80 Indian Culture Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

🏆 best indian culture topic ideas & essay examples, 📌 interesting topics to write about indian culture, 🥇 simple & easy indian culture essay titles, 💡 good research topics about indian culture.

  • Cultural Competence: Indian Culture and Healthcare They also believed that, the disease was heredity and that if one member of the family suffered from one of the diseases, chances that somebody from the same family would contract the disease are high.
  • The Influence of Ramayana on the Indian Culture If one considers the image provided in the work with the work itself, one notices the detailed depiction of the life and activities of the protagonist. We will write a custom essay specifically for you by our professional experts 808 writers online Learn More
  • Servant Leadership in Indian Culture and Hindu Religion The basis of this approach is the reorientation of the values of the leader, who considers the empowerment of followers as a means and goal of his activity.
  • Indian Custom and Culture Community For example, there were various activities used to illustrate this marking, and these would include invitation and welcoming of the bridegroom, exchange of flower garlands, presentation of the would-be wife, the ceremony of the sacred […]
  • American Culture and Indian Culture Comparison Children in India are raised mostly in patriarchal joint family systems, and the head of the family is usually the senior most male, in most cases the grand parents of the child.
  • Indian and Greek Cultures Comparison Although modern India is a mixture of cults and beliefs, the ancient religion of Hinduism is still strong among the people.
  • Relations Between Homosexuality and Indian Culture Lesbianism is a relatively silent practice in India as opposed to gay practice and even the organizations for women do not really advocate for or promote it.
  • British Colonialism and Its Impact on Indian Culture Though the Indians resisted Britain’s rule they were unable to overcome the British soldiers’ tactics and weapons hence the British East India Company took the region as its colony for trading and governance purposes. Britain […]
  • Indian Culture and Its Distinctive Qualities Indian culture is one of the oldest in the world and truly one of the most influential due to the number of Indians that inhabit the Earth.
  • The Blackfoot Indians Culture and Historical Heritage The Reservation of the Blackfoot Indians is the place of residence to over 17 thousand members of the given nation and spans 1,5 million acres.
  • Indian Culture: Dances of Rajasthan Diwali is one of the major festivals in the country. Ghoomar dance is also common in the region.
  • Understanding the Significance of Diwali as a Representation of Indian Culture The aim of this thesis is to understand the close relationship between the popular Hindu festival, Diwali and efforts being made by the global Indian diaspora to perpetuate their old country’s traditions and culture in […]
  • Indian Culture, Food, Temples, and Clothing Key Terms: Traditional dresses, Indian fashion, saree, headgear Claim: Despite the inevitable impact of globalization and westernization, India is a country that could preserve its culture by wearing traditional clothes. It is normal to see […]
  • Communicating Cross-Culturally: Indian and Japanese Workers The purpose of this presentation is to propose ways in which a virtual team consisting of Indian and Japanese employees can be motivated.
  • The Practice of Counseling in the US and Indian Culture Owing the varied nature of the constituents of this culture, there is a large and continually expanding evolution of the Indian culture especially as regards religion, beliefs and societal values that is quite influential to […]
  • Culturally-Relevant Interventions for Indian Children The culture of American Indian children have customs and traditions related to the care of children with chronic illness, abuse, substance abuse, and mental illness.
  • Indian Cultures the “White Man” Tried to Remove The hair in the Indian culture is therefore connected to the character trait of basing a culture on symbols. The fourth Indian culture, the “white man,” also tried to steal from the Indians their attire.
  • The Cultural Misappropriation of the Cleveland Indians The cultural misappropriation of the Cleveland Indians, an American ball club, has been a practice that has continued for a long time because of the unresolved contention encompassing its logo and Name. The essay discusses […]
  • Mdewakanton Dakota, Sioux Indian Tribe of Red Wing: Cultural Orientations Ethnocentrism is one of the signs characterizing the attitude of people to the Native Americans and in particular to the Mdewakanton tribe.
  • Culturally Competent Care in Indian Health Service Such a situation requires the physicians and nurses to fully understand the needs of the patients. The paper argues that the IHS is an embodiment of the application of cultural competence in healthcare.
  • Gulf’s Indian Ocean Connections and Cultural Exchanges The persistence of Indian Ocean-Gulf trade due to demand of the goods resulted in a mixture of heritage and culture from the sailors, fishers, and traders from the western Indian Ocean system.
  • Ancient Indians Historical and Cultural Way of Life Visiting of the historical and cultural museums is the integral part of the enrichment of your knowledge about the way of life of certain cultural groups.
  • Myths: Daphne and Ahalya. Greek and Indian Culture Mythology The book describes the Creation of the World and continues to the time of Julius Caesar and is considered as a mythic-historical document.
  • The Possibility of Modernizing Indian Culture The Indian culture is based mainly upon the traditions prevailing in the times of Emperor Asoka and the secular rule of Akbar. In the Indian culture, the youth is supposed to show this respect by […]
  • Iroquois Indians Culture and History Review Much of what we know of ancient culture is brought to us in the form of stories; either the stories of the descendants of the stories of outsiders.
  • Taensa Indians Culture Analysis So it is due to this fact that most of the Taensas are getting discrimination in most of the activities like in business, sharing of the economic resources and the land rights of these people.
  • Indian Culture and Its Building Blocks The purpose of this paper is to discuss the building blocks of a culture that is different from that of the author of this writing.
  • Cultural Diversity: Chippewa Indians There were overt attempts to racially segregate the Indians in a successively smaller area, and the Indians were ultimately left to the mercy of the US government.”The said Chippewa Indians surrender to the United States […]
  • Indian vs. American Cultural Heritage and Traditions Usually, the representatives of different races and nationalities enter countries that are not their native, adding diversity to the homogeneous people of that state.
  • American Indians and Cultural Assimilation Laws At the end of the eighteenth century, the government of the United States was concerned about the problem of cultural heterogeneity.
  • Cultural Diversity: Indians and White Americans As it is said in the lectures by Harvey and Allard, the issue of discrimination is not only based on the factors of race or ethnicity.
  • Indian Spiritualism in Cross-Cultural Perception In this case, the interviewee can be referred to as a medium as she claims to have the ability to communicate with the dead.
  • Canadian Indians, Métis, and Inuit Material Culture The relevance of this book is identified by problems of modern history and anthropology and, mainly, by the need to examine the representation of artifacts of the First Nations as well as by the need […]
  • Udayan Care: Indian Culture Care Community The analysis started with a narrative of the background of Udayan Care, especially as compared to the institutionalized care given by the government and private homes in India and the West.
  • Traditional Food Culture in the Indian Religion As demonstrated by this particular author, the traditional food culture is important in the Hindu religion because of the fact that food “speaks” a language that conjoins the gross and the subtle, body and spirit, […]
  • Views of Benjamin Franklin on Indian Culture The tenacity with which the Indians held to their traditions came out clearly in the treaty of Lancaster in Pennsylvania. A juxtaposition of civilization in the eyes of the Indians to the western countries is […]
  • Native American Culture and American Indians However, the history of the USA has come through the colonization and many people who now inhabit the continent are not the Native Americans.
  • Understanding the Significance of Diwali as a Representation of the Indian Culture People refer the festival to as the festival of Sweets. In the South East Asia, and Indian populations elsewhere in the world, people celebrate the Diwali somewhat differently.
  • Cheyenne Indians History and Culture Furthermore, it was to emphasize the unique powers and the superiority of the chief priests and the prophets in the community.
  • Hinduism’s Cultural and Religious Opinions As a result, it is not easy to trace the history of Hinduism and the Hindus are not concerned about the specific dates when the religion might have started.
  • Historical Analysis of 19th Century Indian Culture
  • American and Indian Culture: Comparative Analysis
  • Overview of American Indian Culture Before 1763
  • American Indian Culture and Its Effects on Nursing
  • Historical Analysis of Ancient Indian Culture
  • Comparative Analysis of Asian and Indian Culture
  • Cherokee Indian Culture and Its Impact on United States Culture
  • Comparison of Chinese and Indian Culture
  • Analysis of Contemporary Indian Culture
  • Contrasts Between German and Indian Culture and Qualities
  • Cultural Challenges With the Indian Culture to Business in Kenya
  • Difference Between Western and Indian Culture
  • Cultural Islam: Keeping Faith and Tradition Under Indian Culture in Pakistan
  • Differences Between American Culture and Indian Culture
  • Cultural Experience: Overview of Indian Culture
  • The Relationships Between Economics and Indian Culture
  • Culture Comparisons Between the Kung and the Indian Cultures
  • Analysis of Entrepreneurs From the Indian Culture
  • European Settlers and the Impact of Indian Culture
  • Examining the Assorted Heritage of Indian Culture
  • Hinduism and Buddhism’s Influence on Indian Culture in Southeast Asia
  • Indian Culture and Its Architectural Heritage
  • Overview of Indian Culture, Politics, and Business
  • Indian Culture and Food After Meeting an Indian Lady
  • Reasons Why Indian Culture Restrains the Women
  • Indian Culture and How Its Diversity Glorifies India at an Incredible Level
  • Individual Cultural Communication: Study of Indian Culture
  • Indian Culture and How It Translates to America
  • Projecting Ethos Through Indian Culture
  • Indian Culture and Its Different Religions
  • Reward and Punishment Allocation in the Indian Culture
  • Indian Culture and Its Impact on Society
  • The Apache Indian Culture and History
  • Indian Culture and the River Sutra’s Healing Powers
  • Comparative Analysis of Canadian Culture and Indian Culture
  • Indian Culture: Getting the Best From the Best
  • The Fundamental Issues Within the Romanian and Indian Culture
  • The Indian Culture and Modern Education System
  • Understanding Indian Culture With a Healthcare Perspective
  • The Indian Culture Referring to the Seven Dimensions of Trompenaars
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  • Understanding Indian Culture: A Journey Through Time
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Welcome to a journey through the rich and diverse culture of India. From its ancient traditions to modern influences , this article will take you on an exploration of the customs, beliefs, and practices that have shaped Indian society over thousands of years. Situated in the heart of Asia, India is a land of vibrant colors, exotic flavors, and deep-rooted traditions. With its many religions, languages, and cultures, India is a melting pot of diversity and has a unique identity that sets it apart from the rest of the world.

In this article, we will delve into the history, customs, and values that make up the fabric of Indian culture. So, join us as we embark on a journey through time to understand the essence of Indian culture, its evolution, and its significance in today's world. Welcome to the vibrant and diverse world of Indian culture. In this article, we will take you on a journey through time to understand the rich heritage and significance of Indian culture. From ancient civilizations to modern-day practices, we will cover everything you need to know about this fascinating culture. India has a long and complex history, with evidence of human settlements dating back to 75,000 years ago.

The first major civilization in India was the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE. This advanced society had well-planned cities, a sophisticated drainage system, and a writing system that is yet to be deciphered. The legacy of this civilization can still be seen in modern-day India, particularly in the northwestern region. In the centuries that followed, India saw the rise and fall of many dynasties, each leaving their mark on the country's culture. The Mauryan Empire (322 BCE-185 BCE) was one of the first major empires in India, established by Chandragupta Maurya.

Under the rule of Emperor Ashoka, it became one of the largest empires in the world at that time and played a crucial role in spreading Buddhism across Asia. The Gupta Empire (320 CE-550 CE) is considered the Golden Age of India, known for its advancements in science, mathematics, art, and literature. It was during this time that Hinduism became the dominant religion in India. The Mughal Empire (1526 CE-1857 CE) was another significant period in Indian history, with its capital in Delhi. Under the rule of Emperor Akbar, it saw a fusion of Indian and Persian cultures, resulting in magnificent architecture and art forms like the Taj Mahal and miniature paintings. Religion plays a significant role in Indian culture, with a diverse population practicing various faiths. Hinduism is the predominant religion, with over 80% of the population identifying as Hindus.

Buddhism, founded in India by Siddhartha Gautama, also has a significant following, particularly in the northern and eastern regions. Islam, brought to India by traders and Sufi saints, is the second-largest religion, followed by Christianity, Sikhism, Jainism, and Zoroastrianism. Indian society is deeply rooted in customs and traditions that have been passed down for generations. Festivals are an integral part of Indian culture, with each region and religion having its own unique celebrations. Diwali, Holi, Eid, and Christmas are some of the major festivals celebrated throughout the country. Food is another essential aspect of Indian culture, with each region having its own distinct cuisine.

Spices play a crucial role in Indian cuisine, adding flavor and aroma to dishes. Staple foods include rice, wheat, lentils, and vegetables, with a variety of meat and seafood dishes also available. Clothing in India is diverse and varies based on region, climate, and occasion. Traditional clothing for women includes sarees, salwar kameez, and lehengas, while men typically wear dhotis, kurta-pajamas, or sherwanis. Modern fashion trends have also influenced Indian clothing styles. The art and architecture of India are known for their intricate designs and vibrant colors.

Traditions and Customs

These traditions are deeply rooted in the country's history, religion, and social structures, and they play a significant role in shaping the lives of its people. From daily rituals to festive celebrations, every aspect of Indian culture is infused with a unique set of customs and traditions. One of the most prominent customs in Indian culture is the emphasis on family and community. Family ties are highly valued, and extended families often live together in the same household. This close-knit structure is reflected in various customs and traditions, such as joint family meals and celebrations. Religion also plays a crucial role in shaping Indian customs and traditions.

With a diverse population practicing various religions, India is a melting pot of customs and beliefs. From the colorful festivals of Hinduism to the serene rituals of Buddhism, each religion brings its unique set of customs to the table. The concept of hospitality is another essential aspect of Indian culture. Guests are treated with utmost respect and are considered a part of the family. This tradition is deeply ingrained in the culture, and it is not uncommon for strangers to be invited into homes for a meal or celebration. The concept of karma and reincarnation is also a significant influence on Indian customs and traditions.

Modern Influences

With the rise of social media, the spread of Western fashion and music, and the increasing popularity of English as a language, the traditional values and customs of Indian culture are gradually being replaced by more modern and westernized influences. One of the most noticeable changes in Indian culture is the shift towards a more individualistic society. With the increase in education and job opportunities, young Indians are becoming more independent and are breaking away from traditional family structures. This has led to a change in social dynamics, with a focus on personal growth and success. Modernization has also impacted Indian cuisine, with the introduction of fast food chains and processed foods. Traditional dishes are being replaced by more convenient and accessible options, leading to changes in eating habits and health concerns. Another aspect of Indian culture that has been influenced by modernization is religion.

Religion and Spirituality

With over 1.3 billion people, India is home to multiple religions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Islam, and Christianity. Each religion has its unique set of beliefs, rituals, and practices that contribute to the rich tapestry of Indian culture. Hinduism is the predominant religion in India, with around 80% of the population identifying as Hindus. It is a complex and diverse religion that encompasses a wide range of beliefs and practices. The key principles of Hinduism are dharma (duty), karma (action), samsara (reincarnation), and moksha (liberation).Buddhism, which originated in India, is another major religion followed by millions of people in the country.

It emphasizes the importance of achieving enlightenment through meditation and living a moral life. Jainism, one of the oldest religions in the world, promotes non-violence and compassion towards all living beings. Its followers believe in the concept of ahimsa (non-harming) and follow a strict vegetarian diet. Sikhism, founded in the 15th century by Guru Nanak, is a monotheistic religion that emphasizes equality and service to others. Its followers believe in the concept of one God and reject the caste system. Islam is the second-largest religion in India, with around 200 million followers. It was brought to India by Arab traders and flourished under the Mughal Empire.

The religion follows the teachings of Prophet Muhammad and emphasizes the importance of prayer, charity, and submission to God. Christianity was introduced to India by Saint Thomas in the 1st century and has since spread across the country. It is the third-largest religion in India, with over 28 million followers. Christians in India come from a variety of backgrounds and belong to different denominations, including Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox. Religion in India is not just a set of beliefs and practices; it is a way of life. It influences every aspect of society, from festivals and rituals to food and dress.

A Glimpse Into History

It was founded by Chandragupta Maurya and became one of the largest empires in ancient India. The Mauryan rulers were known for their religious tolerance and administrative efficiency. The Gupta Empire, which ruled from 320 CE to 550 CE, is considered the golden age of Indian culture. It was a time of great prosperity, advancements in science and mathematics, and flourishing art and literature. The Mughal Empire, which reigned from the 16th to 19th centuries, had a significant impact on Indian culture. The Mughals brought with them their own customs and traditions, which blended with the existing Indian culture to create a unique fusion.

They also left behind some of the most magnificent architectural marvels, such as the Taj Mahal. Today, India is a diverse mix of various cultures, religions, and traditions, all of which have been shaped by its rich history. From the vibrant festivals to the mouth-watering cuisine, every aspect of Indian culture has a story to tell. By exploring the different dynasties and empires that have ruled India, we can gain a deeper understanding of the country's cultural heritage and its significance in the modern world. As we come to the end of our journey, we hope that you have gained a deeper understanding and appreciation for Indian culture. It is a land of rich heritage, diverse beliefs, and vibrant traditions. Whether you are interested in history , religion , or modern-day influences, India has something to offer for everyone.

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  • Indian Culture and Tradition Essay

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Essay on Indian Culture and Tradition

As students grow older, it is important for them to improve their understanding and hold over the language. This can be done only through consistent reading and writing. Writing an essay is a task that involves cooperation and coordination of both the mind and body. Students must be able to think as well reproduce their thoughts effectively without any confusion. This is important when it comes to writing answers and other important documents as ones go to higher classes. The art of writing effectively and efficiently can be improved by students through writing essays. To help students in this domain, Vedantu provides students with numerous essays. Students can go through the same and learn the correct manner of writing the essay. 

Indian Culture and Tradition

India enjoys a wide variety of cultural and traditional presence amongst the 28 states. Indian origin religions Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism are all based on dharma and karma. Even, India is a blessed holy place which is also a native place for most of the religions. Recently, Muslim and Christianity also practised working amongst the whole India population. The pledge also added the line, ‘India is my country, and I am proud of its rich and varied heritage.’  

Indians are great with cooking; their spices are special for medicinal purposes, so visitors are difficult to adjust to with such heavy spices. The cricketers touring Indian pitches are out due to such food. Frequently, it's been observed that the sportsperson arrived in India either with cooking skills or with a cook. Spices such as cumin, turmeric and cardamom have been used for a long period, to make the dishes more delicious and nutritional. Wheat, rice and pulses help to complete the meal. The majority of the population is a vegetarian one due to their religious aspects.

Talking about the language, India is blessed with a wide range of languages used. Each state has its own language. A major part of the state is unable to speak other languages than the native one. Gujrathi, Malayalam, Marathi, Tamil, Punjabi, Telugu and many more are the representative languages of the respective state. It's easy to recognize the person with the language he spoke. There are 15 regional languages but almost all of them Hindi is the national language of the country. Sanskrit is considered an ancient and respected language. And most of the legendary holy texts are found in Sanskrit only. Along with these, most of the people are aware of plenty of foreign languages. 

Indian clothing is adorable to most of the foreigners. Woman wearing a sari is the pride of a nation. These create a pleasant effect and she looks so beautiful that a majority of foreign country’s female want to be like her. The origin of the sari is from the temple dancers in ancient times. Sari allows them to maintain modesty and freedom of movement. On the other hand, men traditionally wear a dhoti and kurta. Actually, Dhoti is a type of cloth without any further attached work done on it. The great Mahatma Gandhi was very fond of it and in their dignity, most of the people used to wear the same. 

Apart from all the above facts, Indians are legends with arts and studious material. Shah-rukh Khan, Sachin Tendulkar, Dhirubhai Ambani, Amitabh Bachchan Rajnikant, Sundar Pichai are many more faces of India who are shining and representing India on a global scale. There are 20-30 grand festivals celebrated every year in which every festival pops up with history and respect to the respective religion. Even in terms of business, India is not behind. Agriculture is the best occupation of 70% of people in India. It’s our duty to protect the wonderful culture that we have. 

Indian culture is one of the oldest and most unique cultures known across the globe. It has various kinds of traditional values, religion, dance, festivals, music, and cloth, which varies from each state or town even. Indian art, cuisine, religion, Literature, Education, Heritage, Clothes etc has a huge impact on the whole world where everyone admires and follows it. It is known as the land of cultural diversity.  India thrives on a variety of languages, religions, and cultures due to the diverse race of people living in the country. It can be referred to as one of the world’s most culturally enriched countries. When one thinks of India, they picture colors, smiling faces of children running in the streets, bangle vendors, street food, music, religious festivals etc. 

Religion 

India is a land where different religious beliefs are followed. It is the land of many religions such as Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Jainism and Buddhism.  Four Indian religions namely Hinduism, Sikhism, Jainism, and Buddhism were born in India while others are not of Indian origin but have people following those faiths. The people of India keep a solid belief in religion as they believe that following a faith adds meaning and purpose to their lives as it is the way of life. The religions here are not only confined to beliefs but also include ethics, rituals, ceremonies, life philosophies and many more.

Families 

Family plays a vital role in every Indian household. Indians are known to live together as a joint family with their grandparents, uncles and aunts, and the next generation of offspring as well. The house gets passed down from family to family throughout the generations. But with the new modern age, nuclear families are starting to become more common as children go out of town into cities for work or studies and get settled there, also everyone now prefers to have their own private life without any interference. But still, the concept of family get together and family gatherings are not lost as everyone does come together frequently. 

Indian Festivals

India is well known for its traditional festivals all over the world. As it is a secular country with diversity in religions, every month some festival celebration happens. These festivals can be religious, seasonal or are of national importance. Every festival is celebrated uniquely in different ways according to their ritual as each of them has its unique importance. National festivals such as Gandhi Jayanti, Independence Day and Republic Day are celebrated by the people of India across the entire nation. Religious festivals include Diwali, Dussehra, Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Zuha, Christmas, Ganesh Chaturthi, etc. All the seasonal festivals such as Baisakhi, Onam, Pongal, Bihu etc are celebrated to mark the season of harvest during two harvesting seasons, Rabi and Kharif. 

Festivals bring love, bond, cross-cultural exchange and moments of happiness among people.

Indian cuisine is known for a variety of spicy dishes, curry, rice items, sweets etc. Each cuisine includes a wide range of dishes and cooking techniques as it varies from region to region. Each region of India cooks different types of dishes using different ingredients, also food varies from every festival and culture as well. Hindus eat mostly vegetarian food items such as pulao, vegetables, daal, rajma etc whereas people from Islamic cultural backgrounds eat meat, kebabs, haleem etc. In the southernmost part of India, you will find people use a lot of coconut oil for cooking purposes, they eat a lot of rice items such as Dosa, Idli, Appam etc with Coconut chutney, sambhar.

Indian Clothing is considered to be the epitome of modesty and every style is very different in each region and state. But the two pieces of clothing that represent Indian culture are dhoti for men and saree for women. Women adorn themselves with a lot of bangles and Payal that goes around their ankles. Even clothing styles varied from different religions to regions to cultures. Muslim women preferred to wear salwar kameez whereas Christian women preferred gowns. Men mostly stuck to dhoti, lungi, shalwar and kurta.In modern days, people have changed their sense of style, men and women now wear more modern western clothes. Indian clothes are still valued but are now in more trendy and fashionable styles. 

There is no single language that is spoken all over India; however , Hindi is one common language most Indians know and can speak or understand. Every region has a different language or dialect. As per the official language act, Hindi and English are the official languages in India. Other regions or state wise languages include- Gujarati, Marathi, Bangla, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Kashmiri, Punjabi etc. 

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FAQs on Indian Culture and Tradition Essay

1. What are the Popular Spices in India?

Popular spices in India include - Haldi(Turmeric), Chakri Phool(Star Anise), Til (Sesame seeds/ Gingili seeds), Saunf(Fennel Seeds), Kesar(Saffron), Laal Mirch(Red chilli), Khas(Poppy seeds), Jayphal(Nutmeg), Kalonji(Nigella Seeds), Rai/Sarson(Mustard Seeds), Pudina(Mint), Javitri(Mace), Patthar ke Phool​(Kalpasi), Kala Namak/ Sanchal/ Sanchar powder(Black salt/ Himalayan rock salt/ Pink salt), Sonth(Dry ginger powder), Methi dana(Fenugreek seeds), Suva Bhaji/ Sua Saag(Dill)

Kadi Patta(Curry Leaves), Sukha dhania(Coriander seeds), Laung(Cloves), Dalchini(Cinnamon), Sabza(Chia seeds), Chironji(Charoli), Ajwain(Carom seeds, thymol or celery seeds), Elaichi(Cardamom), Kali Mirch(Black Pepper (or White Pepper), Tej Patta(Bay Leaf), Hing(Asafoetida), Anardana(Pomegranate seeds), Amchoor(Dry mango powder)

2. What is the Language Diversity Available in India?

The Indian constitution has 22 officially recognized languages. Apart from it, there are around 60 languages that are recognized as smother tongue with more than one million speakers. India also has around 28 minor languages spoken by over one hundred thousand and one million people. Apart from these, there are numerous dialects spoken by a various sect of people based on their region of origin. 

3. Who are Some of the Most Famous Indian Celebrities Popular Across the Globe? 

India has people excelling in all aspects of art and activities. Few prominent celebrities to garner global fame include - Sudha Murthy, Amitabh Bacchan, Virat Kohli, Saina Nehwal, Sania Mirza, Priyanka Chopra, MS Dhoni, Sachin Tendulkar, Mohanlal, A R Rehman, Mukesh Ambani, Ratan Tata, Narayana Murthy, Kiran Majumdar Shah, Narendra Modi, Amith Shah. all these people have received great accolades in their respective area of expertise globally and getting recognition to India on a global level. 

4. How to Improve Writing and Reading Skills for Producing Good Essays?

Writing an essay becomes a tedious task when the mind and hand do not coordinate. It is important for you to be able to harness your mental ability to think clearly and reproduce the same on paper for a good essay. Always remember the first few thoughts that you get as soon as you see an essay topic is your best and purest thoughts. Ensure to note them down. Later you can develop your essay around these points. Make sure your essay has an introduction, body and the final conclusion. This will make the reader understand the topic clearly along with your ability to convey the any information without any hesitation or mistake. 

5. How many religions are there in India? 

As of now, there are a total of 9 major religions in India with Hinduism being the majority. The remaining religion includes- Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism and the Baha'i Faith. 

6. Which is the oldest language in India? 

Indian classical oldest language is Sanskrit, it belongs to the Indo- Aryan branch of Indo- European languages. 

7. What are the few famous folk dances of India? 

Folk dances are the representation of a particular culture from where they are known to originate. Eight famous classical dances are- Bharatnatyam from Tamil Nadu, Kathakali from Kerala, Kathak from North, West and Central India, Mohiniyattam from Kerala, Kuchipudi from Andhra Pradesh, Odissi from Odisha, Manipuri from Manipur, Sattriya from Assam. 

8. How many languages are spoken in India? 

Other than Hindi and English there are 22 languages recognised by the constitution of India. However, more than 400 languages and dialects in India are still not known as they change after every town. Over the years, about 190 languages have become endangered due to very few surviving speakers. 

9. Describe the Indian Culture. 

Indian culture is very diverse and the people of India are very warm and welcoming. They have a strong sense of family and firmly believe in unity in diversity. In India, there's a saying saying 'Atithi Devo Bhava'  means 'the guest is equivalent to god'. So if one visits India, they will never feel unwanted.

Indian culture: Customs and traditions

Indian culture is built upon centuries of history and heritage, making it one of the oldest in the world.

Taj Mahal

  • Indian population

Languages of India

Religion in india, indian food, indian architecture and art, indian fashion, doing business in india.

  • Holidays and celebrations

Additional resources and reading

Bibliography.

Indian culture is among the world's oldest as the people of India can track their civilization back as far as 4,500 years ago. Many sources describe it as "Sa Prathama Sanskrati Vishvavara" — the first and the supreme culture in the world, according to the All World Gayatri Pariwar (AWGP) organization.

Western societies did not always see the culture of India very favorably, according to Christina De Rossi, an anthropologist at Barnet and Southgate College in London. Early anthropologists once considered culture as an evolutionary process, and "every aspect of human development was seen as driven by evolution," she told Live Science. "In this view, societies outside of Europe or North America, or societies that did not follow the European or Western way of life, were considered primitive and culturally inferior. Essentially this included all the colonized countries and people, such as African countries, India, and the Far East."

However, Indians made significant advances in architecture ( Taj Mahal ), mathematics ( the invention of zero ) and medicine ( Ayurveda ) well in advance of many western civilizations. 

Population of India

Today, India is a very diverse country, with more than 1.3 billion people, according to the CIA World Factbook , making it the second most populous nation in the world after China . Some estimates, such as those by Statista , place the population at very nearly 1.4 billion. The ethnic makeup of India, according to the CIA is 72 percent Indo-Aryan (a coverall term for people of largely Central Asian descent) and 25 percent are Dravidian (being largely of South Asian descent). 

About 35 percent of the population lives in urban areas with an estimated annual rate of a little over 2 percent moving to cities each year. New Delhi is the most populous city in India with a population of 31.18 million people, according to the CIA, second only to Tokyo, Japan for its population size. Mumbai is the second largest city in India with 20.67 million people, followed by Kolkata, Bangalore, Chennai and Hyderabad, all with more than 10 million people.

According to Statista, 26.16 percent of India population was under 14-years-old as of 2020, 67.27 were aged 15 to 64 and 6.57 percent were 65 or older. 

India has 28 states and seven territories, according to the World Health Organization . There is no official language in India, according to a Gujarat High Court ruling in 2010 , though Hindi is the official language of the government and English is considered a subsidiary official language. The Constitution of India officially recognizes 23 official languages. 

Many people living in India write in Devanagari script. In fact, it is a misconception that the majority of people in India speak Hindi. Though many people speak Hindi in India, at least 56 percent of Indian residents speak something other than Hindi, according to the CIA. Bengali,, Marathi, Telugu Tamil, Gujarati and Urdu are some other languages spoken in the country.  

Sanskrit, an ancient Indo-European language, came from Northern India. How the language started has been a point of argument amongst linguists. It shares many similarities with English, French, Farsi and Russian languages. 

New DNA research in 2017 found that an Aryan migration may have introduced the beginnings of Sanskrit. "People have been debating the arrival of the Indo-European languages in India for hundreds of years," said study co-author Martin Richards, an archaeogeneticist at the University of Huddersfield in England. "There's been a very long-running debate about whether the Indo-European languages were brought from migrations from outside, which is what most linguists would accept, or if they evolved indigenously."

India is identified as the birthplace of Hinduism and Buddhism, the third and fourth largest religions in the world. About 84 percent of the population identifies as Hindu, according to the " Handbook of Research on Development and Religion ," edited by Matthew Clarke (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013). 

There are many variations of Hinduism, and four predominant sects — Shaiva, Vaishnava, Shakteya and Smarta.

About 13 percent of Indians are Muslim, making it one of the largest Islamic nations in the world. Christians and Sikhs make up a small percentage of the population, and there are even fewer Buddhists and Jains, according to the "Handbook."

The CIA cited similar figures. According to its World Factbook, around 80 percent of the population is Hindu, 14.2 percent is Muslim, 2.3 percent is Christian, 1.7 percent is Sikh and 2 percent is unspecified.

Indian spices

When the Mughul Empire invaded during the sixteenth century, they left a significant mark on Indian cuisine. "The influence of the Mughal rulers who ruled India is distinctly perceptible in the style of cooking made famous by them. This cuisine is a fusion of Turkish and Persian cuisine, where mostly ground spices are used in the preparation of unique flavor and taste," wrote Krishna Gopal Dubey in " The Indian Cuisine " (PHI Publisher, 2010). Indian cuisine is also influenced by many other countries. It is known for its large assortment of dishes and its liberal use of herbs and spices. Cooking styles vary from region to region.

Wheat, Basmati rice and pulses with chana (Bengal gram) are important staples of the Indian diet. The food is rich with curries and spices, including ginger, coriander, cardamom, turmeric , dried hot peppers, and cinnamon, among others. Chutneys — thick condiments and spreads made from assorted fruits and vegetables such as tamarind and tomatoes and mint, cilantro and other herbs — are used generously in Indian cooking.

Many Hindus are vegetarian, but lamb and chicken are common in main dishes for non-vegetarians. " The Guardian " reports that between 20 percent and 40 percent of India's population is vegetarian. A tradition of vegetarianism appears to go back to the ancient past. "India may have been vegetarian during the Mohenjodaro and Harappan civilizations. We do not know for sure as its script has not been unlocked, but it has been proven that the ancient Dravidian civilization was truly vegetarian," wrote Dubey.

Much of Indian food is eaten with fingers or bread used as utensils. There are a wide array of breads served with meals, including naan, a leavened, oven-baked flatbread; and bhatoora, a fried, fluffy flatbread common in North India and eaten with chickpea curry.

The most well-known example of Indian architecture is the Taj Mahal, built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan to honor his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal. It combines elements from Islamic, Persian, Ottoman Turkish and Indian architectural styles. India also has many ancient temples.

India is well known for its film industry, which is commonly referred to as Bollywood. The country's movie history began in 1896 when the Lumière brothers demonstrated the art of cinema in Mumbai, according to the Golden Globes . Today, the films are known for their elaborate singing and dancing as well as their elaborate action sequences. 

Indian dance, music and theater traditions span back more than 2,000 years, according to Nilima Bhadbhade, author of " Contract Law in India " (Wolters Kluwer, 2016). The major classical dance traditions — Bharata Natyam, Kathak, Odissi, Manipuri, Kuchipudi, Mohiniattam and Kathakali — draw on themes from mythology and literature and have rigid presentation rules.

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A study published in April 2016 in the Journal of Indian Ocean Archaeology found that some Indian horns have many similarities with horns made in Ireland. This research may suggest that the two countries may have exchanged ideas and techniques in making musical instruments during the Bronze Age. 

"Some horns are frankly shockingly similar, to the point where it is like witnessing time travel," study author Billy Ó Foghlú, an archaeologist and doctoral student at the Australian National University in Canberra, told Live Science . "If I were to find one of these modern Indian instruments in an Irish archaeological excavation and I didn't know what I was looking at, I would likely assume it was a Late Bronze Age Irish artifact." 

Women wearing saris in India

Indian clothing is closely identified with the colorful silk saris worn by many of the country's women. The origins of this garment go back to Ancient India and evolved over time to include more expensive fabrics and adornments as they came to the country, according to " The Times of India ". A traditional piece of clothing for men is the dhoti, an unstitched piece of cloth that is tied around the waist and legs. Men also wear a kurta, a loose shirt that is worn about knee-length. 

For special occasions, men wear a sherwani or achkan, which is a long coat with a collar having no lapel. It is buttoned up to the collar and down to the knees. A shorter version of a sherwani is called a Nehru jacket. It is named after Jawaharlal Nehru, India's prime minister from 1947 to 1964. He actually preferred the achkan, according to Tehelka , an Indian newspaper. The Nehru jacket was primarily marketed to Westerners and made famous by The Beatles and The Monkees as well as being worn by a number of James Bond villains.

India's currency is the rupee. Almost 62 percent of the country's GDP comes from the service sector with industry making up 23 percent and agriculture contributing 15.4 percent, according to the CIA World Factbook. Its primary agricultural products are sugar cane, rice, wheat, buffalo milk, milk, potatoes, vegetables, bananas, maize, and mangoes.

Indian business culture places emphasis on strong hierarchies and formalities, according to Santander , with decisions, particularly important ones, being considered for a length of time and ultimately made by those at the top of a company.

Indian holidays and celebrations

Diwali is the largest and most important holiday to India. It is a five-day festival known as the festival of lights because of the lights lit during the celebration to symbolize the inner light that protects them from spiritual darkness. 

Holi, the festival of colors , also called the festival of love, is popular in the spring. The country also celebrates Republic Day (Jan. 26), Independence Day (Aug. 15) and Mahatma Gandhi 's birthday (Oct. 2).

For a deep dive into another element of Indian culture, learn when yoga originated and more about the ancient practice.

For a closer look at an important cultural artifact, you can read all about the golf-ball sized Star of India sapphire that was once stolen in a heist.

  • "Indian Culture" All World Gayatri Pariwar
  • "India " CIA World Factbook
  • "India - Statistics & Facts" Statista
  • " Handbook of Research on Development and Religion ," edited by Matthew Clarke (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013)
  • " The Indian Cuisine " by Krishna Gopal Dubey (PHI Publisher, 2010)
  • "The best countries in the world for vegetarians" " The Guardian "
  • " Contract Law in India " by Nilima Bhadbhade (Wolters Kluwer, 2016)
  • "Ancient Irish musical history found in modern India" Australian National University
  • "The history of sari: The nine yard wonder," " The Times of India "
  • "Nehru’s style statement" Tehelka

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Jonathan is the Editor of All About History magazine, running the day to day operations of the brand. He has a Bachelor's degree in History from the University of Leeds . He has previously worked as Editor of video game magazines games™ and X-ONE and tech magazines iCreate and Apps. He is currently based in Bournemouth, UK.

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assignment on indian culture

Indian Culture and Tradition Essay for Students and Children

500+ words essay on indian culture and tradition.

India has a rich culture and that has become our identity. Be it in religion, art, intellectual achievements, or performing arts, it has made us a colorful, rich, and diverse nation. The Indian culture and tradition essay is a guideline to the vibrant cultures and traditions followed in India. 

Indian Culture And Tradition Essay

India was home to many invasions and thus it only added to the present variety. Today, India stands as a powerful and multi-cultured society as it has absorbed many cultures and moved on. People here have followed various religion , traditions, and customs.

Although people are turning modern today, hold on to the moral values and celebrates the festivals according to customs. So, we are still living and learning epic lessons from Ramayana and Mahabharata. Also, people still throng Gurudwaras, temples, churches, and mosques. 

The culture in India is everything from people’s living, rituals, values, beliefs, habits, care, knowledge, etc. Also, India is considered as the oldest civilization where people still follows their old habits of care and humanity.

Additionally, culture is a way through which we behave with others, how softly we react to different things, our understanding of ethics, values, and beliefs.

People from the old generation pass their beliefs and cultures to the upcoming generation. Thus, every child that behaves well with others has already learned about their culture from grandparents and parents.

Also, here we can see culture in everything like fashion , music , dance , social norms, foods, etc. Thus, India is one big melting pot for having behaviors and beliefs which gave birth to different cultures. 

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Indian Culture and Religion

There are many religions that have found their origin in age-old methods that are five thousand years old. Also, it is considered because Hinduism was originated from Vedas.

Thus, all the Hindu scriptures that are considered holy have been scripted in the Sanskrit language. Also, it is believed that Jainism has ancient origin and existence in the Indus valley. Buddhism is the other religion that was originated in the country through the teachings of Gautam Buddha. 

There are many different eras that have come and gone but no era was very powerful to change the influence of the real culture. So, the culture of younger generations is still connected to the older generations. Also, our ethnic culture always teaches us to respect elders, behave well, care for helpless people, and help needy and poor people.

Additionally, there is a great culture in our country that we should always welcome guest like gods. That is why we have a famous saying like ‘Atithi Devo Bhava’. So, the basic roots in our culture are spiritual practices and humanity. 

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World history

Course: world history   >   unit 2.

  • The rise of empires in India
  • Gupta Dynasty
  • The Maurya and Gupta Empires
  • Empires in India

The history of Hinduism

  • The history of Buddhism
  • Key concepts: Hinduism and Buddhism
  • Indian cultures: focus on Hinduism and Buddhism
  • During the Maurya and Gupta empires, the Indian culture and way of life were deeply influenced by Hinduism.
  • Hinduism reinforced a strict social hierarchy called a caste system that made it nearly impossible for people to move outside of their social station.
  • Emperors during the Gupta empire used Hinduism as a unifying religion and focused on Hinduism as a means for personal salvation.

Background on social systems in India

Popularization of hinduism, what do you think.

  • "Aryan." Ancient History Encyclopedia, 2013. http://www.ancient.eu/Aryan/
  • Bentley, Jerry H. et. al. Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past. New York: McGraw-Hill. 2015, 174-192.
  • "Hinduism." Ancient History Encyclopedia, 2013. http://www.ancient.eu/hinduism/
  • Strayer, Robert W. and Eric W. Nelson. Ways of the World: A Global History. United States: Bedford/St. Martin's Press, 2016, 157-202.

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Indian Culture Essay

Culture of India reflects the beliefs, social structure and religious inclinations of the people of India. India is culturally diverse country with every region with its own distinct culture, reflected in the language, clothes and traditions of the people. People of one state are completely different on cultural grounds, from the people of other state; nevertheless, they follow one rule of law.

Culture also acts as the window of India to the outside world. By looking at the various cultures of India one gets to admire its diversity and also gets to know the religious beliefs of the people and their glorious past. For Indian people, culture is a way of life, it is something that is deeply ingrained in their soul. It is a way of life, a rule book which defines their conduct, society, festivals etc.

Long and Short Essay on Indian Culture in English

India is a country of rich culture where people of more than one religious cultures live together.

Hello students, we have provided some simple and easily worded Essay on Indian Culture.

Let yourself involve in the essay writing competition in your school by choosing anyone of the following Indian Culture essay.

You can also use the essays in various debates and speech giving competitions or during general discussions with family and friends.

Indian Culture Essay 1 (100 words)

India is a famous country all over the world for its culture and tradition. It is the land of various culture and tradition. It is the country of oldest civilizations in the world. The vital components of the Indian culture are good manners, etiquette, civilized communication, rituals, beliefs, values, etc. Even after the life styles of everyone has been modernized, Indian people have not changed their traditions and values. The property of togetherness among people of various cultures and traditions has made India, a unique country. People here live peacefully in India by following their own culture and traditions.

Indian Culture

Indian Culture Essay 2 (150 words)

The culture of India is the oldest culture of the world around 5,000 years. Indian culture is considered as the first and supreme culture of the world. There is a common saying about India that “Unity in Diversity” means India is a diverse country where people of many religions live together peacefully with their own separate cultures. People of various religions differ in their language, food tradition, rituals, etc however they live with unity.

The national language of India is Hindi however there are almost 22 official languages and 400 other languages are spoken daily in India in its various states and territories. According to the history, India has been recognized as the birthplace of the religions like Hinduism and Buddhism. Huge population of the India belongs to the Hindu religion. Other variations of the Hinduism are Shaiva, Shakteya, Vaishnava and Smarta.

Indian Culture Essay 3 (200 words)

The Indian culture has gained lots of popularity all over the world. Indian culture is considered as the oldest and very interesting culture of the world. People living here belong to different religions, traditions, foods, dress, etc. People of different cultures and traditions living here are socially interdependent that’s why there is an existence of strong bond unity in the diversity of religions.

People take birth in different families, castes, sub-castes and religious communities live peacefully and conjointly in a group. Social bonds of the people here are long lasting. Everyone has good feeling about their hierarchy and feeling of honour, respect and rights to each other. People in India are highly devoted to their culture and know the good etiquettes to maintain the social relationships. People of various religions in India have their own culture and tradition. They have own festival and fairs and celebrate according to their own rituals.

People follow variety of food culture like beaten rice, bonda, bread omlette, banana chips, poha, aloo papad, puffed rice, upma, dosa, edli, Chinese, etc. People of other religions have some different food cultures like sevaiyan, biryani, tanduri, mathi, etc.

Indian Culture Essay 4 (250 words)

India is a rich country of cultures where people live in their culture. We respect and honour our Indian culture a lot. The culture is everything like the way of behaving with other, ideas, customs we follow, arts, handicrafts, religions, food habits, fairs, festivals, music and dance are parts of the culture. India is a big country with high population where people of various religions with unique culture live together. Some of the major religions of country are Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, Shikhism, and Zoroastrianism. India is a country where various languages are spoken in different parts of the country. People here are generally used of varieties in costume, social beliefs, customs and food-habits.

People beliefs and follow various customs and traditions according to their own religions. We celebrate our festivals according to our own rituals, keep fast, take bath in holy water of Gange, worship and pray to God, sing ritual songs, dance, eat delicious dinner, wear colourful dresses and other lots of activities. We also celebrate some National festivals by getting together such as Republic Day, Independence Day, Gandhi Jayanti, including various social events. People of different religions celebrate their festivals in various parts of the country with great zeal and enthusiasm without interfering each other.

Some events like birthday of Gautama Buddha (Buddha Purnima), Lord Mahavir birthday (Mahavir Jayanti), Guru Nanak Jayanti (Guruparv), etc is celebrated conjointly by people of many religions. India is a famous country for its various cultural dances like classical (Bharat Natyam, Kathak, Kathakli, Kuchipudi) and folk according to the regions. Punjabis enjoy dancing Bhangra, Gugaratis enjoy doing Garba, Rajasthanis enjoy Ghumar, Assamese enjoy Bihu whereas Maharashtrian enjoy Lavoni.

Indian Culture Essay 5 (300 words)

India is a land of rich culture and heritage where people have humanity, tolerance, unity, secularism, strong social bond and other good qualities. Indians are always famous for their mild and gentle behaviour, in spite of lots of aggressive activities by the people of other religions. Indian people are always praises for their caring and calm nature without any change in their principles and ideals. India is a land of great legends where great people took birth and do lots of social works. They are still inspiring personality to us.

India is a land where Mahatma Gandhi took birth and had given a great culture of Ahimsa. He always told us that does not fight with other instead talk them politely if you really want to get change in something. He told us that every people on this earth are hungry for love, respect, care and honour; if you give them all, definitely they will follow you.

Gandhi Ji always believed in the Ahimsa and really he became successful a day in getting freedom for India from the British rule. He told Indians that show your power of unity and gentleness and then see the change. India is not a country of men and women, castes and religions, etc separately however it is a country of unity where people of all the castes and creeds live together conjointly.

People in India are modern and follow all the changes according to the modern era however they still in touch with their traditional and cultural values. India is a spiritual country where people believe in spiritualism. People here believe in Yoga, meditation and other spiritual activities. Social system of the India is great where people still leaves in big joint family with grandparents, uncle, aunt, chacha, tau, cousins, brothers, sister, etc. So, people here learn about their culture and tradition from birth.

Indian Culture Essay 6 (400 words)

The culture in India is everything such as inherited ideas, way of people’s living, beliefs, rituals, values, habits, care, gentleness, knowledge, etc. India is an oldest civilization of the world where people still follow their old culture of humanity and care. Culture is the way we behave to others, how softly we react to things, our understanding towards values, ethics, principles, and beliefs.

People of old generations pass their cultures and beliefs to their next generations so, every child here behaves well to others as he/she already learned about culture from parents and grandparents. We can see culture here in everything like dance, fashion, artistry, music, behavior, social norms, food, architecture, dressing sense, etc. India is a big melting pot having various beliefs and behaviors which gave birth to different cultures here.

Various religions here have their origin from very old age almost five thousand years. It is considered as Hinduism was originated here from Vedas. All the holy Hindu scriptures have been scripted in the sacred Sanskrit language. It is also believed that Jainism has ancient origin and their existence was in the Indus Valley. Buddhism is another religion which was originated in the country after the teachings of Lord Gautama Buddha. Christianity was brought here later by the French and Britishers who ruled here for almost two centuries long time. In this way various religions were originated in ancient time or brought to this country by any means. However, People of each religion live here peacefully by getting together without affecting their rituals and beliefs.

Variety of eras came and gone but no one was so powerful to change the influence of our real culture. The culture of younger generations is still connected to older generations through umbilical cord. Our ethnic culture always teaches us to behave well, respect elders, care helpless people and always help the needy and poor people. It is our religious culture that we should keep fast, do worship, offer Gange Jal, do Surya Namaskar, touch feet of elder in family, do yoga and meditation on daily basis, give food and water to the hungry and disabled people. There is great culture of our nation that we should always welcome our guests like a God very happily, that’s why India is famous for a common saying like “Atithi Devo Bhava”. The basic roots of our great culture are humanity and spiritual practices.

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Indian culture is a topic of great importance for all the people living in India. In order to aware students about Indian culture, this topic is commonly assigned to the students to write essay on Indian culture. All the above Indian culture essay are written very simply worded to fulfill the student’s need and requirement. You can get other related essays under the same category such as:

Speech on Indian Culture

Unity in Diversity Essay

Essay on Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat

Essay on Indian Flag

India’s Independence Day

Essay on Indian Heritage

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Cultural Uniqueness of India: A Glimpse

Profile image of SMART M O V E S J O U R N A L IJELLH

Culture is the way of life. It refers to the rational improvement evolved out of the material and intellectual guidance acquired in the course of the ages in a nation. The Indian way of life is defined by the thoughts, feelings and philosophies prevalent in the country and its inhabitants. The Indian culture is one of the oldest and matchless. In spite of the numerous diversities, a basic unity is found in it. This culture has maintained uninterrupted stability from Vedic times to the present day in spite of innumerable obstacles. This eternal harmony and constant stability of Indian culture are derived from its profound spiritual bases. Key Words: Culture,

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Jyoti Ranjan Sahu

assignment on indian culture

Dr. Khalid Mohammed

India that is Bharat has been one of the great ancient civilizations. This civilisation originated about 7000 BC and lasted till the end of Ashoka's rule. Like any civilization it evolved certain unique features of its own which, in their entirety and inter-relatedness, became its dominant feature distinct from other civilizations. Indian civilization is distinguished from other civilizations in respect of its continuity and heterogeneity, its accommodating history and its composite character. Land of India has witnessed multiple waves of migrations over tens of millennia from Central Asia, western Asia, western Eurasia, Tibeto-Burman and others. The advent of the Aryans, the Mongoloid groups, the Kushans, the Sakas, the Greeks, the Huns, the Arabs, the Persians, and the Turks migrated to India at different points of time. Migrating people brought with them their cultures, religions, philosophy, wedding rituals, festivals, cuisine, clothings, music, paintings, sculptures and behaviour patterns etc. The groups that migrated to India were able to maintain their unique cultural identities within a larger society and their values and practices were accepted by the wider culture. India witnessed an extensive process of indigenization of these migrant groups. This process created a composite fabric of Indian culture woven with strands and shades of varying textures and colours making it a mosaic of races and cultures. This amalgamation created a Cultural Pluralism in India.

Manoj Kamila

Indian identity and cultural continuity is a prominent topic associated with day-today life of every Indian. India is known in the world for its culture. All were surprised to see this, although India is a populated country in the world and it is difficult to maintain culture in all parts of India. From Vedic period to contemporary period the concept of culture and Indian-ness is within us. Indian Identity can be termed as "Salad Bowl" where all cultures are 'Salad' and Identity is 'Bowl'. Cultural Continuity is defined as the desire for a people to maintain core elements of their culture by adopting to changes over the time. Indian Culture teaches us, not only establishing own Identity but also goes with culture and social groups.

✌️VICTORIA INSTITUTIONS, Aaradhana, DEVERKOVIL 673508 India

VED from VICTORIA INSTITUTIONS

The real inputs about 'Indian' 'culture'! This writing goes behind the hype and glorification and points directly at the realities which are not usually mentioned. It is not a only a book listing the cultural aspects, but more or less explaining the reasons for what is what. And why! Extract from: The SHROUDED SATANISM in FEUDAL LANGUAGES! Amazon Kindle version of this text can be seen on the second link

Abhijit Guha

The cultural process in India is one in which the different communities live side by side, interchanging ideas and goods but not blood. In certain areas the juxtaposed communities are more or less independent of one another, in others they are economically interdependent. The anthropological evidence shows that in each cultural region there are distinct racial strata which can be correlated to social strata and that racial intermixture, though found in all regions, is not very great in depth and extent. Neither is one racial element always the one to be socially supreme, the social position of different race groups changing from region to region.

Dr. Bhagwati Prasad

Sukh Mehak Kaur

Kerala Sociologist

Biswajit Ghosh

The journey of 'Sociology of India' that began with 'colonial Anthropology' or 'colonisation' of the non-Western mind, prepared the ground for our pioneers, some of whom were involved in the nationalist struggle against the British, to rely on a textual view for offering alternative explanations about its society and culture. The effort to revive and energize traditional culture and establish Indian sociology in its own footing quite different from that of Western or colonial categories led to the popularity of Indological approach. But Indological approach itself did not give rise to any uniform and common explanation about Indian society and culture. The religious texts of different ages that Indologists very often studied not only emanated the idea of a 'Hindu India'; they also proposed contrasting and conflicting visions of time, space and object. The whole discourse of Indology is eventually interrupted by theories on post-colonialism and Orientalism. As a corollary, the need for supplementing those with field view was also felt by some of our pioneers. Gradually, Indian sociologists have started critically responding to the challenges of studying Indian society using diverse perspectives, approaches, and paradigms. This paper tries to reflect on the criticality of these issues in the context of demand for contextualising Indian sociology by avoiding any 'methodological fundamentalism'.

Avinash Patra

I have described the framework of the Indian idea from the outlook of an intellectual criticism, because that is the standpoint of the critics who affect to disparage its value. I have shown that Indian culture must be adjudged even from this alien outlook to have been the creation of a wide and noble spirit. Inspired in the heart of its being by a lofty principle, illumined with a striking and uplifting idea of individual manhood and its powers and its possible perfection, aligned to a spacious plan of social architecture, it was enriched not only by a strong philosophic, intellectual and artistic creativeness but by a great and vivifying and fruitful life-power. But this by itself does not give an adequate account of its spirit or its greatness. One might describe Greek or Roman civilization from this outlook and miss little that was of importance; but Indian civilization was not only a great cultural system, but an immense religious effort of the human spirit.

Indian Culture vs Western Culture: The Beauty of Diversity

  • Indian Culture
  • Indian Heritage

Table of contents

The history, traditional attire, family values, food culture, the verdict.

Indian-Culture-vs-Western-Culture

The debate on Indian culture vs Western Culture has been going on for a long time. Everyone contributes their unique insights on the topic. Both these cultures are unique, significant, and beautiful in their distinguished ways. The world, as we know it today, would never have existed had either of these cultures been absent. 

Western Culture derives most of its customs and traditions from the European culture. Indian culture, however, is more diverse. Each state in the country brings with it, its traditions and cultures that are quite different from those of its neighbor. Analyzing the differences between them, it comes as no surprise that the ever-living debate on Indian culture vs Western culture still finds an audience.

Indian-Culture-vs-Western-Culture-History

The term culture refers to the norms, rituals, beliefs, and practices followed by a set of people belonging to a particular region or community. Each nation and continent has its own culture. It is this knowledge of their indigenous culture that distinguishes a particular nation or community from others. The culture of land has a considerable role in influencing the lifestyle of its natives.

Indian History is quite ancient in comparison to the Western history. In fact, Indian history is said to have been begun with the advent of the Indus Valley civilization in 2600 BC. Through the ages, the country had undergone a number of changes, which are aptly reflected in the art, culture, literature and architecture of India .

Western civilization is also quite ancient and is said to have had its roots in the ancient civilization of Greece. Through the ages, the western culture and civilizations have provided a number of significant contributions to world literature and architecture. A glimpse through the western history would undoubtedly reveal several literary and artistic legends such as Michelangelo and William Shakespeare, who have been stalwarts in shaping the culture of the Western world today.

Indian-Culture-vs-Western-Culture-Religions

India is the land of many religion , though majority of the Indian population follow Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, and Jainism are also practiced by a significant number of people. In most Western countries, Christianity is the most followed religion, with Islam and Judaism also being practiced by a considerable number of people.

Indian-Culture-vs-Western-Culture-Festival

Indian culture is one of the most ancient cultures, which is prevalent in the world today. India is home to many festivals that take place all year round. Each state has its own distinct festivals, which mark certain pivotal events. The festivals are all celebrated with much pomp and splendour. Indian festivals include Holi , Onam , Pongal among others.

In Western culture too, people celebrate festivals with much joy. Popular Western festivals include Mardi Gras, Thanksgiving, St. Patrick’s Day, and many more. However, certain festivals are global. Many people across the world celebrate festivals like Christmas ad Eid regardless of their nationality.

Indian-Culture-vs-Western-Culture-Music

Music has always been an inherent part of every culture around the world; each country has its distinct musical style, which suits the land and its people. Western music is entirely different from Indian music in several ways. Indian music is composed mainly of Hindustani Classical Music, Carnatic Music , among others. Traditional musical instruments , such as the Tabla, Veena, and Shehnai, are still used to produce soothing and melodious music in India.

In contrast to this, the Western musical scenario is quite different; it includes mainly jazz, rock, heavy metal, and Hip Hop. The opera is another popular attraction. It is a theatrical art form and is prominent for its musical component. 

Indian-Culture-vs-Western-Culture-Dance

India has a number of the art forms spread across the nation. From the mesmerizing Bharatanatyam and the splendid Mohiniyattam to the lively Garba and graceful Manipuri , the country has beautiful and majestic dance forms that are unique to each state.

In Western countries, one can find many different forms of dance as well! Ballet, Waltz, Salsa, Tango, etc. are some of the most popular dance, performed in various settings.

Indian-Culture-vs-Western-Culture-Art

The themes of Indian art are different and varied in contrast to that of the Western art. Indian art mostly comprised elements of religious significance. The paintings also portrayed scenes inspired from the daily life of the artist. The legends of Indian art include, Abindranath Tagore, Raja Ravi Varma , M. F. Hussain, Jamini Roy , among others.

Western paintings are quite popular for its unique representation of the human figure and the mesmerizing landscapes. Apart from this, many paintings also portray scenes from the Bible. The legends of western art include, Vincent Van Gogh, Michelangelo, Leonardo Da Vinci, Picasso and more.

Indian-Culture-vs-Western-Culture-Literature

Western literature is an apt reflection of the society. Apart from the realistic portrayal of their life, Western literature is quite unique due to its liberal use of a variety of techniques to narrate the story. Chivalry, romance, loyalty, fantasy, and Individualism are some of the key elements of Western literature. The western literary legends include, William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, and George Bernard Shaw.

Indian literature differs from that of the Western literature in both- themes and style of narration. Indian literature mostly focusses on the realistic portrayal of the issues that are prevalent in the society. Obedience, morality, bravery, and human values are some of the most recurring themes in Indian literature. Rabindranath Tagore , Sarojini Naidu, and Premchand are some of the most popular literary legends of India.

Indian-Culture-vs-Western-Culture-Attire

Every state in India has a distinct culture and hence, the dressing styles differ from one region to another. For instance, the attire worn in Rajasthan is widely different from the one worn in the southern state of Kerala . Most of the people in many states prefer the traditional attire that is saree for women and kurta, dothi for men.

People in the Western countries wear clothes which are perceived to be more modern than Indian clothes. But many indigenous communities in the West still take pride in their traditional clothing, which embodies their rich culture and history. But with the advent of globalization, people all over the world are adapting to a universal style of dressing which include jeans, skirts, t-shirts, etc. The younger generation of India is more attracted to the western style of clothing as opposed to traditional wear .

Suggested read –  Diversity Among The Traditional Dress of India (Infographic)

Indian-Culture-vs-Western-Culture-Family-Values

Though most of the modern families in India are mostly nuclear in contemporary times, this was not the case some years ago. Earlier, Indian families were mostly joint families, with every member of the family living under the same roof. The concept of arranged marriages , which is very popular in India, would undoubtedly be unheard of in the western countries.

Indian-Culture-vs-Western-Culture-Food

The Indian staple mostly comprises of rice, and the cuisine includes a wide variety of side dishes. In India, the North Indian Cuisine varies significantly from that of the South Indian Cuisine . The popular dishes of North Indian cuisine include, Parathas, Pani Puri, Chole Bature, among others. While South Indian cuisine includes dishes such as, Dosa, Sambhar, Payasam, and Sadhya.

In western countries, food habits are quite distinct. The western cuisine is a mixture of various food cultures such as the European cuisine, North American cuisine, Mexican Cuisine, and more, Each of these cuisines are quite different from the other. The most popular dishes of the European cuisine include, the Arancini, Pierogi, and Palatschinken, while the Mexican cuisine is popular for its Tacos and Burritos. The people of the Western countries mostly prefer wheat over rice. Hence it forms a major part of their diet.

In almost every aspect of life, these cultures have their specific perspectives and practices, which suit their land and lifestyle. From the music they listen to, their dressing style, and the food they consume, everything highlights the differences which are prevalent between both the cultures.

Each culture is unique and beautiful in its own way. The Indian Culture vs Western Culture debate may never see its end. But it is up to the individual to choose the right elements from each culture, and incorporate that in their life.

Image credits: The copyright for the images used in this article belong to their respective owners. Best known credits are given under the image. For changing the image credit or to get the image removed from Caleidoscope, please contact us.

17 COMMENTS

Really great article. was searching for such detailed article and found this one. Thank you

Thanks Vandana!

Great article! Im sure it will help me in debate…

Thanks Manoj, All the best for your debate 🙂

Well explained…!

Thanks Richita 🙂

Tx It’s definitely helpful

Thanks, All the best 🙂

Great article! i was reading it for my debate i hope it helps thanks!

You cant decide with food, dance and music, but culture must uplift and protect human values, including those animals, rivers, and nature which depend on us. If any society because of its culture uplifts its habitant would be the “best culture ” but the culture which kills women for working, girls for dating, man for eating than it wont be the BEST for the least to say.

Hey Amar, every culture has good and bad elements. Most of the time good cultural practices are manipulated for personal benefits of a person or community. So why take the negatives better be proud of all the good things we have in our culture and make ourself better human beings.

Thank you so much…..very helpful

Thanks Florence, glad you found the info useful 🙂

This is the best article about Indian Culture. Personally i visited various websites about some informative information but when i saw this article my problems solved. Hats off to ur effort for helping you and this is gonna rock in debate. Thank You

Thanks Jashwanth, All the best for your debate 🙂

Thanks you so much that s very knowledgeable topic….

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Investigating Cultural Aspects in Indian Organizations pp 185–197 Cite as

Culture Research in India: Critical Issues and Future Research Opportunities

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This concluding chapter attempts to pull together the various threads and portray three key aspects from the nine empirical chapters presented in this research monograph. As editors of this monograph, we do this by analyzing responses from the authors themselves. We asked the authors of each of the above chapters to furnish pivotal information on three areas: first, to furnish key points regarding Investigating Cultural Aspects in Indian Organizations (from each of their chapter); second, key points regarding strategies to overcome these challenges; and third, key points regarding future opportunities in investigating cultural aspects in Indian organizations. All three areas pertain either to the study/chapter, methods, or practice or also a combination of these. In what follows below we discuss each contribution in turn.

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BBC website. Retrieved February 28, 2011, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-12593755

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Malik, A., Pereira, V. (2015). Culture Research in India: Critical Issues and Future Research Opportunities. In: Pereira, V., Malik, A. (eds) Investigating Cultural Aspects in Indian Organizations. India Studies in Business and Economics. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16098-6_11

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Global Business Culture

How prepared are you for your expat assignment in India?

By Asmita Parashar

Published July 8, 2022

As travel resumes and the world creeps towards a new normal, the big Indian cities have started seeing a resurgence of the expatriate population. With it, has come the vital need for cross-cultural awareness training to sensitise the new and in many cases, ‘naïve’ arrivals into daily living and working practices of a country, described by many as being complicated, difficult, vibrant, chaotic, friendly, colourful.,,,to name a few adjectives.

With India’s fast-growing infrastructure and rapid rise in foreign investment over recent years, opportunities galore have opened up for expatriates in the fields of banking, manufacturing, ITeS, oil and gas, steel and much more.

As one of the world’s largest economies, and helmed as the second most populous country in the world, the prospect of living and working in India can seem daunting, intimidating yet exciting at the same time for many who are seeking to make India a temporary home. No doubt there is a lot of learning to imbibe in India.

Why is cultural awareness training a must for anyone relocating to India?

India is organised chaos and as most visitors to the country have declared, an absolute ‘sensory overload’. Culture shock is inevitable since most expats I have worked with have never experienced anything remotely similar in their previous ‘overseas’ assignments.

For first time visitors, culture shock sets in as they go through and navigate the plethora of sights, sounds, smells and experiences of one of the most fascinating countries on the planet.

Cross-cultural awareness training enables a far smoother transition for expat assignees and their families as they navigate the various aspects of daily living and working life during their stay.

What awaits the expats in India?

Having trained hundreds of expat in India and their families over the last 20 years and helping them transition to a smoother living and working life in India, no one is truly, fully prepared for what awaits them.

What should every expat know?

Living in india.

Considered one of the most important aspects for a smoother transition, it is important for the assignee and their family to adjust to the new, daily living habits of the host country.

Through better understanding of the country’s etiquette, customs, and habits, assignees and partners no doubt experience a more pain-free adjustment and assimilation into the new environment. Practical tips on grocery shopping, travel, restaurants, to getting a haircut, and locating other expat groups etc. may sound like mundane information sharing but is soon regarded as invaluable advice to all first-time expats to India.

Working in India

Whether you are leading an organisation in India or joining an established team, understanding and adapting to key working practices is vital to success. Getting used to and deciphering new communication and negotiating styles, learning to provide feedback differently, delegating and realizing that business success depends largely on relationship-building, is important for any expat assignee seeking success in the Indian corporate environment.

While we will cover various aspects of living and working in India through future blogs, let’s look at some of the initial concerns of those who are on the verge of relocating or who have newly arrived in India:

Traffic, Pollution and General Infrastructure

According to the InterNations Expat Insider 2019 survey, India ranked in the bottom 10 countries for expats when it came to satisfaction with the quality of life.

The biggest shock for most expats is usually the level of traffic and pollution encountered, especially in the big cities. Mumbai, Bangalore, Delhi and Hyderabad are huge expat hubs and although each city varies in terms of size and population, general infrastructure leaves a lot to be desired and takes a lot of getting used.

It takes a while to adjust and many expats either learn to overlook the issues or realise that the rewards soon outweigh the hardships. Many enjoy and soon get used to top notch salaries and perks, are provided beautiful houses or apartments in the best localities as well as 24-hour drivers and maids at their disposal to ensure a comfortable and satisfactory life during their time in India. Beware, cities like Mumbai are not as cheap as one may think and Mumbai has the distinction of being one of the most expensive cities for rental accommodation, eating out and overall standard of living costs.

In the last 10-15 years, world class restaurants, hotels, coffee shops, travel, and shopping experiences have made life easier for those who crave the ‘international experience’ or things they miss from ‘back home’. There’s no doubt that service and hospitality levels found in Indian hotels are second to none and probably at a fraction of the cost of what it would be in the west. There are some expats who don’t have the patience to deal with the crowds and chaos of India and decide to leave before their full term is up. On the other hand, many others possess a more open-minded mindset and show greater flexibility, learn to adjust, and are willing to adapt to their new environment.

Some have taken to India like a fish to water and even decided to make India a permanent home!

No country is 100% safe and it is important to always be on guard wherever you are.

Scams, pickpocketing and small crimes are common like in most cities around the world. When travelling, especially by local taxis and trains, it is always best to be on guard. Women should avoid travelling alone at night on public transport or in unknown areas and it is always advised to get authorised transportation rather than just hailing cabs off the streets. While visiting smaller, rural cities, women need to be on their guard purely for the fact that a foreign face draws much unwanted attention.

Unlike attitudes in small, rural towns, women living in the large Indian cities enjoy much more equality, hold high ranking jobs and many live independent lives on par with their western counterparts.

Newly arrived expats are pleasantly surprised to see their initial fears for safety slowly dissipate as they learn to navigate the city, meet fellow expats and friendly locals.

Language barrier

There are approximately 121 languages spoken in India, with over 19,500 dialects. Although the most spoken language is Hindi, the official business language is English. Therefore, contrary to what most expats believe prior to arrival, language barriers are unlikely to be a problem for most in the large Indian metros where English is spoken and understood to a large degree. Language hurdles will likely be faced when they venture into smaller towns and cities where regional languages and dialects will be more commonly encountered.

It isn’t easy to live in India and ignore extreme poverty. Although a majority of poverty exists in rural areas, people living in the big metros will still encounter it on a regular basis. What is most painful and difficult to accept for many newcomers to the country, is the stark difference between the poor and the extremely rich. For example, it is not unusual to find a beautiful block of high-end luxury apartments worth millions to be overlooking a slum or a 5-star hotel adjacent to ramshackle hutments.

Indian Work Culture

Although flatter and informal structures are becoming increasingly prevalent, Indian companies are generally more hierarchically structured than their western counterparts with clearly defined roles and responsibilities. Decision making is usually autocratic.

There is a big deference for power and this shows in the communication style towards leaders. For example, it takes a while for many expat leaders to convince their subordinates to address them by their first name instead of Sir or Ma’am, which many Indian leaders expect.

Many western expats who are set to lead Indian teams are also surprised to suddenly find themselves as micro-managers, something which they were not used to earlier. Traditionally, a good manager in India has always been seen as a hands-on manager and administrator who ensures the smooth implementation of tasks by his team.

For any expat to lead in India, the importance of being culturally aware of leadership and communication styles is of paramount importance.

Expats who lead Indian teams must understand and decipher indirect communication styles favoured by Indian counterparts, be able to provide constructive feedback, and learn the art of relationship building as well as many other strategies which are tantamount to business success in their new environment.

More importantly, they must understand and accept that a leadership style which may have worked wonderfully in their previous organisations in the west, will have to be totally reanalysed and reworked upon when leading in India.

It takes a while to settle in India and find your feet, but the benefits are hugely rewarding after the initial obstacles and culture shock are overcome. The opportunities are vast, and many come to appreciate its beauty, traditions, rich cultural heritage, and the friendliness of its people.

Anyone aiming to make that professional move to India has to be prepared for what awaits them.

Cultural awareness programs greatly help assignees and their families navigate key hurdles when it comes to daily living and guarantees a smoother transition.

One thing is for sure. Most expats will vouch for the fact that their stint in India has been one of the most exhilarating, enriching and rewarding experiences of their entire career and a great vale add to the CV.

About the author

Asmita Parashar

Asmita Parashar is an experienced India-based Intercultural and Certified Life Skills coach with over 20 years’ experience working with corporates and individuals.

Raised by Indian parents in the UK, she worked for Reuters after graduating from Kingston University, before relocating to Mumbai in 1991.  Once in India, she continued to work as a writer with the Times of India and then as Brand and Training Manager for an international clothing and beauty retailer.

With India’s increasing globalization during the 1990’s, Asmita combined her experience of living and working in both UK and India, to design and deliver intercultural training programs for both Indian and global executives and managers; helping them bridge cultural gaps to garner better understanding during face-to-face and virtual interactions.

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India culture experience Assignment

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Little India Change, is something new, something that is different. For our most recent assignment we were asked to enter into a new and different ethnic area of Long Beach. In this assignment I teamed up with two other class members and went to Little India in hopes of gaining a cultural experience. The two classmates I did this assignment with were Seldom and Salina, because all three of us were not familiar with the area Salina brought her friend who had visited Little India multiple times.

The drive from Long Beach in to Artesia, Little Indian’s home farther than I expected. As we approached the center of Little India the typical chain store turned into Indian markets selling unique goods. Once we parked the smell of spices and incense filled the air. The sound of different tongues could be heard and the feeling of being far from Long Beach overcame me. Walking down the street, the shape of stores and signs appeared interesting to me, the roofs were slightly domed and the classic Persian temple shapes appeared on signs.

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Indian culture was everywhere. Indian culture is far and few in the North East due to the small numbers of Indian- Americans living there. Although I had been exposed to Indian food and religions I had been immersed in the culture as I did on this trip. The first restaurant we walked into was a bakery and pastry shop. The menu at this restaurant was vegetarian, like many other restaurants in this area. In fact our guide was a vegetarian. When we entered the aromas of saffron, ginger, and curry filled my nose.

I immediately wanted to try sweets and walked up to the front while he others sat at a table and looked over the menu. I asked to try the cashier’s favorite sweet which was Gulag Cajun a cheese based desert sweetened with syrup. As soon as I tried it I asked for four more. Although only half the group liked them I thought they were delicious for my first try at sampling the cuisine. From the bakery we preceded to search for a restaurant for dinner. We ended up at “Shook the Great” a nicer Indian restaurant in the area that our guide had never tried so it was a new experience for all of us.

As soon as we were seated, Seldom immediately ordered some garlic nana, a flat Indian bread. When it came time to order drinks I was excited to see that they offered three different mango drinks. From milkshakes to Lass’s, a yogurt based drink originating in the Punjab region. Next came time to order main courses I ordered chicken donation, a typically a chicken marinated in yogurt and spices before being cooked in a donation oven. Salina ordered the Samos a fried pastry filled with lentils, potatoes, and ground meat.

Seldom ordered Shrimp saga, a curried dish made of mustered and greens such as spinach. Although Salina and I enjoyed or meals, Cello’s looked less than appetizing due to its green color and liquid consistency. For desert everyone took advantage of the mango treats on the menu and ordered the mango ice cream. All in all the trip to Little India was a great experience. Seeing such a culturally diverse place so close to where I live. This trip also gave me a look into how people of other ethnicities eat, shop, and live. I will defiantly take a trip back to little India to

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Indian Culture and Heritage 223 Solved Assignment 2021 - 22 | NIOS Secondary Solved Assignment (2021 - 22)

  nios solved assignments ( 2021-22) science and technology 212 solved assignment 2021 - 22 tutor marked assignment max marks: 20.

Note: (i) All questions are compulsory. The Marks allotted for each question are given beside the questions.

(ii) Write your name, enrollment numbers, AI name and subject on the first page of the answer sheet.

1. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.        2 (a) Examine any two similarities of culture and civilization. (See Lesson-1)

Culture and civilization are two concepts that we need to understand to fully understand the similarities between them. Culture is what we teach society, and it is what we believe in, while civilization is how we live as a society.

Similarities between culture and civilization:

a) Both cultures and civilizations require governance (such as laws)

b) Both cultures and civilizations have their own unique identities

c) Both cultures and civilizations have their own strengths and weaknesses

(b) Identify two features that show the importance of spirituality in India culture. (See Lesson-2)

Ans: Over the years, the importance of spirituality in India culture has been on the rise. It has become a significant part of daily life for both people and businesses. Some features that show the importance of spirituality in India culture are:

a) The prevalence of oral traditions which provide immense value to people.

b) Indian gods are not confined to one religion or denomination but are honored by all communities and individuals irrespective of their religious background.

c) Indians traditionally take time out for spiritual practices like meditation, chanting, yoga, and pranayama.

भारतीय संस्कृति और विरासत (223)| Indian Culture and Heritage 223 NIOS Free Solved Assignment 2021 – 22 (Hindi Medium)

2. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.     2 (a) Differentiate between Nagara and Dravida style of temple. (See Lesson-3)

Ans: Dravida style of temple is characterized by its sturdy, squat, and angular construction. It is known for its ornamental sculptures and the profusion of pillars with classical capitals.

Nagara style of temple, on the other hand, is characterized by its broad base and low pillars that are decorated with ornamental sculptures along with figures that act as divinities or guardians.

Diffrence between Nagara and Dravida style of temple:

1.     The Nagara style is found in Northern India, while the Dravida style is prominent in Southern India.

2.     Nagara temples are structured with a long central building flanked by two shorter, parallel buildings. While Dravida temples are built along a rectangular plan with an enclosed courtyard open to the east.

(b) List four fundamental Principles of Islam. (See Lesson 4)

Ans: The four fundamental principles of Islam are:

1. Tawhid (Oneness of Allah)

2. Nubuwwat (Prophethood)

3. Risalat (Messengerhood) and

4. Qadar (Divine Destiny).

The first principle is the absolute Oneness of Allah, the last Prophet taught that Allah has created everything in this universe and everything has its own purpose and meaning.

The second principle is that prophethood is granted to chosen people by God, and they pass on their message to others so they can teach them to be good Muslims and live in accordance with the teachings of Islam.

The third principle of Islam is one that makes sense. It says that every messenger must be sent from God to teach man about religion so people can live in accordance with the teachings.

The fourth principle of Islam Qadar or divine destiny is a concept that says that Allah has a plan for every individual's life and that the future cannot be changed.

3. Answer any one of the following questions in about 40-60 words.        2 (a) Interpret the non-material aspects of culture. (See Lesson-2)

Ans: Indian culture has been a source of inspiration for a lot of writers. It is rich with art, literature, and poetry. Indian culture has also been a source of pride for many Indians because it is the amalgamation of various cultures from all around the world.

The non-material aspects of Indian culture bring about something unique and different to the world as well as to our society. In today’s world, there is a rise in technology that has brought materialism into our lives and given us more opportunities to embrace it. It is essential for people to have an understanding of the non-material aspects that exist in order to preserve what makes them unique and different from other societies.

It is important to understand the influence of globalization on Indian culture. This includes understanding how India differs from Western cultures, as well as how it has been influenced by globalization. For instance, the often-times difficult interactions between Indian and Western cultures have led to many different forms of global citizenry being developed in India, which has formed entirely new values and norms.

(b) Justify the statement that cultural is liable to change but heritage does not. (See Lesson-2)

Ans: Cultural, heritage and social norms change over time due to events that happen. However, understanding and preserving heritage is essential for a society.

Cultural change: Cultural changes happen when people start to adopt new beliefs and behaviors that are different from the traditional cultural values in society. Cultural changes are inevitable but they don't always have to be negative.

Heritage does not change: Heritage refers to the cultural objects that are handed down through generations of human beings. Heritage remains the same regardless of how society evolves or changes over time.

Cultural is liable to change but heritage does not. The statement that cultural is liable to change but heritage does not is true. There are many examples of cultural change in the world, including technology, art, fashion, language etc. Furthermore, the world has changed considerably since the Industrial Revolution and with this there have been many changes in lifestyles and values.

4. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100 to 150 words.                4 (a) 'Sufi and Shakti movement were the two faces of the same coin.' Justify the statement. (See Lesson-4)

Ans: The two movements were the two sides of the same coin. They both represented a form of mysticism and it was not until much later that they were split.

The Sufi movement began in the 8th century and was eventually regarded as a deviant movement by Sunni Islam, which led to the Shakti movement taking place in India. The two movements were united again in the 19th century after a period of separation.

While the Sufi movement preached peace, love and self-discipline, it kept a patriarchal society in place to win people over with their message of kindness.

The Shakti movement was a concept that originated from Hinduism, which saw women as an embodiment of the divine energy and power of creation rather than as inferior to men. The Shakti movement strove for liberation for women, while also advocating violence against those who oppressed them.

(b) Identify any four similar cultural ways of life which were enjoyed by your grandparents and also followed by you. (See Lesson 1)

Ans: Answer any one question

5. Answer any one of the following questions in about 100 to 150 words.            4 (a) The extensive use of iron brought great changes in the material life of the Aryans. Analyse. (See Lesson-3)

Ans: Iron was a significant tool that the Aryan society made use of over a vast period of time. The Aryans were responsible for using iron from around 1200 BC onwards and they used it extensively to make numerous changes in their material life.

The extensive use of iron brought great changes in the material life of the Aryans. Iron-making is one area where the Aryans made a significant contribution as they began to produce iron from approximately 1200 BC onwards. Iron-making became an important part of their cultural practices and cultural identity with cultural significance that led to its widespread use among many groups. It allowed them to create new tools, weapons, and architecture with a greater ease than ever before with a wide range of consequences on social, political, economical and religious aspects as well as on the environment itself.

(b) Ancient India saw the rise of two very important religions like Jainism and Buddhism which left a lasting influence on Indian life and culture. Analyse. (See Lesson-3)

Ans: The rise of these two religions in India has had an impact on the culture of the country. Jainism, for instance, is widely accepted and acknowledged by many Hindus who follow it and Buddhism which started off as a Hindu sect and became a separate religion nowadays.

Jainism: The followers of this religion believe that there is no eternal soul so they live their life without hurting any living creature. They also believe in reincarnation and do not kill animals.

Buddhism: Buddhism started out as a Hindu sect but gradually took its own form to become a separate religion with unique beliefs on what obstacles should be faced in life to be able to attain nirvana.

Jainism and Buddhism have been around for a long time in India. The two religions have left a deep footprint on Indian culture and society. This is because they use quite different methods of teaching, teaching that focus on the essential truth rather than the abstract one. They also help people to reach spiritual fulfillment through their teachings. However, there are some who believe that these religions are overly influenced by Indian culture and that they fail to draw the attention of outside world. The rise of Jainism and Buddhism was largely due to the powerful impact it had on people’s lives which was profoundly different from what other religious beliefs had offered before them.

6. Prepare any one project out of the given below:                 6

(a) During the medieval period two new religious faiths flourished in India: i.e. Sikhism and Zoroastrianism. These religions have influenced our society. Keeping this in mind, make a report containing at least 4 teachings of those religions. List and write about their important religious place or places. (See Lesson-4)

(b) Prepare a list of three social organisations working in your area. Find out the main objectives and functions of each organisation and make a table as below. Which organization will you like to join and why?

Ans: The three social organisations that work in your area are

- The Women's Resource Centre

- The Women's Centre for Change

- The Centre for Equal Opportunities and Fairness.

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    (a) Interpret the non-material aspects of culture. (See Lesson-2) Ans: Indian culture has been a source of inspiration for a lot of writers. It is rich with art, literature, and poetry. Indian culture has also been a source of pride for many Indians because it is the amalgamation of various cultures from all around the world.