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How to Write a Research Paper Book: A Step-by-Step Guide

How to Write a Research Paper Book

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Writing a research paper can be a daunting task, especially for those who are new to the process. However, with the right guidance and approach, anyone can learn how to write a research paper book that is both informative and engaging. In this article, we will provide a step-by-step guide on how to write a research paper book that will help you organize your ideas, conduct research, and present your findings clearly and concisely.

The first step in writing a research paper book is to choose a topic that is both interesting and relevant to your field of study. Once you have chosen a topic, you will need to research to gather information and data that will support your thesis statement. This may involve reading books, articles, and other sources of information, as well as conducting interviews and surveys.

Once you have gathered your research, the next step is to organize your ideas and develop an outline for your book. This will help to ensure that your book is well-structured and easy to follow, and will also help you to identify any gaps in your research that need to be filled. With a clear outline in place, you can begin to write your research paper book , using your research to support your arguments and ideas.

Planning and Preparation

research paper book chapters

Understanding the Assignment

Before starting to write the research paper, it is important to understand the assignment requirements thoroughly. Understanding the assignment will help in selecting a relevant topic, developing a research question, and conducting research. Students should pay attention to the assignment instructions, including the length of the paper, formatting requirements, and the due date.

Selecting a Topic

Selecting a topic is one of the most important steps in writing a research paper. Students should choose a topic that is interesting and relevant to the assignment. Brainstorming can help generate ideas for the topic. Once a topic is selected, students should develop a research question that is specific, clear, and focused. The research question will guide the research process and ensure that the paper is focused on a specific topic.

Conducting Preliminary Research

Before starting the actual research, it is important to conduct preliminary research to get an overview of the topic. This will help in identifying relevant sources and developing a research plan. Students should use a variety of sources, including books, articles, and websites. They should also pay attention to the credibility and reliability of the sources. Developing research skills is important in conducting effective research.

Overall, planning and preparation are crucial steps in writing a research paper. Understanding the assignment, selecting a topic, and conducting preliminary research will help in developing a focused and relevant research paper.

Structure and Outline

research paper book chapters

Writing a research paper requires a systematic approach to ensure that the final product is well-structured and easy to read. The following subsections will guide how to create an outline, the components of a research paper, and how to organize chapters.

Creating an Outline

An outline is a crucial step in the research paper writing process . It helps to organize thoughts and ideas and provides a roadmap for the paper. A standard outline includes an introduction, body, and conclusion. The introduction should provide a brief overview of the topic and the main objectives of the research. The body should include the main points and arguments, while the conclusion should summarize the findings and provide recommendations for future research.

Research Paper Components

A research paper typically includes several components, including the title page, abstract, introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion. The title page should include the title of the paper, the author’s name, and the date of submission. The abstract should provide a brief summary of the paper, including the research question, methodology, and key findings. The introduction should provide background information on the topic and a clear statement of the research question. The literature review should provide an overview of previous research on the topic. The methodology should describe the research design and methods used. The results should present the findings of the research, while the discussion should interpret the results and provide conclusions. The conclusion should summarize the main findings and provide recommendations for future research.

Organizing Chapters

Organizing chapters is an essential part of writing a research paper. Each chapter should focus on a specific aspect of the research question. The introduction chapter should provide background information and a clear statement of the research question. The literature review chapter should provide an overview of previous research on the topic. The methodology chapter should describe the research design and methods used. The results chapter should present the findings of the research. The discussion chapter should interpret the results and provide conclusions. The conclusion chapter should summarize the main findings and provide recommendations for future research.

In conclusion, a well-structured research paper requires a systematic approach that includes creating an outline, understanding the components of a research paper, and organizing chapters. By following these guidelines, researchers can produce a high-quality research paper that is easy to read and understand.

Writing the Paper

research paper book chapters

When it comes to writing a research paper, the actual writing process can be daunting. However, by following a few key steps, the process can be broken down into manageable chunks. In this section, we will discuss how to craft a thesis statement, develop arguments, and cite sources.

Crafting a Thesis Statement

The thesis statement is the backbone of any research paper. It is a clear and concise statement that summarizes the main point or argument of the paper. A good thesis statement should be specific and debatable, and it should provide a roadmap for the rest of the paper.

To craft a strong thesis statement, the writer should first identify the topic of the paper. From there, they should brainstorm ideas and narrow down their focus until they have a clear argument. Finally, they should refine their argument until it can be expressed in a single, concise sentence.

Developing Arguments

Once the thesis statement is in place, the writer can begin developing their arguments. Each argument should support the thesis statement and be backed up by evidence. The evidence can come from a variety of sources, including scholarly articles, books, and primary sources.

To develop strong arguments, the writer should start by outlining the main points they want to make. From there, they should gather evidence to support each point. Finally, they should organize their arguments logically and coherently.

Citing Sources

Citing sources is an important part of the research paper writing process. It allows the writer to give credit to the original authors and avoid plagiarism. There are two main types of citations: in-text citations and reference list citations.

In-text citations are used to give credit to the original authors within the body of the paper. They typically include the author’s last name and the year of publication. Reference list citations are used to provide more detailed information about the sources used in the paper. They typically include the author’s name, the title of the source, and publication information.

When citing sources, it is important to follow the citation style specified by the instructor or publication. Common citation styles include APA, MLA, and Chicago.

By following these steps, writers can successfully write a research paper that is well-organized, well-supported, and properly cited.

Formatting and Style Guides

research paper book chapters

When writing a research paper, it is important to follow the appropriate formatting and style guidelines to ensure that your paper is clear, organized, and professional. This section will cover some of the most commonly used formatting and style guidelines, including APA and MLA styles, title page and headings, and references page formatting.

APA and MLA Styles

The American Psychological Association (APA) and Modern Language Association (MLA) are two of the most commonly used style guides for research papers. APA style is often used in the social sciences, while MLA style is often used in the humanities. It is important to consult the appropriate style guide for your field of study to ensure that you are following the correct guidelines.

APA style requires in-text citations with the author’s last name and year of publication, while MLA style requires in-text citations with the author’s last name and page number. Both styles also require references or works cited page at the end of the paper, which must be formatted according to specific guidelines.

Title Page and Headings

The title page of a research paper should include the title of the paper, the author’s name, and the institution where the paper will be submitted. The title should be centered on the page, and the author’s name and institution should be centered below the title. The title page should also include the date of submission.

Headings are an important part of organizing a research paper. They should be used to divide the paper into sections and subsections and should be formatted according to the appropriate style guide. In APA style, headings should be centered and bolded, while in MLA style, headings should be left-aligned and formatted in title case.

References Page Formatting

The references page should include a list of all sources cited in the paper, and should be formatted according to the appropriate style guide. In APA style, the references should be listed alphabetically by the author’s last name, while in MLA style, the works cited should be listed alphabetically by the author’s last name or the title of the work. Each entry should include the author’s name, the title of the work, the date of publication, and other relevant information, depending on the type of source.

In conclusion, following the appropriate formatting and style guidelines is an essential part of writing a research paper. By using the appropriate style guide, formatting the title page and headings correctly, and formatting the references page according to specific guidelines, you can ensure that your paper is clear, organized, and professional.

Revising and Editing

After completing the first draft of a research paper, it is essential to revise and edit it thoroughly to ensure that it is clear, coherent, and free of errors. This section will discuss the key aspects of revising and editing a research paper.

Reviewing for Clarity and Coherence

One of the primary goals of revising a research paper is to improve its clarity and coherence. To achieve this goal, it is crucial to review the paper for the following:

  • Logical flow of ideas: Ensure that the ideas presented in the paper are logically connected and presented in a coherent sequence.
  • Consistency: Check for consistency in style, tone, and formatting throughout the paper.
  • Clarity: Ensure that the language used in the paper is clear, concise, and easily understandable by the target audience.
  • Appropriateness: Ensure that the paper meets the requirements of the assignment and addresses the research question or thesis statement.

Checking for Plagiarism

Plagiarism is a serious offense in academic writing and can result in severe consequences. Therefore, it is essential to check the research paper for plagiarism before submitting it. There are several tools available online that can help detect plagiarism. However, it is important to understand that these tools are not foolproof and may not detect all instances of plagiarism. Therefore, it is essential to review the paper for the following:

  • Proper citation: Ensure that all sources used in the paper are properly cited using the appropriate citation style.
  • Paraphrasing: Ensure that all paraphrased content is properly cited and does not exceed acceptable limits.
  • Direct quotes: Ensure that all direct quotes are properly cited and accurately represent the source.

Final Edits

After reviewing the research paper for clarity, coherence, and plagiarism, it is time to make the final edits. The following are some key aspects to consider during the final editing phase:

  • Grammar and spelling: Check for grammar and spelling errors and correct them.
  • Formatting: Ensure that the paper follows the appropriate formatting guidelines specified by the instructor or the journal.
  • Proofreading: Read through the paper several times to ensure that it is free of errors and flows smoothly.

In conclusion, revising and editing a research paper is a crucial step in the writing process. It helps ensure that the paper is clear, coherent, and free of errors. By following the guidelines discussed in this section, writers can produce high-quality research papers that meet the requirements of their instructors or journals.

Publishing and Submission

Understanding publication requirements.

Before submitting a research paper for publication, it is important to understand the publication requirements of the target journal or publisher. These requirements may include specific formatting guidelines, word count limitations, and citation styles. It is also important to ensure that the research paper meets the scope and focus of the publication.

One way to understand the publication requirements is to review the submission guidelines provided by the journal or publisher. These guidelines may be available on the publication’s website or in the author instructions section of the publication. It is important to carefully review these guidelines to ensure that the research paper meets all of the requirements and guidelines.

Submission Process

Once the research paper is ready for submission, the author can begin the submission process. The submission process may vary depending on the journal or publisher but typically involves submitting the research paper through an online submission system or via email.

Before submitting the research paper, it is important to ensure that all of the submission requirements have been met. This may include providing a cover letter, abstract, and author information. It is also important to ensure that the research paper is properly formatted and meets all of the publication requirements.

After the research paper has been submitted, it will undergo a peer-review process. This process involves experts in the field reviewing the research paper for accuracy, significance, and originality. The author may receive feedback and suggestions for revisions during this process.

Once the research paper has been accepted for publication, the author may need to sign a publishing agreement. This agreement outlines the terms and conditions of publication, including copyright ownership and distribution rights. It is important to carefully review and understand the terms of the publishing agreement before signing.

In conclusion, understanding publication requirements and following the submission process are key steps in successfully publishing a research paper. By carefully reviewing the submission guidelines and ensuring that all requirements have been met, authors can increase their chances of publication success.

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Journal or Book Chapter: Which is Better For My Research Paper?

Journal or Book Chapter

In the labyrinthine world of academic publishing, researchers often find themselves standing at a crossroads, faced with a pivotal decision: Should they disseminate their hard-earned research findings through the pages of a research journal or as a chapter in a scholarly book? This choice, seemingly mundane at first glance, carries profound implications for the visibility, impact, and legacy of their work.

As the engines of innovation and knowledge generation continue to revolve, the landscape of academic publishing evolves in tandem, presenting scholars with an ever-expanding array of publication avenues. With each passing day, this decision becomes more complex, demanding a nuanced approach that considers multiple facets of the research, the intended audience, and the researcher’s long-term goals.

In this article, we embark on a journey to demystify this decision-making process. Drawing from the experiences of seasoned researchers, the insights of publishing experts, and the ever-evolving dynamics of the academic ecosystem, we provide a compass to guide scholars through the labyrinth of publication choices.

We understand that this decision can be a source of both excitement and trepidation. It represents the culmination of tireless research, the realization of scholarly ambitions, and the opportunity to contribute to the collective knowledge of humanity. However, it also poses questions of timing, audience engagement, and long-term impact.

To assist researchers in making informed choices, we have distilled the decision-making process into a series of critical parameters. By examining the scope and depth of your research, the target audience you wish to engage, the urgency of your findings, the potential academic impact, the peer review process, and the nuances of copyright and licensing, you will be equipped to make a decision that aligns with your research aspirations.

But this article is more than a checklist; it’s a conversation with the academic community. We present hypothetical case studies that illustrate how researchers have navigated this terrain, showcasing the diverse approaches to publication that exist within the academic tapestry.

In the end, the choice between a journal and a book chapter is not a binary one. Rather, it’s a decision that should reflect the essence of your research and your personal goals as a scholar. As we embark on this journey, we encourage you to engage with your mentors, peers, and publishers. Seek advice, ask questions, and explore the possibilities that lie before you. Your research is not only a contribution to knowledge; it’s a reflection of your academic journey. Let it shine in the publication medium that best suits its brilliance.

So, dear researcher, as we prepare to delve into the heart of this matter, remember that you are not alone in your quest to make this decision. Together, we will illuminate the path that leads to the most impactful and meaningful dissemination of your scholarly work.


1. scope and depth of research, 2. target audience, 3. publication timeline, 4. academic impact, 5. peer review process, 6. copyright and licensing, case study 1: dr. yang, case study 2: dr. gomez, case study 3: dr. smith, case study 4 : dr. johnson.

  • Before We Close...

In the realm of academic research, one of the most significant decisions a scholar faces is determining where to publish their painstakingly crafted work. This choice often boils down to two main options: research journals and book chapters. It is a decision that carries profound implications, shaping not only how their research is disseminated but also its reach, impact, and long-term legacy.

Consider the case of Dr. Smith, a dedicated researcher in the field of artificial intelligence. Dr. Smith has spent years developing a groundbreaking algorithm that promises to revolutionize machine learning. Now, Dr. Smith stands at a pivotal juncture in their academic journey, faced with the choice of sending their research to a specialized journal for the AI community or opting for a chapter in an upcoming book on cutting-edge technologies.

This article serves as a beacon for researchers like Dr. Smith who find themselves at this crossroads. It offers a comprehensive framework that takes into account various parameters to guide scholars in making an informed and strategic choice. Rather than leaving this pivotal decision to chance or gut feeling, we will delve into the key factors that should inform your decision-making process.

Parameters for Decision-Making

When considering where to publish your research, one of the paramount factors to contemplate is the scope and depth of your work. In essence, this parameter revolves around the breadth and detail of the subject matter you have investigated.

Imagine Dr. Johnson, an environmental scientist, who has dedicated several years to studying the ecological impact of deforestation in a specific tropical rainforest. Dr. Johnson’s research encompasses a multitude of aspects, including the biodiversity of the region, the effects of deforestation on local communities, and potential solutions for sustainable land use. The depth of the research lies in the extensive fieldwork, data collection, and analysis conducted.

Dr. Lee, another environmental scientist, who has focused on a more narrow aspect of the same rainforest – the behavior of a particular species of rare birds in response to deforestation. Dr. Lee’s study is highly specific, delving deep into the behaviors, habitats, and conservation strategies related to this single bird species.


In the case of Dr. Johnson, whose research encompasses a broad spectrum of ecological, social, and environmental factors, the comprehensiveness and depth of their work make it better suited for a book chapter. A book chapter provides the necessary space to delve into multifaceted aspects and present a holistic view of the research.

On the other hand, Dr. Lee’s focused study on a specific bird species might be more appropriately disseminated through a research journal. The narrower scope of the research aligns with the concise format of a journal article, which often requires a more targeted approach.

In summary, the scope and depth of your research should guide your decision. Comprehensive, in-depth research is often a better fit for a book chapter, where you can provide a comprehensive exploration of your findings. Conversely, narrower studies may find a more suitable home in a research journal, where brevity and specificity are valued.

Determining the appropriate publication platform hinges on identifying and understanding your intended audience. Consider who will benefit the most from your research and who you wish to engage with your findings.

Let’s consider two computer scientists: Dr. Chen and Dr. Williams.

Dr. Chen is a machine learning researcher whose work focuses on the development of a highly advanced, novel neural network architecture for natural language processing tasks. Her research involves intricate mathematical models and algorithms, and it pushes the boundaries of what’s possible in the field of machine learning. The primary audience for her work consists of other machine learning researchers, deep learning practitioners, and experts in natural language processing. These individuals are well-versed in complex algorithms and eager for the latest advancements.

Dr. Williams , on the other hand, is a computer scientist whose research revolves around the development of a user-friendly software tool for educators to enhance virtual learning experiences. His work simplifies the process of creating interactive online content for teachers and requires minimal technical expertise. Dr. Williams’ target audience includes educators, instructional designers, and professionals in the field of online education. His research aims to bridge the gap between technology and education, making it accessible to a broad range of educators and learners.

In Dr. Chen’s case, her research serves a specialized audience of machine learning experts who are best reached through a research journal. The technical depth and complexity of her work align with the expectations of this niche community, and a journal provides the appropriate platform for detailed dissemination.

For Dr. Williams, whose research has broader implications for educators and the field of online education, a book chapter or a publication in an educational technology magazine may be more suitable. It allows for a more accessible and comprehensive discussion of his software tool, which can engage educators and instructional designers without deep technical backgrounds.

In summary, the choice between a research journal and a more accessible publication platform should reflect your intended audience. If your work targets a specialized audience of experts and addresses a specific technical gap, a journal is likely the right choice. However, if your research has broader applications and can benefit a wider audience, a book chapter or a publication in an industry-specific magazine may be the better option.

The publication timeline is a critical factor in deciding whether to publish your research in a journal or as a book chapter. Journals typically have faster publication turnaround times compared to books. This parameter revolves around assessing how time-sensitive your research is and whether it can accommodate the longer publication process of a book.

Example 1 – Dr. Anderson:

Dr. Anderson is a computer scientist who has developed a novel cybersecurity algorithm that can detect previously unknown malware in real-time. Given the rapidly evolving nature of cybersecurity threats, Dr. Anderson’s research is highly time-sensitive. Cyberattacks are constantly evolving, and the sooner his algorithm can be disseminated and implemented, the better it can protect computer systems. Waiting for a book publication, which may take a year or more, is not ideal in this case. Therefore, Dr. Anderson opts to submit his research to a journal specializing in cybersecurity. The quicker publication timeline ensures that his groundbreaking work reaches the cybersecurity community promptly.

Example 2 – Dr. Roberts:

Dr. Roberts, another computer scientist, has conducted extensive research on the history and evolution of programming languages. Her work is comprehensive and spans several decades of programming language development. While her research is valuable and adds to the historical understanding of the field, it is not particularly time-sensitive. Programming languages do evolve, but not at the rapid pace of cybersecurity threats. Dr. Roberts decides that her research can wait for the longer publication process of a book, which will provide the space and depth required to present a thorough historical account.

In Dr. Anderson’s case, where the research addresses a highly time-sensitive issue like cybersecurity, a journal publication is the right choice. The quicker turnaround time of journals ensures that his research has a timely impact, potentially safeguarding computer systems from emerging threats.

Conversely, Dr. Roberts’ research, while valuable, is not constrained by time sensitivity. The longer publication process of a book is acceptable because the research focuses on a historical analysis that doesn’t depend on immediate dissemination.

In summary, the publication timeline should be evaluated concerning the urgency of your research in the field. If your research is time-sensitive and addresses rapidly evolving issues, a journal is the better option due to its quicker publication process. However, if your research is not bound by immediate time constraints, a book chapter can provide the depth and context needed for a comprehensive presentation.

The choice between publishing in a research journal or as a book chapter can significantly influence the academic impact of your work. It’s important to understand how each option may impact the recognition, citation, and long-term influence of your research.

Example 1 – Dr. Parker:

Dr. Parker is a computer scientist who has developed a groundbreaking algorithm for optimizing database queries. This algorithm has the potential to revolutionize the field of data management. Dr. Parker is keen on achieving swift recognition and wide dissemination of his work. He chooses to publish his research in a renowned database research journal. Journal articles are known for their quick publication and wide distribution within the academic community. As a result, his research gains immediate visibility and begins to receive citations from fellow researchers. This swift recognition bolsters Dr. Parker’s academic reputation and opens up opportunities for collaboration and further research funding.

Example 2 – Dr. Miller:

Dr. Miller is also a computer scientist, but her research focuses on the broader context of human-computer interaction. She has conducted extensive research on how the design of user interfaces impacts user engagement and satisfaction. Dr. Miller believes that her work will have long-lasting relevance and should be considered foundational in the field of human-computer interaction. To maximize the long-term impact of her research, she decides to publish a comprehensive book chapter in a textbook that serves as a standard reference in the field. While her work may not receive immediate recognition in terms of citations, it becomes a staple in university courses and research libraries. Over time, as new scholars enter the field, Dr. Miller’s research is consistently cited in their literature reviews and included in reference lists and bibliographies, contributing to its enduring influence.

In Dr. Parker’s case, where the research has the potential for immediate impact, publishing in a research journal is the right choice. Journal articles are more frequently cited, and the swift recognition they offer can benefit researchers whose work has the potential to reshape their field.

Conversely, Dr. Miller’s research is more focused on long-term impact. By contributing a book chapter to a foundational textbook, her work becomes a cornerstone of the field. While it may not receive immediate attention in terms of citations, it enjoys enduring influence through its inclusion in reference lists and bibliographies, ultimately shaping the research direction of future scholars.

In summary, the choice between a research journal and a book chapter should be aligned with your goals for academic impact. Journal articles are often cited more frequently and can lead to quicker recognition, while book chapters contribute to long-term impact through their inclusion in educational resources and reference materials.

The peer review process is a crucial aspect of academic publishing. It involves the evaluation of your research by experts in the field to ensure its quality, accuracy, and credibility. The stringency of this process can vary between journals and books.

Example 1 – Dr. Roberts:

Dr. Roberts is a computer scientist who has conducted groundbreaking research in quantum computing. She believes that her research findings are a significant contribution to the field and should undergo thorough scrutiny to ensure their accuracy and reliability.

Consequently, Dr. Roberts chooses to submit her work to a reputable journal known for its rigorous peer review process. Her research goes through multiple rounds of evaluation by experts in quantum computing, who provide constructive feedback and recommendations for improvement.

After several revisions, her paper is accepted for publication. The rigorous peer review process not only enhances the credibility of her work but also ensures that any potential errors or weaknesses are addressed before publication.

Example 2 – Dr. Patel:

Dr. Patel, another computer scientist, has developed a software tool that streamlines data analysis processes for researchers. While her work is valuable, she believes that the urgency of disseminating her tool to the academic community outweighs the need for an exhaustive peer review process.

Dr. Patel decides to contribute a book chapter on her software tool to a compilation of research tools in her subfield. The peer review process for book chapters in this context is less stringent compared to journals. Her work is evaluated for relevance, clarity, and potential contributions to the book, but it doesn’t undergo the same level of in-depth technical scrutiny as a journal article. As a result, her software tool is published more quickly, allowing researchers to benefit from it sooner.

In Dr. Roberts’ case, where the research is highly technical and its accuracy is of paramount importance, submitting to a journal with a rigorous peer review process is the right choice. The comprehensive evaluation by experts ensures the quality and credibility of her work, reinforcing its significance in the field.

Conversely, Dr. Patel’s decision to contribute a book chapter is based on the urgency of disseminating her research tool. While book chapters also undergo peer review, the process is typically less stringent and focuses more on relevance and clarity. This streamlined process allows her work to reach the academic community faster.

In summary, the choice between a research journal and a book chapter should consider the stringency of the peer review process. Journals often have a more thorough review, enhancing the quality and credibility of your work. Book chapters also undergo peer review but typically have a less stringent process, which can expedite publication when time is of the essence.

Understanding copyright and licensing agreements is crucial when deciding where to publish your research. The terms and conditions regarding these agreements can significantly impact your ability to reuse, distribute, and share your work with others.

Dr. Anderson, a computer scientist, has developed an innovative software algorithm for optimizing energy consumption in data centers. He’s keen on publishing his research in a journal known for its rigorous peer review process and broad readership. However, he carefully reviews the journal’s copyright and licensing policies and discovers that they require authors to transfer full copyright to the journal. In this case, Dr. Anderson would retain limited rights to reuse or distribute his work. Recognizing the long-term value of his research and his intention to develop commercial applications based on it, he decides to explore alternative options. Dr. Anderson identifies a publisher that offers an open-access model for journal articles. This publisher allows authors to retain copyright while making their work freely available to the public. He chooses this publisher, ensuring that he maintains control over his intellectual property.

Example 2 – Dr. Martinez:

Dr. Martinez, another computer scientist, has conducted research on cybersecurity practices in small businesses. She believes her findings would be valuable to a broader audience, including educators, policymakers, and small business owners. Dr. Martinez decides to contribute a book chapter on her research to an academic book aimed at disseminating knowledge to a diverse readership. The book publisher she selects offers authors the option to retain copyright and apply a Creative Commons license to their chapters. Dr. Martinez opts for this arrangement, allowing her to keep ownership of her work while granting others the freedom to share and adapt it for educational or policy purposes.

In Dr. Anderson’s case, the journal’s policy of transferring full copyright ownership would have restricted his ability to reuse and distribute his work. Recognizing the long-term value and potential commercial applications of his research, he chose an open-access publisher that allowed him to retain copyright while making his work widely accessible.

Conversely, Dr. Martinez’s decision to contribute a book chapter allowed her to have more control over her work’s copyright and licensing terms. She chose a publisher that permitted her to retain copyright and apply a Creative Commons license , thus enabling broader dissemination and use of her research.

In summary, understanding the copyright and licensing agreements associated with journals and books is essential. Journals may require authors to transfer copyright, which can impact their ability to reuse and distribute their work. In contrast, book chapters may offer more flexible copyright and licensing options, allowing authors to maintain ownership and control over their intellectual property.

For more details on copyrights and exclusive rights visit my article on” Copyright Transfer and Granting Exclusive Rights: Key Differences for Research Authors “

Case Studies

Dr. Yang, a computer scientist, has spent years developing a groundbreaking algorithm for secure data transmission in Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Her research is comprehensive, with in-depth mathematical models, extensive simulations, and real-world testing. Dr. Yang believes her work has the potential to transform IoT security practices.

Parameters Considered:

  • Scope and Depth of Research: Dr. Yang’s research is comprehensive and in-depth.
  • Target Audience: She aims to reach a specialized audience of cybersecurity experts.
  • Publication Timeline: The research is time-sensitive due to the rapidly evolving nature of cybersecurity threats.
  • Academic Impact: Dr. Yang wants her work to have an immediate impact on IoT security practices.
  • Peer Review Process: She values a rigorous peer review to ensure the credibility of her work.
  • Copyright and Licensing: Dr. Yang wants to retain control over her work, including potential commercial applications.

Decision: Considering these parameters, Dr. Yang decides to publish her research in a reputable cybersecurity journal known for its rigorous peer review process. This choice aligns with her goal of quick recognition, timely dissemination, and the ability to maintain control over her intellectual property.

Dr. Gomez is a computer scientist specializing in natural language processing (NLP). His research focuses on sentiment analysis in social media data and its applications in marketing strategies. He believes his work can have long-term relevance in both the NLP and marketing fields.

  • Scope and Depth of Research: Dr. Gomez’s research is specialized but can have long-term relevance.
  • Target Audience: He aims to reach a broader audience, including marketers and NLP researchers.
  • Publication Timeline: While timely dissemination is important, his work is not tied to immediate cybersecurity threats.
  • Academic Impact: Dr. Gomez expects his research to be referenced and cited in the long run.
  • Peer Review Process: He values peer review but does not require the level of scrutiny associated with cybersecurity research.
  • Copyright and Licensing: Dr. Gomez wants his work to be accessible for educational and industry purposes.

Decision: Considering these parameters, Dr. Gomez decides to contribute a book chapter to an academic book that explores the intersection of NLP and marketing. This choice allows him to reach a diverse readership, retain copyright, and potentially have his work included in marketing courses and industry reports, contributing to its long-term impact.

Here’s the table with the research titles for both Dr. Yang and Dr. Gomez placed along with their respective author titles:

  • Dr. Smith is a seasoned researcher in the field of solar energy, boasting a distinguished career marked by a relentless pursuit of advancing the efficiency of solar cells. With years of expertise, he has emerged as a prominent figure in the solar technology landscape, known for his groundbreaking work in photovoltaic science. Dr. Smith’s passion for sustainable energy solutions has been a driving force behind his commitment to improving solar cell performance, an endeavor that transcends mere professional interest to become a personal mission.
  • Scope and Depth of Research: Dr. Smith’s research is a testament to his unwavering dedication. He embarked on a comprehensive journey, dissecting the intricate intricacies of photovoltaic technology to extract every iota of efficiency from solar cells. His work encompasses a wide spectrum, from fundamental material science to advanced engineering solutions.
  • Target Audience: With his extensive knowledge and innovative insights, Dr. Smith tailors his research for a specialized audience comprising solar energy researchers and engineers. These are the individuals on the front lines of transforming solar technology from a promising concept into a tangible reality.
  • Publication Timeline: In the ever-evolving realm of the solar industry, Dr. Smith recognizes the critical importance of disseminating his findings with expediency. His research directly addresses the pressing need for more efficient solar cells in a world increasingly dependent on clean energy sources.
  • Academic Impact: Dr. Smith’s ambitions extend beyond personal recognition. He envisions his work as a catalyst for immediate change within the solar energy community, anticipating that his research will drive innovation and shape the trajectory of solar technology.
  • Peer Review Process: Dr. Smith places immense value on the rigorous peer review process, seeing it as the crucible through which the purity and validity of his research will be confirmed. He welcomes the scrutiny of his peers, understanding that it is the linchpin of scientific credibility.
  • Copyright and Licensing: When it comes to copyright and licensing, Dr. Smith is open to traditional terms, aligning his approach with industry norms while ensuring his work’s rightful protection.

Considering these parameters, Dr. Smith makes a calculated decision to publish his research in a reputable journal. This choice aligns perfectly with his overarching goal of swiftly disseminating his research within the solar energy community and contributing substantially to the ongoing advancements in solar cell technology.

  • Dr. Johnson stands as an eminent figure in the realm of environmental science, recognized for his unwavering commitment to unraveling the intricate tapestry of ecological consequences stemming from deforestation in tropical rainforests. His journey as an environmental scientist has been marked by a profound dedication to understanding the complex web of interactions that define these unique ecosystems. Beyond being a researcher, Dr. Johnson is a conservationist at heart, and his work reflects a deeply ingrained sense of responsibility towards safeguarding the planet’s natural treasures.
  • Scope and Depth of Research: Dr. Johnson’s research represents a tour de force in the study of deforestation. His work encompasses a broad and comprehensive exploration of diverse facets, ranging from the ecological impacts on flora and fauna to the socio-economic implications on local communities. With meticulous fieldwork, data collection, and interdisciplinary analysis, his research is a testament to the depth and breadth of his commitment.
  • Target Audience: Dr. Johnson’s research isn’t confined to academic circles alone; it extends its reach to a diverse audience that includes environmental scientists, policymakers, conservationists, and even the general public. His findings hold relevance not only for the scientific community but also for those striving to make informed decisions about the future of tropical rainforests.
  • Publication Timeline: In his pursuit to address the ongoing crisis of deforestation, Dr. Johnson recognizes the urgency of timely dissemination. The ecosystems he studies are under constant threat, demanding immediate attention and action.
  • Academic Impact: While aiming for immediate recognition, Dr. Johnson’s aspirations transcend the here and now. He envisions his research as a cornerstone for long-term efforts aimed at preserving tropical rainforests and their rich biodiversity. His work is poised to influence not just contemporary policies but also the legacy we leave for future generations.
  • Peer Review Process: While valuing peer review, Dr. Johnson recognizes that the depth of scrutiny associated with specialized technological research may not be a necessity for his work. Nonetheless, he maintains a commitment to rigorous standards to ensure the credibility of his findings.
  • Copyright and Licensing: In line with his commitment to broad dissemination and education, Dr. Johnson is open to using a Creative Commons license, an approach that encourages widespread access to his research.

Considering these parameters, Dr. Johnson makes a well-informed decision to contribute a book chapter. This choice aligns seamlessly with his overarching mission to address the ongoing crisis of deforestation in tropical rainforests, allowing his research to reach a broader audience and contribute to the dialogue surrounding environmental conservation and policy-making.

This expanded description provides a deeper understanding of Dr. Johnson’s background and research, shedding light on the motivations and goals that lead him to choose a book chapter as the medium for his work.

These examples showcase how researchers in different domains make publication decisions based on the nature of their research, their intended audience, timeline considerations, academic impact goals, the peer review process, and copyright and licensing preferences. Dr. Smith opts for a journal publication to quickly reach the solar energy community, while Dr. Johnson chooses a book chapter to contribute to the long-term conservation dialogue.

Before We Close…

If you are planning to publish your research work as a journal then the following articles will help you to publish your article in reputed journals.

Writing an Effective Research Paper with 11 Major Sections

Avoiding Predatory Conferences and Journals: A Step-by-Step Guide for Researchers

How to Choose Right Journal Quartile (Q1/Q2/Q3/Q4) for My Research Paper?

In the intricate realm of academic publishing, the choice between disseminating research findings via journal articles or book chapters rests on a multifaceted interplay of parameters.

Researchers like Dr. Smith, grappling with rapidly evolving domains, might find journals to be conduits for swift recognition and immediate impact. In contrast, scholars like Dr. Johnson, investigating topics with enduring significance, might opt for book chapters to contribute to the collective knowledge over time.

The scope, audience, timeline, academic impact, peer review process, and copyright considerations significantly influence this critical decision. The journal’s rigorous peer review process ensures the credibility of research, while book chapters offer flexibility in copyright terms for broader distribution.

Ultimately, researchers must weigh these factors against their research’s unique attributes and objectives to determine the most fitting avenue for dissemination. Whether in the pages of a journal or a book chapter, the essence of research lies in its contribution to the ever-expanding tapestry of human knowledge, a testament to the evolving landscape of academia.

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7 Steps of Writing an Excellent Academic Book Chapter

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Writing is an inextricable part of an academic’s career; maintaining lab reports, writing personal statements, drafting cover letters, research proposals, the dissertation—this list goes on. However, while these are considered as essentials during any research program, writing an academic book is a milestone every writer aims to achieve. It could either be your urge of authoring a book or you may have received an invite from a publisher to write a book chapter . In both cases, most researchers find it difficult to write an academic book chapter.

The questions that may arise when you plan on writing a book chapter are:

  • Where do I start from?
  • How do I even do this?
  • What should be the length of book chapters?
  • How should I link one chapter to the following chapter?

These questions are quite common when starting with your first book chapter. In this article, we’ll discuss the steps on how to write an excellent academic book chapter.

Table of Contents

What is an Academic Book Chapter?

An academic book chapter is defined as a section, or division, of a book. These are usually separated with a chapter number or title. A chapter divides the overall book topic into topic-specific sections. Furthermore, each chapter in a book is related to the overall theme of the book.

A book chapter allows the author to divide their work in parts for readers to understand and remember it easily. Additionally, chapters help create structure in your writing for a better flow of ideas.

How Long Should a Book Chapter be?

Typically, a non-fiction book chapter should be small and must only include information related to one major idea. However, since a non-fiction /academic book is around 50,000 to 70,000 words, and each book would comprise 10-20 chapters, each book chapter’s word limit should range between 3500 and 7000 words.

While there aren’t any standard rules to follow with respect to the length of a book chapter, it may vary depending on the genre of your writing. However, it is better to refer your publisher’s guidelines and write your chapters accordingly.

Difference between a Book Chapter and Thesis Chapter

What makes a book excellent are the book chapters that it comprises. Thus, the key to writing an excellent book is mastering the art of writing a book chapter . You’d think you could write a book easily because you’ve already written your dissertation. However, writing a book chapter is not the same as writing your thesis.

The image below shares 5 major differences between a book chapter and a thesis chapter:

book chapter

How to Write a Book Chapter?

As writing a book chapter is the first milestone in your writing journey, it can be overwhelming and difficult to garner your thoughts and put them down on a sheet at once. It takes time and effort to gain momentum for accomplishing this mammoth task. However, proper planning followed by dedicated effort will make you realize that you were worrying over something trivial.

So let us make the process of writing a book chapter easier with these 7 steps.

Step 1: Collate Relevant Information

How would you even start writing a chapter if you do not have the necessary information or data? The first step even before you start writing is to review and collate all the relevant data that is necessary to formulate an informative chapter.

Since a chapter focuses on one major idea it should not include any gaps that perplexes the reader. Creating mind-maps help in linking different sources of information and compiling them to formulate a completely new chapter. As a result, you can structure your ideas to help with your analysis and see it visually. This process improves your understanding of the book’s theme.  More importantly, sort the ideas into a logical order of how you should present them in your chapter. This makes it easier to write the chapter without convoluting it.

Step 2: Design the Chapter Structure

After spending hours in brainstorming ideas and understanding the fundamentals that the chapter should cover, you must create a structured outline. Furthermore, following a standard format helps you stay on track and structure your chapter fluently.

Ideally, a well-structured chapter includes the following elements:

  • A title or heading
  • An interesting introduction
  • Main body informative paragraphs
  • A summary of the chapter
  • Smooth transition to the next chapter

Even so, you may not restrict yourself to following only one structure; rather, add more or less to each of your chapters depending on your genre, writing style, and requirement of the chapter to maintain the book’s overall theme. Keep only relevant content in your chapter. Avoid content that causes the reader to go off on a tangent.

Step 3: Write an Appealing Chapter Title/Heading

How often have you put a book back on the book store’s shelf right after reading its title? Didn’t even bother to read the synopsis, did you? Likewise, you may have written the most impactful chapter, but what sense would it make if its title is not interesting enough. An impactful chapter title captures the reader’s attention. It’s basically the “first sight” rule!

Your chapter’s title/heading must trigger curiosity in the reader and make them want to read and learn more. Although this is the first element of a chapter, most writers find it easier to create a title/heading after completing the chapter.

Step 4: Build an Engaging Introduction

Now that you have captured the reader’s attention with your title/heading, it has obviously increased the readers’ expectations from the content. To keep them interested in your chapter, write an introduction that keeps them hooked on. You may use a narrative approach or build a fictional plot to grab the attention of the reader. However, ensure that you do not deviate from the main context of your chapter. Finally, writing an effective introduction will help you in presenting an overview of your chapter.

Some of the tricks to follow when writing an exceptional introduction are:

  • Share an anecdote
  • Create a dialogue or conversation
  • Include quotations
  • Create a fictional plot

Step 5: Elaborate on Main Points of the Chapter

Impactful title? Checked!

Interesting introduction? Checked!

Now is the time to dive in to the details imparting section of the chapter. Expand your opening statement and begin to explain your points in detail. More importantly, leave no space for speculation in the reader’s mind.

This section should answer the following questions of the reader:

  • Why has the reader chosen to read your book?
  • What do they need to know?
  • Are their questions and doubts being resolved with the content of your chapter?

Ensure that you build each point coherently and follow a cohesive flow. Furthermore, provide statistical data, evidence-based information, experimental data, graphical presentations, etc. You could formulate these points into 4-5 paragraphs based on the details of your chapter. To ensure you structure these details coherently across the right number of paragraphs, calculate the number of paragraphs in your text here .

Step 6: Summarize the Chapter

As impactful was the entry, so should be the exit, right? The summary is the part where you are almost done. This section is a key takeaway for your readers. So, revisit your chapter’s main content and summarize it. Since your chapter has given a lot of information, you’d want the reader to remember the gist of it as they reach the end of your chapter. Hence, writing a concise summary that constitutes the crux of your chapter is imperative.

Step 7: Add a Call-to-Action & Transition to Next Chapter

This section comes at the extreme end of the book chapter, when you ask the reader to implement the learnings from the chapter. It is a way of applying their newly acquired knowledge. In this section, you can also add a transition from your chapter to the succeeding chapter.

So would you still have jitters while writing your book chapter? Are there any other strategies or steps that you follow to write one? Let us know in the comments section below on how these steps helped you in writing a book chapter .

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Thank you I have got a full lecture for sure

Thank for the encouraging words

You have demystified the act of writing a book chapter. Thank you for your efforts.

Very informative

It has really helpful for beginners like me.

Very impactful and informative. Thank you 😊

Very informative and helpful to beginners like us. Thank you.

Thanks for this very informative article

You have made writing a book chapter seem very simple. I appreciate all of your hard work.

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How to write a book chapter

I was asked by Dr. Joanna Brown for guidance on how to write a book chapter. I wouldn’t say I’m the ideal person for this task, but since I have published many of these for several edited collections , I think I can offer some advice.

I’ve got a few single-authored chapters on the go for three books at the moment (one on bottled water in the context of a human right to water, one on ethnography as a research method in comparative policy analysis, and one in press on national policy styles ), and thus I wanted to share my experience writing these.

My relationship with writing chapters for someone else’s edited volume is simultaneously love-and-hate, as people who read my blog regularly may remember .

@raulpacheco any advice for writing an academic book chapter? I'm struggling with some imposter syndrome. — Dr. Joanna (@joannawbrownphd) July 3, 2018

The value that different institutions place on book chapters varies widely. My own institution prefers journal articles, but as I’ve said before, I have participated in edited collections because I believe in the project, and also because these are usually collective projects I’m interested in undertaking. I’ve published book chapters in both Spanish and English, and I’ve also edited books as well, so I’m fond of the model. You should, nonetheless, consider the pros and cons of writing a book chapter.

AcWri highlighting and scribbling while on airplanes

First of all, book chapters are different from journal articles as many of these aren’t peer reviewed and therefore aren’t subject to as many changes and corrections as you could expect from articles. I will fully admit having published peer-reviewed book chapters that these are as much of a nightmare as journal article manuscripts. I have one particularly awful experience (which isn’t over yet!) in mind.

But the most important element that an author needs to keep thinking about when writing a book chapter, in my view, is how your chapter contributes to the overall Throughline of the book (I’ve mentioned The Throughline previously – or as Scandinavian authors call it, The Red Thread ). I’ve also emphasized the importance of demonstrating cohesiveness and coherence throughout an edited collection, as the editors of Untapped did in their edited volume on the sociology of beer .

With Untapped, Chapman and coauthors explore the question of "what is sociological about beer?" pic.twitter.com/tVcf069LRm — Dr Raul Pacheco-Vega (@raulpacheco) April 14, 2018

This sample chapter on how to write books actually provides a great example of how to write a book chapter . Normally, I would create an outline of the paper ( this blog post of mine will tell you two methods to create outlines ), then follow a sequential process to create the full paper ( my post on 8 sequential steps may be helpful here ).

More than anything, I do try really hard to use headings to guide the global argument of the chapter. The outline/sequence looks something like this:

  • Introduction. – outline of questions or topics to tackle throughout the chapter, and description of how the chapter will deal with them.
  • Topic 1 – answer to question 1.
  • Topic 2 – answer to question 2.
  • Topic N – answer to question N.
  • Discussion/synthesis. – how it all integrates and relates to the overall book.
  • Conclusions, limitations and future work.
  • References.

As I write my chapter, I make sure to link its content with other chapters in the edited volume . This may be a bit tricky because of how editors have timed contributions. Sometimes they don’t have all the chapters readily available to be shared across authors. But I’ve found that normally they do, and so they’re willing to share across all authors.

This guideline to writing chapters may also be helpful. It’s also quite important that you follow both the press and the editors’ guide (style, punctuation, citation formatting, etc.). But more than anything, I strongly believe that the best approach to writing a book chapter is to think of it as a way to present a series of thoughts in a cohesive manner that doesn’t necessarily equal a journal article. Yes, there may be empirical claims presented, and yes, there should probably some theoretical advancement in there, but again, it’s NOT a journal article.

Hope this post helps those of you writing a book chapter. If you want to read some of mine, you can download some of them here or here (Academia.Edu) or here (ResearchGate).

You can share this blog post on the following social networks by clicking on their icon.

Posted in academia , research , writing .

Tagged with AcWri , book chapters , writing .


By Raul Pacheco-Vega – July 11, 2018

12 Responses

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Can I reuse my own published papers in writing book chapters?

Reuse per se, perhaps not, republish maybe, with caveats, but you can use some text, yes.

In the book chapters, do we have to give results or only survey of others works will do ?

That depends on you and what the book editor expects!

Thank you, Sir. That was helpful.

As a research scholar I want to write a book chapter instead of writing a review paper. Can I do that? Do I need any special permission to write a book chapter?

This reminds me of the quote… “Any fool can make something complicated. It takes a genius to make it simple.” Thanks for posting this.

No special permission!

This is very useful. Thanks Raul.

will the book chapters will have references in the same manner as in manuscripts of journal

In book chapters, we have to do new research like (journal article ) or illustrate our ideas with already published work?

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Prepare & submit a manuscript.

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Guidelines for book editors, book authors and chapter authors

The following information gives advice and instructions on preparing a chapter or book and submitting it to us.

It is important that you adhere to the information on this page to ensure your manuscript is prepared and submitted to us correctly so that we are able to process and publish the book efficiently and on time.

Please ensure that you also read the specific instructions for your book type in addition to the general instructions below.

On this page

Format & layout Templates & sample layouts Submitting a manuscript

Guidelines for specific book types

Edited books Authored books Specialist periodical reports Conference proceedings

Format & layout

  • The manuscript should be prepared in Microsoft Word. If you want to use a different application, please contact us to discuss this first.
  • Text should use 2.0pt line-spacing.
  • Punctuation and spelling must follow standard English practice. The use of either British or American English is acceptable, but must be used consistently.
  • Standard IUPAC nomenclature must be used.
  • SI units and symbols must be used.
  • Abbreviations must be defined at first mention in the chapter and abbreviated thereafter. A list of abbreviations may be provided at the end of the chapter if necessary.

Numbers with five or more digits should have spaces every three digits (eg 10 000, 2 000 000 – commas, eg 10,000, should not be used). 

Units should be presented in inverse style (eg m s -1 and not m/s).

Chapter abstract

Each chapter will need a chapter abstract. The abstract is very important in promoting the book content. The abstract:

  • should be a single paragraph of 50–200 words, briefly summarising the chapter
  • will be present only in the eBook version of the book, and not the print book (with the exception of the Issues in Environment Science and Technology series and some specialist periodical reports)
  • must not contain any reference citations, figures or footnotes
  • The chapter text should be divided into sections with headings, as appropriate.
  • All main words within a heading should be capitalised.
  • No full point is needed at the end of a heading.
  • Acknowledgement and reference sections should be at the end of the chapter, and these headings are not numbered.
  • Headings should be numbered as follows (where X is the chapter number)*.
  • X Chapter Title
  • X.1 Main Section Heading
  • X.1.1 Sub Section Heading
  • X.1.1.1 Lower Sub Section Heading
  • Figures should be supplied as TIFF or EPS files, with a resolution of 600 dpi or greater and at a final size of 20 x 12 cm.
  • Photographs should be provided at the best resolution available (minimum 600 dpi) as TIFF, PDF or JPEG files.
  • Figures should be supplied ready for printing, without further retouching or redrawing.
  • Figures should be adequately labelled, and this must remain legible after reduction.
  • Information not necessary to the discussion – for example, solvents or temperatures – should be omitted from legends.
  • Avoid using long, complicated schemes or large figures as these may end up some distance from the textual discussion.
  • Over-large schemes or blocks of structures will be reduced to fit the page so you will need to ensure that detail is not lost in reduction – for example, make sure that lines are thick enough to be visible after reduction, and only label significant atoms in ORTEP-style diagrams.
  • Figures must be cited in the text. The recommended location of a figure to appear should be indicated as follows:  [Figure X.1 near here]
  • Figures taken from internet sites are not usually of reproducible quality, and may also be copyright protected; the original authors should be contacted for a suitable file and permission.
  • Figures should all be submitted as separate files and not embedded in the typescript (with the exception of ChemDraw files).

Chemical structures & schemes

  • Structures should be supplied as ChemDraw files.
  • Structural formulae and reaction schemes should be named Scheme X.1, X.2, etc, and must be cited in the text*.
  • The approximate positions in the text should be clearly indicated as follows: [Scheme X.2 near here]
  • Recommended guidelines for drawing structures as as follows.
  • Chain bond angle = 120°
  • Fixed bond angle = 15°
  • Bond length = 0.43 cm or 12.2 pt
  • Bond width = 0.016 cm or 0.5 pt
  • Bold bond width = 0.056 cm or 1.6 pt
  • Double bond space = 20% of bond length
  • Stereo bond width = 0.056 cm or 1.6 pt
  • Hash spacing = 0.062 cm or 1.8 pt
  • Captions/atom labels = Arial, 7 pt

Colour figures

Your contract will state whether the use of colour is allowed in the printed book or not. The use of colour figures will be considered only where scientifically necessary.

In the eBook version, any figures supplied in colour will appear in colour, regardless of whether the printed book is in colour or black and white. However, the same figure captions will be used in both the print and electronic version so refrain from mentioning colour in the caption.

  • Tables should be supplied in Word format.
  • Do not supply tables as image files or in Excel or PowerPoint.
  • Tables should be single-line spaced.
  • Footnotes in tables should be self-contained, labelled with superior lower-case letters, and listed as a block of text beneath the table.
  • The table must be cited in the text.
  • The approximate location of a table to appear should be indicated as follows: [Table X.5 near here]
  • All figures and tables should have a caption.
  • Items should be numbered as X.1, X.2, etc consecutively throughout the chapter*.
  • Items should be referred to by their number in the text. Do not use phrases such as 'in the figure above' as the final placement of items may change during typesetting.
  • If a figure has been previously published, the correct copyright information must be included in the caption as stipulated by the copyright holder.
  • When writing the caption for a figure, please bear in mind that a figure may be black and white in the print book but appear in the electronic book in colour, so the caption must make sense for both situations. Your contract will state if the use of colour is allowed in the printed book or not.
  • A separate list of all figure and table captions should appear at the end of the main text document.
  • These should be set in Mathtype (or Word Equation Editor, where Mathtype is unavailable).
  • They should be displayed on a separate line in the main text.
  • They should be numbered consecutively throughout each chapter ((X.1), (X.2) etc) in parentheses at the right-hand side of the page*.
  • Symbols for variables and physical constants should be italicised.
  • Matrices and vectors should appear in bold.
  • References should be superscripted in the text (for example, one day. 36 The next…).
  • CASSI Journal abbreviations should be used.
  • For authors using EndNote, an EndNote style file is available in Templates & sample documents .
  • A list of references in numerical order (following the Vancouver system) should appear at the end of the chapter. References should only appear once in the list. If the same source is cited more than once the reference number should be repeated.
  • Books in the Issues in Toxicology series must also include the full article title and the full page range in the reference lists.
  • References supplied in the Harvard (author/date) system will not be accepted. Please note that the Advances in Chemistry Education series is an exception to this rule.

Journal articles

A. Name, B. Name and C. Name, Journal Title , year, volume , first page.

When page numbers are not yet known, articles should be cited by DOI (Digital Object Identifier) – for example, T. J. Hebden, R. R. Schrock, M. K. Takase and P. Müller,  Chem. Commun ., 2012, DOI: 10.1039/C2CC17634C.

For books in the Issues in Toxicology series, you must also include the full article title and the complete page range.

A. Name, B. Name and C. Name,  Book Title , Publisher, Publisher's Location, edition, year. For example, S. T. Beckett,  Science of Chocolate , Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, 2000. 

If you are referencing published conference proceedings, these should be cited as for a book.

Book chapters

A. Name, in  Book Title , ed. Editor Name(s), Publisher, Publisher Location, edition, year, chapter, pages. 

The ‘ed.’ in the example above stands for ‘edited by’. If the book has no editors this should be left out.

A. Name, PhD thesis, University Name, year.

Lectures, meetings & conferences

A. Name, presented in part at Conference Title, Place, Month, year.

Reference to unpublished material

You should not reference unpublished work without the permission of those who completed the work.

For material accepted for publication, but not yet published: A. Name,  Journal Title , in press. 

For material submitted for publication, but not yet accepted: A. Name,  Journal Title , submitted. For material that has yet to be submitted for publication: A. Name, unpublished work.

Online resources (including databases, websites & wikis)

Name of resource, URL, (accessed date). 

Please note the most important information to include is the URL and the date accessed. For example, The Merck Index Online, http://www.rsc.org/Merck-Index/monograph/mono1500000841, (accessed January 2016).

Preprint servers (for example, arXiv)

For example: V. Krstic and M. Glerup, 2006, arXiv:cond-mat/0601513.

The name of the patentee must be given. For example, A. Name,  Br. Pat. , 123 456, 2016. B. Name,  US Pat ., 1 234 567, 2015.

T. Bellander, M. Lewne and B. Brunekreef, GAUSSIAN 3 (Revision B.05), Gaussian Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, 2003.

Electronic supplementary information (ESI)

If you wish to provide additional content to accompany your chapter, for example extra figures, data tables or a video, we can now host this alongside the chapter files online.

Please submit any ESI files along with your manuscript, ensuring that they are clearly marked as ESI. ESI will be made available online at the same time as the ebook is published, or when the print book is published for print-only titles.

Templates & sample documents

research paper book chapters

Submitting a manuscript

Large file transfer system.

Our Large File Transfer (LFT) system provides a secure means to upload large files.

As soon as you are ready to submit the final and complete manuscript, we'll send you a link to the LFT. This link will have an expiry date so please do let us know if you're not ready to send the typescript in.

All the folders for the book should all be zipped into one complete zip file before uploading. If the zip file exceeds the 1 GB limit then please split into two or send chapter by chapter.

How to create a zip file

In Windows Explorer, navigate to where the folders are that you want to zip; select all the folders. Right-click on the highlighted files, and select 'Send to' followed by 'Compressed (zipped) folder'.

In OSX, navigate to where the folders are that you want to zip; select all the folders. Right-click on the highligted files, and select 'Compress Items'.

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APA Style, 7th Edition

  • Introduction

Chapters & Essays

Parts of a single-author book, chapters & essays in print books, chapters & essays in ebooks.

  • Theses, Dissertations, & DMin Projects
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When citing an individual section of larger work such as a volume of essays or a reference work, the author and title of the individual section must be given before the title, and the editor of the larger work, if applicable. Utilize the following guidelines described in section 10.3 of APA:

  • Give the author's name.   
  • Publication date in parentheses
  • Title of the specific section or chapter followed by a period.  Do not place quotation marks around the section title. 
  • Place the word In before giving the editor and title of the larger work where the section is found.
  • If the larger work has an editor, list the name of the editor(s) followed by the abbreviation Ed. or Eds. in parentheses and followed by a comma.
  • Give the complete title of the multivolume work in italics.
  • If the work has more than one volume, place the volume number immediately before the page numbers followed by a comma.
  • In parentheses give the page numbers where the specific section is found followed by a period.
  • Place the publisher name at the end of the citation followed by a period.
  • A DOI if available or URL if applicable are placed at the end without a period.

Sometimes you may use only a single chapter or essay from a larger book by a single-author.  In those instances, APA indicates to include a reference citation for the entire work. The parenthetical citation should note the specific chapter number cited as indicated in APA section 8.13.

R:   Cone, S.D. (2018). Theology from the Great Tradition.  Bloomsbury T & T Clark.

P:  (Cone 2018, chapter 3)

Here is an example for citing a specific article in a one volume theological encyclopedia:

R: Morris, L. L. (1996). Death. In R. W. Wood (Ed.),  New Bible dictionary  (3rd ed., pp. 265-267). InterVarsity Press.

P: (Morris, 1996, p. 266)

Here is an example for citing a specific article in an abridged theological encyclopedia such as the one-volume  Theological Dictionary of the New Testament , frequently referred to as Little Kittel. This example also includes a translator as shown in APA 10.3 example 42.

R: Kuhn, K. G. (1985). Marantha (G. W. Bromiley, Trans.). In G. Kittel (Ed.),  Theological dictionary of the New Testament  (pp. 563-564). Eerdmans.

P: (Kuhn, 1985, p. 563)

Citations for a chapter or essay in an ebook or an article from an online reference work such as Sage Knowledge should be formatted according to section 10.3.  A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is preferred when available as shown in the example below and in APA 10.3 example 38.

R: Matheson, V. (2006). Poverty gap index. In M. Odekon (Ed.),  Encyclopedia of world poverty  (pp. 844-845). SAGE.  https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412939607.n547

P: (Matheson, 2006, paragraph 3)

When using only a chapter of an ebook found via eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), Ebrary, or PsycBOOKS, this model would be followed. Items from an academic research databases do not require the use of a URL but do require a DOI if available. 

R: Gottman, J. M., & Gottman, J. S. (2013). Difficulties with clients in Gottman method couples therapy. In  Transforming negative reactions to clients: From frustration to compassion  (pp. 91-112).  American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/13940-004

P: (Gottman and Gottman, 2013, p. 95)

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Chapter 1: Getting started with research

1.4 Formats

Certain formats tend to be used for specific purposes. Because of this, many instructors will tell you exactly what types and formats to use (or avoid) for research assignments. Alternatively, they may tell you to use only peer-reviewed sources without specifying a format. Review your assignment requirements and select sources that meet those requirements. Here are some examples of formats you may encounter during your research.

Books tend to be much longer and, because of this, they can go into greater depth than articles. Books are great sources for providing a “big picture” perspective of a topic with background information and rich detail.

Book chapters

In a scholarly context, book chapters are typically research papers on a certain topic or theme that were written by different authors and brought together in a single book. Often there is an editor of the book who solicits and compiles chapter submissions. Many disciplines in the humanities and social sciences rely on book chapters for communicating their research findings and learning about their peers’ work.

Newspaper and magazine articles

Newspaper and magazine articles tend to be brief and to the point. They’re intended to keep us current with events and popular topics, and rarely go in depth or provide sources for further reading. Newspaper articles are a common example of a primary source, which we’ll discuss in the next section.

Conference proceedings

Conference proceedings are the compiled presentations and papers published after a scholarly or professional organization’s conference is over. This is done so there is a lasting record of the research ideas that were shared at the event. Some academic disciplines rely heavily on scholarly conferences as a means of quickly sharing and discussing new research and creative contributions by scholars in that subject area.

Journal articles

Scholarly journal articles tend to be several pages long and focused on very specific facets of a larger topic or research project. These papers are written by subject experts and published in scholarly journals. In the course of your studies, your instructor may tell you to use “peer-reviewed journals” in a writing assignment. Most of the time, what your instructor means is that you need to use individual articles published in a peer-reviewed journal, not the entire journal and all its contents.

Articles and journals: knowing the difference

There are specific tools and search techniques that help you find articles, and others that help you find journals. For this reason, it’s important to recognize the difference between articles and journals. Journals are publications typically focused on a particular topic or professional activity. They are published on an ongoing basis at regular intervals and contain the following elements:

  • Article:  a single paper focused on one topic, most often the results of a single research project.
  • Issue: a set of articles published together on a weekly, monthly, or quarterly basis.
  • Volume: a collection of all the issues published in a single year.

A printed journal article, a glossy cover of a bound collection of articles (an issue), and a pile of journal issues (volume)

The parts of a journal are easier to remember if you compare them to parts of a television show. An article in a journal focuses on a topic in the same way that a scene in a television show focuses on a plot element. A collection of articles forms an issue similar to the way scenes come together to complete an episode. Not all journal articles within the same issue will be on the exact same topic. They may just be loosely related within the same discipline. Think of a show with multiple plot lines or separate segments (e.g., Saturday Night Live sketches). A year’s worth of issues adds up to a volume in the same way episodes comprise a season. These volumes are part of a journal, like seasons are part of a series. Some have completed their run, and some are ongoing. Journals and the articles they contain are made available through indexes in a similar way to how series and episodes are made available by networks or distributors (e.g. CBS, Netflix, ESPN). You’ll learn more about indexes in Chapter 2.

Check your understanding

Library 160: Introduction to College-Level Research Copyright © 2021 by Iowa State University Library Instruction Services is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Manuscript preparation

“From the proposal stage to the publication, every stage is process driven. Very systematic communication and the best e-proofing platform for online proof submission!” -  Book Author, 2020

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You can keep track of where your book is in the publication process in real-time by signing up for notifications alerting you of all the critical stages, including when your book is published online and ready to share with the research community.

Revising your thesis into a book

Springer  will consider submissions containing material that has previously formed part of a PhD or other academic thesis including those that have been made publicly available according to the requirements of the institution awarding the qualification.

Important downloads

  • Manuscript guidelines for English books
  • Manuscript guidelines for English textbooks
  • Key style points
  • LaTeX template for monographs
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  • Word template for book chapters
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  • Open access books resources author guide

On this page

Layout & templates.

If you are comfortable using templates, we offer Word and LaTeX templates for monographs as well as for contributed books. If you prefer not to use a template, please follow the alternate instructions given under the appropriate template below.

When writing a book for Springer, please do not worry about the final layout. To ensure we always keep pace with all the requirements both online and in print, Springer

  • structures the content in XML as the basis for presentation in print or in digital formats for such devices as Amazon Kindle™, Apple iPad™/iPhone™, and Google Android™
  • utilizes standard layouts with style specifications suitable for multiple display formats.

What advantages do these provide for you in manuscript preparation? It means you can focus on the structured content and let Springer take care of the rest . We will professionally prepare your book with underlying XML structuring, in such a way that ensures your content becomes not only a professionally typeset printed work but is also available to readers in numerous formats for many years to come.

A key part of the publication process (and in response to the changing requirements of the book industry), are the standard corporate book covers that Springer introduced for each subject area in which it publishes. These covers provide a strong, corporate brand identity for Springer books, making them instantly recognizable amongst the scientific community. In addition the covers also assist speed of publication, as having standardized versions greatly reduces the time traditionally spent on creating individual book covers for each title.

Springer provides templates for Word users that help structure the manuscript, e.g., define the heading hierarchy. If you are using Microsoft Word to prepare your manuscript, you do not need to use any special tool for preparation. Please just ensure that the document is clearly structured visually, (e.g., using heading styles, lists, footnotes, etc.). We also provide a Manuscript preparation tool for Word.

  • Word template

Note: These templates are not intended for the preparation of the final page layout. The final layout will be created by Springer according to our layout specifications.

The usage of these templates is not mandatory. Alternatively, you may either use a blank Word document or the standard LaTeX book class (for monographs) or article class (for individual contributions) and apply the default settings and styles (e.g., for heading styles, lists, footnotes, etc.).

Springer provides templates for LaTeX users that help structure the manuscript, e.g., define the heading hierarchy. Predefined style formats are available for all the necessary structures that are supposed to be part of the manuscript, and these formats can be quickly accessed via hotkeys or special toolbars.

Note: are not intended for the preparation of the final page layout. The final layout will be created by Springer according to our layout specifications.

LaTeX2e macro packages for 

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Book structure

To guarantee a smooth publication process and a seamless transformation of your manuscript into the final layout and various electronic platforms, the manuscript needs to be structured as follows:

  • Front Matter: Title page, Dedication, Foreword, Preface, Acknowledgments, About the book/conference, Table of Contents, About the Author (for authored books), About the Editor/List of Contributors (for edited books), List of Abbreviations, List of Figures and/or Tables

The title page and table of contents must appear in the manuscript’s front matter. All other sections listed above are optional. The above order is not flexible. We have defined this order as our house style and optimized our publication process to follow it strictly.

  • Text Body: It comprises the chapters containing the content of the book, i.e. text, figures, tables, and references. Chapters can be grouped together in parts.
  • Back Matter: After the last chapter, the back matter can contain an appendix, a glossary, and/or an index, all of which are optional.

Front matter

Title page, preface, and table of contents precede the actual content of a book. The preface should be about the book: why it was written, who it is for, its organization, or the selection of contributors. An introduction in the subject of the book, however, should appear as the first chapter of the book.

Please include all author/editor names, their affiliations, the book title, and the subtitle. Ensure that the sequence of the author names is correct and the title of your book is final when you submit your manuscript. Once the manuscript has been delivered to Production, changes to title, subtitle, or authorship are no longer possible.

If you intend to include a foreword, please submit it with the manuscript.

  • A foreword is usually written by an authority in the subject and serves as a recommendation for the book
  • The name of the foreword’s contributor is always given at the end of the foreword; affiliations and titles are generally not included, but the date and place of writing may be.

The preface should be about the book: why its important, why it was written, who it is for. It should stimulate interest in the book.

  • Front matter material is not listed in the table of contents.
  • List all parts, chapters, and back matter material (e.g., an index) in their final sequence.
  • If your chapters are numbered, use Arabic numerals and number the chapters consecutively throughout the book (Chapter 1, Chapter 2, etc.), i.e., do not start anew with each part. The introductory chapter must be listed as Chapter 1, if your chapters are numbered. Please do not use subchapters.
  • In authored books we present two heading levels under the main chapter titles. In edited books, we present the chapter titles and the chapter author names.
  • If there are parts, use Roman numerals for parts (Part I, Part II, etc.). Parts consist of a short title and can contain a short introductory text (optional). Please don’t use subparts.

Chapters contain the actual content of the book, i.e., text, figures, tables, and references. Chapters can be grouped together in parts; subparts are not possible. Only one chapter (e.g. an introduction) may precede the first part and would be the first chapter.

  • Decide the numbering style for the chapters and apply this style consistently to all chapters: consecutively numbered (monographs or textbooks) or unnumbered (contributed volumes).
  • If an introduction to the subject of the book (historical background, definitions, or methodology) is included, it should appear as the first chapter and thus be included in the chapter numbering. It can contain references, figures, and tables, just as any other chapter.

Either British or American English can be used, but be consistent within your chapter or book. In contributed books chapter-specific consistency is accepted Check for consistent spelling of names, terms and abbreviations, including in tables and figure legends.

For contributed volumes, please include each chapter authors’ names (spelled out as they would be cited), affiliations and e-mail addresses and telephone numbers after the chapter title. Ensure that the sequence of the author names is correct and the title of your book is final when you submit your manuscript. Please supply all emails, telephone numbers and address of each author and editor. Once the manuscript has been delivered to production, changes to title or authorship are no longer possible.

Chapter abstracts are strongly encouraged because they have been proven to significantly increase a book’s visibility. Good abstracts will mean that more people read your book. These will appear online at SpringerLink and other sites and will be available with unrestricted access to facilitate online searching (e.g., Google) and allow unregistered users to read the abstract as a teaser for the complete chapter.

If no abstract is submitted, we will use the first paragraph of the chapter instead.

Some books also publish keywords. Please check with the editor of your book or with the publishing editor to see if keywords are required.

  • Heading levels should be clearly identified and each level should be uniquely and consistently formatted and/or numbered.
  • Use the decimal system of numbering if your headings are numbered.
  • Never skip a heading level. The only exception are run-in headings which can be used at any hierarchical level.
  • Technical terms and abbreviations should be defined the first time they appear in the text.
  • Please always use internationally accepted signs and symbols for units (also called SI units).
  • Numerals should follow the British/American method of decimal points to indicate decimals and commas to separate thousands

Manuscripts will be checked by a copy editor for formal style. Springer Nature follows certain layouts and standards with regard to the presentation of the content, and the copy editors make sure that the manuscript conforms to these styles. When you receive the page proofs during the production of your book, please do not make changes that involve only matters of style.

  • Italics should be used for emphasized words or phrases in running text, but do not format entire paragraphs in italics. 
  • Use italics for species and genus names, mathematical/physical variables, and prefixes in chemical compounds. 
  • Bold formatting should only be used for run-in headings and small capitals for indicating optical activity (D- and L-dopa). 
  • Sans serif (e.g., Arial) and nonproportional font (e.g., Courier) can be used to distinguish the literal text of computer programs from running text.
  • Do not set entire pages as boxes, because this diminishes online readability.
  • Do not set entire pages as boxes, because this affects online readability. 
  • For additional didactic elements such as examples, questions, exercises, summaries, or key messages in textbooks and in professional books, please use a consistent style for each of these elements and submit a list of the styles used together with your manuscript. For LaTeX users please use the Springer Nature macro package to highlight these elements.
  • In Word, use the Math function, MathType, or Microsoft Equation editor to create your equations. Please don’t include the equations as images.
  • In LaTeX, use the Math environment to create your equations.
  • Give each table a heading (caption). Add a reference to the table source at the end of the caption if necessary.
  • Number tables consecutively using the chapter number (e.g. Table 1.1 for the first table in Chapter 1) and ensure that all tables are cited in the text in sequential order. Do not write “the following table”.
  • Use the table function to create and format tables. Do not use the space bar or multiple tabs to separate columns and please do not use Excel to create tables as this can cause problems when converting your tables into the typesetting program and other formats.

Figures and illustrations

Number the figures using the chapter number (e.g. Fig. 1.1 for the first figure in Chap. 1) and ensure that all figures are cited in the text in sequential order. Do not write “the following figure”.

  • Give each figure a concise caption, describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions at the end of the text file, not in the figure file.
  • Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs instead of color lines.
  • If a figure is reproduced from a previous publication, include the source as the last item in the caption.
  • A figure is an object that is drawn or photographed; it does not consist solely of characters and thus cannot be keyed.
  • Do not submit tabular material as figures.
  • Graphics and diagrams should be saved as EPS file with the fonts embedded. MS Office files (Excel or PowerPoint) can be submitted in the original format (xls, xlsx, ppt, pptx). Scanned graphics in TIFF format should have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi.
  • Photos or drawings with fine shading should be saved as TIFF with a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.
  • A combination of halftone and line art (e.g., photos containing line drawing or extensive lettering, color diagrams, etc.) should be saved as TIFF with a minimum resolution of 600 dpi.

Cite references in the text with author name/s and year of publication in parentheses (“Harvard system”)

  • One author: (Miller 1991) or Miller (1991)
  • Two authors: (Miller and Smith 1994) or Miller and Smith (1994)
  • Three authors or more: (Miller et al. 1995) or Miller et al. (1995)

If it is customary in your field, you can also cite with reference numbers in square brackets either sequential by citation or according to the sequence in an alphabetized list: [3, 7, 12].

Include a reference list at the end of each chapter so that readers of single chapters of the eBook can make full use of the citations. References at the end of the book cannot be linked to citations in the chapters. Please do not include reference lists at the end of a chapter section, at the end of a book part, in a preface or an appendix.

Include all works that are cited in the chapter and that have been published (including on the internet) or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes as a substitute for a reference list.

Entries in the list must be listed alphabetically except in the numbered system of sequential citation. The rules for alphabetization are:

  • First, all works by the author alone, ordered chronologically by year of publication
  • Next, all works by the author with a coauthor, ordered alphabetically by coauthor
  • Finally, all works by the author with several coauthors, ordered chronologically by year of publication

Springer Nature follows certain standards with regard to the presentation of the reference list. They are based on reference styles that were established for various disciplines in the past and have been adjusted to facilitate automated processing and citation linking. This allows us, for example, to easily cross link the cited references with the original publication. References will be revised in production in accordance with these house styles. 

Choose the appropriate style for your subject from the list below. Please note that the adapted and standardized forms are based on, but differ slightly from, certain recommended styles (e.g., APA, Chicago)

Back matter

After the last chapter, the back matter of the book can contain an appendix, a glossary or an index.

Do not include a reference list containing the cited literature in the back matter, as references are then not linked to citations in the chapters. Instead, please include reference lists at the end of each chapter. A list of further reading may be included in the back matter.

An appendix cannot include a reference list.

If an index is desired, please submit the entries with the manuscript.

Optimizing for Google – tips for book authors

Contribute to your book's success, long before it's published. By following a few tips when thinking about your book’s title, its back cover description and unique selling points, you can make sure that potential readers are able to find your finished book.

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Search engine optimization (SEO) is about relevance! Help Google and other search engines present your book to the right audience and give these readers what they want.

research paper book chapters

Publishing Research as Book Chapters: Is It Worth It?

Recent discussions about publishing academic and scientific research as book chapters in edited volumes instead of as articles in scholarly journals have suggested that book chapters do not get cited nearly as often as journal articles do. With citation reports and impact factors so central to a successful academic or scientific career these days, it is natural to wonder whether there is any point in contributing chapters to edited volumes. If citations are your main concern, then the answer may well be no, though accessibility is a key issue. If, for instance, the book is going to be released as an e-book that is searchable and accessible online, then your chapter will, at least theoretically, be as accessible as a journal article would be, provided you design your title, keywords and abstract (if one is included) in such a way that search engines will lead potential readers to your work. Yet many edited collections of essays are published only in print versions, at least for initial publication, and it is much less likely now than it was twenty years ago that a reader will find your chapter by chance while scanning a library shelf for writing on a given topic. PhD Thesis Editing Services However, citations, as important as they may be, are usually not the only reason to publish research, and they certainly should not be. A book chapter often allows the author more scope and creativity to bring together ideas and theories and present them in original ways than a journal article does. An edited book of essays as a whole tends to gather together a variety of perspectives on a problem or phenomenon, producing a collection of considerable value for readers and especially for students and practitioners who are new to the subject or topic. In some instances, edited volumes will be used as instructional resources in courses, effectively becoming textbooks and influencing a new generation of scholars. Edited volumes will usually contain a few (or at least one) chapter by a well-established and well-cited academic or scientific author, and for contributors just beginning their careers, being published in close proximity to such scholars can be beneficial and suggest to employers and funding bodies that candidates have meaningful research connections. There are, then, still some very good reasons to publish your research in edited volumes, and in the social sciences and humanities such collections remain common and books are still considered by some the gold standard of academic publication. If you are thinking of contributing a book chapter, however, do take a close look at the publisher, the volume’s editor(s) and the other contributors, as well as at the accessibility anticipated for the book, since these will be reliable indicators of the quality of the forthcoming volume, the ability of readers to find your work and the potential benefits for your research and career.

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The Process of Research Writing

(19 reviews)

research paper book chapters

Steven D. Krause, Eastern Michigan University

Copyright Year: 2007

Publisher: Steven D. Krause

Language: English

Formats Available

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Reviewed by Kevin Kennedy, Adjunct Professor, Bridgewater State University on 12/2/22

I think this book would make an excellent supplement to other class material in a class focused on writing and research. It helps a lot with the "why"s of research and gives a high-level overview. read more

Comprehensiveness rating: 3 see less

I think this book would make an excellent supplement to other class material in a class focused on writing and research. It helps a lot with the "why"s of research and gives a high-level overview.

Content Accuracy rating: 5

The book is accurate, and talks a lot about different ways to view academic writing

Relevance/Longevity rating: 5

This would be quite relevant for a student early on the college journey who is starting to complete research-based projects.

Clarity rating: 4

The text is clear and concise, though that conciseness sometimes leads to less content than I'd like

Consistency rating: 5

The book is consistent throughout

Modularity rating: 4

I could use the first chapters of this book very easily, but the later ones get into exercises that my classes wouldn't necessarily use

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 4

The book is organized from the high level (what is academic writing with research) to the more specific (here are some specific exercises)

Interface rating: 3

I don't like the flow from contents to chapters, and they feel distinctly text-based. This is a no-frills text, but that's ok.

Grammatical Errors rating: 3

I didn't note anything glaringly obvious

Cultural Relevance rating: 5

I think that this text stays away from the cultural and focuses mostly on the cognitive. This prevents offensive material, though it may make it less appealing to students.

Reviewed by Julie Sorge Way, Instructional Faculty, James Madison University on 11/23/21

Overall, I think this book’s strongest suits are its organization, clarity, and modularity. It is useful and adaptable for a wide range of courses involving a research component, and as the book itself argues, research is a part of most learning... read more

Comprehensiveness rating: 4 see less

Overall, I think this book’s strongest suits are its organization, clarity, and modularity. It is useful and adaptable for a wide range of courses involving a research component, and as the book itself argues, research is a part of most learning at the university level, whether or not a single traditional “research paper” is the end goal of a course. This is a great book with adaptable and useful content across a range of disciplines, and while it is low on “bells and whistles,” the content it provides seems to be relevant, helpful, and also fill a gap among other OER texts that focus more on rhetoric and less on research.

Because this is a book on research writing rather than cutting edge science, etc. it is unlikely to be made inaccurate by the passing of time.

In a desire to move past the simple “Comp II” textbook, Krause’s work here is relevant to a variety of fields. In creating a course with a major-specific research component, many parts of this text are relevant to what I’m doing, and due to its modularity and organization (see below) I am able to make use of it easily and draw students’ attention to the parts that will help them most with our learning objectives.

Clarity rating: 5

Krause’s writing style is uncomplicated and direct. His examples are ones I think most students could relate to or at least connect with reasonably well.

While the book is internally consistent in its tone, level of detail, and relevance to Krause’s original writing goals, in the process of applying it to different courses (as almost inevitably happens with OER materials) it is inconsistently useful for the course I in particular am planning. This is certainly no fault of the book’s. One example would be that it presents MLA and APA format for citing sources, but not Chicago/Turabian.

Modularity rating: 5

Certainly, its modularity is a real strong suit for Krause’s book overall – individual instructors planning different types of coursework that involve writing and research can easily adapt parts that work, and its Creative Commons license makes this even better.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5

Clear and direct organization is another strong suit in Krause’s text. The information is presented in an orderly and easy to navigate way that allows instructors and students alike to hone in on the most useful information for their writing and research task without spending undue amounts of time searching. This is much appreciated especially in an open access text where instructors are more likely to be “picking and choosing” relevant content from multiple texts and resources.

Interface rating: 4

Simple but clear – basic HTML and PDF navigation by chapter and section. Like many OER texts it is a bit short on visual engagement – the colorful infographics and illustrations many people are used to both in printed textbooks and interacting with internet content.

Grammatical Errors rating: 5

No errors noted.

Widely relevant (at least in the North American context I have most experience with) but as always, instructors should preview and adapt all material for the needs and context of their own classes and students.

research paper book chapters

Reviewed by Li-Anne Delavega, Undergraduate Research Experience Coordinator, Kapiolani Community College on 5/1/21

This textbook builds a good foundation for first-year students with topics such as developing a thesis, how to find sources and evaluate them, creating an annotated bibliography, audience, and avoiding plagiarism. While the content is explained... read more

This textbook builds a good foundation for first-year students with topics such as developing a thesis, how to find sources and evaluate them, creating an annotated bibliography, audience, and avoiding plagiarism. While the content is explained well and students are slowly walked through the research process, the textbook ends abruptly ends with a quick overview of the elements of a research essay after students organize their evidence and create an outline. A part two textbook that covers the rest of the writing process, such as structuring paragraphs, how to write an introduction and conclusion, and revising drafts, is needed to help students get to a finished product. As a composition-based textbook, I also felt it could have used a section on building arguments. The true gem of this textbook is its activities/exercises and comprehensive but accessible explanations.

Content Accuracy rating: 4

Aside from outdated citations and technology-related content, the process-based writing instruction is accurate and answers common questions from students about research and basic writing. I feel like the questions, checklists, and activities posed are helpful for students to really think through their writing process, and the author explains things without judgment. While students can benefit, I feel that faculty would also benefit from using this as a teaching manual to plan their classes.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 3

The writing instruction is solid and is still used in many textbooks today. Obviously, the sections on technology and citation are outdated, but some sections still have good reliable advice at their core. For example, search language, unreliable web sources, and collaborating online have evolved, but the concepts remain the same. I would cut those sections out and just take what I needed to give to students. The author has no plans to update this book, and someone would need to rewrite many sections of the book, which is not easy to implement.

The book is largely free of jargon and terms are clearly explained. The author's tone is casual and conversational when compared to other textbooks, which makes it more accessible to students and acts as a guide through the research process. However, it does lend itself to longer sections that could use heavy editing and it does sound like a mini-lecture, but I liked the way he thoroughly explains and sets up concepts. His tone and style are a bit inconsistent as others have noted.

The book is very consistent since research and writing terminology is the same across most disciplines. If you're a composition instructor, you'll find the framework is just common writing pedagogy for academic writing: focus on the writing process, freewriting, peer review, audience, revision, etc.

This book was intended to be modular and chapters are mostly self-contained, so it is easy to use individual chapters or change the sequence. There are unusable hyperlinks in each chapter that refer to other sections, but those are additional resources that could be replaced with a citation guide or other common resources. Sections, activities, examples, and key ideas are clearly labeled and can be used without the rest of the chapter. However, some writing concepts, such as a working thesis, are mentioned again in later chapters.

Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 3

Parts of the book are easily identifiable and the content within the chapter flows easily from one concept to the next. I felt that some of the chapters should have appeared earlier in the textbook. Students would have to wait until chapter 10 to learn about the research essay. Revising a working thesis comes before categorizing and reviewing your evidence. The peer-review chapter that advises students to read sections of their writing aloud to catch mistakes comes before brainstorming a topic. However, the sequence will depend on the instructor's preference. An index or a complete, searchable text would have helped so you don't need to guess which chapter has the content you need.

The PDF is the more polished and easier to read of the two versions. Overall, the PDF was well laid out, with clear headers and images. I found the colored boxes for the exercises helpful, though a lighter color would make the text easier to see for more students. The text uses different styles to create organization and emphasis, which made some pages (especially in the beginning) hard to read with the bolded and italicized clutter. I would have loved a complied version with all the chapters.

The HTML version is difficult to read as it is one long block of text and the callouts and images are not well spaced. There is, unfortunately, no benefit to reading the web version: no clickable links, dynamic text flow, or navigational links within each page so you will need to go back to the TOC to get the next section.

Grammatical Errors rating: 4

The book has grammatical and mechanical errors throughout but does not impact content comprehension. Other reviewers here identified more notable errors.

Cultural Relevance rating: 2

The language, examples, and references were generally ok, but the overall textbook felt acultural. Some consideration was taken with pronouns (relies on they/them/their) and gender roles. As others pointed out, there are many areas that could have used diversified sources, topics, references, examples, and students. Some of the textbook's activities assume able-bodied students and sections such as peer collaboration would benefit from a more nuanced discussion when he brought up resentment over non-contributing members, being silenced, and access to resources. There are a few red flags, but one glaring example is on page 5 of chapter 10. An excerpt from an article titled “Preparing to Be Colonized: Land Tenure and Legal Strategy in Nineteenth-Century Hawaii”(which includes the sentence, "Why did Hawaiians do this to themselves?") was used to show students when to use "I" in writing.

Overall, this is a good resource for writing instructors. As this book was written in 2007, faculty will need to cut or adapt a fair amount of the text to modernize it. It is not a textbook to assign to students for the semester, but the textbook's core content is solid writing pedagogy and the focus on using activities to reflect and revise is wonderful. Those outside of composition may find the basic exercises and explanations useful as long as students are primarily working out of a more discipline-specific (e.g., sciences) writing guide.

Reviewed by Milena Gueorguieva, Associate Teaching Professor, University of Massachusetts Lowell on 6/28/20

This is a process based research writing textbook, a rarity among composition textbooks. It is often the case that foundational writing courses are supposed to cover process and then, very often, instructors, students and textbook authors all... read more

Comprehensiveness rating: 5 see less

This is a process based research writing textbook, a rarity among composition textbooks. It is often the case that foundational writing courses are supposed to cover process and then, very often, instructors, students and textbook authors all forget that process is important when they have to dive into the technical aspects of conducting and writing about and from research, usually in a 'second course' in the first year writing sequence. This is not the case with this book: it is a thoughtful, comprehensive exploration of writing from research as a multi-step recursive process. This approach can help students solidify the knowledge and skills they have acquired in prior courses, especially the multi-step recursive nature of writing as a process while developing a set of strong writing from research skills.

The foundations of research writing are presented in an accessible yet rigorous way. The book does away with the myth of research writing as something you do after you think about and research a topic. The author articulated this idea very well, when he wrote, ”We think about what it is we want to research and write about, but at the same time, we learn what to think based on our research and our writing.”

Relevance/Longevity rating: 4

Overall, an excellent handbook (it can be used non-sequentially); however, some of the information on database searches and working with popular internet sources as well as collaborative writing (especially as it relates to the use of technology) needs updating.

The appropriately conversational tone translates complex academic concepts into easy to access ideas that students can relate to. The same is true for the many activities and exercises that demonstrate a variety of real life applications for the research skills presented in the book, which helps students see that research and research based writing happen everywhere, not just on campuses , where students seem to write for an audience of one: the professor who assigned the paper.

The material presented is rigorously and consistently presented in various modes: text, activities and exercises.

It can be used in a variety of ways; it has excellent modular stucture.

Excellently organized: reviews and expands on what students might already know about academic writing as a process; introduces the fundamentals of research and research writing and then uses both of these sets of skills in various research projects.

Although it has some very useful and appropriate visuals , the text could have been more user friendly; it is difficult to follow.

Excellently proof-read,

the book is culturally sensitive and contains appropriate examples and/or references.

An overall excellent composition text that provides useful exercises and assignments (such as the antithesis essay) that can help students build complex and nuanced arguments based on research. Highly recommend!

Reviewed by Valerie Young, Associate Professor, Hanover College on 3/29/20

This text is both general and specific. General enough for use in a variety of courses and disciplines, specific enough to garner interest for faculty who want to teach students the fundamentals and more nuanced aspects of research writing. The... read more

This text is both general and specific. General enough for use in a variety of courses and disciplines, specific enough to garner interest for faculty who want to teach students the fundamentals and more nuanced aspects of research writing. The basics are here. The text could be assigned in specific modules. The text will benefit from an update, especially in regards to references about collaborative writing tools and internet research. The text is missing a chapter on reading research and integrating research into the literature review process. This is a relevant skill for research writing, as student writers often struggle with reading the work of others to understand the body of literature as a foundation for their own assertions.

The content and information seems like it could be helpful for any undergraduate course that has a research writing project. The unique aspects of this book are its features of collaborative and peer review writing practices and all of the exercises embedded in the text. The author gives examples and writing exercises throughout the chapters. These examples could serve inexperienced students quite well. They could also annoy advanced students.

There are some references to the World Wide Web and the Internet, and library research that seem a bit outdated. There isn't much advanced referencing of commonly used internet research options, such as Google Scholar, citation apps, etc.

Clarity rating: 3

Some points are clear and concise. Other pieces go into too much detail for one chapter page. Because the pages are long, and not all content will be relevant to all readers, the author could consider using "collapsible" sections. This could be especially relevant in the APA & MLA sections, offering a side-by-side comparison of each or offering overviews of style basics with sections that open up into more details for some interested readers.

Consistency rating: 4

no issues here

Modularity rating: 3

The chapters are relatively concise and each starts with an overview of content. The web format does not allow for much navigational flow between chapters or sections. It would be great to hyperlink sections of content that are related so that readers can pass through parts of the text to other topics. It does look like the author intended to hyperlink between chapters, but those links (denoted "Hyperlink:" in the text) are not functional.

Overall flow is appropriate for an interdisciplinary lens. Readers can move through as many or as few sections as needed. The chapter topics and subtopics are organized fairly comprehensively, and often by questions that students might ask.

Interface rating: 2

The long blocks of text in each chapter aren't very reader friendly. Also, once the reader gets to the end of the long page / chapter, there is no navigation up to the top of the chapter or laterally to previous or next content. Text doesn't adjust to screen size, so larger screens might have lots of white space.

no issues noticed. Some examples could be updated to be more inclusive, culturally diverse, etc.

This book has some good lessons, questions, and suggestions for topics relevant to research writing. The text could benefit from a more modern take on research writing, as some of the topics and phrases are dated.

Reviewed by Jennifer Wilde, Adjunct instructor, Columbia Gorge Community College on 12/13/18

The text is a wonderful guidebook to the process of writing a research essay. It describes the steps a college writer should take when approaching a research assignment, and I have no doubt that if students followed the steps outlined by the... read more

The text is a wonderful guidebook to the process of writing a research essay. It describes the steps a college writer should take when approaching a research assignment, and I have no doubt that if students followed the steps outlined by the text, they would be sure to succeed in generating a quality thesis statement and locating appropriate sources. It is not comprehensive in that it has very little to say regarding composition, clarity and style. It does not contain an index or glossary.

Sections on MLA and APA format are inaccurate in that they are outdated. It would be preferable for the text to refer students to the online resources that provide up to date information on the latest conventions of APA and MLA.

The bulk of the chapters are timeless and filled with wisdom about using research to write a paper. However, the book should contain links or otherwise refer students to the web sources that would tell them how to use current MLA/APA format. There are some passages that feel anachronistic, as when the author recommends that students consider the advantages of using a computer rather than a word processor or typewriter. The sections on computer research and "netiquette" feel outdated. Finally, the author describes the differences between scholarly sources and periodicals but does not address the newer type of resources, the online journal that is peer-reviewed but open access and not associated with a university.

The writing is strong and clear. Dr. Krause does not indulge in the use of jargon.

The different sections open with an explanation of what will be covered. Then, the author explains the content. Some chapters are rather short while others are long, but generally each topic is addressed comprehensively. In the last several chapters, the author closes with a sample of student work that illustrates the principles the chapter addressed.

The text is divisible into sections. To some extent the content is sequential, but it is not necessary to read the early chapters (such as the section on using computers, which millenials do not need to read) in order to benefit from the wisdom in later chapters. I used this text in a writing 121 course, and I did not assign the entire text. I found some chapters helpful and others not so relevant to my particular needs. Students found the chapters useful and discrete, and they did not feel like they had to go back and read the whole thing. The section on writing an annotated bibliography, for instance, could be used in any writing class.

The topics are presented in the order in which a student approaches a writing assignment. First, the author asks, why write a research essay, and why do research? Next, the author addresses critical thinking and library/data use; quoting, summarizing and paraphrasing; collaboration and writing with others; writing a quality thesis statement; annotating a bibliography; categorizing sources; dealing with counterarguments, and actually writing the research essay. It's quite intuitive and logical. It seems clear that this author has had a lot of experience teaching students how to do these steps.

The interface is straightforward, but I could not locate any hyperlinks that worked. Navigation through the book was no problem.

The book is well written overall. The writer's style is straightforward and clear. There are occasional typos and words that feel misplaced, as in the following sentence: "The reality is though that the possibilities and process of research writing are more complicated and much richer than that." There should be commas around the word "though", and the tone is fairly conversational. These are extremely minor issues.

The examples feel inclusive and I was not aware of any cultural insensitivity in the book overall.

The book is really helpful! I particularly appreciate the sections on how to write an annotated bib and a good thesis statement, and I think the sections on writing a category/evaluation of sources, working thesis statement, and antithesis exercise are unique in the large field of writing textbooks. The book contains no instruction on grammatical conventions, style, clarity, rhetoric, how to emphasize or de-emphasize points, or other writing tips. In that sense, it is not a great text for a composition class. But I think it's extremely useful as a second resource for such a class, especially for classes that teach argumentation or those that require an analytic essay. I feel it is most appropriate for science students - nursing, psychology, medicine, biology, sociology. It is less likely to be useful for a general WR 121 class, or for a bunch of English majors who largely use primary sources.

Reviewed by Jess Magaña, Assistant Teaching Professor, University of Missouri-Kansas City on 6/19/18

This is a comprehensive introduction to planning and writing research papers. The suggested activities seem helpful, and the lack of an index or glossary does not interfere with understanding. read more

This is a comprehensive introduction to planning and writing research papers. The suggested activities seem helpful, and the lack of an index or glossary does not interfere with understanding.

The information is accurate and straightforward.

Some information is out of date, such as the section regarding email, but the main concepts are well explained and relevant. An instructor could easily substitute a lecture or activity with updated information.

The clarity is excellent.

There are no inconsistencies.

The text is organized in a way that lends itself to changing the order of chapters and adding and subtracting topics to suit the needs of each class.

The progression of chapters is logical.

Interface rating: 5

The "hyperlinks" helpfully direct readers to related topics (although these are not actual links in the online version), which contributes to the modularity of the text.

There are a few errors, but none that significantly obscure meaning.

Cultural Relevance rating: 4

This text could use updated examples showing greater diversity in authors and work. I recommend instructors find supplementary examples relevant to their classes.

I intend to use this text in my courses, supplemented with a few activities and more diverse examples to suit my students' needs.

Reviewed by Sheila Packa, Instructor, Lake Superior College on 2/1/18

The text is a comprehensive guide to research for students in College Composition courses. The text is concise and interesting. Critical thinking, research and writing argument are integrated into his suggested assignments. The author covers... read more

The text is a comprehensive guide to research for students in College Composition courses. The text is concise and interesting. Critical thinking, research and writing argument are integrated into his suggested assignments.

The author covers the research question, library resources, how to paraphrase and use quotes, and collaborative writing projects. There are suggested exercises in the process of research, such as a topic proposal, a guide to developing a strong thesis statement, a full exploration of refutation (called the antithesis), the critique or rhetorical analysis, the annotated bibliography, and a guide to help students to accumulate a good assortment of sources. MLA and APA documentation is covered. Note that this text is published in 2007. Therefore, I recommend the use of MLA 8 Handbook for up-to-date guidelines for correct documentation. The Research Paper is full explained. In the chapter, Alternate Ways to Present Research, the author focuses on a Portfolio. He discusses web publication of research and poster sessions.

I value the clarity of ideas. The text is error-free, and I like the example essays written by students that will serve to inspire students.

The content is relevant. The author guides students through the process in a way that is easy to understand and also academically rigorous. The MLA 8 Handbook is a needed supplement (and that is affordable).

The writing is clear and concise. The organization of the chapters is logical and leads the students through steps in the process of research, writing a reasoned argument, and professional presentation of the research.

Terminology is clear and the framework for research is clear and sensible.

The book's modularity is definitely a strength. It's possible to use chapters of the text without using the entire book and to omit chapters that are not a focus of the instructor.

This book has a logical arrangement of chapters and the assignments are valuable.

The interface is great. It's readable online or in pdf form.

No grammatical errors. There is one detail that reflects changing rules of documentation. In MLA, titles of books, magazines, and journals are now italicized instead of underlined. In this text, they are underlined.

The text is free of bias or stereotypes.

Reviewed by Jennie Englund, Instructor, Composition I & II, Rogue Community College, Oregon on 8/15/17

Twelve chapters are broken into multiple parts. On Page 3 of the Introduction, the text emphasizes its purpose as an "introduction to academic writing and research." The following chapters present more than substantial information to give... read more

Twelve chapters are broken into multiple parts.

On Page 3 of the Introduction, the text emphasizes its purpose as an "introduction to academic writing and research." The following chapters present more than substantial information to give introductory (even well into master) research writers a foundation of the basics, as well as some detail. It differentiates itself as "Academic" research writing through thesis, evidence, and citation. Two of these concepts are revisted in the conclusion. The third (thesis) has its own section, which this reviewer will use in class.

I'm grateful to have reviewed an earlier electronic text. This provided the ability to compare/contrast, and note that this particular text was more comprehensive and in-depth than the guide I had previously reviewed (which was more of a framework, good in its own right.)

Had the guide contained a thorough section on revision, I'd give it a perfect score! Thus, the book very very nearly does what it sets out to do; it provides most of The Process of Research Writing.

Retrieval dates are no longer used on the APA References page. This reviewer would have preferred titles italicized instead of underlined.

The text opens with an introduction of the project, by its author. The project began in 2000 as a text for a major publishing house, but eventually landed via author's rights as an electronic text. Therefore, essentially, the book has already been around quite a while. This reviewer concludes that time, thought, and execution went into publishing the material, and predicts its popularity and usability will grow.

Timeless, the guide could have been used with small updates twenty years ago, and could be used with updates twenty years from now.

The guide could be used as the sole text in a composition course, supplemented by more formal (as well as APA) examples.

The text is organized into 12 chapters; it logically begins with "Thinking Critically about Research," and concludes with "Citing Your Research Using MLA or APA Style." The text includes most of what this reviewer uses to teach academic research writing. However, the book omits the editing/revising process.

The guide poses purposeful questions.

On Page 7 of the Introduction, the text reports being "organized in a 'step-by-step' fashion," with an invitation to the reader to use the book in any order, and revisit passages. The reviewer found the organization to be consistent and as systematic as the actual composition of an academic research paper.

The meat of the text begins with the definition and purpose of "Research." Immediately, a nod to working thesis follows, which is revisited in Chapter 5. Sources are examined and classified into a chart of "Scholarly Versus Non-scholarly or Popular Sources." The segment on "Using the Library" would complement a course or class period on library usage.

The Table of Contents is fluid and logical. Within the text, concepts are revisited and built upon, which the reviewer appreciates. Examples and exercises are given.

Chapter 10 contains an outline of a student research paper (which follows). The paper examines the problems with and solutions for university athletics. The paper is in MLA format. Tone is less formal than this reviewer would use as an example of academic research writing. The reviewer would have welcomed an example of an APA paper, as well.

The last chapter fully realizes instruction introduced at the beginning: citation defines academic writing, and academic writers credit their sources, and present evidence to their readers. I wish this last part emphasized thesis again, too, but in all, it is a very structured, reader-friendly guide.

Charts are integrated and understandable, though the majority of the book is text.

This review found some grammatical errors including capitalization. Book/journal/magazine/newspaper titles are underlined in lieu of italicized.

Student examples include Daniel Marvins, Ashley Nelson, Jeremy Stephens, Kelly Ritter, Stuart Banner, and Casey Copeman. Most examples of citations are from male authors. Text would benefit from multi-cultural authors. Examples/topics include The Great Gatsby,African-American Physicians and Drug Advertising, Cyberculture, ADHD, Diabetes, Student-athletes, and Drunk Driving.Examples are culturally appropriate and multi-disciplinary. Consistent pronoun used: he/him/his

Third-person narration is used; the author addresses the reader directly (and informally). While this perhaps makes a connection between the author and the reader, and adds to understanding, it does not reflect academic research writing, and may confuse beginning writers?

Chapter 5, "Writing a Working Thesis," is among the most clear, comprehensive, and straightforward instruction on the topic this reviewer has seen. I will use this section in my Composition I and II courses, as well as Chapters 1, 3, and 12. I wish this form had a place to rate usability. In that case, this guide would score highly. I commend Dr. Krause's execution and composition, and applaud his sharing this at no cost with the academic community.

Reviewed by Marie Lechelt, ESL/English Instructor and Writing Center Co-director, Riverland Community College on 6/20/17

"The Process of Research Writing" is a textbook that includes all of the major topics covered in most college research writing courses. The style of writing makes it easily understood by students. Depending on your focus in your writing class,... read more

"The Process of Research Writing" is a textbook that includes all of the major topics covered in most college research writing courses. The style of writing makes it easily understood by students. Depending on your focus in your writing class, you may want to supplement this text with more about argumentative writing. Other writing models, homework exercises, and classroom activities found by the instructor would also compliment the use of this text. While I would not use this textbook in my course from start to finish, I would jump around and use a variety of sections from it to teach research writing. This text could be used for a beginning writing class or a second semester writing course. Based on my students writing experiences and abilities, I would eliminate or include certain sections. There is no index or glossary included. The hyperlinks to other sections also do not work.

The content is accurate and error-free. I didn't detect any biased information either. The MLA and APA information have changed since this book was published. The peer review work, plagiarism, critiquing sources, and many more of the topics are almost exactly what I teach to my students. This format will work well for them.

While most research writing content does not change over time, there are many parts of this book that could be updated. These include examples (The Great Gatsby), hyperlinks, and references to technology. The technology aspect is especially important. Since technology is constantly changing, most textbooks (print and online) are out of date as soon as they are printed. Because of this, teachers are constantly having to use supplemental material, which is fine. Just like our class websites, we have to update this information every semester or even more often. If you choose to use this textbook, keep in mind that this will be necessary. The MLA/APA information is also out of date, but this is also to be expected.

Clarity is one of the benefits of this textbook. Although the style is somewhat informal, it included appropriate topics and terminology for students learning to write research essays. Students can understand the topics with one or two readings and discuss the topics in class. There were a few places that seemed like common knowledge for students at this level, like the library or using computers. Unfortunately, we do still have students who do not come to us having already learned this information. So, I don't think these sections would have a negative impact on other students. Students can also be given optional sections to read, or as I plan to do, the teacher can skip around and only assign some sections.

The majority of the terminology is common knowledge in research writing teaching. The text is fairly informal in writing style, which I believe is an advantage for students. Many times, students will read a text and then I will need to explain the terminology or ideas in depth in my lectures. Since I prefer to complete activities and work on students' writing in class, instead of lecturing, this book will work well. The chapter on the "Antithesis" was new to me. While I have taught these ideas, I have not used this term before. This is a chapter I may not use and instead include supplemental material of my own.

The chapters are divided clearly and could be separated quite easily to use as individual units in a writing class. If the hyperlinks worked though, they would be helpful. Exercises build upon one another, so one could not assign a later exercise without students first understanding the other sections of the text. I plan to use this text in a research writing class, and I will be skipping around and only using some sections. I do not believe there will be any problem with this. While students may at first feel that starting on Chapter 4 might be strange, they are very adaptive and should have no difficulties with this format.

The Table of Contents is clear and easily understood. Each chapter follows a logical sequence, and students will be able to transition from one topic to another without difficulty. The use of charts, headings, bold, highlighting, and some other visual aids help the reader to understand what is most important to remember. Although, this could be improved upon with the use of color and graphics. While the content is valuable, I would most likely skip around when using this book in the classroom. While the author begin with an introduction and then jumps right into research, I focus on topic selection and thesis writing before research begins. Of course, as the author mentions, students will go back to their thesis and research many times before finishing the writing process.

The text is easily navigated, and students would be able to follow the topics throughout. The lack of graphics and color is noticeable and detracts from the content. In a world of advanced technology where students click on hundreds of websites with amazing content each week, online textbooks need to meet this standard. This textbook is similar to a traditional textbook. Some links are also inactive.

There were some typos and small grammatical errors but no glaring instances. They also did not impact understanding.

This book contained no offensive language or examples. However, we have a lot of diversity in our classrooms, and this is not reflected in the book. Expanding the examples or including links to diverse examples would be helpful.

I will be using this text in a second semester writing class. It has valuable information about research writing. I believe it could also be used for a first semester writing class. As mentioned above, I will use sections of the text and skip around to accommodate the needs of my students. Supplemental materials will also be needed to meet current technology needs.

Reviewed by Betsy Goetz, English Instructor, Riverland Community College on 6/20/17

The text covers all subject areas appropriately. read more

The text covers all subject areas appropriately.

Overall, the text is accurate.

Relevant and current.

I liked the clarity of the text, especially the specific exercises for students to apply the theory they have learned.

This text is consistent -- good terminology!

Clear sections to focus on key points of research writing.

Well organized.

Not confusing

Overall, lacking grammatical errors.

Relevant -- research writing and thesis building are timeless.

Reviewed by Karen Pleasant, Adjunct Instructor, Rogue Community College on 4/11/17

The textbook covered the basics of writing a research paper (the term "essay"is preferred by the author) and would be appropriate for an introductory college writing course, such as WR 121 or WR 122. A table of content is provided, but there is... read more

The textbook covered the basics of writing a research paper (the term "essay"is preferred by the author) and would be appropriate for an introductory college writing course, such as WR 121 or WR 122. A table of content is provided, but there is no glossary. The textbook guides a student from exploring the initial topic selection through the finished product, although I would have liked the use of citations to be covered in more depth. If I chose this as the textbook for my class I would also need to add supplemental materials about thoroughly developing an argument as well as revising a paper.

The author presented the material in an unbiased manner and does so in a way that provides high readability for students with little to no background in writing a research paper. Excellent examples are provided to reinforce concepts and thoughtful, creative collaborative exercises round out each chapter to give practice in skill mastery. Both MLA and APA formatting styles are included, but the APA section needs to be updated. The book was published in 2007 and many of the APA guidelines have changed., including the preference for using italics versus underlining for book and journal titles.

Each chapter is self-contained and stands alone and , therefore, could easily be updated. Most of the information is relevant and could be used indefinitely. I like that Chapter 11 recommended alternate ways to present the research and suggested more contemporary technology based methods. Chapter 12, about APA and MLA citations, is the chapter that currently needs to be updated and would need to be checked for accuracy annually against the latest APA & MLA guidelines. As it reads, I would handout current materials for APA citation sessions and not use this chapter in the book.

The book is well organized and is very user friendly. I think students would enjoy reading it and be able to relate readily to the content. Examples given and exercises provided help to clarify the content and reinforce the concepts for students. The textbook flows well from selection of initial topic ideas to finished product and will help students to work through the process of writing a research paper.

New terms are thoroughly explained and are used consistently throughout the textbook. The knowledge students gain as they progress through the book feels logical and organized in a usable fashion.

The text is organized so that each chapter stands alone and the order the information is presented can be easily modified to fit the needs of an instructor. The book is that rare combination of being equally functional for both student and instructor.

The topics are presented as needed to guide students through the process of writing a research paper, but could be done in another order if desired. Bold and boxed items are used to emphasize key concepts and chapter exercises.

The textbook is visually appealing and easy to read with adequate use of white space and varied font sizes. I explored the textbook via the PDF documents, which were easy to download, although the hyperlinks were not accessible.

There were noticeable grammatical errors.

The textbook is inclusive and accessible to all and didn't have any content that could be deemed offensive. The approachable layout and writing style make the textbook relevant to college students from a variety of backgrounds.

I would definitely adopt this open textbook for my writing classes. The author provided some wonderful ideas for teaching about research papers and I found many chapter exercises that I would be willing to incorporate into my class . I am especially intrigued by the use of writing an antithesis paper as a lead in to adding opposition to the research paper and look forward to getting student input and feedback about some of the alternative ways to present their research. Compared to textbooks I have used or perused in the past, this book seems more inviting and user friendly for students new to writing college level research papers.

Reviewed by VINCENT LASNIK, Adjunct Professor, Rogue Community College on 4/11/17

This comprehensiveness is one of the strengths of The Process of Research Writing. The Table of Contents (TOC) is fine—and each separate chapter also reproduces the contents listing from high-lever through low-level subsections at the beginning... read more

This comprehensiveness is one of the strengths of The Process of Research Writing. The Table of Contents (TOC) is fine—and each separate chapter also reproduces the contents listing from high-lever through low-level subsections at the beginning of each chapter. This duplicate listing feature helps orient students to what is covered (and what is not) for every chapter in-context. Yes—It is a fair evaluation that there can generally be easy-to-fix, quickly recognizable updates, enhancements, and notable improvements to virtually any textbook 10-15 years after its initial publication date (particularly related to changing terminology and nomenclature within the dynamic English lexicon, technology applications (databases, websites, ‘search engines,’ current good ‘help sites’ for students learning the latest iteration of APA style for manuscript formatting, in-text citations, and end references, etc.)—and the Krause text is a prime candidate for such a thorough revision. For example, digital object identifiers (the doi was first introduced circa 2000) did not become widely/pervasively established until well into the first decade of the 21st century; the ‘doi’ is an ubiquitous standard today in 2017. Nevertheless, many of the basic (boilerplate) concepts are clearly noted and credibly, coherently explained. The text could use some effective reorganization (as I note elsewhere in my review)—but that is arguably a subjective/personalized perspective more related to the way we approach writing instruction and student academic development at Rogue Community College—and perhaps less of a global/universal criticism.

See my comments in other sections that impact this issue. Overall, Krause’s text appears, “accurate, error-free and unbiased.” There are no obvious problems with this observation/contention. Some of the ‘out-of-date’ specifics in the text need updating as I note in detail in my other comments.

Most of the text describes research-writing strategies that are fairly well-established if not generic to the undergraduate English composition content area; thus, the overall longevity of the existing text is good. I have suggested, however, that any such ‘how-to’ guide should be updated (as this particular version) after its first decade of publication. The content for online research, for example, reflects an early 2000s perspective of emerging technology terms (e.g., defining blogs as “web-logs” is easily 12-15 years behind the use of the term in 2017), and some of the online websites mentioned are no longer relevant. These types of ‘out-of-date’ past-referents/links, however, can be easily updated to 2017+ accuracy. I have made a few suggestions about such an update—including my offer to assist Steve Krause (gratis and pro bono) in this update should my collaboration be desired. Otherwise, Krause might go the more open ‘peer review’ route and assemble a set of active teachers, instructors, and adjunct professors (such as me) who are on the ‘frontlines’ of current praxis for research-based, critical thinking, problem-oriented writing courses across the 11th-12th grade and through the undergraduate and workforce education community.

The text is written is a clear, credible, and cogent prose throughout. This is one of the particular strengths of Krause’s text—and recursively provides an exemplar for well-written composition. On occasion, the clarity for students might be improved by additional ‘real-world examples’ (i.e., more ‘showing rather than mere abstract telling) explicating some obtuse concepts and numerous rules (e.g., for research strategy, proofreading/editing, using search engines and conducting library research, etc.)—but a similar constructive criticism could easily be made of nearly all similar sources.

The text wording, terminology, framework and process emphasis are highly consistent. There are overlaps and dovetailing (i.e., redundancy) in any/every college textbook—but Krause keeps these to a minimum throughout. Some updating of terminology would be appropriate, useful, and needed as I note throughout my OER review.

The text is superb in this regard. The chapters and exercises are highly modular—which supports the customized reorganization I apply myself in my own courses as noted in my other comments. Numerous subheads and special highlighted ‘key points’ textboxes augment this modularity and improve the narrowing of assigned readings, examples, and exercises for most writing courses. The Process of Research Writing is clearly not, “overly self-referential,” and can easily be, “reorganized and realigned with various subunits of a course without presenting much disruption to the reader” by any instructor.

One of the principal weaknesses of the set of chapters is that the given ‘table of contents’ structure is conceptually disjointed—at least insofar as my research writing course is designed. Therefore, to provide a more coherent, logical sequence congruent to the course organization of my Writing 122 (this is an intermediate/advanced-level English Composition II)—it was necessary to assign a completely different order of The Process of Research Writing (Krause, 2007) high-level chapters/pages for weekly course reading assignments as follows:

Week One: Table of Contents; Introduction: Why Write Research Projects?; and Chapter 1: Thinking Critically About Research; Week Two: Chapter 2: Understanding and Using the Library and the Internet for Research. These three starting chapters were reasonable to introduce in Krause’s original sequence. Continuing into Week Two, I also added Chapter 4: How to Collaborate and Write with Others (but I highlighted limited/specific passages only since WR122 does not emphasize collaborative prose composition activities and extensive group-writing projects using such apps as Google Docs). Week Three: I then assigned Chapter 10: The Research Essay—since it was important to orient students to the intrinsic, namesake umbrella concept of researching and writing the research essay—the essential focus of the course I teach. IMPORTANT NEED TO RESTRUCTURE THE OER as it exists: Viewed from a course rationale and content/skill acquisition conceptual level—I have no idea why Krause did not place ‘Writing The Research Essay’ as high as Chapter 2. It comes far too late in the book as Chapter 10. This is actually where the chapter belongs (in my view); the other topics in the remaining Chapters’ (2—12) would more cogently and effectively proceed after first exploring the high-level nature of the research essay task in the first place. The subsequent skills for conducting Online Library Research; Quoting, Paraphrasing, Avoiding Plagiarism, creating a testable ‘Working Thesis,’ producing an Annotated Bibliography (some courses also use a précis assignment), Evaluating and Categorizing Sources, etc.—are realistically supporting, scaffolding, and corroborating functional/operational skills designed to design, research, and produce the research-based essay project. Therefore—from a project-based and problem-oriented pedagogical strategy/approach—a sound argument could be proffered that putting Chapter 10 second in a reordered book would help students on many levels (not the least being engaging interest and promoting contextual understanding for why learning the content of the remaining chapters makes sense and can be critical/applicable to the research-writing process.

Continuing on my own WR122 course text-sequence customization—in Week Four—we move into the attribution phase of the writing process in Chapter 3: Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Avoiding Plagiarism. Logically, we then move (in Week Five) to Chapter 5: The Working Thesis so students can ask significant/original questions and determine a point of departure into their research essay. This seemed like a good time to add the concept of ‘opposition views’ (i.e., counter-claims, rejoinder and rebuttal) discussed in Chapter 8: The Antithesis. In Week Six—we moved into essay formatting, in-text citation and end references, so Chapter 12: Citing Your Research Using MLA or APA Style {(focusing on reading pp. 1-2 (brief overview), and pp. 18-33 about APA style)} was assigned. In addition, students also perused Chapter 7: The Critique preceding a related argumentative assignment (i.e., a movie review project). For Week Seven (concurrent with an annotated bibliography project for the main term paper—students read Chapter 6: The Annotated Bibliography, and Chapter 9: The Categorization and Evaluation (of sources) that was ostensibly/logically relevant to the annotated bibliography project. Concluding the course for Weeks Eight-Eleven—there were new required readings. Students were instructed to review previous readings in The Process of Research Writing (Krause, 2007)—time permitting. Also Note: Chapter 11: Alternative Ways to Present Your Research is completely optional reading. It is not particularly applicable to this course; there is a student’s self-reflection about the research process on pp. 3-11 that may have some nominal merit, but it notes MLA style (versus my course’s use of APA 6th edition style only) and is in any case not required.

The text is not fancy; standard black and white (high-contrast) font used throughout. For emphasis of key points, Krause does use special ‘highlight boxes’ with gray background, a thick black stroke on the outside of the rectangular textbox. While the gray level might be lowered (in the update) for improved contrast—the true-black, bulleted, bolded key-terms are easy to perceive/read. The only criticism I have is the distracting overuse of quotation mark punctuation for emphasis; this should be corrected in any updated version. Otherwise, most of the book’s interface presentation supports a good user (student) experience, good printability, and good accessibility per ADA and general disability (e.g., visually impaired learners) protocols.

There are no significant/glaring occurrences of grammatical errors in the text. I am not a ‘grammar snob’ in any case. The prose seems clear, cogent, thoughtful, well-written; it generally uses solid grammar, mechanics, and punctuation. The exception is the overuse of a somewhat casual/conversational tone combined with (what is more of a recognizable issue) a distracting overuse of quotation marks—many of which are simply neither needed nor helpful; most could be quickly removed with an immediate improvement to readability.

I do not see significant, relevant, or glaring faux pas pertaining to any biased disrespect for multiculturalism. All persons (e.g., races, ethnicities, genders, sexual orientations, and cultural backgrounds) are equally respected and appreciated. The content area (English composition) is very amenable to a relatively generic, culture-free perspective—and Krause’s examples and prose is well-within any applicable standards of post-modern, scholarly, formal non-fiction in written Standard English.

[1] The Process of Research Writing was ostensibly presented/published to Creative Commons in 2007. No identifiable part/portion of the original edition text appears to have been updated (changed, modified, or improved) since then (i.e., at least 10 years); This is perhaps the single, most apparent flaw/weakness for this textbook. An in-depth revision to 2017 post-rhetorical model essay-writing standards and APA conventions would be invaluable—and quite bluntly—is sorely required. A newly updated Version 2.0 for 2017-18 should be critically planned (and scheduled or already ‘in progress’ if it is not already).

[2] There are many insightful, practical, and high-value approaches to the research writing process; in this regard—the nominal OER title is superbly appropriate for late high-school and beginning college (undergraduate) research essay projects. Even though some of the technical components (e.g., APA style) require updating/revision (which makes basic, reasonable sense after a ‘decade on the shelf’ for any academic research writing source)—Krause’s chapters can effectively replace many expensive, glossy college entry-level textbooks! After presenting the core concepts in a coherent and self-evident manner, Krause supplies a plethora of examples to illustrate those concepts. Then (and this is one of the true strengths of this OER)—each chapter (particularly Chapters 5-10) highlights student-oriented exercises to practice those same core concepts). Because of this latter emphasis—the Krause OER is ‘learner-centered’ (as opposed to ‘content centered’), problem-oriented and performance-oriented as well—providing opportunities for creative, resourceful teachers to adapt/adopt the OER to course assignments.

[3] There does not appear to be a single (standalone) PDF for this OER. This is a notable flaw/weakness for this textbook. Conversely, however, although a single PDF would have some convenient ‘easier downloading’ advantages for students—having separate chapters affords every teacher to create a customized chapter-order (as I have efficiently done to correspond to my course design). The chapters support excellent modularity and the accompanying exercises/examples demonstrate the concepts Krause explicates with a fine degree of granularity for any teacher. Thus—integrating any textbooks or teaching/learning resources (like OERs) always has tradeoffs—plusses and minuses, positives and negatives. The obvious key, therefore, is taking the liberty of using the OER as a supporting scaffold or buttress to an instructor’s original design concept—rather than the foundation around which a course can be designed.

[4] Some minor weaknesses for prose instruction are (a) Krause’s acceptance of passive, sophomoric signal phrasing (i.e., According to X…)—as opposed to strong, active voice such as ‘’X found…’; and (b) a general overuse of quotation marks throughout the book. This is not meant as a harsh criticism—merely an observation that readability could be improved with a newer version that eliminates most quotation marks (Note: In APA style—these punctuation symbols are only used for verbatim quotes. This makes for a cleaner, clearer manuscript).

[5] One of the solid/helpful strengths of the book is a relatively accurate presentation of APA style for in-text citation and end references (Chapter 12). It appears that like many academics—Krause is more familiar and comfortable with the Modern Language Association’s MLA style/formatting. No problem there—I was simply trained on APA beginning in 1984 so it is native to me; I also use the latest version of APA style in all of my writing (college composition) courses. Thus—it should come as no surprise there are a number of obvious APA-associated inaccuracies including (but limited to): (a) meekly accepting ‘n.d.’ (no date) and ‘n.a.’ (no author) sources when a little investigative research by the student (and adherence to the APA rule hierarchy for dates and authors) would easily come up with a sound date and author. Another error (b) seems to be more typographic (formatting) and/or refers to an earlier edition of APA style: the end references in the PDF (and html versions?) use underline in place of italics. The 2011 APA 6th edition style does not use underline in the end references. There are other small (faux pas) errors such as (c) noting generally inaccessible proprietary online databases and servers (again—no longer done in APA). A thorough, meticulous updating of this OER source would probably take care of many of these APA-error issues. I’d be happy to work with Steve on this update at any time.

[6] I use Amy Guptill’s Writing in College: From Competence to Excellence by Amy Guptill of State University of New York (2016) for my English Composition I course that emphasizes general essay writing and a simple research-supported argumentative essay. I teach that course using the following assigned readings: Week One: Chapter 1 (Really? Writing? Again?), pp. 1-7, and Chapter 2 (What Does the Professor Want? Understanding the Assignment), pp. 9-18; Week Two: Chapter 6 (Back to Basics: The Perfect Paragraph), pp. 48-56; Chapter 7 (Intros and Outros), pp. 57-64; Week Four: Chapter 9 (Getting the Mechanics Right), pp. 75-85; Week Five: Chapter 8 (Clarity and Concision), pp. 65-73; Week Six: Chapter 3 (Constructing the Thesis and Argument—From the Ground Up), pp. 19-27; Week Seven: Chapter 4 (Secondary Sources in Their Natural Habitats), pp. 28-37; Week Eight: Chapter 5 (Listening to Sources, Talking to Sources), pp. 38-47. I then switch over to Krause’s OER for my English Composition II course. At Rogue Community College, Writing 122 emphasizes intermediate essay writing and analytical, more rigorous and original research-based essays involving critical thinking. I completely reordered the chapters as described above to fit into my course design. I like Krause’s individual ‘modular’ chapters—but the particular ‘scope and sequence’ he uses are debatable. Overall, however, The Process of Research Writing easily and effectively substitutes/replaces other costly tomes from for-profit academic publishers—even those that offer bundled DVDs and online-access to proprietary tutorial sources. Used in conjunction with other freely available PDF OERs, websites, YouTube videos, tutorial/practice sites from innumerable libraries, blogs (e.g., the APA Blog is particularly helpful)—as well as original/customized sources created by individual instructors for their own courses—the Krause book offers a good, solid baseline for developing research-based writing competencies particularly appropriate for the first two years of college.

Reviewed by Amy Jo Swing, English Instructor, Lake Superior College on 4/11/17

This book covers most of the main concepts of research writing: thesis, research, documenting, and process. It's weak on argument though, which is standard in most research composition texts. The book provides a clear index so finding information... read more

This book covers most of the main concepts of research writing: thesis, research, documenting, and process. It's weak on argument though, which is standard in most research composition texts. The book provides a clear index so finding information is relatively easy. The other weak spot is on evaluation evidence: there is a section on it but not comprehensive examples. Students in general needs lots of practice on how to evaluate and use information.

The information is accurate mostly except for the APA and MLA section. Writing and research writing haven't changed that much in a long time. It's more the technology and tools that change.

Relevance/Longevity rating: 2

The ideas about research and writing in general are fine, However, the references to technology and documentation are very out of date, over 10 years so. Students use technology very differently than described in this text, and the technologies themselves have changed. For example, the author talks about floppy disks and AOL messenger but not about Google Drive, Wikipedia, Prezi, or how to use phones and tablets while researching. Our students are digital natives and need to understand how to use their devices to write and research.

The book is quite readable in general. Concepts are easy to understand. Sometimes, they are almost too simple like the section explaining what a library is. Students might not be sophisticated library users, but they understand in general how they work. The chapters are concise, which is nice for student use too.

Except for pronoun use, the book is consistent in tone and terms. Not all the terms are ones I use in my own teaching, and it would be nice to see explanation of more argument/research frameworks like the Toulmin Model of argument.

The chapters are pretty self-contained and clear as individual units. I can see including certain chapters and leaving out others that aren't as relevant to my teaching style or assignments. One could easily assign the chapters in a different order, but students ask lots of questions when you assign chapter 6 first and then weeks later, assign chapter 2 or 3.

The basic chapters make sense in terms of how they are created and categorized but the order is problematic if an instructor were to assign them in the order presented. For example, the chapter on creating an annotated bibliography comes before the one on documenting (APA/MLA). Students can't complete an annotated bibliography without knowing how to cite sources. Same with evaluating sources. There is so much information on locating sources before any clear mention is made of how to evaluate them. I find that is the weak spot with students. If they learn how to evaluate sources, it's easier to find and locate and research effectively.

Not many images. Students really like info-graphics, pictures, and multi-media. The hyperlinks to other sections of the book do not work in either the PDF or HTML versions. I do like some of the illustrations like mapping and how research is more a web than a linear process. For an online textbook, there aren't a lot of hyperlinks to outside resources (of which there are so many like Purdue's OWL and the Guide to Grammar and Writing).

There were quite a few errors : comma errors, spelling (affect/effect), some pronoun agreement errors, capitalization errors with the title in Chapter Four. The author also uses passive voice quite a bit, which is inconsistent with the general familiar tone. In some chapters, there is constant switching between first, second, and third person. I focus much on point of view consistency in my students' writing, and this would not be a great model for that.

Cultural Relevance rating: 3

There is no cultural offensiveness but not much diversity in examples and students names either. Marginalized students (of color, with disabilities, of different sexuality or gender) would not see themselves reflected much.

This is a good basic reference on the process of writing and research. However, it would not be too useful without updated information on technology and documentation. As a web-based text, it reads more like a traditional physical textbook.

Reviewed by Jocelyn Pihlaja, Instructor, Lake Superior College on 2/8/17

The length and scope of this book are appropriate for a semester-long research writing course, with twelve chapters that move from foundational concepts into more specific skills that are needed for the crafting of a paper incorporating MLA or APA... read more

The length and scope of this book are appropriate for a semester-long research writing course, with twelve chapters that move from foundational concepts into more specific skills that are needed for the crafting of a paper incorporating MLA or APA citation. In particular, I like that the early chapters cover the questions of "Why Write Research Papers?" and how to think critically, the middle chapters provide specific activities in the skills of quoting and paraphrasing, and the later chapters bring in assignments (such as writing an annotated bibliography) that help students practice and build content for their ultimate paper.There is no index or glossary to this book; however, the table of contents provides an overview of the chapters that guides navigation well.

Content Accuracy rating: 3

In terms of the thinking, this book's information is logical and sound. The explanations of concepts and activities read easily and do a fine job of explicating the why and how of research writing. In a few places, however, the word "effected" is used when it should be "affected." Editing also is needed when the author uses phrases such as "in the nutshell" instead of "in a nutshell." As well, in Chapter 4, there is pronoun/antecedent disagreement when the author uses "their" to refer to "each member." Also, each chapter contains at least one "Hyperlink" to supplemental information, yet the hyperlinks are dead. For the most part, the text is clean and well edited, but we English teachers are line-editing sticklers, so even small, occasional errors stand out. Overall: the ideas presented are accurate and free of bias, yet there are a few, niggling errors.

When it comes to relevance and longevity, this book is problematic. In fact, it is so outdated as to be unusable, at least for this instructor. Certainly, the concepts presented are solid; they don't change with passing years. However, typographically, the book is passe, as it uses two spaces after periods. Even more troubling is that it refers to the Internet as "new" and comes from a point of view that sees this thing called "the World Wide Web" as novel while also noting students might want to rely on microfilm and microfiche during their research. In another example, the author suggests to students that a benefit of writing on computers is that they can share their work with each other on disc or through email. Truly, such references make the book unusable for a class in 2017. Another issue is that the Modern Language Association has updated its guidelines several times since this book's publication; ideally, a text used in a research writing class would cover, if not the latest guidelines, at least the previous version of the guidelines. A full rewrite of the book is necessary before it could be adopted. As the book currently stands, students would roll their eyes at the antiquated technological language, and the teacher would need to apologize for asking students to read a text that is so out-of-date.

The writing in this book is both accessible and intelligent. It's eminently readable. Specifically, the inclusion of things like an "Evidence Quality and Credibility Checklist" at the end of Chapter 1 and the continual use of grey boxes that highlight major concepts is very good. Also extremely helpful are the examples of student writing that end nearly every chapter; these models demonstrate to readers what is expected from each assignment. Finally, the explanations of quoting and paraphrasing are superior -- so clear, so easy for students to digest. Were it not outdated in terms of technological references, I would definitely consider using this book in my classes due to the clarity of the prose.

Consistency rating: 3

For the most part, the book is well structured and consistent in its design and layout. Each chapter provides general explanation of a concept, moves into a specific assignment, and ends with an example or two of student responses to that assignment. Very quickly, readers know what to expect from each chapter, and there's something comforting about the predictability of the layout, especially in a book that is being read on a screen, using scrolling. When it comes to the terminology, my only note would be that the book starts out using a relaxed second-person point of view, addressing students as "you," but then, at the end of Chapter 2, the author suddenly begins also using the first-person "I." This first-person point of view continues throughout the book, so it becomes consistent from that point on, but for me as a reader, I never quite adjusted to that level of informality, particularly when all the sentences using "I" could easily be re-written in the third person. Before reading this text, I hadn't really considered what I like in a book, but now I know: because I want the text to model the ideal, I would prefer a more formal (and consistent) point of view. Today's students struggle to create essays that don't include "you" or "I" -- even when they very consciously are trying to avoid those words. Learning to write from the third person POV is surprisingly challenging. Therefore, my personal preference would be a textbook that consistently models this approach.

The chapters in this book are of a perfect length -- long enough to develop the ideas and present comprehensive explanations yet short enough to be ingested and excised. Put another way, I could see grabbing bits and pieces of this text and using them in my classes. For instance, without adopting the entire text, I still could pull the instructions for the Anti-Thesis essay or the Annotated Bibliography, or I could use the explanation of the purpose of collaboration. Indeed, the chapters and exercises in this book are tight "modules" that allow an instructor to pick and choose or to reorganize the chapters to better fit with an individual course structure. For me, although I won't use this entire text, I can envision incorporating pieces of it into my teaching.

The organization of this book is one of its greatest strengths. It starts with a broad overview of research into an exploration of the process behind seeking out reputable sources, weaves in a few shorter essay assignments that serve as building blocks for a longer paper, and culminates with the ideas for a final, capstone research project -- something that naturally grows out of all the previous chapters. Each chapter in the text flows easily out of the chapter before it. One of this text's greatest strengths is how each successive chapter builds on the concepts presented in the previous chapters.

As noted earlier, the hyperlinks in the book don't work. As well, the screenshots included in the book are blurry and add little, except frustration, to the content. Outside of those issues, though, the book is physically easy to read and navigate, largely thanks to the easy clicking between the table of contents and individual chapters.

As suggested earlier, the book, as a whole, reads easily, yet there are some errors with the homonyms "effected" and "affected," along with pronoun/antecedent disagreement. I also noticed a handful of places where there are extra spaces around commas (in addition to the use of two spaces after periods).

This text is definitely not insensitive or offensive; its tone is fair and balanced, free of bias. On the other hand, this book does not really bring in examples that address diversity. Students reading this book will not see acknowledgment of different races, ethnicities, sexual preferences, or personal histories. Thus, in addition to updating the references to technology, if this book were rewritten, it also could more deliberately address this lack. As it is, the content of this book does feel whitewashed and free of cultural relevance.

There is a lot of promise in this text because the explanations and assignments are so good. But unless it is updated, I don’t see it as usable in a current classroom.

Reviewed by Leana Dickerson, Instructor , Linn Benton Community College on 2/8/17

The author certainly outlines and examines elements of research writing, and does so in a very clear, organized, and thoughtful way. There is no glossary or index included in the text, but the chapters and headings in the table of contents and at... read more

The author certainly outlines and examines elements of research writing, and does so in a very clear, organized, and thoughtful way. There is no glossary or index included in the text, but the chapters and headings in the table of contents and at the beginning of each section very clearly outline what is to be expected from the text. Most all of the concepts are very thoroughly explained and examined including topics that typically are glossed over in research writing texts, including the opposition to argument, close reading, and the importance of research writing to a variety of career pathways. Although thorough in what is present, there are some issues that I would want to touch on with my research students including developing effective argument, logical organization, and examples of the revision process.

The information in this text is accurate and adequately explained. It seems readily accessible for any college age student, but doesn’t expect students to come with a background in research or writing. MLA formatting for works cited pages is up to date, and even addresses the fact that the format for citation changes regularly and points to appropriate resources outside of the text. The only formatting issue that I noticed were some in-text citations (examples throughout early chapters) that included a comma which is no longer expected by the MLA. In the works cited section (and throughout, in examples) when referring to book titles, the author does use the underline function instead of an italicized book title; the author also refers to the use of either italic or underlined differentiation, yet MLA suggests italics in text form.

The content of this text is very straight forward and although essentially up to date, may need updates as relevant technology develops. Updates should be simple and clear to implement as needed because of the strict organization of each chapter.

I found the content clarity in this text to be refreshing for college age students. Often, as an instructor, I ask my students to read a text and then I must re-visit the content in lecture format to ensure that my students are not lost on terminology or foundational knowledge. This text does not assume any prior knowledge from the reader, but also does not feel rudimentary. The formatting and highlighted importance of some information also provided clarity and consistency throughout. The author paced information well, building on major concepts from the beginning and returning to them throughout. The final stages of the text bring students to a major essay that easily shows how each concept included throughout the text can weave into a larger project.

This text is consistent, and feels organized with format, terminology, and the building of content from beginning to end.

The sections in this text are easily broken into segments that can be taught or read at any point throughout the writing process. The text does build on exercises from the beginning to the end, but each of these can be taken out of a linear timeline and used for multiple kinds of projects. The author actually refers to this organization in text, making it clear how each element can work alone or for a streamlined project.

Concepts build upon one another, and yet can be returned to (or jumped to) out of order and still be easy to access and utilize. The text is broken up nicely with bolded, bulleted, or boxed items which designate a stopping point, a discussion to consider, or important details or concepts to focus on.

The layout and navigation of this text online is very accessible, organized, and easy to read. The text PDFs often open in a full browser window, other times they open as PDF documents, but either way include a clean, streamlined format. The text does not seem to be able to be downloaded, making it potentially difficult for students to access without internet access. One issue that I did encounter was that in PDF format, or in html, hyperlinks do not function.

The text is clear, free of grammatical errors, and flows well.

This text is relevant to all audiences and very approachable for college age students.

I found this text to be a refreshing change from what is typically find in research textbooks; it’s relevance to more than just the assignment will help students connect research to the broader concept of academia and other facets of their lives. The antithesis section is a useful way for students to really engage with an opposing opinion and how they can then incorporate that into a successful research project. Also, the differing ways of presenting research I found to be useful for students to think about their project beyond a stapled stack of pages, and to expand that to differing modes of communication and presentation. I look forward to being able to use this text with students.

Reviewed by Samuel Kessler, Postdoctoral Fellow, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University on 2/8/17

"The Process of Research Writing" covers most of the areas students need to understand as they begin research writing at a college level. It has explanations of theses, bibliographies, citations, outlines, first paragraphs, etc. There is no index... read more

"The Process of Research Writing" covers most of the areas students need to understand as they begin research writing at a college level. It has explanations of theses, bibliographies, citations, outlines, first paragraphs, etc. There is no index or glossary, the latter especially being something that would have been very helpful and easy to put together. Krause has many useful definitions and quick-help guides throughout the text, but they are so scattered and ineffectively labeled that it can be very difficult to find them without reading through whole chapters in one's search. On the whole, buried inside these pages, is a very effective guides to *teaching* about research writing. In truth, this book is a teacher's introduction to a class (or, more realistically, three or four class sessions) devoted to college-level academic writing. Unfortunately, there are a lot of words that one has to get through to find all these subject, which can make for tough going.

Based on the questions and errors I see my students making, Krause has done a strong job of highlighting the basics of proper academic research. He spends much time on sources, especially on learning to differentiate between scholarly, trade, and journalistic sources, as well as how to steer clear and note the signs of online schlock (i.e. much of the internet). His tips for peer-to-peer editing and self-reflexive assignments are just the sort of things our students needs help working on.

This is a strange book. The portions that are about implementing class assignments or explaining terms like thesis and antithesis, as well as the examples of an outline or a good first paragraph, are all excellent tools for a classroom.

But there are so many instances of irrelevant or outdates explanations. No college student today needs to read about why writing on a computer is a useful thing to do. No student needs to read about how email can be a tool for academic exchange. A section on using computers for research? On how to copy and paste within a word document? (And no-one calls it the "World Wide Web".) These are issues for the late 90s, not for students in the second decade of the twenty-first century.

There is also a fair amount that is personal and peculiar to the author: a discussion of why he uses the term "research essay" instead of "research paper"? That is just wasted space, and actually without the argumentative merits of a research thesis that he had been teaching up to that point.

For students at research universities, or even at second-tier state and private colleges, the information about libraries and library catalogues changes so quickly that I could never assign those passages. Instead, we'll spend class time looking at our specific library interface. And often, so much material is being sent off-site these days that in many humanities fields its not even possible to scan the shelves any longer. And in science, books are almost irrelevant: online access journals are where the latest research is stored. A bound edition of *Science* from the 1970s contains very little that's important for a scientific research paper written in 2016--unless that paper is about the history of some form of experiment.

Krause writes in a folksy, breezy second-person. Now, so does Tom Friedman of the Times, though that is one of the main criticisms of his otherwise insights books. Krause has a tendency to be overly wordy. This book should more closely resemble Hemingway than Knausgaard in order to be practical. For students who have Facebook etc. open while they're reading this book, every sentence that's not directly relevant will make their minds wander. There are so many sentences that simply need to be cut. To use this book, I'd need to cut and paste just the relevant passages. And without an index or glossary, assigning sections to students is very hard.

"The Process of Research Writing" is internally consistent. Krause maintains the same tone throughout, and defines terms as he goes along. The chapters vary considerably in length, with the short chapters always being more useful and focused, with less superfluous verbiage and fewer authorial quirks.

Modularity rating: 2

"The Process of Research Writing" is a very difficult text to use. The HTML and PDF versions are identical, which defeats the unique way the internet functions. I read this book on both Safari and Chrome, and in neither browser do the hyperlinks work. The tables of content at the heads of each chapter do not link to their respective sections. The projects, assignments, and definitions do not appear in different windows, which would make them possible to keep open while continuing on in the book. There are many instances in which moving back and forth between sections would be very helpful, and that is simply not possible without having multiple windows of the same book open and going between them that way--something that is very clumsy. And again, there are so many superfluous words that even assigning specific chapters means getting through a lot of talk before actually encountering the various hints, tricks, and explanations that are important for learning how to do college-level research.

"The Process of Research Writing" reads like a series of lectures that are meant to be give in a large lecture class, with assignments appended throughout and at the ends. The order of the books is, overall, what one would expect and need for teaching the basics. However, there is a good deal in Chapter 10 that should have appeared earlier (outlines, for instance), and that becomes part of one long chapter that is difficult to use and should have been divided into smaller sections.

As mentioned, in neither Safari nor Chrome do the hyperlinks work. And there appears to have been no planning for links from the chapter tables-of-content to their various associated sections. This makes it very difficult to get between sections or to return to where one was after going somewhere else in the book. Further, there are many links on the internet that remain stable over long periods of time. The Library of Congress, for instance, about which there is a section concerning its cataloguing system, should have a link. As should WorldCat, which for many people who do not have access to a major research library is the best place for learning about texts. Many services like LexusNexus, ABC Clio, and the NY Times archive all also maintain stable websites that should be externally linked.

Except for a smattering of typos, the book has fine (though informal) grammar. This is not a text that could also be used to demonstrate high-level academic writing.

There is nothing culturally offensive here in any way.

In many ways, this is a much better book for teachers of first-year students than for the students themselves. There are many sections of this book to pull out and assign, or to read together in class, to help students gain an understanding of college-level research. But this is not a book I'd ever assign to my students in total. The suggestions for in-class and homework assignments are all high quality pedagogy. But students shouldn't read about their own assignments--they should just do them. Departments can give this book to first-year professors to help them create class periods where they teach their students how to write papers. That would be an excellent use for this text. But as a book for students themselves, I cannot recommend it.

Reviewed by Margaret Wood, Instructor, Klamath Community College on 8/21/16

The book thoroughly covers the material that first-year college research writers need to know including an introduction to basic academic research concepts, searches and source evaluation from library and web resources, a thorough discussion of... read more

The book thoroughly covers the material that first-year college research writers need to know including an introduction to basic academic research concepts, searches and source evaluation from library and web resources, a thorough discussion of summary, paraphrase and direct quotation, collaboration and peer review, topic selection, hypothesis and thesis development, annotated bibliography, text analysis and evaluation, engaging seriously with opposing viewpoints, working with evidence and attributes of evidence, the components of a traditional research essay, alternative forms of presentation (web-based project), and finally MLA and APA documentation. There are also hyperlinks to help readers move to relevant information in other chapters.

While concepts like ethos, logos, and pathos are mentioned in passing, they are not deeply developed. Other topics I generally teach alongside research which are not covered include strategies for defining terms, inductive and deductive logic, and logical fallacies.

I did not identify any inaccuracies or biases. There are areas where focus may be a bit different. For example, the model my institution uses for annotated bibliographies uses the rhetorical precis as a summary model, and also encourages a brief evaluative analysis. On the other hand, the emphasis given to the antithesis is new to me, and looks like a very good idea. I did identify a couple of grammatical issues -- two cases of "effect" instead of "affect", and one pronoun agreement problem.

Good writing principles don't tend to change that much. The discussion of the Web-based research project is very timely.

The book is written in a conversational style which should be easy for students to understand. All technical terms are clearly explained. There are also aids for comprehension and review including: a useful bulleted list at the beginning of each chapter outlines material covered in that chapter; highlighted boxes which provide guidance for class discussion on the topic; sample assignments; easy-to-read checklists of key points.

The text is entirely consistent. Hyperlinks help to connect key points to other chapters.

The material is subdivided into clear and appropriate chapters; moreover, the chapters provide clear subheadings. However, I did identify one instance where subheadings indicated material that is not present in chapter four: Three Ideas for Collaborative Projects * Research Idea Groups * Research Writing Partners * Collaborative Research Writing Projects.

Also, as previously mentioned, some material that I would like to include is not covered in this text.

I feel that chapter 3 should be placed later, at a point in the term where students have actually begun the writing process.

Images, though used infrequently, are blurry, and hyperlinks, at least as I was able to access them, did not appear to be active.

Mentioned above -- two "effect"/"affect" issues and one issue of pronoun agreement

I did not identify any culturally insensitive issues. The one essay topic used throughout, a thesis involving The Great Gatsby, I did not find particularly relevant, since my institution excludes literature from its research projects.

Solid and thorough advice on research writing. Quite heavy on text, but advice is useful and frequently innovative.

Reviewed by Laura Sanders, Instructor, Portland Community College on 8/21/16

The text offers a comprehensive discussion of all the elements of writing a research project. The author covers evaluating sources, using library research, incorporating research into essays, collaborative work, creating a thesis, as well as... read more

The text offers a comprehensive discussion of all the elements of writing a research project.

The author covers evaluating sources, using library research, incorporating research into essays, collaborative work, creating a thesis, as well as writing annotated bibliographies, close reading, opposition, alternative project formats, and citing sources.

Although there is no index or glossary, the text is organized in discrete chapters available on the site as HTML or PDF for easy navigation.

Although I found no inaccuracies, both the APA and MLA handbooks have been updated since the versions used in this text.

Most of the content will not be obsolete any time soon, but the citation chapter is not based on recent APA and MLA handbooks.

The section on alternative ways to present research (Chapter 11) could be updated to include YouTube, Prezi, and more recent technology.

The modular format would make it very easy to update.

The text is written at a level that is appropriate for the target audience, college students who need to build research and writing skills.

This text is internally consistent.

I consider the modules to be one of the main strengths of the text. The sections have useful subheadings.

It would be easy to select specific chapters as course readings.

The chapters follow an intuitive sequence of developing a paper from topic to research to draft.

This text is easy to navigate.

I found no grammar errors.

There are ample opportunities here to add cultural diversity to the sample topics and writing tasks.

I am thrilled to offer this text to my students instead of the incredibly expensive alternatives currently available.

I am particularly interested in using this book for online writing courses, so students who desire more thorough discussion of particular stages of writing a research project could build or refresh foundational skills in these areas.

Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • Chapter One: Thinking Critically About Research
  • Chapter Two: Understanding and Using the Library and the Internet for Research
  • Chapter Three: Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Avoiding Plagiarism
  • Chapter Four: How to Collaborate and Write With Others
  • Chapter Five: The Working Thesis Exercise
  • Chapter Six: The Annotated Bibliography Exercise
  • Chapter Seven: The Critique Exercise
  • Chapter Eight: The Antithesis Exercise
  • Chapter Nine: The Categorization and Evaluation Exercise
  • Chapter Ten: The Research Essay
  • Chapter Eleven: Alternative Ways to Present Your Research
  • Chapter Twelve: Citing Your Research Using MLA or APA Style

Ancillary Material

About the book.

The title of this book is The Process of Research Writing , and in the nutshell, that is what the book is about. A lot of times, instructors and students tend to separate “thinking,” “researching,” and “writing” into different categories that aren't necessarily very well connected. First you think, then you research, and then you write. The reality is though that the possibilities and process of research writing are more complicated and much richer than that. We think about what it is we want to research and write about, but at the same time, we learn what to think based on our research and our writing. The goal of this book is to guide you through this process of research writing by emphasizing a series of exercises that touch on different and related parts of the research process.

About the Contributors

Steven D. Krause  grew up in eastern Iowa, earned a BA in English at the University of Iowa, an MFA in Fiction Writing at Virginia Commonwealth University, and a PhD in Rhetoric and Writing at Bowling Green State University. He joined the faculty at Eastern Michigan University in 1998.

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Writing and Publishing a Scientific Research Paper

  • Subhash Chandra Parija 0 ,
  • Vikram Kate 1

Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, India

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Department of Surgery, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, India

The book covers all aspects of scientific writing from submission to publishing in detail

Written and edited by world leaders in the field

Chapters are easy to understand with essential contents for writing quality scientific research paper and easy to follow algorithms and key points in each chapter

Chapters highlight the importance of each section of the scientific article

A comprehensive book which will focus on how to deal with rejected manuscripts, issues of plagiarism and ethical principles of scientific publications

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Table of contents (18 chapters)

Front matter, writing a scientific research paper, why write a scientific research paper.

  • Subhash Chandra Parija, Vikram Kate

Components and Structure of a Manuscript

  • Sitanshu Sekhar Kar, Rakhee Kar
  • S. Shyama Prem

Abstract and Keywords

  • Vikram Kate, S. Suresh Kumar, Mohsina Subair


  • Tamilarasu Kadhiravan, Molly Mary Thabah
  • B. Vishnu Bhat, S. Kingsley Manoj Kumar, G. Krishna Rao
  • R. Ramesh, N. Ananthakrishnan

Discussion and Conclusion

  • Zubair H. Aghai, David Carola
  • Anup Mohta, Medha Mohta

Figures, Tables and Supporting Material

  • Dinker Pai, Soon Kyit Chua, Suneet Sood

Publishing a Scientific Research Paper

Choosing a journal for paper submission and methods of submission.

  • Vikram Kate, Madhuri Parija Halder, Subhash Chandra Parija

Revision of an Article and How to Deal with the Rejected Manuscript

  • Vikram Kate, Raja Kalayarasan

Authorship and Contributorship

  • Akash Shukla, Avinash Supe

Types of Manuscripts

  • Rajive Mathew Jose, Kiruthika Sivasubramanian

What Does a Reviewer Look into a Manuscript

  • Devinder Mohan Thappa, Malathi Munisamy

Open Access for Publication – Can It Be Chosen?

  • Savio George Barreto

Publishing Misconduct Including Plagiarism and Permissions

  • C. Adithan, A. Surendiran

This book covers all essential aspects of writing scientific research articles, presenting eighteen carefully selected titles that offer essential, “must-know” content on how to write high-quality articles. The book also addresses other, rarely discussed areas of scientific writing including dealing with rejected manuscripts, the reviewer’s perspective as to what they expect in a scientific article, plagiarism, copyright issues, and ethical standards in publishing scientific papers. Simplicity is the book’s hallmark, and it aims to provide an accessible, comprehensive and essential resource for those seeking guidance on how to publish their research work.

The importance of publishing research work cannot be overemphasized. However, a major limitation in publishing work in a scientific journal is the lack of information on or experience with scientific writing and publishing. Young faculty and trainees who are starting their research career are in need of a comprehensive guide that provides all essential components of scientific writing and aids them in getting their research work published.

  • Components of Scientific research paper
  • Choosing a journal for paper submission
  • Dealing with rejected manuscript
  • Authorship and contributorship
  • Reviewer’s perspective of the manuscript
  • Plagiarism and permissions

Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, India

Subhash Chandra Parija

Department of Surgery, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, India

Vikram Kate

Subhash Chandra Parija is the Director of the Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER), Pondicherry, India, and has nearly three and half decades of teaching and research experience in Medical Microbiology. Prof. Parija is a Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) expert, and has been consulted to draft guidelines on food safety for parasites. Prof. Parija was on the Board of MD Examination at Colombo University, Sri Lanka, Sultan Quaboos University, Oman, University of Malaya, Malaysia. He was conferred a D.Sc. for his contributions in the field of Medical Parasitology by Madras University. The author of ten books including the “Text Book of Medical Parasitology,” he has published more than 300 papers in both national and international journals of repute.

Prof. Parija has been honored with more than 25 awards including the Medical Council of India’s Dr. BC Roy National Award and the National Academy of Medical Sciences’ Dr. PN Chuttani Oration Award. Prof. Parija founded the Indian Academy of Tropical Parasitology (IATP), the only professional organization of Medical Parasitologists in India, and initiated the journal Tropical Parasitology.

Vikram Kate  is currently the Professor and Head, Department of the Surgery and Senior Consultant General and Gastrointestinal Surgeon at Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER), Puducherry. He has contributed more than 25 chapters in reputed surgical gastroenterology and surgery textbooks, and has more than 140 papers to his credit. He is a Past President of the Indian Association of Surgical Gastroenterology. He was awarded the Membership Diploma of the Faculty of Surgical Trainers by the Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh. Further, he currently serves as the Editor-in-Chief of The International Journal of Advanced Medical and Health Research , the official journal of JIPMER.

Professor Kate is Examiner for the M.S./M.Ch./DNB and Ph.D. program for Surgery, Surgical Gastroenterology and Intercollegiate Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh. He is a Fellow of Royal College of Surgeons of England, Edinburgh and Glasgow (FRCS, FRCS Ed., FRCS Glasg.), and of the American College of Surgeons (FACS) and the American College of Gastroenterology (FACG). He has been honored with many awards, including the Dr. Mathias Oration (2010), the Prof. N. Rangabashyam Oration (2015), by the Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry Chapter of the Association of Surgeons of India and the Silver Jubilee MASICON Oration (2016) by the Nagpur Branch of the Association of Surgeons of India. 

Book Title : Writing and Publishing a Scientific Research Paper

Editors : Subhash Chandra Parija, Vikram Kate

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4720-6

Publisher : Springer Singapore

eBook Packages : Medicine , Medicine (R0)

Copyright Information : Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Hardcover ISBN : 978-981-10-4719-0 Published: 09 August 2017

Softcover ISBN : 978-981-13-5211-9 Published: 13 December 2018

eBook ISBN : 978-981-10-4720-6 Published: 28 July 2017

Edition Number : 1

Number of Pages : XVII, 195

Number of Illustrations : 12 b/w illustrations, 39 illustrations in colour

Topics : Medicine/Public Health, general

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Writing a Research Paper Introduction | Step-by-Step Guide

Published on September 24, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on March 27, 2023.

Writing a Research Paper Introduction

The introduction to a research paper is where you set up your topic and approach for the reader. It has several key goals:

  • Present your topic and get the reader interested
  • Provide background or summarize existing research
  • Position your own approach
  • Detail your specific research problem and problem statement
  • Give an overview of the paper’s structure

The introduction looks slightly different depending on whether your paper presents the results of original empirical research or constructs an argument by engaging with a variety of sources.

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Table of contents

Step 1: introduce your topic, step 2: describe the background, step 3: establish your research problem, step 4: specify your objective(s), step 5: map out your paper, research paper introduction examples, frequently asked questions about the research paper introduction.

The first job of the introduction is to tell the reader what your topic is and why it’s interesting or important. This is generally accomplished with a strong opening hook.

The hook is a striking opening sentence that clearly conveys the relevance of your topic. Think of an interesting fact or statistic, a strong statement, a question, or a brief anecdote that will get the reader wondering about your topic.

For example, the following could be an effective hook for an argumentative paper about the environmental impact of cattle farming:

A more empirical paper investigating the relationship of Instagram use with body image issues in adolescent girls might use the following hook:

Don’t feel that your hook necessarily has to be deeply impressive or creative. Clarity and relevance are still more important than catchiness. The key thing is to guide the reader into your topic and situate your ideas.

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

This part of the introduction differs depending on what approach your paper is taking.

In a more argumentative paper, you’ll explore some general background here. In a more empirical paper, this is the place to review previous research and establish how yours fits in.

Argumentative paper: Background information

After you’ve caught your reader’s attention, specify a bit more, providing context and narrowing down your topic.

Provide only the most relevant background information. The introduction isn’t the place to get too in-depth; if more background is essential to your paper, it can appear in the body .

Empirical paper: Describing previous research

For a paper describing original research, you’ll instead provide an overview of the most relevant research that has already been conducted. This is a sort of miniature literature review —a sketch of the current state of research into your topic, boiled down to a few sentences.

This should be informed by genuine engagement with the literature. Your search can be less extensive than in a full literature review, but a clear sense of the relevant research is crucial to inform your own work.

Begin by establishing the kinds of research that have been done, and end with limitations or gaps in the research that you intend to respond to.

The next step is to clarify how your own research fits in and what problem it addresses.

Argumentative paper: Emphasize importance

In an argumentative research paper, you can simply state the problem you intend to discuss, and what is original or important about your argument.

Empirical paper: Relate to the literature

In an empirical research paper, try to lead into the problem on the basis of your discussion of the literature. Think in terms of these questions:

  • What research gap is your work intended to fill?
  • What limitations in previous work does it address?
  • What contribution to knowledge does it make?

You can make the connection between your problem and the existing research using phrases like the following.

Now you’ll get into the specifics of what you intend to find out or express in your research paper.

The way you frame your research objectives varies. An argumentative paper presents a thesis statement, while an empirical paper generally poses a research question (sometimes with a hypothesis as to the answer).

Argumentative paper: Thesis statement

The thesis statement expresses the position that the rest of the paper will present evidence and arguments for. It can be presented in one or two sentences, and should state your position clearly and directly, without providing specific arguments for it at this point.

Empirical paper: Research question and hypothesis

The research question is the question you want to answer in an empirical research paper.

Present your research question clearly and directly, with a minimum of discussion at this point. The rest of the paper will be taken up with discussing and investigating this question; here you just need to express it.

A research question can be framed either directly or indirectly.

  • This study set out to answer the following question: What effects does daily use of Instagram have on the prevalence of body image issues among adolescent girls?
  • We investigated the effects of daily Instagram use on the prevalence of body image issues among adolescent girls.

If your research involved testing hypotheses , these should be stated along with your research question. They are usually presented in the past tense, since the hypothesis will already have been tested by the time you are writing up your paper.

For example, the following hypothesis might respond to the research question above:

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The final part of the introduction is often dedicated to a brief overview of the rest of the paper.

In a paper structured using the standard scientific “introduction, methods, results, discussion” format, this isn’t always necessary. But if your paper is structured in a less predictable way, it’s important to describe the shape of it for the reader.

If included, the overview should be concise, direct, and written in the present tense.

  • This paper will first discuss several examples of survey-based research into adolescent social media use, then will go on to …
  • This paper first discusses several examples of survey-based research into adolescent social media use, then goes on to …

Full examples of research paper introductions are shown in the tabs below: one for an argumentative paper, the other for an empirical paper.

  • Argumentative paper
  • Empirical paper

Are cows responsible for climate change? A recent study (RIVM, 2019) shows that cattle farmers account for two thirds of agricultural nitrogen emissions in the Netherlands. These emissions result from nitrogen in manure, which can degrade into ammonia and enter the atmosphere. The study’s calculations show that agriculture is the main source of nitrogen pollution, accounting for 46% of the country’s total emissions. By comparison, road traffic and households are responsible for 6.1% each, the industrial sector for 1%. While efforts are being made to mitigate these emissions, policymakers are reluctant to reckon with the scale of the problem. The approach presented here is a radical one, but commensurate with the issue. This paper argues that the Dutch government must stimulate and subsidize livestock farmers, especially cattle farmers, to transition to sustainable vegetable farming. It first establishes the inadequacy of current mitigation measures, then discusses the various advantages of the results proposed, and finally addresses potential objections to the plan on economic grounds.

The rise of social media has been accompanied by a sharp increase in the prevalence of body image issues among women and girls. This correlation has received significant academic attention: Various empirical studies have been conducted into Facebook usage among adolescent girls (Tiggermann & Slater, 2013; Meier & Gray, 2014). These studies have consistently found that the visual and interactive aspects of the platform have the greatest influence on body image issues. Despite this, highly visual social media (HVSM) such as Instagram have yet to be robustly researched. This paper sets out to address this research gap. We investigated the effects of daily Instagram use on the prevalence of body image issues among adolescent girls. It was hypothesized that daily Instagram use would be associated with an increase in body image concerns and a decrease in self-esteem ratings.

The introduction of a research paper includes several key elements:

  • A hook to catch the reader’s interest
  • Relevant background on the topic
  • Details of your research problem

and your problem statement

  • A thesis statement or research question
  • Sometimes an overview of the paper

Don’t feel that you have to write the introduction first. The introduction is often one of the last parts of the research paper you’ll write, along with the conclusion.

This is because it can be easier to introduce your paper once you’ve already written the body ; you may not have the clearest idea of your arguments until you’ve written them, and things can change during the writing process .

The way you present your research problem in your introduction varies depending on the nature of your research paper . A research paper that presents a sustained argument will usually encapsulate this argument in a thesis statement .

A research paper designed to present the results of empirical research tends to present a research question that it seeks to answer. It may also include a hypothesis —a prediction that will be confirmed or disproved by your research.

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13.1 Formatting a Research Paper

Learning objectives.

  • Identify the major components of a research paper written using American Psychological Association (APA) style.
  • Apply general APA style and formatting conventions in a research paper.

In this chapter, you will learn how to use APA style , the documentation and formatting style followed by the American Psychological Association, as well as MLA style , from the Modern Language Association. There are a few major formatting styles used in academic texts, including AMA, Chicago, and Turabian:

  • AMA (American Medical Association) for medicine, health, and biological sciences
  • APA (American Psychological Association) for education, psychology, and the social sciences
  • Chicago—a common style used in everyday publications like magazines, newspapers, and books
  • MLA (Modern Language Association) for English, literature, arts, and humanities
  • Turabian—another common style designed for its universal application across all subjects and disciplines

While all the formatting and citation styles have their own use and applications, in this chapter we focus our attention on the two styles you are most likely to use in your academic studies: APA and MLA.

If you find that the rules of proper source documentation are difficult to keep straight, you are not alone. Writing a good research paper is, in and of itself, a major intellectual challenge. Having to follow detailed citation and formatting guidelines as well may seem like just one more task to add to an already-too-long list of requirements.

Following these guidelines, however, serves several important purposes. First, it signals to your readers that your paper should be taken seriously as a student’s contribution to a given academic or professional field; it is the literary equivalent of wearing a tailored suit to a job interview. Second, it shows that you respect other people’s work enough to give them proper credit for it. Finally, it helps your reader find additional materials if he or she wishes to learn more about your topic.

Furthermore, producing a letter-perfect APA-style paper need not be burdensome. Yes, it requires careful attention to detail. However, you can simplify the process if you keep these broad guidelines in mind:

  • Work ahead whenever you can. Chapter 11 “Writing from Research: What Will I Learn?” includes tips for keeping track of your sources early in the research process, which will save time later on.
  • Get it right the first time. Apply APA guidelines as you write, so you will not have much to correct during the editing stage. Again, putting in a little extra time early on can save time later.
  • Use the resources available to you. In addition to the guidelines provided in this chapter, you may wish to consult the APA website at http://www.apa.org or the Purdue University Online Writing lab at http://owl.english.purdue.edu , which regularly updates its online style guidelines.

General Formatting Guidelines

This chapter provides detailed guidelines for using the citation and formatting conventions developed by the American Psychological Association, or APA. Writers in disciplines as diverse as astrophysics, biology, psychology, and education follow APA style. The major components of a paper written in APA style are listed in the following box.

These are the major components of an APA-style paper:

Body, which includes the following:

  • Headings and, if necessary, subheadings to organize the content
  • In-text citations of research sources
  • References page

All these components must be saved in one document, not as separate documents.

The title page of your paper includes the following information:

  • Title of the paper
  • Author’s name
  • Name of the institution with which the author is affiliated
  • Header at the top of the page with the paper title (in capital letters) and the page number (If the title is lengthy, you may use a shortened form of it in the header.)

List the first three elements in the order given in the previous list, centered about one third of the way down from the top of the page. Use the headers and footers tool of your word-processing program to add the header, with the title text at the left and the page number in the upper-right corner. Your title page should look like the following example.

Beyond the Hype: Evaluating Low-Carb Diets cover page

The next page of your paper provides an abstract , or brief summary of your findings. An abstract does not need to be provided in every paper, but an abstract should be used in papers that include a hypothesis. A good abstract is concise—about one hundred fifty to two hundred fifty words—and is written in an objective, impersonal style. Your writing voice will not be as apparent here as in the body of your paper. When writing the abstract, take a just-the-facts approach, and summarize your research question and your findings in a few sentences.

In Chapter 12 “Writing a Research Paper” , you read a paper written by a student named Jorge, who researched the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets. Read Jorge’s abstract. Note how it sums up the major ideas in his paper without going into excessive detail.

Beyond the Hype: Abstract

Write an abstract summarizing your paper. Briefly introduce the topic, state your findings, and sum up what conclusions you can draw from your research. Use the word count feature of your word-processing program to make sure your abstract does not exceed one hundred fifty words.

Depending on your field of study, you may sometimes write research papers that present extensive primary research, such as your own experiment or survey. In your abstract, summarize your research question and your findings, and briefly indicate how your study relates to prior research in the field.

Margins, Pagination, and Headings

APA style requirements also address specific formatting concerns, such as margins, pagination, and heading styles, within the body of the paper. Review the following APA guidelines.

Use these general guidelines to format the paper:

  • Set the top, bottom, and side margins of your paper at 1 inch.
  • Use double-spaced text throughout your paper.
  • Use a standard font, such as Times New Roman or Arial, in a legible size (10- to 12-point).
  • Use continuous pagination throughout the paper, including the title page and the references section. Page numbers appear flush right within your header.
  • Section headings and subsection headings within the body of your paper use different types of formatting depending on the level of information you are presenting. Additional details from Jorge’s paper are provided.

Cover Page

Begin formatting the final draft of your paper according to APA guidelines. You may work with an existing document or set up a new document if you choose. Include the following:

  • Your title page
  • The abstract you created in Note 13.8 “Exercise 1”
  • Correct headers and page numbers for your title page and abstract

APA style uses section headings to organize information, making it easy for the reader to follow the writer’s train of thought and to know immediately what major topics are covered. Depending on the length and complexity of the paper, its major sections may also be divided into subsections, sub-subsections, and so on. These smaller sections, in turn, use different heading styles to indicate different levels of information. In essence, you are using headings to create a hierarchy of information.

The following heading styles used in APA formatting are listed in order of greatest to least importance:

  • Section headings use centered, boldface type. Headings use title case, with important words in the heading capitalized.
  • Subsection headings use left-aligned, boldface type. Headings use title case.
  • The third level uses left-aligned, indented, boldface type. Headings use a capital letter only for the first word, and they end in a period.
  • The fourth level follows the same style used for the previous level, but the headings are boldfaced and italicized.
  • The fifth level follows the same style used for the previous level, but the headings are italicized and not boldfaced.

Visually, the hierarchy of information is organized as indicated in Table 13.1 “Section Headings” .

Table 13.1 Section Headings

A college research paper may not use all the heading levels shown in Table 13.1 “Section Headings” , but you are likely to encounter them in academic journal articles that use APA style. For a brief paper, you may find that level 1 headings suffice. Longer or more complex papers may need level 2 headings or other lower-level headings to organize information clearly. Use your outline to craft your major section headings and determine whether any subtopics are substantial enough to require additional levels of headings.

Working with the document you developed in Note 13.11 “Exercise 2” , begin setting up the heading structure of the final draft of your research paper according to APA guidelines. Include your title and at least two to three major section headings, and follow the formatting guidelines provided above. If your major sections should be broken into subsections, add those headings as well. Use your outline to help you.

Because Jorge used only level 1 headings, his Exercise 3 would look like the following:

Citation Guidelines

In-text citations.

Throughout the body of your paper, include a citation whenever you quote or paraphrase material from your research sources. As you learned in Chapter 11 “Writing from Research: What Will I Learn?” , the purpose of citations is twofold: to give credit to others for their ideas and to allow your reader to follow up and learn more about the topic if desired. Your in-text citations provide basic information about your source; each source you cite will have a longer entry in the references section that provides more detailed information.

In-text citations must provide the name of the author or authors and the year the source was published. (When a given source does not list an individual author, you may provide the source title or the name of the organization that published the material instead.) When directly quoting a source, it is also required that you include the page number where the quote appears in your citation.

This information may be included within the sentence or in a parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence, as in these examples.

Epstein (2010) points out that “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive” (p. 137).

Here, the writer names the source author when introducing the quote and provides the publication date in parentheses after the author’s name. The page number appears in parentheses after the closing quotation marks and before the period that ends the sentence.

Addiction researchers caution that “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive” (Epstein, 2010, p. 137).

Here, the writer provides a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence that includes the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number separated by commas. Again, the parenthetical citation is placed after the closing quotation marks and before the period at the end of the sentence.

As noted in the book Junk Food, Junk Science (Epstein, 2010, p. 137), “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive.”

Here, the writer chose to mention the source title in the sentence (an optional piece of information to include) and followed the title with a parenthetical citation. Note that the parenthetical citation is placed before the comma that signals the end of the introductory phrase.

David Epstein’s book Junk Food, Junk Science (2010) pointed out that “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive” (p. 137).

Another variation is to introduce the author and the source title in your sentence and include the publication date and page number in parentheses within the sentence or at the end of the sentence. As long as you have included the essential information, you can choose the option that works best for that particular sentence and source.

Citing a book with a single author is usually a straightforward task. Of course, your research may require that you cite many other types of sources, such as books or articles with more than one author or sources with no individual author listed. You may also need to cite sources available in both print and online and nonprint sources, such as websites and personal interviews. Chapter 13 “APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting” , Section 13.2 “Citing and Referencing Techniques” and Section 13.3 “Creating a References Section” provide extensive guidelines for citing a variety of source types.

Writing at Work

APA is just one of several different styles with its own guidelines for documentation, formatting, and language usage. Depending on your field of interest, you may be exposed to additional styles, such as the following:

  • MLA style. Determined by the Modern Languages Association and used for papers in literature, languages, and other disciplines in the humanities.
  • Chicago style. Outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style and sometimes used for papers in the humanities and the sciences; many professional organizations use this style for publications as well.
  • Associated Press (AP) style. Used by professional journalists.

References List

The brief citations included in the body of your paper correspond to the more detailed citations provided at the end of the paper in the references section. In-text citations provide basic information—the author’s name, the publication date, and the page number if necessary—while the references section provides more extensive bibliographical information. Again, this information allows your reader to follow up on the sources you cited and do additional reading about the topic if desired.

The specific format of entries in the list of references varies slightly for different source types, but the entries generally include the following information:

  • The name(s) of the author(s) or institution that wrote the source
  • The year of publication and, where applicable, the exact date of publication
  • The full title of the source
  • For books, the city of publication
  • For articles or essays, the name of the periodical or book in which the article or essay appears
  • For magazine and journal articles, the volume number, issue number, and pages where the article appears
  • For sources on the web, the URL where the source is located

The references page is double spaced and lists entries in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. If an entry continues for more than one line, the second line and each subsequent line are indented five spaces. Review the following example. ( Chapter 13 “APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting” , Section 13.3 “Creating a References Section” provides extensive guidelines for formatting reference entries for different types of sources.)

References Section

In APA style, book and article titles are formatted in sentence case, not title case. Sentence case means that only the first word is capitalized, along with any proper nouns.

Key Takeaways

  • Following proper citation and formatting guidelines helps writers ensure that their work will be taken seriously, give proper credit to other authors for their work, and provide valuable information to readers.
  • Working ahead and taking care to cite sources correctly the first time are ways writers can save time during the editing stage of writing a research paper.
  • APA papers usually include an abstract that concisely summarizes the paper.
  • APA papers use a specific headings structure to provide a clear hierarchy of information.
  • In APA papers, in-text citations usually include the name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication.
  • In-text citations correspond to entries in the references section, which provide detailed bibliographical information about a source.

Writing for Success Copyright © 2015 by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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A New Chapter for Irish Historians’ ‘Saddest Book’

A globe-spanning research project has turned the catalog of a public archive destroyed in Ireland’s civil war into a model for reconstruction.

A woman reading an old manuscript, her fingers kept carefully at the very edge of the pages.

By Ed O’Loughlin

Reporting from Dublin

In the first pitched battle of the civil war that shaped a newly independent Ireland, seven centuries of history burned.

On June 30, 1922, forces for and against an accommodation with Britain, Ireland’s former colonial ruler, had been fighting for three days around Dublin’s main court complex. The national Public Record Office was part of the complex, and that day it was caught in a colossal explosion . The blast and the resulting fire destroyed state secrets, church records, property deeds, tax receipts, legal documents, financial data, census returns and much more, dating back to the Middle Ages.

“It was a catastrophe,” said Peter Crooks, a medieval historian at Trinity College Dublin. “This happened just after the First World War, when all over Europe new states like Ireland were emerging from old empires. They were all trying to recover and celebrate their own histories and cultures, and now Ireland had just lost the heart of its own.”

But perhaps it was not lost forever. Over the past seven years, a team of historians, librarians and computer experts based at Trinity has located duplicates for a quarter of a million pages of these lost records in forgotten volumes housed at far-flung libraries and archives, including several in the United States. The team then creates digital copies of any documents that it finds for inclusion in the Virtual Record Treasury of Ireland , an online reconstruction of the archive. Still a work in progress, the project says its website has had more than two million visits in less than two years.

Funded by the Irish government as part of its commemorations of a century of independence, the Virtual Treasury relies in part on modern technologies — virtual imaging, online networks, artificial intelligence language models and the growing digital indexes of archives around the world — but also on dusty printed catalogs and old-school human contacts. Key to the enterprise has been a book, “A Guide to the Records Deposited in the Public Record Office of Ireland,” published three years before the fire by the office’s head archivist, Herbert Wood.

“For a long time, Wood’s catalog was known to Irish historians as the saddest book in the world, because it only showed what was lost in the fire,” Dr. Crooks said. “But now it has become the basis for our model to recreate the national archive. There were 4,500 series of records listed in Wood’s book, and we went out to look for as many of them as we could find.”

A major partner in this hunt was the National Archives in Britain, to which centuries of Irish government records — notably tax receipts — had been sent in duplicate. The Public Record Office of Northern Ireland, which remains part of the United Kingdom, has also been a major partner, contributing records from the centuries before Ireland was partitioned in 1921.

A considerable haul of documents has also been uncovered in the United States. The Library of Congress, for example, dug up dozens of volumes of lost debates from Ireland’s 18th-century Parliament. According to David Brown, who leads the Virtual Treasury’s trawl through domestic and overseas archives, before this trove of political history came into Congress’s possession, one previous owner had tried to sell it as fuel. Serendipity has often played a role in such U.S. discoveries, he said.

“You would have old family records stored away in some gentleman’s library, and he’d move to the colonies, and take the books with him,” Dr. Brown said. “Or else heirs would eventually sell the old library off to collectors, and eventually an American university or library might buy the collection, maybe because they wanted something important in it, and they took everything else that came with it. Archivists may not always know what they have, but they never throw anything out.”

The Huntington Library in California, and libraries of the universities of Kansas, Chicago, Notre Dame, Yale and Harvard are among around a dozen U.S. organizations to respond positively to the hopeful request from the Irish: “Do you have anything there that might be of interest to us?” And in the process of hunting down material that is already on its radar, the Virtual Treasury team is also uncovering, and incorporating, unexpected treasures.

One is a previously unnoticed 1595 letter shown to Dr. Brown late last year while he was visiting Yale’s Lewis Walpole Library to view some other material. In it, Sir Ralph Lane — a founder and survivor of the infamous lost colony of Roanoke, off North Carolina, which had vanished in the decade before this letter was written — petitions Queen Elizabeth I to order the conquest of Ulster, then a Gaelic stronghold in the north of English-ruled Ireland.

Dr. Brown, a specialist in early modern Atlantic history, said the letter — long overlooked because it was bound in a volume with much later documents — showed the close connection between England’s colonial conquests in North America and Ireland, both in the personalities involved and their motivation. The letter suggests conquering Ulster primarily so that the English could seize the inhabitants’ land, and it proposes paying for the war by looting the Ulster chiefs’ cattle. The area was ultimately conquered and colonized in 1609, six years after Lane’s death.

“For the Elizabethan adventurers, colonialism was a branch of piracy. All they wanted was land,” Dr. Brown said. “Roanoke hadn’t worked out for Lane, and Elizabeth had just granted Sir Walter Raleigh 10,000 acres of land in Munster,” in the south of Ireland. “So Lane thought, if Raleigh got 10,000 acres in Munster, why can’t I have 10,000 acres in Ulster?”

Another contribution to the project could be seen in contemporary Northern Ireland, at the Public Record Office in Belfast. The head of conservation, Sarah Graham, was restoring and preserving a collection of records and letters kept by Archbishop John Swayne, who led the church in Ireland in the 15th century. Watching her at work was Lynn Kilgallon, research fellow in medieval history for the Virtual Treasury. Once preserved, its pages will be digitized and added to Dublin’s online archive.

“If you don’t understand the words in a book, it becomes just an object,” Ms. Graham said. “You need someone to read it — medievalists like Lynn here, to bring it to life.”

You do not necessarily need to be a specialist to read the documents in the Virtual Treasury, however. New artificial intelligence models developed for the project allow archivists to turn ancient handwriting into searchable digital text, with modern translations.

The site went online in June 2022, the 100th anniversary of the records office fire, and is aiming for 100 million searchable words by 2025, a target it says it is three-quarters of the way to reaching. Eventually, it hopes to recover 50 to 90 percent of records from some priority areas, such as censuses from before and after Ireland’s Great Famine in the mid-19th century, which are of particular value to historians, and to people of Irish descent tracing their roots. More than half of the details of the first nationwide census of Ireland, a religious head count in 1766, have been retrieved and published.

“Cultural loss is sadly a very prominent theme in the world right now, and I don’t think there is an example like this, where there’s been so much international cooperation in the reconstruction of a lost archive,” Dr. Crooks said. “It shows that the collective culture of many countries can be brought together to achieve a goal. Borders are fluid.”


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  17. Publishing Research as Book Chapters: Is It Worth It?

    A book chapter often allows the author more scope and creativity to bring together ideas and theories and present them in original ways than a journal article does. An edited book of essays as a whole tends to gather together a variety of perspectives on a problem or phenomenon, producing a collection of considerable value for readers and ...

  18. The Process of Research Writing

    The bulk of the chapters are timeless and filled with wisdom about using research to write a paper. However, the book should contain links or otherwise refer students to the web sources that would tell them how to use current MLA/APA format. ... The section on alternative ways to present research (Chapter 11) could be updated to include YouTube ...

  19. Writing and Publishing a Scientific Research Paper

    The book covers all aspects of scientific writing from submission to publishing in detail. Written and edited by world leaders in the field. Chapters are easy to understand with essential contents for writing quality scientific research paper and easy to follow algorithms and key points in each chapter


    GUIDELINES FOR AUTHORS FRONTMATTER: The first "chapter" in your book is the frontmatter. It contains: The title page, which lists the final title/subtitle, the names of the author(s) and full affiliations—all exactly as you wish this information to appear in the final product.

  21. Writing a Research Paper Introduction

    Table of contents. Step 1: Introduce your topic. Step 2: Describe the background. Step 3: Establish your research problem. Step 4: Specify your objective (s) Step 5: Map out your paper. Research paper introduction examples. Frequently asked questions about the research paper introduction.

  22. 13.1 Formatting a Research Paper

    Set the top, bottom, and side margins of your paper at 1 inch. Use double-spaced text throughout your paper. Use a standard font, such as Times New Roman or Arial, in a legible size (10- to 12-point). Use continuous pagination throughout the paper, including the title page and the references section.

  23. Climate Shocks and the Poor: A Review of the Literature

    Abstract: There is a rapidly growing literature on the link between climate change and poverty. This study reviews the existing literature on whether the poor are more exposed to climate shocks and whether they are more adversely affected.

  24. Linking Export Activities to Productivity and Wage Rate Growth

    This paper examines the relationship between trade and job quality, using productivity and wage rate data for export and non-export activities in a sample of 60 countries across all income levels and 45 sectors spanning the whole economy over 1995-2019.

  25. A New Chapter for Irish Historians' 'Saddest Book'

    A New Chapter for Irish Historians' 'Saddest Book' A globe-spanning research project has turned the catalog of a public archive destroyed in Ireland's civil war into a model for ...