack of strong institutions. In this article, I will be discussing the causes and effects of insecurity in Nigeria. After attaining independence, the country, despite its human and material endowment, lacks all critical infrastructures and has been governed on an ad-hoc basis without the benefit of planning. The lack of infrastructure has resulted in the collapse of initiatives in both the formal and informal sectors of the economy.
What is Insecurity?
Insecurity means lack of safety or the existence of danger; hazard; uncertainty; lack of trust; doubtful; inadequately guarded or protected; lack of stability; disturbed; lack of protection and unsafe. It is also the state of being subject to terror, threat, risk, molestation, bullying, harassment, etc. Insecurity, for example, can be conceived as a threat to the state that often accounted for the arms and nuclear weapons race to protect the state. According to the Encarta dictionary (2009), insecurity is the state of being unsafe or insecure or a state of mind characterized by self-doubt and vulnerability.
Causes of Insecurity In Nigeria
Boko Haram Insurgency
The Boko Haram humanitarian crisis has led to over 37,500 deaths with 2.4 million internally displaced citizens with severe impacts in Borno, Adamawa, Yobe, and Gombe, predominantly leading to physical and food insecurity. This has made business owners and managers relocate their businesses elsewhere. There is also evidence of some businessmen and manufacturing companies having to relocate, particularly from the North in recent times to other peaceful parts of the country .
Unemployment is a state of being available to work, but you aren’t working, even part-time or temporary. And the common types we have in Nigeria include underemployment, frictional unemployment, and structural unemployment. Out of the three types I have mentioned, underemployment is the most common in Nigeria. It is a situation in which people take up any job to make ends meet, but they are not working to their full capacity or skill level, i.e., working to survive. And an idle hand is a devil’s workshop. Because of this, many become frustrated to keep mind and body together and engage in violent and criminal acts such as lucrative kidnapping, militancy, and armed robbery.
Poverty is the state of one who lacks a usual or socially acceptable amount of money or material possessions. In a report released by NBS, 40 percent of the total population, or almost 83 million people, live below the country’s poverty line of 137,430 naira ($381.75) per year. This means the country has close to half of its population is poor. And an adage said a hungry man is an angry man. So this set of people won’t mind engaging in criminal acts because they believe they have nothing to lose.
Leadership is the ability to influence the behavior of people. It is also defined as the capacity to influence a group towards realizing a goal. Bad leaders hurt the country. Their behaviors often include intimidation, bullying, misrepresenting facts, retaliation, blaming others, dishonesty, deceit, and anger. Poor leadership remains Nigeria’s fundamental cause of insecurity from the past till now. It is generally acceptable that government has the primary function of providing essential services such as water, electricity, a good road network, quality education, and general infrastructure. Ironically, these basic things are not there in Nigeria, and the people, in general, are frustrated and demoralized. Demoralization and anger logically provide a fertile ground for aggression and general insecurity. When governments repeatedly fail to deliver on their promises to the people, it leaves a wide communication gap between the government and the people. This creates insecurity.
This has become a way of life in Nigeria, one which existing governments neither wish to nor can control. All subsequent regimes in the country military and civilian, have been permeated by corruption. And it has been aided and enhanced by oil revenues, this has created a deepening crisis of kleptocracy, shown in its most extreme form since 1984. It results in a combination of scandalous wealth among the ruling class with growing poverty, misery, and degradation among the mass of Nigerians. The economy and social institutions in the country has been driven into decay because the political life has become dominated by political cynicism and violence.
The country’s unstable frontiers, where human movements are essentially untracked, have led to Nigeria’s level of insecurity. There is an unregulated inflow of Small Arms and Light Weapons into the country due to the porous borders, which has enabled militancy and crime in Nigeria. It has also been reported that Nigeria hosts over 70% of about 8million illegal weapons that have been used to create a security crisis.
Marginalization And Inequality
In Nigeria, there are economic, gender, and regional inequalities. For instance, regional inequalities translate into higher poverty rates in some states in the country. Poverty in Nigeria is extremely high because it has been growing in an expanding economy where the benefits have been reaped by a minority of people and have bypassed the majority of the population.
Effects of Insecurity in Nigeria
On the impact of insecurity on the economy, the productive aspect of most manufacturing businesses depends mainly on the availability and regular supply of raw materials for production. Insecurity has cut off the supply of such raw materials hence, jeopardizing production activities. Besides this, insecurity affects the marketing of the finished product as there is a continuous exodus from areas of insecurity. There is also an increase in security spending as most business organizations operating in Nigeria spend a lot on maintaining private security outfits.
Security entails the presence of peace, safety, happiness, and the protection of human and physical resources. All threats to human security also challenge health and consequently are detrimental to the individual’s physical, psychological, and overall well-being. Thus, insecurity leads to illnesses, a low life expectancy rate, low quality of life, and even death.
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How insecurity affects the lives of everyone in the Niger Delta
Research Fellow, KU Leuven
Tarila Marclint Ebiede was a Research Consultant for the Niger Delta Dialogue, a project implemented by Academic Associate PeaceWorks, Nigeria, with funding from the European Union.
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Nigeria has an urgent insecurity problem . News from the country often emphasises insecurity related to Islamic insurgents in Northern Nigeria, organised armed banditry involving Fulani herdsmen , farmer-herder conflicts, kidnapping and armed robbery .
Insecurity has long been a problem in the country’s oil rich Niger Delta region too. From the early 2000s , armed militants targeted oil industry infrastructure and kidnapped expatriates. This continued until the late President Umaru Musa Yar’Adua introduced an amnesty programme for militants in 2009. Hostilities decreased but the programme focused mainly on securing the oil industry. It did not address the overarching insecurity affecting ordinary people.
Thirty-one million Nigerians live in the Niger Delta area. Most have their roots in local ethnic communities. People in the region are engaged in both formal and informal employment. For many years their lives have been shaped by the political economy of the oil industry. And recurring oil spills have resulted in devastating environmental pollution that has had a brutal effect on their lives and livelihoods.
In our recent book Insecurity in the Niger Delta we identified emerging threats of insecurity, what’s driving it and how it affects the lives of everyone in the region. A major finding is that the Nigerian government has no coherent strategy to address the complex, multidimensional insecurity that has permeated the Niger Delta. To address this, we recommend that the Nigerian government decentralises its security structures and addresses the region’s development concerns.
Our research was conducted in six states of the Niger Delta region: Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo and Rivers State. It showed that each state had unique and crosscutting forms of insecurity. These include cultism, piracy, land struggles, election violence and gangs. They are driven by issues like drug abuse, poverty, unemployment and environmental pollution.
We found that cultism involving young people was a common trend across all the states. Cult groups function as fraternities that engage in public violence . In the past, cultism tended to be restricted to cities and major towns , but now it’s seen in villages in areas such as Bayelsa State. Despite this, it is popularly held that cultists receive support from the political class , especially politicians who use these gangs to carry out acts of violence during elections.
Our study also revealed that internet fraud syndicates contribute to violence, which fuels insecurity in both Edo and Delta states. We found that these syndicates fund armed cult gangs. They also engage in ritual killings. They believe that these rituals can influence their victims to do their bidding.
In Bayelsa and Rivers states, piracy and sea robbery are significant problems. Poor governance, poverty and high youth unemployment are key drivers of piracy that originates from the Niger Delta. While piracy occurs mainly on the Atlantic coast in the Gulf of Guinea , sea robbery along the coast or the inland waterways of Bayelsa and Rivers states contributes to insecurity. One respondent, who is linked to sea pirates, described it like this:
When we were cooking crude oil (artisanal refining of oil), we were enjoying, we were making our money, and we were peaceful. Since the Joint Task Force (joint military force) said we should not do that job, they have burnt all our things so we don’t have any choice, which is why we came back to the river.
In all states across the Niger Delta, there are conflicts within and between communities. These conflicts are mainly driven by contentions over land and struggles over leadership. Local power struggles have been responsible for loss of lives and property in rural communities.
Periodically, elections also contribute to insecurity in the region. During elections, armed young people engage in violence . At least seven people died in one town alone during the 2019 elections in Rivers State .
Our study found a link between street children and insecurity in Calabar, Cross River State. Here, street children have formed groups known as Skolombo and Lacasera. Their presence in the streets makes them susceptible to sexual abuse and recruitment into violence by criminal gangs.
How insecurity affects lives
In Nigeria, political elites are often officially or unofficially protected by state security agents. Those who suffer the consequences of insecurity are ordinary people who don’t have protection.
First, insecurity in the Niger Delta has led to the loss of lives . Young people involved in cult groups or violent criminal activities have been killed either by Nigerian police or local mobs . People who are not involved in cult or criminal activities have also been caught in the crossfire during gang wars or targeted by criminal groups in cases of robbery.
The spread of cult and criminal groups into rural communities, where state security is scarce, leaves villagers at the mercy of gangs. One respondent in Bayelsa noted:
Our lives are not safe along this our Ekeremor waterways, we are living in hell in the hands of our own brothers and sons.
In Rivers State, armed gangs involved in control of public spaces, such as markets and vehicle loading points, make local people pay to use these spaces. Users who fail to pay are excluded or violently attacked.
Insecurity has also significantly affected investments in the Niger Delta. International companies and private investments have shunned the area, often citing cases of insecurity . The Nigerian government introduced laws to ensure that international oil companies engaged local business to provide services and facilities. But these international companies often engaged companies based outside the region. This stifled the demand for labour, contributing to high unemployment which in turn drives crime and insecurity.
The Nigerian federal and state governments should build a comprehensive framework to address the problem. This framework should address the underlying drivers of insecurity, such as lack of economic opportunities for young people, drug abuse and the absence of the rule of law. It must also address corruption in public office, unfair electoral processes and environmental pollution. The governments should also address weak institutions and poor security governance. State governments must stop giving political rewards to people involved in cult groups.
Finally, actions taken to address insecurity should involve local stakeholders in communities, such as traditional rulers, women and youth leaders.
- Niger Delta
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INSECURITY IN NIGERIA
Ethnic cleansing of the igbo: the nigerian civil war.
Intrastate conflict has historically been savage and chaotic; nowhere have these descriptors been more fitting than within African civil wars. A legacy of colonialism, ineffective governance, and regional conflict scars the continent, resulting in regular political instability within its territories. The Nigerian civil war of the late 1960s cost the lives of an estimated three-million people- the majority of whom were civilians who succumbed to starvation (NWE 2015). This conflict has traditionally been understood to have been caused by ethnic tensions within the state, and justifiably so (Falola 1999, 125). The ethnic cleansing of the Igbo that occurred throughout September and October of 1966 in northern Nigeria undoubtedly played a
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Boko Haram has been terrorizing Nigeria and surrounding countries for years, with noticeable increases in power over the last five years. Best estimates indicate that the Boko Haram insurgency rose to power in the 2000s with the goal of promoting strict adherence to Islamic Shari’a Law throughout Nigeria (Bussey, Chasse, Martin, 2016). The group found footing quickly; frustrations with the faulty political system and lack of economic and social development in northern Nigeria allowed the group to recruit large numbers of members and gain momentum. In 2009, the groups leader, Muhammed Yusuf was murdered. This, coupled with increasing economic and social tensions across Nigeria caused the group to become increasingly aggressive. The group executed a prison break of over 700 prisoners in 2010 and performed the well-known kidnapping of over 200 school girls in 2014. This kidnapping truly brought global attention to the acts of terror the group was committing for the first time (Onouha, 2012). United State’s Citizens became increasingly involved, leading to the spread of the “Bring Back our Girls” movement. As United States interest in Boko Haram increased, the hostility of the group increased. In 2014, according to the Global Terrorism Index, deaths attributed to Boko Haram rose by 314%, attributing to the groups ranking as the most dangerous terrorist group in the world (Institute for Economics and Peace, 2015).
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Independent from British ruling since 1960, Nigeria today still suffers from ethnical and religious divisions as well as unequal distribution of power and resources among its regions. A high degree of violence and insecurity has shaped Nigeria’s political framework since colonial times. The region is characterized by systematic human under-development and socio-political decay. By draining resources from development, terrorism creates an additional burden on the society and interferes with development opportunities.
Motivation For Boko Haram 's Attacks
Different sources have different causes of what they say was the motivation for Boko Haram’s attacks. Some sources say it was the killing of their leader in 2009 and some even say that the it was due to global warming within that country, but whatever it is, it is a big problem not only for the Islamic states but all of the other countries of the world. Their different attacks seem to show what the source of this motivation was. The group is very hard to understand in terms of their overall motivation because there is so little known information about them. Information in general is hard to come by from Nigeria. Police officers and city officials so corrupt that they give the citizens little to no information as to what is going on (Walker, 2012, p. 7). They are too motivated by their own selfish goals. The Boko Haram group itself has given no really helpful information as it has denied bombings and other terroristic activities.
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The Boko Haram sect in Nigeria has been a huge problem for the country in the past, and the threat is only growing. This group is considered responsible for a handful of government attacks, targets on the United Nations, and often churches who undermine the Islamic religion. Their actions have spawned from the idea that their country is controlled by “fake Muslims”, and aim to create an Islamic nation ruled with Sharia law.
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For the past seven years innocence have been injured, killed, or brutally tortured by the Islamist militant group Boko Haram. They have lost their homes and precious possessions due to a cruel, selfish satisfaction of this organization. Boko Haram members believe that these “brutal penalties” is just an ordinary way to express their culture. Although Nigeria came to a conclusion that these terrorists had given up, it only took five months later to realize it was not the end. Nigeria’s strategies had gotten them nowhere and only led them back to where they started.
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The militant group’s funding comes from a variety of organized crime and donations, cyber scams, fake charities, kidnapping, bank robbery, and theft from Nigeria’s security establishment. The group has received financial support from al Qaeda and other African governments. Central to Boko Haram’s approach includes using hard-to-track human couriers to move cash, relying on local funding sources, such as local governments, and engaging in only limited financial relationships with other extremist groups.1 They recruit as many Islamic extremist groups recruit, by radicalizing boys and young men who have failed at something or seek a higher purpose in life. The group’s recruitment methods have changed in recent years; more recruits are forcibly
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Corruption in the Niger delta region of Nigeria as resulted in youths becoming militants and kidnappers which have led to killing of innocent individuals. During the past few years a lot of people have died in the Niger delta due to violent killings because of dispute over oil revenue and compensation. Most of these atrocities are carried out main by youths, who are agitated by the corrupt practice of the
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9 Major Causes and Solutions to Insecurity in Nigeria
- January 4, 2022
- by Edeh Samuel Chukwuemeka ACMC
Causes and Solutions to Insecurity in Nigeria: The insecurity in Nigeria is increasing exponentially with each passing day. Insecurity and terrorism have been a major challenge for the Nigerian government lately, each of which leads to the loss of life and the destruction of properties.
As a result, insecurity has taken different forms in several parts of the country, amed robbers have taken position within the south-west, cross-border bandits operate smoothly in the north, while kidnapping issues are widespread in the south-south. In Nigeria, insecurity is supported by corruption and corrupt people in different sectors.
Nigeria is among the world most terrorist countries. The rate at which evil is growing in Nigeria and the ruthless manner in which the lives of innocent people is being wasted are worrying. Citizens are burdened daily with emotional and psychological trauma as a result of the death of their loved ones who had fallen victims.
In this article we shall discuss the possible solutions to the problem of insecurity in Nigeria.
Problems of insecurity in Nigeria
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Causes of insecurity in Nigeria
1. Bad Governance : The increasing incidents of violent attacks are symptoms of weak, marginal or exploitative government systems in Nigeria. The government’s inability to provide public services and meet the basic needs of the masses has created a group of frustrated people who are easily classified as violent by any event.
2. Poverty: The failure of Nigerian governments to fix the challenges of poverty and the unequal distribution of wealth among ethnic nationalities is a major contributor to the country’s insecurity. When you have a poor population, you have a serious insecurity problem.
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3. Terrorism / kidnapping : Terrorism is the use of violent acts to achieve political goals or to force a government to act. Boko Haram is the most famous terrorist organization that has done the most damage to the country. Nigeria has lost many lives in the northern region to the Boko Haram uprising, that devastated the northern region of the country.
Causes and Solutions to Insecurity in Nigeria
Other acts of terrorism include suicide bombings, assassinations, and kidnapping. Terrorist activities have resulted in displacement of people, loss of life and property, distrust, anger and hatred, as well as psychological and emotional trauma and general insecurity.
4. Weak judicial system: The weakness of the Nigerian judiciary system creates uncertainty in Nigeria. People feel insecure when criminals are released. Many criminals have bought their freedom with money in the country, the legal system has abandoned its people and released all kinds of atrocities.
What are the factors that promote insecurity in Nigeria?
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5. Corruption : Corruption is already a part of life in the country and, unfortunately, is now part of Nigeria’s economic problems, and public appropriation. It has gained popularity in our system of government.
Solutions to Insecurity in Nigeria
This creates financial insecurity which has exacerbated poverty, there is corruption in public office at all levels and this has created a lot of instability in our country.
6. Unemployment: According to statistics, a tenth of the country’s young citizens are officially unemployed. Young people are overwhelmed by the high unemployment rate in Nigeria. Every year, universities make many graduates who were unfortunately thrown onto the job market with no prospect of job opportunities.
And this has lead a lot into criminal acts. Unfortunately, due to bad government decisions, our factories are still not reactivating. Due to the unemployment among Nigerians, young people are now negatively attracted to violent crime.
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7. Poor Security System: This is due to inadequate government security equipment in both weapons and training. It contributes to the poor disposition of the security personnel. In many cases, security officers tasked with certain security situations lack the experience and equipment to handle situations so that they will not arise.
Essay on insecurity in Nigeria
8. Porous Border : Nigeria shares borders with Niger, Burkina Faso, and Mali. These borders are poorly secured by the Nigerian immigration and customs authorities. The porous nature of these borders has exacerbated the possible spread of terrorist activity in Nigeria. With terrorism in the country there will be no room for adequate development in our country.
9. Ethnic Groups and Religious Differences: It should be remembered that the country’s diverse ethnic makeup is not in itself a cause of insecurity in Nigeria.
How to solve the problem of insecurity in Nigeria
However, political and religious leaders across the country sometimes use ethnic sentiments to pursue their selfish ambitions, create mistrust and resentment between different ethnic groups and religions.
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Solution to insecurity in Nigeria
1. Solidified border security: The federal government must face the immediate challenge of boundary porosity. The government should make concerted efforts to recruit, train and deploy adequately equipped customs and immigration personnel across borders. The government needs to invest in more effective security technologies, which will benefit border security.
What are the Causes of the Insecurity in Nigeria
These technologies can include body cameras, smart license plate readers, smart vehicle underbody scanners, and more. Border guards, serving to secure the border, must have adequate access to these types of resources that enable them to do their jobs effectively.
2. Human and Infrastructure Development: We need to capitalize on demographic dividends by investing in health, education and livelihoods, especially for our young people. There is urgent need to draw a national development plan that require the three levels of government. There should be development projects in important sectors of national life all at the same time.
Insecurity in Nigeria, Causes, Effects and Solutions
The authorities must additionally increase people’s dwelling requirements with the aid of setting up greater facilities of entrepreneurship throughout the nation.
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3. Leadership development : Nigeria must develop visionary leadership. Leadership positions should be for people who can convey to their people the idea of a common citizenship as a transcendent factor among all Nigerians, regardless of tribe, gender, religion, economic and social status that focuses on facts and pronouncements that will convincingly and positively affect all citizens of our nation.
The process of developing such leadership can be challenging, but our country desperately needs leaders with a national perspective and an eagerness to change the nation.
4. Good Governance: Good governance is the panacea to Nigeria’s insecurity challenge. Good governance is required, in which the government is accountable and accountable to the people. Good governance is a function of effectiveness, foresight, transparency, reliability and credible political leadership, the driving force of which is the improvement of the collective well-being of citizens through well-designed and effectively implemented economic policies and human development programs. The focus on people as the primary goal of governance. It is time to give up negative behavior and bad political tactics so that the country can have peace.
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5. Economic Development : The country’s economic productivity and opportunities for its citizens need to be improved. The challenge of insecurity in Nigeria can be solved by accelerating development in our country.
Development in this context is about creating an economy with societal relevance, an economic and physical infrastructure for business activity and industrial growth, in order to create gainful employment, high-quality educational facilities and health care for the people.
6. Elimination of Corruption: It is the cause of inequality and the unequal distribution of the wealth of nations among their citizens. Corruption at all levels must be eliminated in such a way that equal rights apply to all and rights and privileges of people are not agreed upon based on bribery and tribe but on merit, defined in relation to theirs Character content, their mental efficiency and their efficiency; where there will be no discrimination.
How to tackle insecurity in Nigeria
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7. Building a proactive law enforcement agency : There is a need to collect and monitor information so that law enforcement officers can be proactive and predict potential crimes with near perfect accuracy and not reactively. Government at all levels cannot compromise in enforcing the law.
Law enforcement agencies must prevent and control behavior that threatens life and property, protect constitutional guarantees such as freedom of expression and assembly, resolve conflicts between individuals or between citizens and their government, and identify problems that may become more serious to individuals or authorities
7. Proper Security training and equipment: More attention needs to be paid to the security department in order to conform to worldwide standard practice and the acquisition of modern technology.
There is also a need to modernize security agencies through adequate training, advanced technology, motivation and change of direction.
Five causes and solutions to insecurity in Nigeria
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8. Appropriate Education : Education is a prerequisite for any form of development. Adequate education is the process of teaching, training and learning, especially in schools and universities, to improve knowledge and develop skills.
This is very much for national development. It is time we know that education without skills is a disservice at the highest level. It is necessary to change our curriculum and reorganize our learning institutions even from elementary to tertiary education, the government needs to include skills acquisition as a central part of the academic curriculum. It must also provide students with the necessary opportunities to learn these skills.
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9. Improvement of the criminal justice system : The judiciary should have developed time scales for cases at this stage in our development.There should have been a time to determine a cause; Time to close this case; and time to pass judgment.
Solutions to the problems of insecurity in Nigeria
Hence, the government must ensure that criminal proceedings are successfully completed. Criminals will serve their full sentences, when convicted. Suspects are brought to justice earlier. Procedural documents must be available to lawyers and the public in digital form. Likewise, the procedure for filing a criminal complaint is to be simplified with greater consideration for the victims.
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Effective formulation and implementation of guidelines and programs that can address the basic causes of uncertainties in Nigeria is essential, particularly with regard to poverty; Unemployment, environmental degradation, injustice, corruption, porous borders and the proliferation of small arms.
Therefore, efforts to combat insecurity can only be effective if there is a solid combination of legislative and judicial interference with government reforms that address some serious human security challenges facing a large majority of the population.
Edeh Samuel Chukwuemeka ACMC , is a Law Student and a Certified Mediator/Conciliator in Nigeria. He is also a Developer with knowledge in HTML, CSS, JS, PHP and React Native. Samuel is bent on changing the legal profession by building Web and Mobile Apps that will make legal research a lot easier.
4 thoughts on “9 Major Causes and Solutions to Insecurity in Nigeria”
Nice one there. A solution provider for a change. Well done. Keep up the good work.
Nice piece of work. Very detailed. Keep it up
A very detailed piece, with a lasting proferred solution. Keep it up!
Nice facts it was really helpfull to my research
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- Corpus ID: 195476190
Insecurity In Northern Nigeria: Causes, Consequences and Resolutions
- Published 2015
- Political Science
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- J. Nkwede , A. O. Moliki , K. O. Dauda
- Economics, Political Science
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Use of Information Technology in Minimizing Insurgency Activities by Boko Haram in Borno State Nigeria
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Here are Nigeria's five biggest security threats: Jihadism Despite claiming during his first year in office that Islamist militant group Boko Haram had been "technically" defeated, President...
By the Africa Center for Strategic Studies February 17, 2021 Nigeria faces a plethora of security challenges ranging from violent extremism, to farmer-herder conflict, banditry, a revived secessionist movement, police repression, piracy, and attacks on oil infrastructure, among others.
examines terrorism and insecurity in Nigeria and proffered moral, values and religious education as panaceas. In doing this, the paper discusses the central role that security plays in the development of nations for which Nigeria cannot be an exception. The paper further explains the concepts of terrorism and insecurity with
135+ million publications; 700k+ research projects; Join for free. Public Full-text 1. ... High level of insecurity in Nigeria is associated to numerous factors in which ineffective .
It is a known fact that insecurity is detrimental to general wellbeing of the people with its resultant effects in the areas of illnesses; low life expectancy; low quality of life and even death....
A trouble is a private matter and occurs when values cherished by an individual are felt by him to be threatened, while issues have to do with matters that transcend the local environments of the...
Insecurity per ABSTRACT Nigeria as a great nation is fraught with violent conflicts, chaos, anarchy and disorderliness, and retrogression. These scenarios precipitated the innate desire to embark on this research. This study concentrated on insecurity in Nigeria: The implications for industrialization and sustainable development.
broadcast of security tips in mass media (Azazi, 2011). Despite these efforts, the level of insecurity in the country is still high. In addition, Nigeria has consistently ranked low in the Global Peace Index (GPI, 2012), signifying a worsened state of insecurity in the country. Hence, Adagba, et al (2012), Uhunmwuangho and
INSECURITY IN NIGERIA: GENESIS, CONSEQUENCES AND PANACEA Bonaventure Ikechukwu Ozoigbo Abstract Insecurity is one of, if not the most glaring and much talked about thing in Nigeria today. Acts of insecurity occur on daily basis throughout the country. Right thinking and sane Nigerians are really concerned about this ugly trend.
Insecurity in Nigeria Responsibility for internal security may range from police to paramilitary forces, and in exceptional circumstances, the military itself. (Wikipedia) Threats to Internal security Threats to the general peace may range from low-level civil disorder, large scale violence, or even an armed insurgency.
The Latest news in Nigeria and world news. The Guardian Nigeria Newspaper brings you the latest headlines, opinions, political news, business reports and international news.
Nigeria's main sources of insecurity are tribal conflict, poverty, diseases, bad governance and human rights abuses, and environmental degradation. How do you fight insecurity? In a nation like Nigeria, enforcing laws and upholding them is the greatest method to combat insecurity.
The supreme court affirmed in March, forfeiture orders granted by federal high courts in Lagos under the Advanced Fee Fraud Act and other Fraud related offences Act, of US$8.4 million and 2.4 ...
In a report released by NBS, 40 percent of the total population, or almost 83 million people, live below the country's poverty line of 137,430 naira ($381.75) per year. This means the country has close to half of its population is poor. And an adage said a hungry man is an angry man.
Insecurity is a major and great threat to the national development of the country. The rising movement of insecurity has not come to a standstill but has assumed dangerous dimensions which are threatening the corporate existence of the country as one geographical entity. This paper examines insecurity and its implications on sustainable development with special focus on terrorism massacre in ...
Emerging insecurity Our research was conducted in six states of the Niger Delta region: Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo and Rivers State. It showed that each state had unique and...
ABSTRACT: This paper aims to study the insecurity in Nigeria which is widely caused by Islamic sects known as Boko Haram in Nigeria and its effects on security. This paper will also find if there is a connection between poverty and Insurgency that has led to a great unrest in Nigeria, the aim of writing is to evaluate if poverty can lead to ...
Solution to insecurity in Nigeria 1. Solidified border security: The federal government must face the immediate challenge of boundary porosity. The government should make concerted efforts to recruit, train and deploy adequately equipped customs and immigration personnel across borders.
Insecurity In Northern Nigeria: Causes, Consequences and Resolutions. Since Nigeria got her independence from Britain in 1960, the country's political structural arrangemen t has been under one central government called Federa l Government (via a Federal Republic) and was blessed with unquantifiable natural, human and mate rial resources.