Breech presentation: diagnosis and management

Key messages.

  • All women with a breech presentation should be offered an external cephalic version (ECV) from 37 weeks, if there are no contraindications.
  • Elective caesarean section (ELCS) for a singleton breech at term has been shown to reduce perinatal and neonatal mortality rates.
  • Planning for vaginal breech birth requires careful assessment of suitability criteria, contraindications and the ability of the service to provide experienced personnel.

In June 2023, we commenced a project to review and update the Maternity and Neonatal eHandbook guidelines, with a view to targeting completion in 2024. Please be aware that pending this review, some of the current guidelines may be out of date. In the meantime, we recommend that you also refer to more contemporaneous evidence.

Breech and external cephalic version

Breech presentation is when the fetus is lying longitudinally and its buttocks, foot or feet are presenting instead of its head.

Figure 1. Breech presentations

Figure 1: Examples of breech

  • Breech presentation occurs in three to four per cent of term deliveries and is more common in nulliparous women.
  • External cephalic version (ECV) from 37 weeks has been shown to decrease the incidence of breech presentation at term and the subsequent elective caesarean section (ELCS) rate.
  • Vaginal breech birth increases the risk of low Apgar scores and more serious short-term complications, but evidence has not shown an increase in long-term morbidity.
  • Emergency caesarean section (EMCS) is needed in approximately 40 per cent of women planning a vaginal breech birth.
  • 0.5/1000 with ELCS for breech >39 weeks gestation
  • 2.0/1000 planned vaginal breech birth >39/40
  • 1.0/1000 with planned cephalic birth.
  • A reduction in planned vaginal breech birth followed publication of the Term Breech Trial (TBT) in 2001.
  • Acquisition of skills necessary to manage breech presentation (for example, ECV) is important to optimise outcomes.

Clinical suspicion of breech presentation

  • Abdominal palpation: if the presenting part is irregular and not ballotable or if the fetal head is ballotable at the fundus
  • Pelvic examination: head not felt in the pelvis
  • Cord prolapse
  • Very thick meconium after rupture of membranes
  • Fetal heart heard higher in the abdomen

In cases of extended breech, the breech may not be ballotable and the fetal heart may be heard in the same location as expected for a cephalic presentation.

If breech presentation is suspected, an ultrasound examination will confirm diagnosis.

Cord prolapse is an obstetric emergency. Urgent delivery is indicated after confirming gestation and fetal viability.

Diagnosis: preterm ≤36+6 weeks

  • Breech presentation is a normal finding in preterm pregnancy.
  • If diagnosed at the 35-36 week antenatal visit, refer the woman for ultrasound scan to enable assessment prior to ECV.
  • Mode of birth in a breech preterm delivery depends on the clinical circumstances.

Diagnosis: ≥37+0 weeks

  • determine type of breech presentation
  • determine extension/flexion of fetal head
  • locate position of placenta and exclude placenta praevia
  • exclude fetal congenital abnormality
  • calculate amniotic fluid index
  • estimate fetal weight.

Practice points

  • Offer ECV if there are no contraindications.
  • If ECV is declined or unsuccessful, provide counselling on risks and benefits of a planned vaginal birth versus an ELCS.
  • Inform the woman that there are fewer maternal complications with a successful vaginal birth, however the risk to the woman increases significantly if there is a need for an EMCS.
  • Inform the woman that caesarean section increases the risk of complication in future pregnancies, including the risk of a repeat caesarean section and the risk of invasive placentation.
  • If the woman chooses an ELCS, document consent and organise booking for 39 weeks gestation.

Information and decision making

Women with a breech presentation should have the opportunity to make informed decisions about their care and treatment, in partnership with the clinicians providing care.

Planning for birth requires careful assessment for risk of poor outcomes relating to planned vaginal breech birth. If any risk factors are identified, inform the woman that an ELCS is recommended due to increased perinatal risk.

Good communication between clinicians and women is essential. Treatment, care and information provided should:

  • take into account women's individual needs and preferences
  • be supported by evidence-based, written information tailored to the needs of the individual woman
  • be culturally appropriate
  • be accessible to women, their partners, support people and families
  • take into account any specific needs, such as physical or cognitive disabilities or limitations to their ability to understand spoken or written English.

Documentation

The following should be documented in the woman's hospital medical record and (where applicable) in her hand-held medical record:

  • discussion of risks and benefits of vaginal breech birth and ELCS
  • discussion of the woman's questions about planned vaginal breech birth and ELCS
  • discussion of ECV, if applicable
  • consultation, referral and escalation

External cephalic version (ECV)

  • ECV can be offered from 37 weeks gestation
  • The woman must provide written consent prior to the procedure
  • The success rate of ECV is 40-60 per cent
  • Approximately one in 200 ECV attempts will lead to EMCS
  • ECV should only be performed by a suitably trained, experienced clinician
  • continuous electronic fetal monitoring (EFM)
  • capability to perform an EMCS.

Contraindications

Table 1. Contraindications to ECV

Precautions

  • Hypertension
  • Oligohydramnios
  • Nuchal cord

Escalate care to a consultant obstetrician if considering ECV in these circumstances.

  • Perform a CTG prior to the procedure - continue until  RANZCOG criteria  for a normal antenatal CTG are met.
  • 250 microg s/c, 30 minutes prior to the procedure.
  • Administer Anti-D immunoglobulin if the woman is rhesus negative.
  • Do not make more than four attempts at ECV, for a suggested maximum time of ten minutes in total.
  • Undertake CTG monitoring post-procedure until  RANZCOG criteria  for a normal antenatal CTG are met.

Emergency management

Urgent delivery is indicated in the event of the following complications:

  • abnormal CTG
  • vaginal bleeding
  • unexplained pain.

Initiate emergency response as per local guidelines.

Alternatives to ECV

There is a lack of evidence to support the use of moxibustion, acupuncture or postural techniques to achieve a vertex presentation after 35 weeks gestation.

Criteria for a planned vaginal breech birth

  • Documented evidence of counselling regarding mode of birth
  • Documentation of informed consent, including written consent from the woman
  • Estimated fetal weight of 2500-4000g
  • Flexed fetal head
  • Emergency theatre facilities available on site
  • Availability of suitably skilled healthcare professional
  • Frank or complete breech presentation
  • No previous caesarean section.
  • Cord presentation
  • Fetal growth restriction or macrosomia
  • Any presentation other than a frank or complete breech
  • Extension of the fetal head
  • Fetal anomaly incompatible with vaginal delivery
  • Clinically inadequate maternal pelvis
  • Previous caesarean section
  • Inability of the service to provide experienced personnel.

If an ELCS is booked

  • Confirm presentation by ultrasound scan when a woman presents for ELCS.
  • If fetal presentation is cephalic on admission for ELCS, plan ongoing management with the woman.

Intrapartum management

Fetal monitoring.

  • Advise the woman that continuous EFM may lead to improved neonatal outcomes.
  • Where continuous EFM is declined, perform intermittent EFM or intermittent auscultation, with conversion to EFM if an abnormality is detected.
  • A fetal scalp electrode can be applied to the breech.

Position of the woman

  • The optimal maternal position for birth is upright.
  • Lithotomy may be appropriate, depending on the accoucheur's training and experience.

Pain relief

  • Epidural analgesia may increase the risk of intervention with a vaginal breech birth.
  • Epidural analgesia may impact on the woman's ability to push spontaneously in the second stage of labour.

Induction of labour (IOL)

See the  IOL eHandbook page  for more detail.

  • IOL may be offered if clinical circumstances are favourable and the woman wishes to have a vaginal birth.
  • Augmentation (in the absence of an epidural) should be avoided as adequate progress in the absence of augmentation may be the best indicator of feto-pelvic proportions.

The capacity to offer IOL will depend on clinician experience and availability and service capability.

First stage

  • Manage with the same principles as a cephalic presentation.
  • Labour should be expected to progress as for a cephalic presentation.
  • If progress in the first stage is slow, consider a caesarean section.
  • If an epidural is in situ and contractions are less than 4:10, consult with a senior obstetrician.
  • Avoid routine amniotomy to avoid the risk of cord prolapse or cord compression.

Second stage

  • Allow passive descent of the breech to the perineum prior to active pushing.
  • If breech is not visible within one hour of passive descent, a caesarean section is normally recommended.
  • Active second stage should be ½ hour for a multigravida and one hour for a primipara.
  • All midwives and obstetricians should be familiar with the techniques and manoeuvres required to assist a vaginal breech birth.
  • Ensure a consultant obstetrician is present for birth.
  • Ensure a senior paediatric clinician is present for birth.

VIDEO:  Maternity Training International - Vaginal Breech Birth

  • Encouragement of maternal pushing (if at all) should not begin until the presenting part is visible.
  • A hands-off approach is recommended.
  • Significant cord compression is common once buttocks have passed the perineum.
  • Timely intervention is recommended if there is slow progress once the umbilicus has delivered.
  • Allow spontaneous birth of the trunk and limbs by maternal effort as breech extraction can cause extension of the arms and head.
  • Grasp the fetus around the bony pelvic girdle, not soft tissue, to avoid trauma.
  • Assist birth if there is a delay of more than five minutes from delivery of the buttocks to the head, or of more than three minutes from the umbilicus to the head.
  • Signs that delivery should be expedited also include lack of tone or colour or sign of poor fetal condition.
  • Ensure fetal back remains in the anterior position.
  • Routine episiotomy not recommended.
  • Lovset's manoeuvre for extended arms.
  • Reverse Lovset's manoeuvre may be used to reduce nuchal arms.
  • Supra-pubic pressure may aide flexion of the fetal head.
  • Maricueau-Smellie-Veit manoeuvre or forceps may be used to deliver the after coming head.

Undiagnosed breech in labour

  • This occurs in approximately 25 per cent of breech presentations.
  • Management depends on the stage of labour when presenting.
  • Assessment is required around increased complications, informed consent and suitability of skilled expertise.
  • Do not routinely offer caesarean section to women in active second stage.
  • If there is no senior obstetrician skilled in breech delivery, an EMCS is the preferred option.
  • If time permits, a detailed ultrasound scan to estimate position of fetal neck and legs and estimated fetal weight should be made and the woman counselled.

Entrapment of the fetal head

This is an extreme emergency

This complication is often due to poor selection for vaginal breech birth.

  • A vaginal examination (VE) should be performed to ensure that the cervix is fully dilated.
  • If a lip of cervix is still evident try to push the cervix over the fetal head.
  • If the fetal head has entered the pelvis, perform the Mauriceau-Smellie-Veit manoeuvre combined with suprapubic pressure from a second attendant in a direction that maintains flexion and descent of the fetal head.
  • Rotate fetal body to a lateral position and apply suprapubic pressure to flex the fetal head; if unsuccessful consider alternative manoeuvres.
  • Reassess cervical dilatation; if not fully dilated consider Duhrssen incision at 2, 10 and 6 o'clock.
  • A caesarean section may be performed if the baby is still alive.

Neonatal management

  • Paediatric review.
  • Routine observations as per your local guidelines, recorded on a track and trigger chart.
  • Observe for signs of jaundice.
  • Observe for signs of tissue or nerve damage.
  • Hip ultrasound scan to be performed at 6-12 weeks post birth to monitor for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). See Neonatal eHandbook -  Developmental dysplasia of the hip .

More information

Audit and performance improvement.

All maternity services should have processes in place for:

  • auditing clinical practice and outcomes
  • providing feedback to clinicians on audit results
  • addressing risks, if identified
  • implementing change, if indicated.

Potential auditable standards are:

  • number of women with a breech presentation offered ECV
  • success rate of ECV
  • ECV complications
  • rate of planned vaginal breech birth
  • breech birth outcomes for vaginal and caesarean birth.

For more information or assistance with auditing, please contact us via  [email protected]

  • Bue and Lauszus 2016, Moxibustion did not have an effect in a randomised clinical trial for version of breech position.  Danish Medical Journal  63(2), A599
  • Coulon et.al. 2014,  Version of breech fetuses by moxibustion with acupuncture.  Obstetrics and Gynecology  124(1), 32-39. DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000000303
  • Coyle ME, Smith CA, Peat B 2012, Cephalic version by moxibustion for breech presentation.  Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews  2012, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD003928. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003928.pub3
  • Evans J 2012,  Essentially MIDIRS Understanding Physiological Breech Birth  Volume 3. Number 2. February 2012
  • Hoffmann J, Thomassen K, Stumpp P, Grothoff M, Engel C, Kahn T, et al. 2016, New MRI Criteria for Successful Vaginal Breech Delivery in Primiparae.  PLoS ONE  11(8): e0161028. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0161028
  • Hofmeyr GJ, Kulier R 2012, Cephalic version by postural management for breech presentation.  Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews  2012, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD000051. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000051.pub2
  • New South Wales Department of Health 2013,  Maternity: Management of Breech Presentation  HNELHD CG 13_01, NSW Government; 2013
  • Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2017, External Cephalic Version and Reducing the Incidence of Term Breech Presentation.  Green-top Guideline No. 20a . London: RCOG; 2017
  • The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) 2016,  Management of breech presentation at term , July 2016 C-Obs-11:
  • The Royal Women's Hospital 2015,  Management of Breech - Clinical Guideline
  • Women's and Newborn Health Service, King Edward Memorial Hospital 2015, Complications of Pregnancy Breech Presentation

Abbreviations

Get in touch, version history.

First published:  November 2018 Due for review:  November 2021

Uncontrolled when downloaded

Related links.

External Cephalic Version and Reducing the Incidence of Term Breech Presentation: Green-top Guideline No. 20a

  • PMID: 28299867
  • DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.14466

Umbilical Cord Prolapse (Green-top Guideline No. 50)

  • Access the PDF version of the guideline

Cord prolapse has been defined as the descent of the umbilical cord through the cervix alongside (occult) or past the presenting part (overt) in the presence of ruptured membranes. Cord presentation is the presence of the umbilical cord between the fetal presenting part and the cervix, with or without membrane rupture. The overall incidence of cord prolapse ranges from 0.1% to 0.6%. In the case of breech presentation, the incidence is slightly higher than 1%. It has been reported that male fetuses appear to be predisposed to cord prolapse. The incidence is influenced by population characteristics and is higher where there is a large percentage of multiple gestations.

Cases of cord prolapse appear consistently in perinatal mortality enquiries, and one large study found a perinatal mortality rate of 91/1000. Prematurity and congenital malformations account for the majority of adverse outcomes associated with cord prolapse in hospital settings but birth asphyxia is also associated with cord prolapse. Perinatal death has been described with normally formed term babies, particularly with planned home birth. Delay in transfer to hospital appears to be an important contributing factor.

Asphyxia may also result in hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy and cerebral palsy. The principal causes of asphyxia in this context are thought to be cord compression and umbilical arterial vasospasm preventing venous and arterial blood flow to and from the fetus. There is a paucity of long-term follow-up data of babies born alive after cord prolapse in both hospital and community settings.

The management of prolapsed cord is one of the labour ward guidelines mandated by the Clinical Negligence Scheme for Trusts (CNST), Welsh Pool Risk and Clinical Negligence and Other Risks Scheme (CNORIS) maternity standards in England, Wales and Scotland, respectively.

The purpose of this guideline is to describe modalities to prevent, diagnose and manage cord prolapse. It addresses those pregnant women at high risk of or with a diagnosis of cord prolapse in hospital and community settings. Pregnancies complicated by fetal malformation or with cord prolapse before 22 completed weeks of gestation ate not covered by this guideline. All later gestations are included.

COVID disclaimer

This guideline was developed as part of the regular programme of Green-top Guidelines, as outlined in our document  Developing a Green-top Guideline: Guidance for developers (PDF) , and prior to the emergence of COVID-19.

Version history

This is the second edition of this guideline.

Please note that the RCOG Guidelines Committee regularly assesses the need to update the information provided in this publication. Further information on this review is available on request.

Developer declaration of interests

Available on request.

This page was last reviewed 05 November 2014.

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Management of Breech Presentation: Green-top Guideline No. 20b.

BJOG : an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology , 16 Mar 2017 , 124(7): e151-e177 https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.14465   PMID: 28299904 

Abstract 

Full text links .

Read article at publisher's site: https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.14465

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Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (7):CD000166- 2015

Outcomes of children at 2 years after planned cesarean birth versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: the International Randomized Term Breech Trial.

Whyte H, Hannah ME, Saigal S, Hannah WJ, Hewson S, Amankwah K, Cheng M, Gafni A, Guselle P, Helewa M, Hodnett ED, Hutton E, Kung R, McKay D, Ross S, Willan A ; Term Breech Trial Collaborative Group

Am J Obstet Gynecol, (3):864-871 2004

MED: 15467555

The effect of the Term Breech Trial on medical intervention behaviour and neonatal outcome in The Netherlands: an analysis of 35,453 term breech infants.

Rietberg CC , Elferink-Stinkens PM , Visser GH

BJOG, (2):205-209 2005

MED: 15663585

Five years to the term breech trial: the rise and fall of a randomized controlled trial.

Glezerman M

Am J Obstet Gynecol, (1):20-25 2006

MED: 16389006

Citations & impact 

Impact metrics, citations of article over time, alternative metrics.

Altmetric item for https://www.altmetric.com/details/17495507

Article citations

Applying the modified ten-group robson classification in a spanish tertiary hospital..

Gutiérrez-Martínez S , Fernández-Martínez MN , Adánez-García JM , Fernández-Fernández C , Pérez-Prieto B , García-Gallego A , Gómez-Salgado J , Medina-Díaz M , Fernández-García D

J Clin Med , 13(1):252, 31 Dec 2023

Cited by: 0 articles | PMID: 38202259 | PMCID: PMC10780088

OptiBreech collaborative care versus standard care for women with a breech-presenting fetus at term: A pilot parallel group randomised trial to evaluate the feasibility of a randomised trial nested within a cohort.

Walker S , Spillane E , Stringer K , Trepte L , Davies SM , Bresson J , Sandall J , Shennan A , OptiBreech Collaborative

PLoS One , 18(11):e0294139, 15 Nov 2023

Cited by: 0 articles | PMID: 37967120 | PMCID: PMC10650999

Evaluating the effectiveness of lateral postural management for breech presentation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (BRLT study).

Shinmura H , Matsushima T , Watanabe A , Shi H , Nagashima A , Takizawa A , Yamada M , Harigane E , Tsunoda Y , Kurashina R , Ichikawa G , Suzuki S

Trials , 24(1):360, 27 May 2023

Cited by: 0 articles | PMID: 37245031 | PMCID: PMC10225078

Incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injuries following breech compared to cephalic vaginal births.

Leborne P , de Tayrac R , Zemmache Z , Serrand C , Fabbro-Peray P , Allegre L , Vintejoux E

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth , 23(1):317, 04 May 2023

Cited by: 0 articles | PMID: 37142944 | PMCID: PMC10161470

Early childhood parent-reported speech problems in small and large for gestational age term-born and preterm-born infants: a cohort study.

Jee G , Kotecha SJ , Chakraborty M , Kotecha S , Odd D

BMJ Open , 13(4):e065587, 27 Apr 2023

Cited by: 1 article | PMID: 37105706 | PMCID: PMC10151836

Similar Articles 

To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation.

Vaginal delivery of breech presentation.

Kotaska A , Menticoglou S , Gagnon R , MATERNAL FETAL MEDICINE COMMITTEE

J Obstet Gynaecol Can , 31(6):557-566, 01 Jun 2009

Cited by: 35 articles | PMID: 19646324

External Cephalic Version and Reducing the Incidence of Term Breech Presentation: Green-top Guideline No. 20a.

BJOG , 124(7):e178-e192, 16 Mar 2017

Cited by: 17 articles | PMID: 28299867

Survey of external cephalic version services in the East of England region: comparison of services in 2007 and 2012.

Koh LM , Mumdzjans A , Pradhan A

J Obstet Gynaecol , 34(8):659-661, 09 Jun 2014

Cited by: 0 articles | PMID: 24911163

Vaginal breech birth: can we move beyond the Term Breech Trial?

J Midwifery Womens Health , 59(3):320-327, 24 Apr 2014

Cited by: 5 articles | PMID: 24762034

Moxibustion for breech presentation.

Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery , 6(4):176-179, 01 Nov 2000

Cited by: 11 articles | PMID: 11858300

Europe PMC is part of the ELIXIR infrastructure

IMAGES

  1. The Management of Breech presentation

    breech presentation green top guideline

  2. Breech Presentation and Turning a Breech Baby in the Womb (External

    breech presentation green top guideline

  3. Management of Breech Presentation, RCOG Guideline

    breech presentation green top guideline

  4. Breech Presentation

    breech presentation green top guideline

  5. Breech Presentation

    breech presentation green top guideline

  6. Breech Presentations Educational Poster

    breech presentation green top guideline

VIDEO

  1. Brass Breech Sonic Green Nerf Stampede

  2. Corporate Presentation #green Screen Image Slideshow

  3. case presentation on breech presentation (BSC nursing and GNM)

  4. RCOG VTE Prophylaxis and acute management

COMMENTS

  1. Management of Breech Presentation (Green-top Guideline No. 20b)

    Information regarding external cephalic version is the topic of the separate Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Green-top Guideline No. 20a, External Cephalic Version and Reducing the Incidence of Term Breech Presentation. Breech presentation occurs in 3-4% of term deliveries and is more common in preterm deliveries and ...

  2. Management of Breech Presentation

    It does not include antenatal or postnatal care. External cephalic version (ECV) is the topic of the separate Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) Green-top Guideline No. 20a: External Cephalic Version and Reducing the Incidence of Term Breech Presentation. 1. 2 Introduction and background epidemiology

  3. Green-top Guidelines

    External Cephalic Version and Reducing the Incidence of Term Breech Presentation (Green-top Guideline No. 20a) This guideline summarises the evidence regarding the routine use of external cephalic version (ECV) for breech presentation. Published 16/03/2017. Management of Breech Presentation (Green-top Guideline No. 20b)

  4. Management of Breech Presentation

    Management of Breech Presentation Green-top Guideline No. 20b March 2017 Please cite this paper as: Impey LWM, Murphy DJ, Griffiths M, Penna LK on behalf of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Management of Breech Presentation. BJOG 2017; 124: e151-e177.

  5. PDF NATIONAL CLINICAL GUIDELINE The Management of Breech Presentation

    Clinical Practice Guideline The Management of Breech Presentation ... Breech presentation occurs frequently among preterm babies in utero, however, most babies will spontaneously revert to a cephalic presentation. As a result ... RCOG Green Top No 20). In 2006, however, both ACOG and RCOG opted to recommend that a trial of labour is ...

  6. PDF The Management of Breech presentation

    the topic of a separate RCOG Green-top Guideline No. 20a: ECV and Reducing the Incidence of Breech Presentation. 2. Background The incidence of breech presentation decreases from about 20% at 28 weeks of gestation to 3-4% at term, as most babies turn spontaneously to the cephalic presentation. This appears to be an active process whereby a

  7. Management of Breech Presentation: Green-top Guideline No. 20b

    Management of Breech Presentation: Green-top Guideline No. 20b. Management of Breech Presentation: Green-top Guideline No. 20b BJOG. 2017 Jun;124(7):e151-e177. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.14465. Epub 2017 Mar 16. PMID: 28299904 DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.14465 No abstract available ...

  8. No. 384-Management of Breech Presentation at Term

    SOGC CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINE No. 384, August 2019 (Replaces No. 226, June 2009) This guideline is the fourth in a 4-part series on labour and delivery. No. 384-Management of Breech Presentation at Term ... Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Green Top Guideline 20b: Management of Breech Presentation. The content

  9. External Cephalic Version and Reducing the Incidence of Term Breech

    the Incidence of Term Breech Presentation Green-top Guideline No. 20a March 2017 Please cite this paper as: Impey LWM, Murphy DJ, Griffiths M, Penna LK on behalf of the Royal College of Obstetricians ... This guideline was developed using standard methodology for developing RCOG Green-top Guidelines. The Cochrane Library (including the ...

  10. Breech presentation management: A critical review of leading clinical

    Management of breech presentation (Green-top Guideline No. 20b) [2017] Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists (RCOG) United Kingdom: RCOG classification of evidence level and grading of recommendations scheme: 1: 12/14 (85.71) 76: Y: No. 384 — management of breech presentation at term [2019]

  11. External Cephalic Version and Reducing the Incidence of Term Breech

    Summary: This guideline presents the best evidence concerning methods to prevent noncephalic presentation at delivery and therefore caesarean section and its sequalae.The mode and technique of delivering a breech presentation is summarised in the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Green-top Guideline No. 20b Management of Breech Presentation.

  12. No. 384-Management of Breech Presentation at Term

    This guideline was peer reviewed by international clinicians with expertise in vaginal breech birth and compared with the 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Green Top Guideline 20b: Management of Breech Presentation. The content and recommendations were drafted and agreed upon by the principal authors.

  13. Breech presentation: diagnosis and management

    Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 2017, External Cephalic Version and Reducing the Incidence of Term Breech Presentation. Green-top Guideline No. 20a. London: RCOG; 2017; The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) 2016, Management of breech presentation at term, July 2016 C-Obs-11:

  14. External Cephalic Version and Reducing the Incidence of Term Breech

    External Cephalic Version and Reducing the Incidence of Term Breech Presentation: Green-top Guideline No. 20a. External Cephalic Version and Reducing the Incidence of Term Breech Presentation: Green-top Guideline No. 20a BJOG. 2017 Jun;124(7):e178-e192. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.14466. ...

  15. Management of Breech Presentation

    Preparing publication <div id="alert_box" class="popup_container full noScript"> <div class="popup_content"> <div class="flex-container"> <div class="text"> <span ...

  16. Management of Breech Presentation: Green-top Guideline No. 20b

    Europe PMC is an archive of life sciences journal literature. Management of Breech Presentation: Green-top Guideline No. 20b. BJOG : an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 16 Mar 2017, 124(7): e151-e177 DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.14465 PMID: 28299904 10.1111/1471-0528.14465 PMID: 28299904

  17. Breech baby at the end of pregnancy

    This information has been developed by the RCOG Patient Information Committee. It is based on the RCOG Green-top Clinical Guidelines No. 20a External Cephalic Version and Reducing Incidence of Term Breech Presentation and No. 20b Management of Breech Presentation. The guidelines contain a full list of the sources of evidence we have used.

  18. [PDF] Management of Breech Presentation

    Semantic Scholar extracted view of "Management of Breech Presentation" by Green-top Guideline No. Skip to search form Skip to main content Skip to account ... {No2017ManagementOB, title={Management of Breech Presentation}, author={Green-top Guideline No}, journal={BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics \& Gynaecology}, year={2017}, volume ...

  19. Umbilical Cord Prolapse (Green-top Guideline No. 50)

    Cord presentation is the presence of the umbilical cord between the fetal presenting part and the cervix, with or without membrane rupture. The overall incidence of cord prolapse ranges from 0.1% to 0.6%. In the case of breech presentation, the incidence is slightly higher than 1%. It has been reported that male fetuses appear to be predisposed ...

  20. Green top guidelines

    External Cephalic Version and Reducing the Incidence of Term Breech Presentation, Green-top Guideline No. 20a (March 2017) - Impey LWM, Murphy DJ, Griffiths M, Penna LK on behalf of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. External Cephalic Version and Reducing the Incidence of Term Breech Presentation. BJOG 2017; 124: e178-e192.

  21. External Cephalic Version and Reducing the Incidence of Term Breech

    The evidence concerning mode and technique of the delivery of breech presentation is summarised in the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) Green-top Guideline No. 20b Management of Breech Presentation. 1. 2 Introduction and background epidemiology

  22. Management of Breech Presentation: Green-top Guideline No. 20b

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  23. Management of Breech Presentation: Green-Top Guideline No. 20b

    Management of Breech Presentation. Green-top Guideline No. 20b March 2017. Please cite this paper as: Impey LWM, Murphy DJ, Griffiths M, Penna LK on behalf of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Management of Breech Presentation. BJOG 2017; DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.14465. DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.14465