A Level Geography

Storm Desmond  was an extratropical cyclone and the fourth named storm of the 2015–16 UK and Ireland windstorm season. Desmond directed a plume of moist air, known as an atmospheric river, which brought record amounts of rainfall to upland areas of the UK and subsequent major floods.

Thousands of homes were left flooded or left without power after Storm Desmond wreaked havoc in parts of the UK on the 5th and 6th of December 2015. In Lancashire and Cumbria, more than 43,000 homes across the north of England were left without power, as well as over 2,000 homes in the Republic of Ireland and around 700 in Wales, while an estimated 5,200 homes were affected by flooding.

The storm claimed two lives – in Cumbria and the Republic of Ireland.

Record-breaking amounts of rain fell in Cumbria, the worst-hit county – prompting the county to declare a major incident. Storm Desmond deposited an unusually large amount of rain on ground already saturated by heavy rain, causing widespread flooding.

Areas Affected

Towns on the Scottish border, Carlise, Lancaster, Keswick, Braithwaite and Appleby amongst many others. Large areas have been indirectly affected due to an electricity substation becoming flooded which has left many communities without power.

Storm Desmond satellite image

Storm Desmond satellite image

Rivers affected

River Greta, River Eden, River Teviot, River Kent, River Cocker

The areas worst affected by Storm Desmond - Source BBC News

The areas worst affected by Storm Desmond – Source BBC News

The areas worst affected by Storm Desmond –  Source BBC News

Cause of Floods

Desmond created an atmospheric river in its wake, bringing in moist air from the Caribbean to the British Isles. As a result, rainfall from Desmond was unusually heavy. The heavy rain and strong winds were caused by an area of low pressure which arrived on Friday from the Atlantic.

The Met Office says Honister in Cumbria received 341.4mm (13.4in) of rain in the 24-hour period from 18:30 GMT on Friday 4 December to 18:30 GMT on Saturday 5 December. This beats the previous UK record set at Seathwaite, also in Cumbria, of 316.4mm (12.4in) on 19 November 2009.

As reported in The Guardian,  Storm Desmond flooding is partly due to climate change .

Storm Desmond caused an estimated £500m of damage across Cumbria – almost double the cost of the floods that hit parts of the county six years ago.

Environment Agency officials said the Cumbria flood defences did work, but no matter how substantial any defences are, “you can always get water levels higher than that, in which case it will go over the top”.

The Met Office said Storm Desmond had more impact because the “exceptional” levels of rain  fell on already saturated land .

More than 1,000 people evacuated across Cumbria.

50,000 people were without power across Cumbria and Lancashire.

1,000 people have been evacuated from the Scottish border town of Hawick.

Road closures and closure of the West Coast Mainline rail route to Scotland and the Cumbrian coast rail line between Carlisle and Workington;

About 40 schools in Cumbria were closed and appointments and routine business across NHS hospitals were cancelled;

A train en route to Glasgow has been left stranded at Carlisle station overnight, with passengers having to sleep onboard.

The UK economy could be dented by as much as £3bn by damage from Storms Eva, Desmond and Frank.

Economic losses from the storms Desmond and Eva will be between £1.6bn and £2.3bn, while insured losses will hit £900m-£1.2bn.

A  waterfall  appeared at  Malham Cove  for a short time due to heavy rainfall. This had not previously happened in living memory.

According to Great Outdoors Magazine, the full extent of the environmental impact of Storm Desmond is yet to be assessed, but it is likely that footpaths and walls have been washed away, ground severely eroded, vegetation destroyed and water quality affected. Large amounts of the fragile upland soils have been washed into the swollen streams, rivers and lakes and will have an impact on water quality and aquatic wildlife.

Millions of tons of sediment was transported by the river and deposited on floodplains and in settlements in the areas affected.

Thousands of trees which once lined rivers in the area affected were ripped from river banks.

Landslides occurred in many places as the result of heavy rainfall and the land becoming saturated.

Kinder Downfall waterfall in the Peak District is put in reverse by strong winds from Storm Desmond

A significant landslide occurred in along the Glenn Riding beck in the Lake District

Human response

More than 100 flood warnings and more than 70 flood alerts were in place in northern England on Saturday night, with more than 90 flood warnings and alerts in Scotland.

The Government mobilised a full national emergency response”. This included 200 military personnel and supporting assets (including a Chinook helicopter); 50 high-volume pumps; and the Environment Agency moving people, temporary defences and pumps to the north-west.

Several teams of Royal Engineers were deployed to help in the emergency response and recovery after the floods in Cumbria and Lancashire. Reconnaissance teams from 21 and 32 Regiment of 170 Engineer Group at Chilwell conducted technical assessments on at-risk and damaged bridges. More engineers were on standby.

Around 90 troops from 2nd Battalion Duke of Lancaster’s Regiment provided assistance and took supplies to remote areas such as Patterdale and Glenridding. Around 350 personnel were available to rotate as required.

£400,000 was donated within 48 hours by the public  after a £1m appeal was launched to help people affected by flooding caused by Storm Desmond.

Following the floods the Government announced a £50m repair and renew scheme for Cumbria and Lancashire after the floods, promising businesses and homeowners they will quickly receive the help they need. The scheme was administered by local authorities.

The Cumbria Flood Recovery Fund 2015, launched by the Cumbria Community Foundation, aims to contribute to clean-up costs, emergency repairs, clothing, food and drink, heating and heating equipment, childcare equipment and basic furniture for individuals and families who already struggle financially.

The government’s Cobra committee announced the 5,000 households and businesses affected would be given council tax and business rate relief.

The government launched the Bellwin scheme to fully reimburse councils for the costs of dealing with flooding, and ministers reviewed all flood defence plans.

Meanwhile, the Prince’s Countryside Fund  announced it is releasing £40,000  from its Emergency Fund, to help rural communities, farmers and businesses in the north of England and Scotland recover from flood damage.

A  National Flood Resilience Review  is taking place to better protect the country from future flooding and increasingly extreme weather events. The review will be published in summer 2016 and will be led by the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster Oliver Letwin. It will include input from Defra, DECC, DCLG, HMT, the Chief Executive of the Environment Agency and the Government’s Chief Scientist.

A  new Cumbrian Floods Partnership group  has also been formed to “consider what improvements to flood defences in the region may be needed, look at upstream options for slowing key rivers to reduce the intensity of water flows at peak times and build stronger links between local residents, community groups and flood defence planning.” The Group will publish a  Cumbria Action Plan  in summer 2016.

Two funds were set up to to allow people to donate money to support repairing the natural environment affected by Storm Desmond. These were the Ullswater Environment Recovery Fund and Fix the Fells. You can find out more  here .

Subsequent flooding

The village of Glen-ridding flooded for a second time on the 9 December. Widespread flooding was expected after heavy rains on Boxing Day as a result of  Storm Eva , with the Met Office issuing a red warning for parts of Cumbria, Lancashire and Yorkshire. The was then followed by Storm Frank which resulted in significant flooding.

Wider Reading: 

Today’s most popular pages

Japan 2011 Earthquake Case Study

If you have found this site useful please support us keeping A Level Geography free by making a small, secure donation via Paypal towards to the running costs of the site.

Drainage basin hydrological cycle

Storm hydrograph, the long profile of a river, water balance, erosion, transportation and deposition, changing channel characteristics, privacy overview, pin it on pinterest.

You must be logged in to post a comment.

storm desmond case study bbc bitesize

Final dates! Join the tutor2u subject teams in London for a day of exam technique and revision at the cinema. Learn more →

Reference Library


  • See what's new
  • All Resources
  • Student Resources
  • Assessment Resources
  • Teaching Resources
  • CPD Courses
  • Livestreams

Study notes, videos, interactive activities and more!

Geography news, insights and enrichment

Currated collections of free resources

Browse resources by topic

  • All Geography Resources

Resource Selections

Currated lists of resources

  • Study Notes

GCSE Geography | Extreme Weather in the UK (Weather Hazards 11)

Last updated 19 Jul 2023

  • Share on Facebook
  • Share on Twitter
  • Share by Email

Although the UK doesn't experience tropical storms like many regions around the globe, it does experience regular extreme weather events.

Prolonged rainf all and flooding

Persistent rainfall over a long period can lead to river floods, this is because the ground is complete saturated meaning it can no longer absorb water, and as a result there is more surface run-off, so more water returning straight to the river than soaking into the ground. This is common in the UK especially during the late winter and early spring when snowmelt makes the problem worse. During the very wet winter of 2013 to 2014 flooding was widespread across much of southern England, including the Somerset Levels, which many of you will have studied as your UK weather hazard case study. This was an example of slow-onset flooding.

In contrast we also see river flash flooding where intense rainfall brings a huge amount of water into an area in a short space of time. This is common in upland areas where the slopes are steep, for example when storm Desmond hit the Lake District in December 2015 or when Boscastle in Cornwall, sitting at the bottom of a steep sided valley, was completely overwhelmed by water after more than 18cm of rainfall fell in 5 hours in August 2004.

In addition, we have coastal flooding when a deep depression causes strong winds, that bring a storm surge to a major river estuary, funnelling coastal water into the mouth of a river. The most devastating example of this was in 1953 when huge storm surges hit the East coast of the UK, with 300 people dying along the Thames Estuary alone. This is not usually linked to prolonged rainfall.

storm desmond case study bbc bitesize

Strong winds

This leads nicely to our next extreme weather event – strong winds. The UK does occasionally get battered by strong winds. Sometimes the remnants of hurricanes travel over the Atlantic from the USA and Caribbean.

In February 2022 wind speeds of more than 200km/h were recorded at the top of Cairn Gorm – a peak in Scotland – that’s the equivalent of a category 4 hurricane. In the same month Storm Eunice battered southern Britain, and even ripped much of the London O2's roof off.

The UK experiences depressions on a regular basis and these often bring heavy rain and trigger river or coastal flooding (see above). As well as the damage by water they also can lead to great storm damage, for example the St Jude storm in October 2013, which felled trees, toppled lorries and double decker buses and caused the deaths of 5 people.

These storms often lead to widespread power cuts – in autumn 2021 thousands of people were without power for more than a week across the Lake District as storms bought power lines down, leading to widespread disruption to businesses, but also left people unable to heat their homes or get hot water, just as snow started to fall.

storm desmond case study bbc bitesize

Drought and heatwaves

Drought is defined as an extended period of low or absent rainfall relative to the expected average for a region, which in the UK is fifteen consecutive days with less than 0.2 millimetres of rain on any one day. Once it has become this dry there may be insufficient water to produce crops, particularly if levels of stored water are low, such as in reservoirs, and rivers have started to dry up. Drought is fairly common in the south-east of England which is the driest area in terms of rainfall, and usually the hottest – luckily droughts are fairly short-lived. The longest drought on record in the UK occurred over an 18-month period in 1975 and 1976, however the summer of 2022 saw widespread droughts across the UK, with water levels in reservoirs dropping lower than seen before.

Linked to drought are incidents of heatwaves, which are becoming more common due to climate change. In 2003 Europe suffered an extreme heatwave which led to the deaths of over 20,000, and many countries recorded their highest ever temperatures. However those records have been broken more recently – July 2022 saw the highest temperature ever recorded in the UK, with a temperature of 40.3°C at Coningsby, Lincolnshire, beating the previous record set in Cambridge in 2019 by 1.6°C recorded at Cambridge Botanic Gardens. The Met Office reported that man-made global warming has made summer heatwaves thirty times more likely in the UK.

storm desmond case study bbc bitesize

Extreme cold

Many people often talk about how winters in the past were much colder and harsher than they are now, we have still had some recent significant periods of extreme cold, such as the winter of 2010-11, and 2014-15, and of course the Beast from the East in 2018, which caused a great deal of disruption and hardship, particularly in areas of the north.

There are many problems associated with extreme cold – in which leads to stranded passengers and huge economic loss. Extreme cold also has an enormous impact of farming – with frost and snow killing off thousands of crops, and livestock, such as cattle, struggling to survive the freezing temperatures.

storm desmond case study bbc bitesize

  • Weather events
  • Extreme weather
  • Weather hazards
  • Atmospheric hazard
  • Natural hazards

You might also like

Cyclone pam hits vulnerable island nations.

14th March 2015

storm desmond case study bbc bitesize

California drought

3rd April 2015

Stunning 3D Visualisation of a Tornado

24th May 2015

Drought Management - 96 Million Black Balls

12th August 2015

storm desmond case study bbc bitesize

Storm Steve, Wendy and Barney

20th October 2015

It never rains but it pours

27th October 2015

Would You Like Some Seawater with Your Steak, Sir?

12th November 2015

The Iraq Sand River Explained

22nd November 2015

Our subjects

  • › Criminology
  • › Economics
  • › Geography
  • › Health & Social Care
  • › Psychology
  • › Sociology
  • › Teaching & learning resources
  • › Student revision workshops
  • › Online student courses
  • › CPD for teachers
  • › Livestreams
  • › Teaching jobs

Boston House, 214 High Street, Boston Spa, West Yorkshire, LS23 6AD Tel: 01937 848885

  • › Contact us
  • › Terms of use
  • › Privacy & cookies

© 2002-2024 Tutor2u Limited. Company Reg no: 04489574. VAT reg no 816865400.

UK Storm Case Study - St Jude

Extreme weather event in the uk – the st jude storm of 27th and 28th of october 2013.

Key words Extreme weather - This is when a weather event is significantly different from the average or usual weather pattern, and is especially severe or unseasonal. This may take place over one day or a period of time. Immediate responses - The reaction of people as the disaster happens and in the immediate aftermath. Long term responses - Later reactions that occur in the weeks, months and years after the event.

The St. Jude storm was a huge LOW PRESSURE DEPRESSION that struck the UK between 27th and 28th of October 2013 before going on to affect other parts of Northwest Europe.  It caused 17 deaths across Europe and was also known as Cyclone Christian.

St Jude Infographic

Causes 1. The storm started as a depression forming off the east coast of the United States in the North Atlantic along the Polar Front, the boundary between warm and cold air. 2. It headed east helped by a strong jet stream, a high up ribbon of fast moving air circling the globe in a West east direction. 3. As the storm moved east it passed by the remnants of ex-tropical storm which added extra warm air and energy to the storm. 4. This, together with a strong jet stream, led to a rapid deepening of the St. Jude low before it hit the UK then Western Europe as a strengthening storm. 5. The storm system was swept across the Atlantic at a rapid pace moving eastwards with an average speed of 77 km/h (48 mph), Storm facts 1. It crossed over 2000 km (1240miles) in less than 26 hours. 2. Pressure were very low, reaching in the UK 3. The storm got worse over the North Sea and pressure dropped to 965Mb in Denmark which also suffered its fastest ever recorded winds of 120.8mph 4. Winds were enhanced by a sting jet – where cooled air rapidly descends from the upper atmosphere

Forecasting The Met Office predicted the passage of the storm with a good degree of accuracy which contrasts to the famous “hurricane” of 87 when they got the forecast wrong. It was forecast in the week before it occurred using a supercomputer.  On the 24th of October warnings were given that the south coast would be affected. Later, it was forecast that the storm would pass over the United Kingdom on a more northerly track, affecting all areas south of the Midlands. Predictions were for 20–40 mm (0.6–1.2 in) of rain, with wind speeds of 80 miles per hour (130 km/h) falling in a period of six to nine hours. These were later updated, with winds of Force 11 (a violent storm of 102.4–117.4 km/h) predicted. The Met Office issued weather warnings for the affected areas including "Yellow – be aware" warnings Ahead of the storm, London's Metropolitan Police Service advised people to only use the 999 emergency telephone number in an emergency, and to use the 101 Single Non-Emergency Number service for reporting non-emergency situations, anticipating the emergency services being stretched by the storm's passage.

St Jude Track

Responses & Management The actions of forecasters and authorities limited the impacts of the storm and although causing inconvenience to people kept them away from the damaging effects of the storm. The Met Offices supercomputer worked with a good level of accuracy. Insurance companies had to take on extra staff to cope.  Estimates of the total costs to the insurance industry of the storm were likely to range between £300 million and £500 million in the UK on 29 October 2013. A massive effort from the electricity companies meant that by the first of November only 3,110 homes were still without The Met Office worked closely with utility companies (such as electricity), Government agencies and Transport agencies and companies (road, rail, air and sea) to help them prepare.  They also communicated warnings using social media, apps their website and national news media such as the BBC.

NEXT TOPIC - Evidence for Climate Change

Locations of visitors to this page

©2015 Cool Geography

  • Copyright Policy
  • Privacy & Cookies
  • Testimonials
  • Feedback & support

Hot Wired IT Solutions Logo

Find Study Materials for

  • Business Studies
  • Combined Science
  • Computer Science
  • Engineering
  • English Literature
  • Environmental Science
  • Human Geography
  • Macroeconomics
  • Microeconomics
  • Social Studies
  • Browse all subjects
  • Read our Magazine

Create Study Materials

Dive into an in-depth exploration of the notable Flood in Cumbria. This detailed guide unpicks the causes, impacts, and long-term implications of multiple flooding events, drawing particular attention to the 2009 and 2015 occurrences. You'll unearth key facts about floods in this region, dig into the role of defence mechanisms, and study both the positive and negative aftermath. Our hope is to not only provide information about past incidents but also to equip you with understanding to better face potential future incidents.

Mockup Schule

Explore our app and discover over 50 million learning materials for free.

  • Flood in Cumbria
  • Explanations
  • StudySmarter AI
  • Textbook Solutions
  • Challenges In The Human Environment
  • Changing Economic World
  • Coasts Geography
  • Diverse Places
  • Dynamic Landscapes
  • Energy Security
  • Glaciated Landscapes
  • Global Resource Management
  • Globalisation
  • Health And Human Rights
  • Climatic Hazards
  • Cyclone Nargis
  • Earthquake Hazard Management
  • Evidence for Climate Change
  • Global Atmospheric Circulation
  • Hurricane Katrina
  • Managing Climate Change
  • Monitoring Volcanoes
  • Somerset Floods
  • Thunder Storms
  • Tropical Storm Management
  • Tropical Storms
  • Typhoon Haiyan
  • Weather Fronts
  • Weather Hazards in the UK
  • Living World
  • Migration and Identity
  • Regenerating Places
  • River Landscapes
  • Superpowers of the World
  • Sustainable Urban Development
  • Water Cycle

Lerne mit deinen Freunden und bleibe auf dem richtigen Kurs mit deinen persönlichen Lernstatistiken

Nie wieder prokastinieren mit unseren Lernerinnerungen.

Understanding the Flood in Cumbria

Located in North West England, Cumbria is a predominantly rural county which is renowned for its outstanding natural beauty. With picturesque landscapes, the region is not a stranger to the extremes of nature, often suffering from severe floods . To comprehend these natural disasters , it becomes paramount to thoroughly understand the geographic and meteorological aspects behind them.

Flooding is an overflow of large amounts of water beyond its normal confines, typically over what is dry land. The resulting water damage can devastate communities, destroying homes, businesses, and leading to loss of life.

Review of the 2009 Floods in Cumbria

November 2009 saw Cumbria grappling with the worst floods in its history. The event marked the highest level of rainfall ever recorded in the UK over a 24-hour period - 314.4mm. This particular flood led to the unfortunate loss of a police officer and caused extensive property damage.

In the small town of Cockermouth, the water level in the River Derwent rose so dramatically that it swept away the Northside Bridge. The destruction of infrastructure led to significant isolation for local communities and took months to rebuild.

During the 2009 flood, Cumbria's infrastructure was left in ruins, with more than 1,300 homes affected. The utility services were stretched beyond their limits, with road closures and power outages being reported all across the county.

Key Causes of Flooding in Cumbria

It's important to grasp the main factors contributing to floods in Cumbria. Predominantly, these include heavy rainfall, topography, soil conditions, and human intervention.

  • Heavy rainfall: The geography of Cumbria means that it often falls victim to severe Atlantic weather systems.
  • Topography: The steep slopes and valleys of the Lake District mean water flows quickly into river systems.
  • Soil conditions: The often saturated ground cannot absorb much additional water.
  • Human intervention: Urbanisation can lead to greater surface run-off and therefore boost flood risk.

Top Facts about Flooding in Cumbria

In order to recap and summarise, here are some riveting facts about flooding in Cumbria:

Impact of Flooding on the Physical Environment in Cumbria

When discussing the impact of flooding in Cumbria, it’s hard to overlook its drastic effects on the county’s physical environment. With an extensive network of rivers, picturesque valleys, and abundant wildlife, the physical environment in Cumbria is intensely susceptible to the aftermath of flooding.

The physical environment refers to the natural landscape, including physical and geographical features such as rivers, mountains, vegetation, wildlife and climate.

The Role of Flood Defences in Cumbria

Given the regularity and magnitude of floods in Cumbria, effective flood defences play a crucial role in managing and mitigating their impact. These structures and systems are designed to control the flow and size of rising water, reducing its damaging effects.

A prominent flood defence system in Cumbria is the Keswick flood alleviation scheme. This structure, which includes a combination of raised embankments and wall defences, was developed to protect the town from the River Greta's swelling waters.

Flood defences have a multifaceted role:

  • They reduce the vulnerability of settlements and infrastructure to floods.
  • They decrease the likelihood of human casualties.
  • They curtail the financial loss caused by property and agricultural damage.

Although highly beneficial, flood defences aren't perfect solutions. They can sometimes simply displace the problem downstream. In addition, highly engineered structures can have significant environmental impacts, altering habitats and disrupting wildlife.

Analysing the Impact of Flooding in Cumbria on Environment

Examining the effect of flooding on the environment in Cumbria helps understand not just the immediate, but also the long-term changes it brings about. These can range from landscape alteration and soil erosion to adverse effects on wildlife habitats.

An outline of environmental impact:

  • Landscape alteration: Flooding can cause dramatic changes in the local landscape due to the force of water and movement of debris.
  • Soil erosion: Strong floods can strip fertile topsoil layer, leading to poor soil quality and affecting local agriculture.
  • Wildlife disruption: The sudden surge of water can destroy habitats, leading to the displacement or death of local wildlife species.

In-depth Study of the Cumbria Floods 2015

December 2015 bore witness to another catastrophic flood event in Cumbria. Named 'Storm Desmond', this event was characterised by relentless rainfall that led to severe flooding.

Storm Desmond was a vigorous extratropical cyclone and the fourth named storm of the 2015–16 UK and Ireland windstorm season. It brought record amounts of rainfall primarily to regions of northern England.

Storm Desmond had stern repercussions, including power cuts that affected tens of thousands of homes, widespread disruption to transport, and extensive damage to infrastructure. Furthermore, rare historic artefacts stored in the basement of Carlisle's Castle Museum were severely damaged by the floodwaters.

After Effects and Transformation Post Cumbria Floods

The aftermath of the Cumbria floods extends beyond immediate property damage and displacement of residents. Lasting changes in infrastructure, the local environment, and community resilience define the legacy of these natural disasters . Understanding the scale and nature of these transformations provides crucial insights into adapting and preparing for future flooding events.

Understanding the Cumbria Floods 2015 and its After-Effects

December 2015's Storm Desmond will be remembered as one of the most destructive flood events in Cumbria's history. However, to fully comprehend its long-lasting effects, it's important to delve deep into the transformations brought forth from the floodwaters.

After-effects of a flood refer to the consequences, both immediate and long-term, that are experienced by natural and human systems once floodwaters have receded. This can encompass changes to the physical environment, economic loss, infrastructure damage, and community trauma.

The 2015 Cumbria floods made an indelible mark:

  • The flood led to widespread property damage, which required extensive reconstruction in its wake.
  • Local infrastructure suffered, with many roads and bridges destroyed or severely damaged, requiring months to years for complete restoration.
  • Significant environmental impact was seen in the form of eroded soils and compromised wildlife habitats.

The Long-Term Implications of the Cumbria Floods 2015

The floods of 2015 had far-reaching implications for Cumbria, impacting not just the environment and infrastructure, but also the region's economy and community dynamics.

Long-term implications of a flood event extend beyond immediate damage to property or resources. They include ongoing economic hardship, changes in land use, changes in community structure, and influencing future policy concerning flood defence and management.

Here are some of the significant long-term effects of the 2015 Cumbria floods:

  • Communities were significantly affected with many residents wrestling with the psychological trauma of the event long after the waters subsided.
  • The floods' economic toll was significant, with enormous costs associated with repairs, insurance payouts, and loss of business.
  • Policy change and increased investment around flood defences and flood prevention strategies have become more prominent.

The 2015 Cumbria floods urged a recalibration of flood management strategies. Significant resources were directed towards better understanding the local topography, climate, urban development, and infrastructure – insights that are now guiding how Cumbria prepares for and responds to catastrophic flood events.

Positive and Negative Impacts of Cumbria Floods

The aftermath of Cumbria's floods presented both challenges and opportunities, encapsulating both the harsh reality of natural disasters as well as the resilience of the affected communities.

The positive impact of a flood sounds counterintuitive but can contribute to community solidarity, generation of employment in the reconstruction phase, and improvements in flood defences for future events. In contrast, the negative impacts are widely known, such as damage to property, loss of life, psychological trauma, and economic hardship.

  • Negative Impacts: Major repercussions such as damage to homes, personal injury, psychological trauma, financial hardship, environmental degradation and community displacement rank among the negative impacts.
  • Positive Impacts: On the brighter side, floods also sparked community solidarity, increased employment in reconstruction, and improved flood defences and preparedness for future events.

Flood In Cumbria - Key takeaways

  • Flooding in Cumbria refers to the overflow of large amounts of water beyond normal confines, often causing devastation to communities, infrastructure, and leading to loss of life.
  • Key causes of flooding in Cumbria include heavy rainfall, topography, soil conditions, and human intervention, often leading to significant destruction and isolation of communities. The 2009 floods were notably damaging.
  • The impact of flooding on the physical environment entails dramatic landscape changes, soil erosion, and disruption to wildlife habitats. Flood defences in Cumbria aim minimize this impact, though they can also cause environmental disruptions.
  • The Cumbria floods in 2015, initiated by 'Storm Desmond', led to widespread flooding and significant damage in the region, affecting communities, infrastructure, and the environment.
  • The aftermath of Cumbria floods has both positive and negative impacts, encompassing property damage, community trauma, economic hardship, as well as improved community resilience, increased employment in reconstruction, and advancements in flood defences and preparedness.

Frequently Asked Questions about Flood in Cumbria

--> when were the cumbria floods .

The Cumbria floods occurred in both November 2009 and December 2015

--> How were the Cumbria floods managed? 

The floods were managed in various ways such as implementing a flood management strategy, flood defences such as a self-closing river barrier, river dredging, and early warning systems. 

--> Why is Cumbria prone to flooding? 

Cumbria is prone to flooding due to the location of towns such as Cockermouth at the confluence of the Derwent and Cocker rivers. The area is also prone to storms and intense rainfall, with flooding events expected to become more frequent in the future due to climate change. 

--> Why did the Cumbria floods in 2009 happen?   

As a result of a deep depression which was formed in the Atlantic Ocean, warm air rose over the Cumbrian mountains and fell as relief rainfall. This heavy rainfall fell into the Derwent and Cocker rivers, with the rivers bursting their banks resulting in flooding. 

--> What were the effects of the flood in Cumbria in 2015? 

The 2015 floods were one of the worst and most destructive floods in the UK, with 7,465 properties flooded, transport disrupted, and water polluted to name some of the impacts. The floods were also estimated to have cost £500 million in damage. 

Test your knowledge with multiple choice flashcards

_____ rain fell during the November 2009 floods 

What is the definition of flooding?

What were the impacts of the 2009 floods in Cumbria?

Your score:

Smart Exams

Join the StudySmarter App and learn efficiently with millions of flashcards and more!

Learn with 14 flood in cumbria flashcards in the free studysmarter app.

Already have an account? Log in

_____ rain fell during the November 2009 f loods 

Name 2 responses to the Cumbria 2009 floods 

Flood defenses were installed,  early warning systems or river dredging 

Flooding is an overflow of large amounts of water beyond its normal confines, commonly affecting areas of dry land. It can cause extensive damage to communities, destroying homes and businesses, and potentially leading to loss of life.

The 2009 floods in Cumbria resulted in the loss of a police officer, extensive property damage and more than 1,300 homes were affected. The infrastructure, including bridges, was ruined, leading to significant community isolation.

What are the main causes of flooding in Cumbria?

The main causes of flooding in Cumbria include heavy rainfall, topography, soil conditions and human intervention, such as urbanisation.

What was significant about the rainfall in the town of Seathwaite in 2009?

In 2009, the town of Seathwaite in Cumbria recorded the highest rainfall in the UK over a 24-hour period.


  • Geographical Skills

of the users don't pass the Flood in Cumbria quiz! Will you pass the quiz?

How would you like to learn this content?

Free geography cheat sheet!

Everything you need to know on . A perfect summary so you can easily remember everything.

Join over 22 million students in learning with our StudySmarter App

The first learning app that truly has everything you need to ace your exams in one place

  • Flashcards & Quizzes
  • AI Study Assistant
  • Study Planner
  • Smart Note-Taking

Join over 22 million students in learning with our StudySmarter App

Sign up to highlight and take notes. It’s 100% free.

This is still free to read, it's not a paywall.

You need to register to keep reading, create a free account to save this explanation..

Save explanations to your personalised space and access them anytime, anywhere!

By signing up, you agree to the Terms and Conditions and the Privacy Policy of StudySmarter.

Entdecke Lernmaterial in der StudySmarter-App

Google Popup

Storm waves crashing against a harbour wall

Storm Desmond

5 - 6 December 2015 - Storm Desmond brought strong winds and heavy rainfall with the worst impacts in Cumbria.

Storm Desmond was the fourth named storm of the season and brought severe gales with gusts up to 81 mph.  This was accompanied by record-breaking rainfall which brought flooding to areas across the north of England.

Honister Pass in Cumbria recorded 341.4 mm of rainfall in the 24-hours up to 1800 GMT on 5 December 2015 making a new UK record.

The same period of rainfall also set a new 48-hour record (from 0900 to 0900 hrs) with 405 mm rainfall recorded at Thirlmere in Cumbria in just 38 hours.

Gust speeds and rainfall totals

Impacts of storm desmond.

The record-breaking rainfall associated with Storm Desmond caused severe disruption flooding 5,200 homes across Lancashire and Cumbria.

Several major roads across the north of England and Scotland were flooded and there was major disruption to rail services in the north of England while a landslide closed a section of the West Coast mainline between Preston and Carlisle.

43,000 homes across north-east England were left without power and on 5 December 61,000 homes in Lancaster lost power when the electrical substation was flooded.

Storm Desmond satellite imagery

Help us improve our website

storm desmond case study bbc bitesize

Skip to content

Get Revising

Join get revising, already a member, causes of storm desmond.

  • Hydrological Cycle
  • Created by: Emily_Dare
  • Created on: 22-10-19 17:12
  • Formed 03/12
  • Dissipated 08/12
  • 14 inches of rainfall in 24 hours
  • Soils become highly saturated
  • Granite and Limestone
  • Less cracks or spaces for water to move through, therefore more water on the surface
  • Faster run-off speeds
  • Little/ Lower Levels of Interception
  • Mainly sheep grazing areas - Grassland
  • Urbanisation
  • River Derwent has 2 Tributaries
  • River Eden has 4 Tributaries

No comments have yet been made

Related discussions on The Student Room

  • geo Edexcel alevel paper next friday »
  • A Level Geography Edexcel 18/20/24 markers »
  • Edexcel A level Geography (2016) Notes »
  • How do I report a government site for promoting medical misinformation? »
  • If I sent in my English lit paragraph would anyone be kind enough to mark it »
  • Alevel geography hazard 20 marker »
  • Best uni for environmental science/geoscience/ecology/environmental development? »
  • Geomagnetic storms cause me to get tachycardia. Magnetic fields mess up my heart »
  • Geography 6 mark HELP »
  • Rate my lyrics :) everything is appreciated. »

Similar Geography resources:

Storm Desmond 5.0 / 5 based on 1 rating

Impacts of Storm Desmond 0.0 / 5

WATER- Human and Physical causes of flooding 0.0 / 5

Geography Water Cycle Case Studies 3.5 / 5 based on 3 ratings

Water Cycle Notes Edexcel B 0.0 / 5

Weather and Climate: British climate 0.0 / 5

Water 0.0 / 5

The water cycle and Insecurity - Geography Edexcel 5.0 / 5 based on 1 rating

Water and Carbon 4 Water, Carbon, Climate and Life on Earth 0.0 / 5

Casestudy Bible 0.0 / 5

storm desmond case study bbc bitesize

Finished Papers

Is buying essays online safe?

Shopping through online platforms is a highly controversial issue. Naturally, you cannot be completely sure when placing an order through an unfamiliar site, with which you have never cooperated. That is why we recommend that people contact trusted companies that have hundreds of positive reviews.

As for buying essays through sites, then you need to be as careful as possible and carefully check every detail. Read company reviews on third-party sources or ask a question on the forum. Check out the guarantees given by the specialists and discuss cooperation with the company manager. Do not transfer money to someone else's account until they send you a document with an essay for review.

Good online platforms provide certificates and some personal data so that the client can have the necessary information about the service manual. Service employees should immediately calculate the cost of the order for you and in the process of work are not entitled to add a percentage to this amount, if you do not make additional edits and preferences.

Viola V. Madsen

receive 15% off

A professional essay writing service is an instrument for a student who’s pressed for time or who doesn’t speak English as a first language. However, in 2022 native English-speaking students in the U.S. become to use essay help more and more. Why is that so? Mainly, because academic assignments are too boring and time-consuming. Also, because having an essay writer on your team who’s ready to come to homework rescue saves a great deal of trouble. is one of the best new websites where you get help with your essays from dedicated academic writers for a reasonable price.

Finished Papers

Customer Reviews

Professional Essay Writer at Your Disposal!

Quality over quantity is a motto we at Essay Service support. We might not have as many paper writers as any other legitimate essay writer service, but our team is the cream-of-the-crop. On top of that, we hire writers based on their degrees, allowing us to expand the overall field speciality depth! Having this variation allows clients to buy essay and order any assignment that they could need from our fast paper writing service; just be sure to select the best person for your job!

Research papers can be complex, so best to give our essay writing service a bit more time on this one. Luckily, a longer paper means you get a bigger discount!

storm desmond case study bbc bitesize

Customer Reviews

storm desmond case study bbc bitesize

Finished Papers

storm desmond case study bbc bitesize

As we have previously mentioned, we value our writers' time and hard work and therefore require our clients to put some funds on their account balance. The money will be there until you confirm that you are fully satisfied with our work and are ready to pay your paper writer. If you aren't satisfied, we'll make revisions or give you a full refund.

Estelle Gallagher

storm desmond case study bbc bitesize

Emery Evans


Benefits You Get from Our Essay Writer Service.

Typically, our authors write essays, but they can do much more than essays. We also offer admissions help. If you are preparing to apply for college, you can get an admission essay, application letter, cover letter, CV, resume, or personal statement from us. Since we know what the admissions committee wants to see in all these papers, we are able to provide you with a flawless paper for your admission.

You can also get help with business writing from our essay writer online. Turn to us if you need a business plan, business proposal, presentation, press release, sales letter, or any other kind of writing piece for your business, and we will tailor such a paper to your requirements.

If you say, "Do not write an essay for me, just proofread and edit it," we can help, as well. Just provide us with your piece of writing and indicate what exactly you need. We will check your paper and bring it to perfection.

Hire experienced tutors to satisfy your "write essay for me" requests.

Enjoy free originality reports, 24/7 support, and unlimited edits for 30 days after completion.

Pricing depends on the type of task you wish to be completed, the number of pages, and the due date. The longer the due date you put in, the bigger discount you get!

Customer Reviews


  1. Storm Desmond Case Study

    storm desmond case study bbc bitesize

  2. Storm Desmond: Study to examine impact on survivors

    storm desmond case study bbc bitesize

  3. Storm Desmond: Study says flood was 'largest in 600 years'

    storm desmond case study bbc bitesize

  4. Storm Desmond: Homes left flooded and without power

    storm desmond case study bbc bitesize

  5. Storm Desmond: Helicopter footage shows scale of Cumbria floods

    storm desmond case study bbc bitesize

  6. Storm Desmond: Dramatic rescues, floods and disruption

    storm desmond case study bbc bitesize


  1. Hazardous weather

    Learn and revise about extreme weather with BBC Bitesize GCSE Geography (WJEC). ... Case study - the Cumbrian floods 2015. In December 2015, Storm Desmond set a new record, with 341.4 ...

  2. Storm Desmond Case Study

    Storm Desmond was an extratropical cyclone and the fourth named storm of the 2015-16 UK and Ireland windstorm season. Desmond directed a plume of moist air, known as an atmospheric river, which brought record amounts of rainfall to upland areas of the UK and subsequent major floods. Thousands of homes were left flooded or left without power ...

  3. Storm Desmond: Study says flood was 'largest in 600 years'

    Floods that hit northern England during Storm Desmond were the most extreme in 600 years, a new study claims, Researchers compared sediment from Bassenthwaite Lake in Cumbria, taken after the ...

  4. Storm Desmond: Your questions answered

    The view over Carlisle when the skies cleared on Monday. There were two main problems caused by Storm Desmond: flooding, which then led to power cuts. About 5,200 homes were flooded in Cumbria and ...

  5. Geography

    Primary effects of Storm Desmond. *strong winds of up to 140 km/h (as a result of the warm air rapidly rising in the low pressure regions) *341 mm rainfall dumped at Honister within a 24 hour period, beating the previous record of 316mm in 24 hours after the Borrowdale flooding in Cumbria 6 years previously. *over a 48 hour period, at least 405 ...


    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like What are 3 Social Effects of Storm Desmond?, What are the 2 Economic Effects of Storm Desmond?, What are three Environmental Effects of Storm Desmond? and more. ... Geography - Storm Desmond Case Study. 11 terms. MonkeyLover38. Preview. Caste studies - dynamic development. 13 ...

  7. Storm Desmond: How it affected you

    Storm Desmond has caused widespread flooding and disruption. But how has the severe weather affected you?

  8. GCSE Geography

    Study notes, videos, interactive activities and more! Blog. Geography news, insights and enrichment. ... which many of you will have studied as your UK weather hazard case study. This was an example of slow-onset flooding. ... for example when storm Desmond hit the Lake District in December 2015 or when Boscastle in Cornwall, sitting at the ...

  9. Coolgeography

    The storm system was swept across the Atlantic at a rapid pace moving eastwards with an average speed of 77 km/h (48 mph), Storm facts 1. It crossed over 2000 km (1240miles) in less than 26 hours. 2. Pressure were very low, reaching in the UK 3. The storm got worse over the North Sea and pressure dropped to 965Mb in Denmark which also suffered ...

  10. Storm Desmond-case study Flashcards

    WEATHER AND CLIMATE: Storm Desmond Case Study. 8 terms. joboyd12. ... (Mar. 2011) study on the sustainability behaviors of CPA corporations. Recall that the level of support for corporate sustainability (measured on a quantitative scale ranging from 0 to 160 points) was obtained for each in a sample of 992 senior managers at CPA firms. ...

  11. Flood in Cumbria: 2009, 2015 & Impacts

    Dive into an in-depth exploration of the notable Flood in Cumbria. This detailed guide unpicks the causes, impacts, and long-term implications of multiple flooding events, drawing particular attention to the 2009 and 2015 occurrences. You'll unearth key facts about floods in this region, dig into the role of defence mechanisms, and study both the positive and negative aftermath.

  12. Storm Desmond

    Storm Desmond. 5 - 6 December 2015 - Storm Desmond brought strong winds and heavy rainfall with the worst impacts in Cumbria. Storm Desmond was the fourth named storm of the season and brought severe gales with gusts up to 81 mph. This was accompanied by record-breaking rainfall which brought flooding to areas across the north of England.

  13. Causes of Storm Desmond

    Causes of Storm Desmond. Prolonged period of heavy rainfall. Formed 03/12; Dissipated 08/12; 14 inches of rainfall in 24 hours; Soils become highly saturated; ... Geography Water Cycle Case Studies. 3.5 / 5 based on 3 ratings. Water Cycle Notes Edexcel B. 0.0 / 5. Weather and Climate: British climate. 0.0 / 5. Water. 0.0 / 5.

  14. Storm Desmond Case Study Bbc Bitesize

    Storm Desmond Case Study Bbc Bitesize. View All Writers. 132. Customer Reviews. 4629 Orders prepared. Nursing Management Business and Economics Psychology +113. 100% Success rate.

  15. Storm Desmond Case Study Bbc Bitesize

    Storm Desmond Case Study Bbc Bitesize, Search Review Online Photo Resume, Conflict Poetry Essay, Free Essay On Dr Apj Abdul Kalam, Free Essays On Joan Of Arc, Essay Philosophical Short, Custom Masters Problem Solving Assistance ...

  16. Storm Desmond Case Study Bbc Bitesize

    Best Offers. User ID: Storm Desmond Case Study Bbc Bitesize, Personal Statement For Midday Meal Supervisor, Dissertation Written In One Month, Testing Resume Mortgage Experience, Medical Education Dissertation, Do My Theater Studies Thesis Statement, Truly Remarkable Person Essay. Storm Desmond Case Study Bbc Bitesize -.

  17. Storm Desmond Case Study Bbc Bitesize

    Storm Desmond Case Study Bbc Bitesize, Cover Letter Examples For Patient Care Technicians, Common Core Algebra 2 Unit 12 Lesson 5 Homework Answers, My Computer Essay For Class 4, Living In Another Country Essay, Essay On Triumph Of Science, Free Courses For Personal Essay Writing

  18. Storm Desmond Case Study Bbc Bitesize

    Progressive delivery is highly recommended for your order. This additional service allows tracking the writing process of big orders as the paper will be sent to you for approval in parts/drafts* before the final deadline. What is more, it guarantees: 30 days of free revision; A top writer and the best editor; A personal order manager.