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  • v.3; 2022 Jun

Medical Mycology dissertation topics require prioritisation among Postgraduate Microbiology trainees of Makerere University, Uganda

Beatrice achan.

a Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

Gerald Mboowa

b Infectious Diseases Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

Richard Kwizera

David p. kateete.

c Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

Henry Kajumbula

Felix bongomin.

d Department of Medical Microbiology & Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Gulu University, Gulu, Uganda

e Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

Associated Data

  • • Only 5 (3.3%) of the postgraduate dissertations were on medical mycology.
  • • Cryptococcal meningitis (40%, n = 2) was the most researched topic.
  • • The most common method for studying fungal diseases was culture (60%, n = 3).
  • • There is limited research on medical mycology at Makerere University, Uganda.

As elsewhere worldwide, there is an increasing burden of fungal diseases in Uganda. However, expertise in medical mycology (the study of fungal diseases of medical importance) among clinicians and laboratory personnel remains low.

This study sought to determine the proportion of dissertations on medical mycology among postgraduate medical microbiology trainees at the College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Uganda.

We retrospectively reviewed the topics of dissertations submitted to the Departments of Medical Microbiology and Immunology & Molecular Biology from 2011 through 2018. The proportion of dissertation topics on medical mycology was analysed using descriptive statistics.

A total of 152 dissertations were retrieved. Of these, only 5 (3.3%) were on medical mycology compared to bacteriology (50.7%, n = 77), virology (27.6%, n = 42), parasitology (14.5%, n = 22) and immunology (4.0%, n = 6). Of the 5 dissertations on fungal diseases, the distribution was as follows: cryptococcal meningitis (40%, n = 2), Candidiasis (20%, n = 1), superficial mycoses (20%, n = 1) and other invasive fungal diseases (20%, n = 1). The most common method that was used for studying the fungal diseases was culture 60%, n = 3.

There is limited research on medical mycology among the postgraduate medical microbiology trainees of Makerere University, Uganda.

Fungal diseases have emerged as important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide ( Bongomin et al., 2017 ; Brown et al., 2012 ; Netea & Brown, 2012 ). The rising incidence of fungal diseases is due to increases in the number of susceptible individuals including people living with human immunodeficiency virus HIV/AIDS (PLWH), cancer patients, immunosuppressive therapy, organ transplant recipients and patients requiring critical care with prolonged hospitalisation ( Richardson & Lass-Flörl, 2008 ; Vallabhaneni et al., 2016 ).

More than 90% of fungal-related deaths result from species that belong to one of the four genera, Cryptococcus, Candida, Aspergillus and Pneumocystis ( Bongomin et al., 2017 ; Brown et al., 2012 ; Netea & Brown, 2012 ). The species of these fungal genera cause a spectrum of diseases which ranges from superficial conditions of the outer keratinised layer of the skin to invasive fungal disease (IFD) of the bloodstream and/or deep seated organs such as the brain, heart, liver, lungs, spleen and the kidneys ( Kullberg & Arendrup, 2015 ). Of particular concern is the high mortality rate associated with invasive fungal infections, which often exceeds 50% despite antifungal therapy ( Brown et al., 2012 ; Ellis et al., 2019 ).

In Uganda, HIV/AIDS has underscored cryptococcal meningitis as a leading IFD ( Parkes-Ratanshi et al., 2015 ) where the 6-month survival remains ≤ 40 % in routine antiretroviral and antifungal therapy ( Longley et al., 2008 ). One way to contribute to the fight against the burden of fungal diseases is to build capacity through training and research ( Brown et al., 2014 ). Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine the proportion of research on fungal diseases among postgraduate medical microbiology trainees at the College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Uganda.

Materials and Methods

Study design and setting.

This descriptive retrospective study was conducted between March and October of 2020, inclusive. From 2011 through 2018, lists of postgraduate trainee dissertations of Master of Medicine in Microbiology (M.Med.) and Master of Immunology and Clinical Microbiology (MICM) of Makerere University were used. The study site was the Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University.

Data management and analysis

Dissertation data including year, research topic, organism/category of organism and study method used were entered in Microsoft Office Excel 2016 (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA, USA). The data were analysed using ggplot2 package in R statistical computing software and analysed for the number of theses, frequency of medical microbiology sub-disciplines of Bacteriology, Virology, Parasitology, Mycology, and Immunology. The research methods used in the theses were further classified as microscopy, culture, molecular biology, antigen detection and serology.

Ethical issues

The authors confirm that the ethical policies of the journal, as noted on the journal's author guidelines page, have been adhered to. No human participants were involved in the study. Secondary data were largely available from Makerere University archive and so no ethical clearance was needed. The student names were anonymised, and only study numbers were used for identification.

A total of 152 dissertations that were submitted to the Departments of MICM from 2011 to 2018 were reviewed ( Fig. 1 ). The least number of dissertations was recorded in 2014 at 5.9% (9/152) while 2018 saw the highest number of submitted dissertations at 21.1% (32/152) ( Fig.1 ) over the eight years. The most popular dissertation sub-discipline was Bacteriology at 50.7% (77/152) while Mycology was the least researched at only 3.3% (5/152) ( Fig.2 ). The rest of the sub-disciplines included: Virology 27.6 % (42/152), Parasitology at 14.5% (22/152), and Immunology of 4.0% (6/152) ( Fig.2 ). The most common methods used for research in the dissertations were immunology 49.3% (75/152), culture 23% (35/152) and molecular biology 22.3% (34/152) while bioinformatics and microscopy were the least used at 4% (6/152) and 1.3% (2/152), respectively ( Fig. 3 ).

Fig. 1

The number of theses submitted from 2011-2018.

In 2014 and 2018, respectively, the lowest and highest numbers of dissertations were submitted ( Fig. 1 ).

Fig. 2

Frequency of sub-disciplines of medical microbiology in the dissertations submitted.

Bacteriology dissertations were the most popular among postgraduate microbiology trainees ( Fig. 2 ).

Fig. 3

Methods for data collection in the dissertations.

Immunological techniques were the most used methods in the dissertations ( Fig. 3 ).

Of the 5 mycology dissertations, 2 of them were on cryptococcal meningitis (40%, n = 2), while the 3 remaining dissertations were each written on superficial mycoses (20%, n = 1), candidiasis (20%, n = 1) and other invasive fungal diseases (20%, n = 1) ( Table 1 ).

Fungal diseases studied by postgraduate trainees who wrote mycology dissertations over the years from 2012 to 2019 and the methods used. The fungal diseases studied, and the methods used are shown.

The study of cryptococcal meningitis by immunological techniques was the most popular dissertation (Table 1).

All the methods used for mycology dissertations were phenotype based; culture (n = 3) and immunology (n = 2) ( Table 1 ).

Fungal diseases continue to pose a significant threat to humans, plants and animals globally ( Bongomin et al., 2017 ; Brown et al., 2012 ; Netea & Brown, 2012 ). In the present study to determine the proportion of research topics on fungal diseases among postgraduate microbiology trainees in a leading University in a developing country setting of Uganda, only 5/152 (3.3%) dissertations were on fungal diseases. This means that medical mycology was the least researched topic. There are several possible reasons why medical mycology was the least studied field among postgraduate students. As in other developing countries, in Uganda, there is limited epidemiological data and a lack of techniques for rapid diagnosis and management of fungal diseases, and there are few antifungal drugs. Additionally, fungal diseases are prohibitively underfunded with < 3 % of the infectious disease budget from major funding bodies such as the US NIH and UK's Wellcome Trust ( Brown et al., 2014 ). Limited funding could be due to the likely fact that few researchers at Makerere University may be competing for mycology-related funding calls. Collectively, these factors could have affected the choice of dissertation topics among the postgraduate medical microbiology trainees.

Additionally, we analysed the frequency of the types of methods that were used for research in the theses ( Fig. 3 ). Most methods that were used were molecular biology techniques. However, molecular techniques are not yet well developed for diagnosis of fungal diseases. Significantly, in resource limited settings, like Uganda, where molecular tests are prohibitively costly, the predominant method for diagnosis of fungal diseases is phenotype-based. In all the medical mycology theses, only phenotypic methods were used. Therefore, it is possible that the available laboratory methods could have affected the limited choice of the students to conduct research in fungal diseases.

This inference is supported by the fact that the most researched fungal disease was cryptococcal meningitis (40 %) which is being studied in many clinical trials in Uganda. The Makerere University, College of Health Sciences through the Infectious Diseases Institute is an internationally recognised research hub for cryptococcal meningitis. However, the index of clinical suspicion for fungal infections is still very low (31%) in Uganda ( Kwizera et al., 2020 ). Supervision, training and research capacity for other fungal diseases is improving. Therefore, the other fungal diseases which were studied included Candidiasis , dermatophytosis and dimorphic fungal mycoses, of which each constituted 20%.

The challenges in medical mycology may be exacerbated by the wide gap in the number of experts in medical mycology and the burden of fungal diseases in Uganda. Additionally, Uganda does not have any national guidelines on fungal diseases, with the exception of cryptococcal disease guidelines. There are also no diagnostic tests for fungal diseases that are paid for by the Ministry of Health, unlike bacterial diseases like TB. Significantly, in the teaching of Mycology in the undergraduate curricula of biomedical sciences and Medicine at Makerere University, there is only limited information on fungal disease and little grant money is spent in this area for research. Therefore, there is a need to establish a stand-alone medical mycology postgraduate program in Uganda.

Following, the Department of Medical Microbiology, Makerere University (Uganda) has developed a program of Master of Science in Medical Mycology (MMY) (in collaboration with Manchester University, UK) that is aimed at producing graduates who are adept at the principles, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and control of fungal diseases. Graduates of medical and veterinary programs (such as MBChB, B.D. S, B.S. N, B. PHARM, B.RAD., B.V. M) will be eligible for admission to the program. The students will do course work and dissertation writing to meet the requirements for graduation. A recent study from Gulu University in Uganda showed that using freely available online materials on medical mycology can also enhance teaching and learning of medical mycology ( Bongomin et al., 2020 ). Therefore, teaching will be both in person and online. Upon successful completion, graduates of the program can work in hospitals, universities, research institutions and industry to contribute to the fight against fungal diseases.

We also believe that offering scholarships when acquired, for a period of at least 5 years from commencement of the program, will provide strong support to the much-needed program. The findings of our study are in agreement with the report by ( Brown et al., 2014 ) on improving mycology expertise in developing countries through training and funding.

We report a requirement to start a dedicated MSc Medical Mycology program to meet the research needs of postgraduate medical microbiology trainees of Makerere University of Uganda.

Conflict of interest

All authors have no conflict of interest.

Authors' contributions

B.A designed the study, collected the data, coordinated the research, performed data analysis wrote and reviewed the manuscript. GM analysed the data and reviewed the manuscript. RK reviewed the manuscript. DPK provided administrative support in archiving the data and reviewed the manuscript. HK provided leadership support and reviewed the manuscript. FB designed the study, coordinated the research, performed data analysis, and reviewed the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding information

This work received no specific grant from any funding agency.

Acknowledgement

We are grateful to Geraldine Nalwadda who retrieved the list of the dissertations submitted to the departments. BA is a NURTURE (NIH/International Fogarty Centre) Fellow under the NIH grant D43TW010132, has EDCTP fellowship (TMA2018CDF-2371) and is MAKRIF faculty grant holder. RK is a PhD fellow supported through the DELTAS Africa Initiative grant # DEL-15-011 to THRiVE-2, from Wellcome Trust grant # 107742/Z/15/Z and the UK government. The funders had no roles in the study design, data collection, analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.

Supplementary material associated with this article can be found, in the online version, at doi: 10.1016/j.ijregi.2022.04.010 .

Appendix. Supplementary materials

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Medical Mycology Trainee Seminar Series

Questions? Email [email protected] or other organizing committee members.

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The Medical Mycology Trainee Seminar Series provides students, postdocs, clinical trainees, and new faculty (<1 year in position) with a platform to present their work virtually to our global community. Our goal is to highlight the scientifically broad and international medical mycology community by hosting speakers with wide scientific interests and global diversity. Seminars are the second Thursday of the month.

Our next seminar is:

Our next seminar is Thursday, July 13th at 4 pm British Summer Time (3 pm GMT, 4 pm West Africa Standard Time, 5 pm Central European Summer Time, 11 am US East Coast Daylight Time, 8 am US West Coast Daylight Time, 11 pm in China).

Our next speakers are:

Iana Kalinina, PhD. "Goliath cells and their role in pathogenicity." University of Exeter, UK.

Jessie MacAlpine, PhD. “Exploring the mechanism and therapeutic potential of a bacterial-fungal interaction." University of Toronto, Canada.

Interested in presenting?   Submit abstract  ( < 250 words) .

Would you like to receive announcements for upcoming talks?  Sign up for our  mailing list . The global representation of our mailing list will decide how frequently we host talks at the alternative time.

Watch our previous seminars on  The MRC Centre for Medical Mycology’s Youtube channel

Organizing committee:

medical mycology research topics

Liz Ballou, PhD

is a cell biologist and geneticist studying morphological transitions in human fungal pathogens. Her research interests are wide-ranging, but she is particularly interested in how fungi integrate environmental signals to undergo morphological changes underpinning pathogenesis. She earned her PhD at Duke University with Andy Alspaugh studying  Cryptococcus neoformans  morphogenesis and postdoc’d with the Aberdeen Fungal Group at the University of Aberdeen, where she studied  Candida albicans  host-pathogen interactions. In 2017 she moved to the University of Birmingham, UK, where she launcher her lab studying  Cryptococcus  titan cells and  Rhizopus  morphogenesis. Throughout her career, Liz has benefited from the guidance and advice of numerous mentors and seeks to pay this forward to the next generation of scientists.

medical mycology research topics

Jessica Brown, PhD

was trained in yeast genetics at MIT, then branched out into medical mycology during her postdoctoral years in Hiten Madhani’s lab at the University of California, San Francisco. She started her own group at the University of Utah, USA, in 2014. Her lab is interested in many different aspects of fungal biology but currently focuses on two main areas: 1) how  Cryptococcus neoformans  escapes from the lungs and spreads to the brain and 2) identifying and exploiting drug-drug interactions to improve antifungal treatments.

medical mycology research topics

Changbin Chen, PhD

is a Professor and Principal Investigator at the Institute Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China. The research in his group focuses on mechanisms responsible for pathogenic fungal infection and host immune recognition, with specific interests in the following areas: 1) Gene regulatory mechanisms related to fungal commensal-pathogen transition; 2) Host immune responses against fungal infections; and 3) The impact of the mycobiota on human health.

medical mycology research topics

Rachael Dangarembizi, PhD

is a neuroscientist in the Department of Human Biology and the Neuroscience Institute at the University of Cape Town whose main research interest is neuroimmune responses to fungal infections. She earned her PhD with the Brain Function Research Group at the University of the Witwatersrand, in South Africa with a study focus on neuroinflammation in fungal infections. Her current research focusses on the neuroinflammatory response to  Cryptococcus neoformans  infection in the brain and she uses both rodent and human brain tissue models to study the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis at the cellular and molecular level.

medical mycology research topics

Herbert Itabangi, PhD

is a medical mycologist and fungal immunologist researching cross-kingdom interactions and how human fungal pathogens survive and cause disease in the human host. Herbert joined Busitema University in September, 2020 as a senior lecturer in Microbiology and Immunology. He is an alumnus of the University of Birmingham (UoB) (PhD, (2019)), University of Aberdeen (MRes, (2015)) and Mbarara University of Science and Technology (BSc, (2008),  MSc, (2013)), having completed his PhD under the supervision of Drs Elizabeth Ballou, Kirstin Voelz (UoB), Gordon Brown (University of Exeter) and Jason King, Sheffield University, UK. His doctoral work investigated how bacterial endosymbionts modulate innate immune responses during infection by  Rhizopus Microsporus . Herbert returned to Uganda shortly after and is now doing a Career Development Postdoctoral Research fellowship funded by European Developing Countries Clinical Trails patternership (EDCTP) based at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in collaboration with Busitema University, University of Birmingham (UK) and Sheffield University (UK). This fellowship focuses on metabolic and molecular ecological evolution of opportunistic pulmonary fungal co-infections. Herbert is mentoring a number of undergraduate and postgraduate students; and hopes to establish a fungal research group within the department of microbiology and immunology that has the capacity to mentor biomedical scientists in the line of medical mycology, fungal immunology and infection biology.

Herbert’s research interests focus understanding how fungi transition from environmental saprophytes to opportunistic pathogens focusing on how they interact and adapt to their environments, and the consequences these modifications have on disease progression. This includes, but is not limited to, understanding how fungi adapt to specific environmental signals (i.e. CO2, pH, temperature, pesticides, metabolites etc.), but also how fungi interact with other opportunistic pathogens and members of the microbiome and how this influences pathogenicity and antifungal susceptibility responses. Herbert is also passionate about infection modeling using several  in-vitro  and  in-vivo  infection tools, including, but not limited to, mice, zebrafish,  Galleria mellonella , and amoebae ( Dictyostelium discoideum ).  [email protected]  or   [email protected]

medical mycology research topics

Liliane Mukaremera, PhD

is a Lecturer in the MRC Centre for Medical Mycology, Department of Biosciences, University of Exeter, England, UK.  Email:   [email protected]

Born and raised in Rwanda (East Africa), I have faced first-hand the problems related to infectious diseases. For this reason, I have chosen to dedicate my career to address infectious diseases associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity in Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa has some of the highest burdens of life-threatening fungal infections in the world, and fungal diseases such as cryptococcosis kill more people than tuberculosis. My current research interests focus on understanding morphological factors, specifically cell wall modifications, which influence  Cryptococcus neoformans  pathogenesis and disease outcome. The cell wall is a unique structure to fungi (absent in mammals), and therefore is a great target choice for the development of new antifungal drugs. At present, there are no drug treatments for cryptococcal infection that target the cell wall. We are currently working on characterizing  Cryptococcus neoformans  cell wall as a potential antifungal drug target. My career goal is to establish a translational research program performing impactful science aimed at improving human health in Sub-Saharan Africa.

medical mycology research topics

Rita Oladele, MD, PhD

is a senior lecturer at the University of Lagos, Nigeria. She is the President of the Medical Mycology Society of Nigeria (MMSN) and holds a specialist qualification in clinical microbiology. She obtained her PhD in 2018 under the supervision of Dr. David Denning at the University of Manchester, UK. Her research interests are on pulmonary fungal infections and has served as the principal investigator for multisite surveys related to fungal pathogens, including a multi-center cryptococcal antigen screening survey and a multicenter survey on histoplasmosis.

medical mycology research topics

Marcio Rodrigues, PhD

is a senior investigator at the Carlos Chagas Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Brasil. His group has been working on fungal physiology and cell biology in recent years. Their primary interest is fungal secretion, particularly extracellular vesicles. They are also interested in discussing international collaboration mechanisms, reasonable policies for publication charges, raising funds for neglected diseases, and using scientific metrics as a tool for decision making.

medical mycology research topics

Rebecca Shapiro, PhD

is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology at the University of Guelph. Her research focuses on fungal genetics and functional genomics of Candida pathogens. Her lab is developing and applying new functional genomic tools to address important questions in Candida pathogenesis and antifungal drug resistance.

medical mycology research topics

Linqi Wang, PhD

is a professor at the State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. His group is exploring the mechanisms for environmental adaptation strategies in human fungal pathogens and how they are applied to achieving fungal pathogenicity and drug resistance. His research may open new avenues for antifungal therapy development and suggest better ways to control fungal diseases.

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How americans view weight-loss drugs and their potential impact on obesity in the u.s., many view these drugs as good options for people with weight-related health conditions; doubts about national impact on obesity.

medical mycology research topics

Pew Research Center conducted this study to understand Americans’ views of drugs being used for weight loss. For this analysis, we surveyed 10,133 U.S. adults from Feb. 7 to 11, 2024.

Everyone who took part in the survey is a member of the Center’s American Trends Panel (ATP), an online survey panel that is recruited through national, random sampling of residential addresses. This way, nearly all U.S. adults have a chance of selection. The survey is weighted to be representative of the U.S. adult population by gender, race, ethnicity, partisan affiliation, education and other categories. Read more about the ATP’s methodology .

Here are the questions used for this report , along with responses, and its methodology .

A new Pew Research Center survey examines Americans’ attitudes about a new class of drugs being used for weight loss, including Ozempic and Wegovy.

In this report, we cover views of:

  • The use of weight-loss drugs
  • The impact of weight-loss drugs on obesity in America
  • The factors that impact a person’s weight, including the role of willpower

Views of weight-loss drugs

About three-quarters of Americans say they have heard a lot or a little about Ozempic, Wegovy and other similar drugs that are being used for weight loss. Among those familiar with these drugs, 53% think they are good options to lose weight for people with obesity or a weight-related health condition, while just 19% think they are not good options and 28% say they’re not sure.

Bar chart showing that many Americans view Ozempic, Wegovy and other similar drugs as good options for weight loss for people with obesity; far fewer support their use by people without a weight-related health condition.

By contrast, just 12% of those familiar with these drugs say they are good options for people who want to lose weight but do not have a weight-related health condition. A far larger share (62%) say these drugs are not good options for people without a weight-related health condition, while 26% aren’t sure.

Demand for Ozempic and Wegovy has led to supply shortages , raising concerns about off-label use and impacting people who rely on these drugs to manage their health conditions. 2

Impact of weight-loss drugs on obesity in America

Some experts have heralded drugs like Ozempic as a breakthrough for treating obesity in America and a catalyst for changing the way excess weight conditions are understood. 3

Chart shows Modest expectations for the impact Ozempic and other similar drugs will have on obesity in America

For now, the public has modest expectations for the impact drugs like Ozempic and Wegovy will have on obesity in the United States. Only 16% of those familiar with these drugs think they will do a great deal or quite a bit to reduce obesity, while 35% think they will do some and 33% expect they will do not much or nothing at all to reduce obesity in the U.S. (15% say they’re not sure).

About four-in-ten U.S. adults have obesity, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , and there’s been a significant increase in the share of Americans with this disease over the past two decades. Obesity is linked to a number of conditions that can lead to premature death, including heart disease and type 2 diabetes. It also accounts for billions of dollars in health care costs each year.

By and large, views on the use and impact of weight-loss drugs are similar across most major demographic groups. For instance, comparable shares of women (56%) and men (51%) who are familiar with these drugs think they are good options for weight loss for people with obesity or a weight-related health condition. And men and women are also similar in their expectations about the impact these drugs will have on obesity in the U.S. Go to the Appendix for more details .

One modest difference in views: Those who have heard a lot about these drugs are somewhat more optimistic than those who have heard a little to say they will reduce obesity in the U.S. a great deal or quite a bit (27% vs. 11%).

How Americans think about weight and weight loss

The boom in popularity of Ozempic and other similar drugs has become part of a broader societal discusion about weight and the factors that shape it, including behavior, environment and genetics .

Bar chart showing that 65% of Americans say willpower alone is not enough for most people to lose weight and keep it off. This view is widely held across most demographic groups

On balance, Americans do not believe willpower alone is enough to lose weight and keep it off. About two-thirds (65%) say willpower alone is usually not enough for people who are trying to lose weight and keep it off. By contrast, 34% think that willpower is usually enough for most people who are trying to lose weight.

The view that losing weight is not only a matter of willpower is widely held across most demographic groups. There are, however, some differences by demographic characteristics:

  • Gender: Women are more likely than men to say willpower alone is not enough for most people (71% vs. 59%).
  • Race and ethnicity: Large majorities of White and Black adults say willpower alone is not enough to lose weight and keep it off (68% and 70%, respectively). Smaller majorities of Hispanic and English-speaking Asian adults say the same (55% and 54%).
  • Age: Larger shares of older than younger adults believe that willpower alone is not enough for most people to lose weight (though this remains the predominant view across all age groups).

Bar chart showing Americans’ views on weight loss and willpower by respondents’ description of their own weight. Majorities of adults across all perceived weight types say losing weight and keeping it off involves more than just willpower alone.

The survey also includes a question on respondents’ self-reported perception of their own weight that is used in CDC surveys .

Notably, majorities of adults across all perceived weight types say losing weight and keeping it off involves more than just willpower alone. Among those who describe their weight as very or slightly overweight, 71% say willpower alone is usually not enough for people who are trying to lose weight. Majorities of those who describe their weight as about right (56%) or very or slightly underweight (61%) also take this view, though by somewhat smaller margins.

What factors impact a person’s weight?

Asked about the impact of different factors on a person’s weight, Americans rank diet at the top of the list: A large majority says diet affects a person’s weight a great deal (57%) or quite a bit (29%). Exercise habits rank second, with 43% saying this impacts a person’s weight a great deal and 36% saying it has quite a bit of impact.

Bar chart showing that a large majority of Americans say diet affects a person’s weight a great deal (57%) or quite a bit (29%). Exercise habits rank second, with 43% saying this impacts a person’s weight a great deal and 36% saying it has quite a bit of impact. Three-quarters say stress and anxiety has at least quite a bit of impact on a person’s weight. A majority says genetics influence weight at least quite a bit, while about half say the same about grocery store access.

Three-quarters of Americans say stress and anxiety has at least quite a bit of impact on a person’s weight, including 35% who say it has a great deal of impact.

A majority also says genetics influence a person’s weight at least quite a bit, though the share saying genetics has a great deal of impact (22%) is 13 percentage points lower than the share who say the same about stress and anxiety.

Roughly half say access to grocery stores affects a person’s weight at least quite a bit, including 20% who say it has a great deal of impact. Access to grocery stores and things like safe, convenient places to exercise are among what public health experts describe as the social determinants of health .

Americans across different traits and demographic characteristics hold largely similar views on what affects a person’s weight. There are some modest differences in views by self-described weight: Adults who say they are very or slightly overweight are 11 points more likely to say stress and anxiety affects a person’s weight a great deal than those who describe their weight as about right (40% vs. 29%).

Men and women largely agree on the factors influencing weight. For instance, diet tops the list for both men and women.

Dot plot showing that women are more likely than men to say stress and anxiety affects a person’s weight a great deal.

Still, women are more likely than men to emphasize the role of stress and anxiety.   

Women are about as likely to say stress and anxiety affects a person’s weight a great deal as to say exercise has this level of impact (42% vs. 40%). Black and Hispanic women are especially likely to emphasize the impact of stress and anxiety on weight.

By contrast, men place more emphasis on exercise habits than stress and anxiety when it comes to factors that affect a person’s weight a great deal (46% vs. 29%).

  • Blum, Dani. “ What Is Ozempic and Why Is It Getting So Much Attention? ” Nov. 13, 2023. The New York Times. ↩
  • Rapaport, Lisa. “ Ozempic Shortage: How a Weight Loss Fad Has Slashed Access to a Diabetes Drug. ” Dec. 4, 2023. Everyday Health ↩
  • Couzin-Frankel, Jennifer. “ Obesity meets its match. ” Dec. 14, 2023. Science. ↩

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Closing the research divide: 10 research topics amplifying the voices of women in science.

medical mycology research topics

The progress towards gender equality remains ambivalent, based on current statistics. The Global Gender Gap Report 2023 recognizes advances in education and a slight improvement in the health and survival dimension. Yet, as of 2018, only 33% of researchers worldwide were women, according to UNESCO research .

This International Women's Day, we want to amplify the voices of all women and champion their rights as the foundation of a sustainable future. To ignite this change, we have chosen 10 Research Topics that advance research to find solutions for issues such as breast cancer, substance use, and gynecological oncology diagnosis.

1 | Women in Cytokines and Soluble Mediators in Immunity

A Research Topic highlighting the diversity of investigation performed across the entire breadth of cytokines and soluble mediators in immunity research.

All articles have at least one female author, thus promoting women scientists' work across all fields of cytokines and soluble mediators in immunity.

88,800 views | 62 articles

2 | Women in Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Prevention

This Research Topic elevates the work of women scientists across all fields of basic and clinical cardiovascular medicine. It comprises the entire breadth of cardiovascular epidemiology and prevention research.

53,600 views | 35 articles

3 | Women in Breast Cancer: 2022, volume II

This Research Topic advances scientific and clinical knowledge of breast cancers. In particular, it addresses novel findings and innovative hypotheses in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of early breast lesions and malignancies.

52,100 views | 18 articles

4| Women and Substance Use: Specific Needs and Experiences of Use, Others’ Use and Transitions Towards Recovery

Research that focuses specifically on women's experiences of alcohol and drug use is still in its infancy. Studies explain women's substance use in relation to men's use, often as a minority population or demonstrating differences that are subsequently not explored.

This Research Topic adds to the evidence of the specific issues facing women substance users –beyond substance-related stigma – into the pressures and barriers faced by them. Moreover, it creates a dialogue on the topic to expand knowledge, challenge prejudices, and learn to support women in a way that is specific to their needs.

51,300 views | 17 articles

5 | Women in Gynecological Oncology: 2021

This Research Topic explores recent developments in gynecological oncology diagnosis, treatment, and the latest research. It also helps us understand an accurate research methodology and get up to date with biomarkers in gynecological oncology.

50,700 views | 34 articles

6 | Women in Microbiology

While around half of all biology graduates in the United States are women, only 18% of full professors and other faculty members are female –a discrepancy replicated globally.

In the post-COVID-19 era, gender equality is more important than ever, as the pandemic has disproportionately impacted females. Against the backdrop of these statistics, this Research Topic showcases the work of female researchers in microbiology.

42,200 views | 24 articles

7 | Women in Gastrointestinal Sciences: 2021

Part of the Women in Physiology: 2021 series, this Research Topic highlights the works achieved and led by women in gastrointestinal sciences.

Submissions cover a wide range of gastrointestinal sciences, including infectious diseases, etiology, development, and progression of cancers and metastases within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, digestion, and related diseases.

39,500 views | 10 articles

8 | Women in Science: Aging and Public Health 2022

The demographics of aging –whether differences in life expectancy or shouldering the burden of care for our aging populations— reflect that aging is a women's issue.

In the aging and public health field, many women are tackling important questions about risk factors for successful aging and intervention strategies for promoting health and quality of life. For this reason, we have included a Research Topic that highlights female contributions to public health, specifically in the field of aging.

37,400 views | 23 articles

9 | Women in Science - Translational Medicine 2021

This Research Topic spotlights women's contributions to translational medicine, including research inspired by women, achievements of female researchers, and studies led by women exploring technology and health.

27,900 views | 14 articles

10 | Women’s coping in various spheres in society: Challenges and opportunities

This Research Topic studies women's behaviors in various cultural contexts to demonstrate how women encounter, experience, and cope with stressful and challenging environments and events in different social spheres.

The goal is to reveal how these experiences lead to both women's distress and growth, resilience, and leadership.

28,300 views | 20 articles

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Current Topics in Medical Mycology

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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA

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Part of the book series: Current Topics in Medical Mycology (CT MYCOLOGY, volume 2)

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Table of contents (11 chapters)

Front matter, ultrastructural correlates of antimycotic treatment.

  • Marcel Borgers

Soluble Polysaccharides of Cryptococcus neoformans

  • Robert Cherniak

Tinea Imbricata

  • Roderick J. Hay

Adhesion and Association Mechanisms of Candida albicans

  • Michael J. Kennedy

Peptide Transport in Candida albicans: Implications for the Development of Antifungal Agents

  • Fred Naider, Jeffrey M. Becker

Epidemiology of Coccidioidomycosis

  • Demosthenes Pappagianis

Immune Response to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Human and Animal Hosts

  • Angela M. Restrepo

Morphogenetic Transformation of Fungi

  • Maxwell G. Shepherd

Epidemiology of Nosocomial Fungal Infections

  • William A. Rutala, David J. Weber

Melanins and Their Importance in Pathogenic Fungi

  • Michael H. Wheeler, Alois A. Bell

Cytochrome P450 of Fungi: Primary Target for Azole Antifungal Agents

  • Yuzo Yoshida

Back Matter

  • medical mycology
  • microbiology
  • pathogenesis

Michael R. McGinnis

Book Title : Current Topics in Medical Mycology

Editors : Michael R. McGinnis

Series Title : Current Topics in Medical Mycology

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-3730-3

Publisher : Springer New York, NY

eBook Packages : Springer Book Archive

Copyright Information : Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1988

Softcover ISBN : 978-1-4612-8323-2 Published: 11 November 2011

eBook ISBN : 978-1-4612-3730-3 Published: 06 December 2012

Series ISSN : 0177-4204

Edition Number : 1

Number of Pages : X, 432

Topics : Medical Microbiology , Allergology , Immunology , Internal Medicine

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FDA Helps to Deliver Meaningful Advances for Rare Disease Patients

FDA’s Rare Disease Day Meeting on March 1 Dedicated to Patients and Health Care Professionals

Monochromatic blue themed image that depicts a doctor's hand touching a patients shoulders, test tubes and a group of hands piled up on one another.

By: Robert M. Califf, M.D., Commissioner of Food and Drugs and Sandy Retzky, D.O., J.D., M.P.H., Director, Office of Orphan Products Development 

Advancing the understanding of rare diseases and innovative tools to support product development is part of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s commitment to promoting safe, effective treatment options for patients. We strive to help include patient experience into development programs for all medical products, and we consider the patient experience, as appropriate, when we review the safety and efficacy of these products.

Robert M. Califf, M.D.

The FDA’s Rare Disease Day , a virtual public meeting on March 1, is dedicated to patients, those who care for them and health care professionals. This year, our goal is to empower patients and health care professionals with knowledge about clinical trials for rare disease product development and stimulate more awareness and interest in decentralized clinical trials (DCTs), which allow some or all trial-related activities to take place at trial participants’ homes or other convenient locations, instead of requiring them to visit research sites. Additionally, we will explore ways to engage and collaborate with patients and patient advocates to support medical product development for rare diseases. 

During the meeting, panelists will discuss the legal framework for approving the design and conduct of studies and evaluating medical products, what the FDA does during review, DCTs, FDA initiatives to advance product development for rare diseases, and ways for patients to further engage with the FDA. Given the complexity of most diseases and the frequency with which proposed new therapies have unexpected toxicities or fail to improve outcomes, it’s vital that we work together to design the best trials, conduct them with necessary attention to quality, and take into account the express needs of patients and those who care for them.

Empowering Patients and Health Care Professionals with Knowledge about Clinical Research

The nature of rare diseases, along with the small patient populations, means a limited number of people are available to participate in clinical trials, so there is a particular need to make good use of existing sources of data and information as new therapies are developed. Enhancing the understanding of the natural history is particularly useful in rare disease, since this information is crucial to developing medical products that will improve outcomes that matter for patients.

Sandra Retzky, D.O., J.D., MPH

Depending on the circumstances, this information can be used to construct a comparison of expected outcomes in trials limited to a single treatment arm or very small sample size, and in other cases, the design of robust trials will be improved by an understanding of what to expect without the new intervention. 

DCTs play an important role in evidence generation to advance safe and effective treatments that will help improve the lives of patients with rare diseases. By reducing barriers to participation, we expect DCTs will increase the breadth and diversity of participants in clinical trials and improve accessibility, such as through the use of telemedicine, digital health technologies, and local clinicians and facilities. These tools may make participation less burdensome for patients for whom travel is difficult, and importantly, for those who care for them. Experience has taught us that we cannot take these advantages for granted—purposeful attention to user-friendly design is essential.

A Collaborative Effort Throughout the Medical Product Lifecycle

We remain committed to supporting rare disease research, engaging patients and caregivers to understand their unique perspectives, and enhancing our review processes to advance medical products for rare disease patients. Communicating and collaborating throughout the product lifecycle—particularly earlier and more frequently in the pre-market stages—is an area of focus for the agency. For example, in 2023 we launched the Support for clinical Trials Advancing Rare disease Therapeutics (START) pilot program which enables a limited number of sponsors to communicate more frequently with FDA staff and provides a mechanism for addressing clinical development issues. 

We at the FDA regard talking with patients, industry, health care professionals and the clinical research community essential to help address the challenges associated with rare disease research. When applicable, we aim to incorporate the patient voice in medical product development and regulation. In this time of tremendous excitement about the rapid progression of applicable science, this year’s Rare Disease Day will be a unique opportunity to hear a range of rare disease experiences and determine how we can collaborate with patients and patient advocates to tackle the important medical and scientific challenges ahead. Register today to join the conversation and be part of the efforts to advance medical product development for rare diseases.

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Transforming the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses.

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Celebrating 75 Years! Learn More >>

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From Breakthroughs to Best Practices: How NIMH Transforms Research Into Real-World Care

Patricia Arean, Susan Azrin, Michael Freed, Adam Haim, Jennifer Humensky, Stephen O’Connor, Jane Pearson, Mary Rooney, Matthew Rudorfer, Joel Sherrill, and Belinda Sims, on behalf of the Division of Services and Intervention Research. 

February 26, 2024 • 75th Anniversary

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For 75 years, NIMH has transformed the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses through basic and clinical research—bringing hope to millions of people. This Director’s Message, guest written by NIMH’s Division of Services and Intervention Research , is part of an anniversary series celebrating this momentous milestone.

More than one in five adults in the United States live with a mental illness, and this number is expected to rise in the coming decades. Since its establishment, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has known that people need more than exciting scientific discoveries—they need access to effective treatments and the best quality of care available. After all, finding new treatments and cures means little to the millions of people impacted by mental illnesses if there is no way to translate these breakthroughs into policy and practice.

In the Division of Services and Intervention Research (DSIR) , we provide the critical link between basic and clinical science and explore the best practices to implement those evidence-based treatments. We’re dedicated to growing and investing in this field of science, and although much work is still to be done, we’ve had some notable successes impacting real-world public health practices and policies.

Improving outcomes for people with early psychosis

A depiction of the Coordinated Specialty Care Model.

One example of research that has bridged the divide between science and policy is the Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode , or RAISE, studies. Research has shown that young people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders have much better outcomes when they receive effective treatment within months of their first symptoms. The RAISE studies, which NIMH supported, focused on methods to detect and treat early psychosis in a timelier fashion. These studies found that a type of care called coordinated specialty care (CSC)—a recovery-oriented, team-based approach to treating early psychosis—was more effective than the typical care used at the time.

A map showing the number of Coordinated Specialty Care programs in each U.S. state.

NIMH engaged extensively with members of the early schizophrenia care community to ensure RAISE findings would be relevant and actionable for rapid translation into practice. These efforts created the momentum for the broad expansion of CSC treatment programs nationwide. In 2023, the creation of associated billing codes further supported this model of mental health care, allowing for increased adoption by care providers.

From CSC programs in two states in 2008, the United States now has more than 360 such programs, allowing more people to receive this evidence-based care.

Removing barriers to schizophrenia treatment

Clozapine, the only drug approved for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, is underutilized in the United States, particularly among African American communities. Many reasons have been linked to this disparity, including provider bias, lack of trust in the mental health care system for African American clients, and an overprescribing of first-generation antipsychotic medication for African Americans with schizophrenia. Additionally, clozapine has been associated with an increased risk of the onset or exacerbation of neutropenia, a condition that affects white blood cells and impairs the body’s ability to fight infection. Benign ethnic neutropenia is a chronic form of neutropenia that's present from birth and commonly seen in people of African descent.

In 2015, NIMH supported a large, multinational study  that investigated the use of clozapine in individuals of African descent who have benign neutropenia  . Individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia who had benign neutropenia had previously been declared ineligible to receive clozapine treatment due to the Food and Drug Administration’s prescribing guidelines related to this medication. The finding of this NIMH-supported study opened up clozapine treatment to a whole new group of individuals with schizophrenia, allowing them to benefit from this important medication.

The ECHO model. Courtesy of Project ECHO.

Building upon these findings, NIMH is currently funding research that evaluates the effectiveness of an educational program for clinicians about clozapine  . Hundreds of prescribers and clinicians throughout the state of Maryland are participating in an innovative educational tele-mentoring program that connects them with centralized experts. The prescribing activity of clinicians participating in the educational program will be compared with those who have not participated to see if the program is effective at increasing the use of clozapine among those who would benefit from it.

Given the real-world context of this study, the findings can potentially inform clinical practice and make a needed treatment more accessible to many African Americans.

Preventing mental illnesses in youth

Recognizing that many mental health conditions have their origins early in life, NIMH has supported several seminal studies showing the effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent conduct disorder and other behavioral conditions in youth. These include evaluations of a classroom-wide behavioral intervention called the Good Behavior Game   , a school-home wraparound intervention called Fast Track  , and a brief family-based intervention for toddlers called Family Check-up  .

Today, NIMH continues to support the analysis of data from participants in these studies who have been followed into adulthood   . Initial results from these longitudinal analyses show sustained effects of the interventions on conduct disorder and unanticipated positive impacts on other mental health outcomes, such as reductions in adolescent and adult depression, anxiety, and suicide risk, thus demonstrating the broad and enduring effects of early prevention efforts.

Early intervention represents an important pathway to making quality care accessible to everyone, particularly when embedded within a broader approach that addresses social determinants of health . NIMH is currently supporting research that tests strategies to improve access to prevention services, including primary care-based depression prevention for adolescents  and mental illness prevention for at-risk Latinx youth  .

Suicide prevention in emergency departments

ED-SAFE study phases. Courtesy of Boudreaux, E. D. & ED-SAFE investigators.

An estimated 20% of people who die by suicide visit the emergency department in the 60 days before their death, making these settings an important target for suicide prevention efforts. Given the importance of emergency departments as a place to identify and provide support for people at risk for suicide, NIMH has supported research establishing the effectiveness of suicide prevention services in these settings.

An example of this research is the multisite Emergency Department Safety Assessment and Follow-up Evaluation (ED-SAFE) study. ED-SAFE demonstrated  that providing universal screening for suicide risk and a brief safety planning intervention in emergency departments, combined with limited follow-up contacts once people had been discharged, decreased subsequent suicide attempts by 30% compared to usual care.

A follow-up study also supported by NIMH, called ED-SAFE 2  , tested the integration of universal screening for suicide risk and safety planning into the clinical workflow of eight emergency departments. Study results  indicated that integration of this clinical workflow resulted in sustained reductions in suicide deaths and subsequent acute health care visits.

These landmark studies convey the power of providing relatively brief, well-timed interventions during emergency encounters to reduce the risk of later suicide. NIMH continues to fund research to expand the reach of emergency department-based interventions, including the use of digital health technologies and strategies to overcome workforce shortages and other barriers to implementing suicide screening and intervention (for instance, digital technology to increase the reach of ED-SAFE  ; a multi-component, tailored strategy for suicide risk reduction  ). NIMH works closely with public and private partners to take recent data, like those collected during the ED-SAFE studies, and help translate them into real-world practice   .

Moving forward

The studies and projects shared here are only a few examples of exciting areas of investment that have resulted in real-world changes in care. Although we’ve made progress, we recognize the need to continue supporting research with near-term potential and cultivating a vibrant workforce to lead the next generation of services and intervention research.

Further, NIMH is committed to working with researchers, communities, payors, advocacy groups, state policymakers, federal agencies, and others to help support intervention and services science that will significantly impact mental health policy and care practices—ultimately helping people access better mental health care.

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All submissions must be uploaded as Word files to the  Medical Mycology   ScholarOne Manuscripts site . Users who have not previously submitted work through this site must create an account from the link on the login page. Assistance with this and all other areas of the site is available in the User Guide, which is accessed via the ‘Get Help Now’ button at the top right corner of all ScholarOne Manuscripts web pages. For additional help, please contact  [email protected] .

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Prior to manuscript submission, authors are responsible for obtaining written permission from the copyright holders to reuse any text, tables, and/or figures – either in whole or in part – that have been previously published. Authors are also responsible for paying any associated permissions fees. Although the journal does not consider authors’ own dissertations, conference abstracts, or preprints as prior publications, written permission is still required and any prior sources should be acknowledged in the manuscript itself. More information, including about rights retaining following article publication, is available on the  our rights and permissions page .

How to contact the editorial office

The Editorial Office can be contacted at the following email address:  [email protected]

Article types

Papers may be submitted in the following categories.

Original Papers

For this article type, manuscripts must have:

  • a. A Cover Page that includes the full article title and a short title; the name(s), highest academic degree(s), and affiliation(s)—including countries—of all author(s); the name, telephone number, and email address of the designated corresponding author; and a list of up to 5 keywords
  • b. A separate page for an Abstract of up to 250 words prepared without sub-headers
  • c. Manuscript text consisting of Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion and References
  • d. References must be cited sequentially in the order in which they first appear in the text, in superscript numerals, and included in the same numerical order in the Reference section;
  • e. Each Table should be submitted as a separate page and should have footnoted descriptions of all abbreviations contained in the Table ( see section below on Tables for more detailed information )
  • f. Each Figure should be submitted as a separate file (page), with appropriate figure legends allowing a reader to understand their contents without reference to the text ( see section below on Figures for more detailed information ).

In addition to the requirements detailed under ‘Manuscript Preparation’ below, these manuscripts are limited to 5000 words excluding the cover page, abstract, references, and tables/figures.

Review Articles

Medical Mycology is keen to solicit Review Articles on topics relevant to the practice of human and veterinary fungal diseases. Articles in all areas of mycology will be considered including basic sciences, clinical mycology, diagnostics and therapeutics. Those encompassing topics that are timely, of particular interest or which describe innovation concepts, or of global reach would be especially welcome.   Authors are encouraged to submit a pre-submission inquiry with the following: 1. Cover letter 2. A one A4-page outlining the aims, scope and relevance of proposed review. This may be aided by headings and sub-headings as appropriate. 3. References e.g., 5-10 that support the authors’ contributions to the proposed field.      All pre-submission inquiries will be evaluated by the reviews Editor in the first instance, Professor Anuradha Chowdhary ([email protected]). If the proposal is satisfactory, the authors will be invited to write the Review which will then be submitted through the Journal website portal and then peer reviewed.    

Brief Reports

These concisely written manuscripts are to provide an opportunity for the presentation of innovative well-defined studies that do not warrant a full-length original paper. These manuscripts are not for the publication of preliminary data.

In addition to the requirements detailed under ‘Manuscript Preparation’ below, the manuscript style for this article type is as follows:

  • A Cover Page that includes the full article title and a short title; the name(s), highest academic degree(s), and affiliation(s)—including countries—of all author(s); the name, telephone number, and email address of the designated corresponding author; and a list of up to 5 keywords
  • An Abstract of no more than 100 words.
  • The text should be no more than 1200 words with no headers or subheadings included, but must contain a brief introduction, methods, results and conclusions.
  • Limit references to those that are absolutely necessary and no more than 20 references.
  • No more than 2 tables or figures are allowed (i.e., 2 figures, 2 tables, or 1 figure and 1 table).

NOTE: Medical Mycology  no longer publishes Case Reports; such articles should be submitted to ISHAM’s other journal,  Medical Mycology Case Reports . In addition, Letters to the Editor are no longer published in Medical Mycology .

Manuscript format and structure

Please refer to a recent issue of Medical Mycology for guidance on style and layout of articles. Also refer to the Article Types section above for guidance on relevant information for each article type.

Language Editing

Language editing, especially if your first language is not English, to ensure that the academic content of your paper is fully understood by journal editors and reviewers is optional. Language editing does not guarantee that your manuscript will be accepted for publication. Further information on this service is available on the  language services page . Several specialist language editing companies offer similar services and any of them can be used. Authors are liable for all costs associated with such services.

File Formats

All manuscripts must be submitted as Microsoft Word documents (.doc,.docx, .rtf, .pdf files).

Manuscripts MUST be in English, double-spaced, in 12-point font, organized as appropriate for the manuscript type per above, have line numbering enabled and lines numbered consecutively, and have 1-inch margins all around.

Statistics and measurements should be given in numerals when followed by a unit, e.g., mg, ml, etc. In contrast, numerals employed in other circumstance, e.g., two patients, should be spelled out if less than ten (10).

ALL abbreviations, even those commonly used in medical mycology, e.g., Sabouraud glucose agar (SGA), must be defined when first used in the abstract and text.

Medical Mycology  requires corresponding authors to provide an ORCID iD with submission of a manuscript to the journal. More information on  ORCID and the benefits of using an ORCID iD is available. If you do not already have an ORCID iD, you can register for free via the  ORCID website .

The Journal uses the contributor roles taxonomy (CRediT), which allows authors to describe the contributor roles in a standardized, transparent, and accurate way. Authors should choose from the contributor roles outlined on the CRediT website and supply this information upon submission. You may choose multiple contributor roles per author. Any other individuals who do not meet authorship criteria and made less substantive contributions should be listed in your manuscript as non-author contributors with their contributions clearly described. Following manuscript submission, any changes to contributor roles require the approval of the editor.

Lay Summary

Authors of all article types are required to submit a lay summary as part of the article, in addition to the main text abstract. The lay summary should clearly summarize the focus and findings of the article for non-expert readers and will be published as part of the article. The lay summary should be submitted for peer review as part of the main manuscript file, under the heading ‘Lay summary,’ before the article’s main text. The lay summary should be no longer than 300 characters. As with a main abstract, avoid citations and define any abbreviations.

Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct text citation. In preparing your citations please follow the  AMA Manual of Style, 11th Edition .

Tables should present only essential data, must be numbered sequentially in the order in which they are first referenced in the text, and all MUST be referred to in the text. Each table should be supplied as a separate page at the end of the main document and not imbedded within the body of the text. The table header should be brief and self-explanatory.

Column headings should be brief and include units in parentheses where applicable. Only horizontal rule lines should be used and then only for headers and footers. If a table contains names of genera and species or microorganisms, these must be spelled out in full, e.g.,  Candida albicans , not  C. albicans . Tables should be considered as “stand alone” documents through which data are summarized for presentation to readers; as such, all abbreviations employed in the tables MUST be defined footnotes included directly below the tables.

Figures/Images

Images should be submitted as TIF or EPS files. Images should be of sufficient resolution, i.e. a minimum of 300 dpi for halftones/color, 600 dpi for combination halftones, and 1200 dpi for line art. Illustrations should be submitted as individual files, separate from the manuscript text file. An image that will be column-width should be 3.25 inches (8.13 cm) wide and an image that will be the full width of the page should be 6.75 inches (16.88 cm) wide. 

Authors may employ, as warranted, arrows or similar indications. Otherwise NO part of any image may be enhanced, removed, relocated, introduced or manipulated in any manner after the capture of the original image unless the authors provide the editor with a clear and accurate description of the nature of the image manipulation. 

Figures should be considered as “stand alone” components of the manuscript; as such, authors by should provide legends at the end of the text, following the Reference section, which clearly describe the significant features of the illustrated objects.

Supplementary Files

Supplementary information, including extensive data sets, large figures, audio or video material, can be made available. Please do not include supplementary information within the main manuscript file but upload the material as separate file(s), labeled as “Supplemental Content”. Please include a sequential number (S1, S2, etc.) for each file and a brief description of the content at the appropriate position in the text. Please note that supplementary files are not copy-edited and will be presented as submitted.

Nomenclature

Proposals of new fungal taxa MUST conform to the requirements outlined in the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants. The proposed taxon must be supported by deposition of cultures and/or the unique nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences in appropriate collections or databases, along with the new binomial. The identifier assigned to the taxon by these recognized repositories, e.g., Mycobank, must be included in the text, tables, and figures. In addition, binomials should appear in italics, must be spelled out in full when first used in the abstract, text, and figures/tables; thereafter, a name at genus level may be abbreviated to the first initial only, for example, “ Candida albicans ” when first cited and  C. albicans  in the remainder of the text. Species names may NEVER be used without the genus full name or abbreviation combined with the full name of the species. For example, it must be  Candida albicans  or  C. albicans , but never  albicans , OR  C. neoformans var. grubii  but never var. grubii . The use of abbreviations of genus and species names, e.g., the us of “Ca” for  C. albicans is NOT permitted throughout the manuscript.

Availability of Data and Materials

Where ethically feasible,  Medical Mycology  strongly encourages authors to make all data and software code on which the conclusions of the paper rely available to readers. We suggest that data be presented in the main manuscript, in additional supporting files, or deposited in a public repository whenever possible. Information on general repositories for all data types, and a list of recommended repositories by subject area, is available  here .

Nucleotide and/or Amino Acid Sequence Data

DNA, RNA, and/or amino acid sequence data must be deposited in a freely accessible database. Access to the sequence data must be made available to the editors and reviewers upon submission of the manuscript and must be available to everyone upon publication of the manuscript. The GenBank ( Nucleotide-NCBI ); or European Nucleotide Archive ( European Nucleotide Archive EMBL-EBI or  Bioinformation and DDBJ Center ) accession numbers should be included in the Materials and Methods Section of the manuscript. However, in a figure of a phylogenetic tree, the numbers should be shown along with species names (e.g.,  Malassezia globosa  AB099880); no descriptions are needed in the Materials and Methods Section in this case.

High-Throughput Functional Genomics Data, Microarray, Next-Generation Sequencing Data

For manuscripts that contain high throughput functional genomics, whole genome and microarray data must be deposited in the appropriate public database (e.g.  GEO ,  ArrayExpress  or  CIBEX ). Microarray data should comply with the Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment (MIAME) standards, except in cases where a microarray is used to identify one or more genes for primary genetic screening. Submission of microarray data to a central repository must be completed before submission of a manuscript, and accession numbers for the data must be included in the original submission of manuscripts in order to be available for the reviewers.

Phylogenetic Data

Phylogenetic data (e.g., trees of species, trees of populations, trees of genes) representing the fungal taxa that are presented in a relevant manuscript should be freely accessible to researchers through a public phylogenetic information repository (e.g.  TreeBASE ).

Data on New Macromolecule Structures

It is mandatory to deposit new macromolecule structures in the Protein Data Bank ( PDBj  or  RCSB PDB ), and the accession numbers must be included in the manuscript prior to acceptance. However, inclusion of the coordinates in the original submission of the manuscript is encouraged in order to facilitate and expedite the reviewing process.

Strain Sharing

Authors reporting new taxa must deposit the type strain, but preferably also other isolates, in a publicly accessible culture collection. Authors of papers on known taxa describing novel properties (e.g., pathogenicity to humans and animals, genetic resistance to antifungal agents, identification of new bioactive metabolites) must deposit the strain(s) in publicly accessible culture collections and provide accession number(s) in the manuscript. Authors of first reported fungal strains in a certain geographical location or a new habitat must also submit these strains in publicly accessible culture collections and accession number(s) should be provided in the manuscript. These strains should be available in good faith to the scientific community through registered culture collections and their supply must conform to current national and international laws and regulations. To ensure strain authenticity authors should indicate laboratory strain designations and donor sources as well as original culture collection identification numbers. Medical Mycology  encourages the exchange of organisms and genetic constructs among researchers. Thus, strains and genetic constructs such as plasmids that are not deposited in a publicly accessible culture collection should be made available by the authors on request for scientific purposes.

Acknowledgments

The work of other individuals who assisted in the studies or in the preparation of the submission must be specifically indicated in the Acknowledgments section of the paper. In addition, all sources of grant funding and grant numbers must be given.

Details of all funding sources for the work in question also should be given in the Acknowledgments section. The following rules should be followed:

  • The sentence should begin: “This work was supported by …”
  • The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e. “the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health” or simply “National Institutes of Health” not “NCI” (one of the many sub-institutions) or “NCI at NIH.”
  • Grant numbers should be complete and accurate and provided in brackets as follows: “[grant number ABX CDXXXXXX]”
  • Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: “[grant numbers ABX CDXXXXXX, EFX GHXXXXXX]”
  • Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus “and” before the last funding agency)
  • Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number “to [author initials].”

An example is given here: “This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [P50 CA098252 and CA118790 to R.B.S.R.] and the Alcohol & Education Research Council [HFY GR667789].”

Crossref Funding Data Registry

In order to meet your funding requirements authors are required to name their funding sources, or state if there are none, during the submission process. Please follow this link for more information about the CHORUS initiative .

Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest

This section should appear after the Acknowledgments and should include any potential conflicts of interest as described above.

Permission to reproduce third-party material

All copyright permission must be cleared and, if necessary, paid for by the author; this includes applications and payments to DACS (Data Access Control System), ARS (Artists Rights Society), and similar licensing agencies where appropriate. It is also the author’s responsibility to include acknowledgements as stipulated by particular institutions. For more information, see OUP's Rights and Permissions page .

Copyright and license

If your manuscript is accepted for publication following review, it will be sent to production at OUP. Upon receipt at OUP, the corresponding author will be prompted to complete a copyright form. For details about the different license types available, see OUP's Licences, copyright and re-use rights page .

NEW: If your institution is planning a press release or you otherwise need to embargo the content, please email [email protected] before completing your copyright form, because in most cases your accepted manuscript will immediately post on the journal’s Advance Article page.

NEW: The Advance Article page now contains a mix of accepted manuscripts posted as uncorrected proofs as well as fully copyedited, typeset articles, further reducing the time between submission and publication. Both versions constitute official publication and can be cited by a unique Digital Object Identifier (DOI).

Following copyediting and typesetting, the corresponding author will receive article page proofs by email. To avoid delays, proofs should be checked immediately and corrections, as well as answers to any queries, returned to the publishers as an annotated PDF within 2 working days. Further details are supplied with the proof. It is the author’s responsibility to check proofs thoroughly. Authors who make extensive amendments to the text at the page-proof stage may be charged an additional fee.

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IMAGES

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  28. Manuscript Preparation

    Manuscripts MUST be in English, double-spaced, in 12-point font, organized as appropriate for the manuscript type per above, have line numbering enabled and lines numbered consecutively, and have 1-inch margins all around. Statistics and measurements should be given in numerals when followed by a unit, e.g., mg, ml, etc.