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What Is a Good Thesis Statement About Bullying?

Thesis statement about bullying

Unfortunately, bullying is still part of our society despite civilization and technology. But, that does not mean the issue cannot be addressed and fixed. It is the responsibility of parents, teachers, and institutions to find a way to reduce the blow of bullying in our society for everyone to be safe and happy. Are you concerned about bullying and want to be a part of the solution? One of the ways to do this is by writing an interesting essay that educates about bullying and its effects. As a part of the project, you will need a thesis statement for a bullying essay that stands out.

As much as you want to address the nasty effects of bullying, you also need to pass your exams. That is why you need to get a thesis about bullying that will impress your professor. Let us learn more here.

What’s a Bullying Thesis Statement?

  • How to Write a Thesis Statement about Bullying?

What Is a Good Thesis Statement For Bullying?

Interesting examples on thesis statement for bullying research paper, straightforward thesis statement for bullying essay examples, exciting thesis statement on cyberbullying homework, our writing services guarantees good thesis statement.

A bullying thesis statement helps you address an issue about bullying. It needs to include the topic of the research paper you are writing about and the claim you have about the bullying topic. Your thesis statement determines whether your paper will stand out.

Which Of The Following Statements About Bullying Is True?

Most people are oblivious to cyberbullying and its effect. So you need first to understand what bullying is to develop a great thesis statement for bullying. Below are four statements that you can read to determine the truth about bullying.

  • Bullying is a growing phase that children will grow out of.
  • Bullying does not have to be physical; it can also be cyberbullying, verbal, and emotional.
  • Bullying is not harmful.
  • As children mature, they will learn positive behavior on their own.

What do you think is the correct answer? All the above statements are false except b. Bullying is not limited to the physical like fighting and hitting. Cyberbullying, verbal and emotional abuse are all bullying, and they all have devastating effects on the individual or group of people getting bullied.

How to Write a Thesis Statement About Bullying?

The thesis on bullying should be under the introduction. Most students prefer writing a statement when they complete their introduction. But the best way to write a thesis is by finishing your research.

Note that the thesis statement needs to be a summary of your research. You will have a better idea of what your essay is all about once you have completed your project. Ensure that the subject is exciting and as per your tutor’s instruction.

A good thesis statement on bullying needs to be a great impression so that it can hook your instructor or any other person who will read your thesis statement. It needs to be the hook to your essay and motivate the readers. The bullying essay thesis statement needs to be;

  • An interpretation of the subject
  • Precise, forceful, and confident
  • It should challenge the readers

Bullying Thesis Statement Examples

If you have a hard time creating a thesis statement about bullying that will make your essay stand out, worry no more. Our team of experts has combined a list of thesis statements on cyberbullying you can use in your essay to impress your professors. Here we go!

You can make your essay research paper interesting by choosing the right thesis statement about bullying to use. In case you are not sure, here is a list you can choose from.

  • Bullying and its effects on youth, and some possible solutions to the problem it causes.
  • There are several ideas and concepts that most institutes have come up with to help stop bullying, but the challenge is the implementation of these policies.
  • International progress can be hasted by the eradication of bully in and so government bodies should cultivate solutions to address the matter.
  • Corporate bullying could push individuals into isolation, leading to depression and suicide.
  • Bullying has been ignored for a long time, even though it has been a problem in the school system; people have only recently started discussing it.

A bullying thesis does not have to be complex. In fact, at times keeping the thesis statement on bullying essay simple could help capture the attention of your tutor and help improve your grade. Here is a look at the straightforward statements about bullying.

  • The effects of physical bullying are depression, stress, withdrawal, physical, and emotional problems, which could destroy a child’s life.
  • Parents and tutors should always be on the lookout for any bullying so they can fix the problem before it gets out of control.
  • Most bullies have emotional or physical abuse, so they turn to bullies to help them feel in a position of power.
  • Bullying could affect the mental health of the person being bullied, affecting their everyday life.
  • Bullies have a hard time following the regulations, caring for other people, and having self-control.

Cyberbullying is often underestimated, and it makes people feel as though they are not good enough and do not deserve to live. Use these examples in your homework.

  • School violence and cyberbullying attacks affect everyone who attends the school and compromise students’ safety.
  • Cyberbullying is not new and can be used in many ways to bring individuals or a group down, yet not much is being done to address the issue.
  • Proper measures should be implemented to help better predict communication during cyberbullying episodes.
  • As technology advances, teens have become more prone to the internet’s dangers like cyberbullying.
  • A look at the similarities and differences between bullying and cyberbullying and the best way to handle both situations.

Are you still wondering what’s a good thesis statement for bullying is? Reach out to our writing service today. We have skilled writers to help you get the best bullying thesis for a research paper. We can also write the research paper for you and ensure you attain the best grades. So get in touch with us today.

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Thesis Statements: Examples

  • Where Do Theses Come From?

Bullying in elementary schools is getting worse, because children model what they see at home and there are more cases of physical and emotional child abuse, and this causes various emotional problems in children.

In order to be truly effective, anti-bullying policies should focus on the home life of the bully, because of the strong connection between parental actions and attitudes and the way a student treats his or her peers.


The first example tries to cover too many topics: bullying is getting worse, bullying is related to the student's home life, and bullying causes various emotional problems in children.  The second example focuses only on the connection between a student's home life and tendency towards bullying.

Abortion is a terrible practice that only deranged, baby-killing monsters would advocate under the guise of being pro-choice.

Despite the appeal of freedom of choice, the legalization of abortion has been detrimental to the well-being of women in America.

The first example states a strong opinion, but does not offer any facts to back it up.  The explosive language is likely to alienate even readers who may have been sympathetic to the writer's position.  The second example promises to offer a rational, if still opinioned, look at the issue.

Texting your sister who is in the next room to ask her to bring you your backpack means that you should get a life.

The use of technology to replace face to face communication increases the feeling of isolation among American youth.

The first statement is too specific to be a thesis statement.  If reworded for a more academic structure, the specific anecdote could be used to prove a broader point, but, as it is, the author would have difficulty writing an entire paper about this one incident.  The second thesis statement is broad enough that an entire paper could be written about it.

The government should legalize the use of marijuana.

The governement should legalize the use of marijuana in order to benefit from sales taxes of the drug and in order to make it more easily available to people who need it for medical reasons.

The first statement is debatable, but gives no sign that the author has any reasons for making such a statement.  The second thesis statement offers logical reasons, which the reader can assume the author will expound upon in the rest of the paper.

People who are healthy and have healthy organs should be allowed to find other people in need of organs that they don't need, like a kidney, and sell them to the other people because that could save lives if a financial incentive was offered, instead of just relying on people's charity.

The purchase and sale of organs should be legalized in order to better facilitate the saving of lives.

More words don't always make a better thesis.  The second thesis statement is much clearer.  The example of the first thesis statement could be included earlier in the paragraph to help illustrate what is being argued, especially since the subject matter is rather unusual.

Beauty contests are sexist and detrimental to society, and they should be banned everywhere. 

Beauty contests, while they may increase confidence in those who perform in them, can be sexist and harmful because they encourage objectification of women and put an overemphasis on physical appearance. 

The first example is too simple and opinionated. The writer gives his or her point of view, but does not back it up with reasons or facts -- it is just stated. It also offers an overly simplified and extreme solution to the problem. The second example, while still offering a concrete opinion on the subject, gives reasons for this view. The writer is informing the reader of how he or she will go about defending his or her stance. 

Smoking causes lung damage and other health problems. 

Smoking should be made illegal in the United States because of the health problems that it causes. 

The first example is not a point that can be argued against; it is widely known and accepted that smoking is unhealthy. Why write a paper explaining something that everybody already knows and agrees about? The second example can be argued, however: making smoking illegal is one possible solution to the problem, but it still needs to have evidence and argument to back it up because not everybody believes that this is a good solution. 

Exams are not the best way to determine academic successs. 

Exams determine students' talent at test-taking and recall rather than their actual understanding of the material; therefore, instead of exams alone, instructors should employ several different ways of measuring student success, including papers and projects.  

The first example is too broad; it is more of a general topic rather than a thesis. The second example is much more specific. It narrows the thesis down from the problem itself to the solution to the problem. 

Prompt: Describe a character from the movie who shows compassion.

Jack shows compassion.

Jack shows compassion through his kind words, his selfless volunteering, and his forgiveness of Alicia's quick temper.

The first example simply uses the prompt as the thesis statement.  The second example offers support for the statement, preparing the reader for an essay about how Jack's kind words, selfless volunteering and forgiveness show his compassion.

One thing I am going to talk about today is one thing that happened to me one time when I was on this one trip at a place that I was staying at for a certain amount of time. 

Standing on a mountain-top in Israel was an experience that redefined my faith and helped me decide to become an archeologist.

The first example is very vague, providing the reader with almost no information.  The second example gives the reader a clear idea of what the essay is going to be about.  The first example also announces what the author plans to do.  It is much better to launch right into the essay, thereby demosntrating to the reader the purpose of the essay.

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National Academies Press: OpenBook

Preventing Bullying Through Science, Policy, and Practice (2016)

Chapter: 1 introduction, 1 introduction.

Bullying, long tolerated by many as a rite of passage into adulthood, is now recognized as a major and preventable public health problem, one that can have long-lasting consequences ( McDougall and Vaillancourt, 2015 ; Wolke and Lereya, 2015 ). Those consequences—for those who are bullied, for the perpetrators of bullying, and for witnesses who are present during a bullying event—include poor school performance, anxiety, depression, and future delinquent and aggressive behavior. Federal, state, and local governments have responded by adopting laws and implementing programs to prevent bullying and deal with its consequences. However, many of these responses have been undertaken with little attention to what is known about bullying and its effects. Even the definition of bullying varies among both researchers and lawmakers, though it generally includes physical and verbal behavior, behavior leading to social isolation, and behavior that uses digital communications technology (cyberbullying). This report adopts the term “bullying behavior,” which is frequently used in the research field, to cover all of these behaviors.

Bullying behavior is evident as early as preschool, although it peaks during the middle school years ( Currie et al., 2012 ; Vaillancourt et al., 2010 ). It can occur in diverse social settings, including classrooms, school gyms and cafeterias, on school buses, and online. Bullying behavior affects not only the children and youth who are bullied, who bully, and who are both bullied and bully others but also bystanders to bullying incidents. Given the myriad situations in which bullying can occur and the many people who may be involved, identifying effective prevention programs and policies is challenging, and it is unlikely that any one approach will be ap-

propriate in all situations. Commonly used bullying prevention approaches include policies regarding acceptable behavior in schools and behavioral interventions to promote positive cultural norms.


Recognizing that bullying behavior is a major public health problem that demands the concerted and coordinated time and attention of parents, educators and school administrators, health care providers, policy makers, families, and others concerned with the care of children, a group of federal agencies and private foundations asked the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to undertake a study of what is known and what needs to be known to further the field of preventing bullying behavior. The Committee on the Biological and Psychosocial Effects of Peer Victimization:

Lessons for Bullying Prevention was created to carry out this task under the Academies’ Board on Children, Youth, and Families and the Committee on Law and Justice. The study received financial support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the Health Resources and Services Administration, the Highmark Foundation, the National Institute of Justice, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Semi J. and Ruth W. Begun Foundation, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. The full statement of task for the committee is presented in Box 1-1 .

Although the committee acknowledges the importance of this topic as it pertains to all children in the United States and in U.S. territories, this report focuses on the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Also, while the committee acknowledges that bullying behavior occurs in the school

environment for youth in foster care, in juvenile justice facilities, and in other residential treatment facilities, this report does not address bullying behavior in those environments because it is beyond the study charge.


This section of the report highlights relevant work in the field and, later in the chapter under “The Committee’s Approach,” presents the conceptual framework and corresponding definitions of terms that the committee has adopted.

Historical Context

Bullying behavior was first characterized in the scientific literature as part of the childhood experience more than 100 years ago in “Teasing and Bullying,” published in the Pedagogical Seminary ( Burk, 1897 ). The author described bullying behavior, attempted to delineate causes and cures for the tormenting of others, and called for additional research ( Koo, 2007 ). Nearly a century later, Dan Olweus, a Swedish research professor of psychology in Norway, conducted an intensive study on bullying ( Olweus, 1978 ). The efforts of Olweus brought awareness to the issue and motivated other professionals to conduct their own research, thereby expanding and contributing to knowledge of bullying behavior. Since Olweus’s early work, research on bullying has steadily increased (see Farrington and Ttofi, 2009 ; Hymel and Swearer, 2015 ).

Over the past few decades, venues where bullying behavior occurs have expanded with the advent of the Internet, chat rooms, instant messaging, social media, and other forms of digital electronic communication. These modes of communication have provided a new communal avenue for bullying. While the media reports linking bullying to suicide suggest a causal relationship, the available research suggests that there are often multiple factors that contribute to a youth’s suicide-related ideology and behavior. Several studies, however, have demonstrated an association between bullying involvement and suicide-related ideology and behavior (see, e.g., Holt et al., 2015 ; Kim and Leventhal, 2008 ; Sourander, 2010 ; van Geel et al., 2014 ).

In 2013, the Health Resources and Services Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services requested that the Institute of Medicine 1 and the National Research Council convene an ad hoc planning committee to plan and conduct a 2-day public workshop to highlight relevant information and knowledge that could inform a multidisciplinary


1 Prior to 2015, the National Academy of Medicine was known as the Institute of Medicine.

road map on next steps for the field of bullying prevention. Content areas that were explored during the April 2014 workshop included the identification of conceptual models and interventions that have proven effective in decreasing bullying and the antecedents to bullying while increasing protective factors that mitigate the negative health impact of bullying. The discussions highlighted the need for a better understanding of the effectiveness of program interventions in realistic settings; the importance of understanding what works for whom and under what circumstances, as well as the influence of different mediators (i.e., what accounts for associations between variables) and moderators (i.e., what affects the direction or strength of associations between variables) in bullying prevention efforts; and the need for coordination among agencies to prevent and respond to bullying. The workshop summary ( Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, 2014c ) informs this committee’s work.

Federal Efforts to Address Bullying and Related Topics

Currently, there is no comprehensive federal statute that explicitly prohibits bullying among children and adolescents, including cyberbullying. However, in the wake of the growing concerns surrounding the implications of bullying, several federal initiatives do address bullying among children and adolescents, and although some of them do not primarily focus on bullying, they permit some funds to be used for bullying prevention purposes.

The earliest federal initiative was in 1999, when three agencies collaborated to establish the Safe Schools/Healthy Students initiative in response to a series of deadly school shootings in the late 1990s. The program is administered by the U.S. Departments of Education, Health and Human Services, and Justice to prevent youth violence and promote the healthy development of youth. It is jointly funded by the Department of Education and by the Department of Health and Human Services’ Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. The program has provided grantees with both the opportunity to benefit from collaboration and the tools to sustain it through deliberate planning, more cost-effective service delivery, and a broader funding base ( Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015 ).

The next major effort was in 2010, when the Department of Education awarded $38.8 million in grants under the Safe and Supportive Schools (S3) Program to 11 states to support statewide measurement of conditions for learning and targeted programmatic interventions to improve conditions for learning, in order to help schools improve safety and reduce substance use. The S3 Program was administered by the Safe and Supportive Schools Group, which also administered the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act State and Local Grants Program, authorized by the

1994 Elementary and Secondary Education Act. 2 It was one of several programs related to developing and maintaining safe, disciplined, and drug-free schools. In addition to the S3 grants program, the group administered a number of interagency agreements with a focus on (but not limited to) bullying, school recovery research, data collection, and drug and violence prevention activities ( U.S. Department of Education, 2015 ).

A collaborative effort among the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Defense, Education, Health and Human Services, Interior, and Justice; the Federal Trade Commission; and the White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders created the Federal Partners in Bullying Prevention (FPBP) Steering Committee. Led by the U.S. Department of Education, the FPBP works to coordinate policy, research, and communications on bullying topics. The FPBP Website provides extensive resources on bullying behavior, including information on what bullying is, its risk factors, its warning signs, and its effects. 3 The FPBP Steering Committee also plans to provide details on how to get help for those who have been bullied. It also was involved in creating the “Be More than a Bystander” Public Service Announcement campaign with the Ad Council to engage students in bullying prevention. To improve school climate and reduce rates of bullying nationwide, FPBP has sponsored four bullying prevention summits attended by education practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and federal officials.

In 2014, the National Institute of Justice—the scientific research arm of the U.S. Department of Justice—launched the Comprehensive School Safety Initiative with a congressional appropriation of $75 million. The funds are to be used for rigorous research to produce practical knowledge that can improve the safety of schools and students, including bullying prevention. The initiative is carried out through partnerships among researchers, educators, and other stakeholders, including law enforcement, behavioral and mental health professionals, courts, and other justice system professionals ( National Institute of Justice, 2015 ).

In 2015, the Every Student Succeeds Act was signed by President Obama, reauthorizing the 50-year-old Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which is committed to providing equal opportunities for all students. Although bullying is neither defined nor prohibited in this act, it is explicitly mentioned in regard to applicability of safe school funding, which it had not been in previous iterations of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.

The above are examples of federal initiatives aimed at promoting the

2 The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act was included as Title IV, Part A, of the 1994 Elementary and Secondary Education Act. See http://www.ojjdp.gov/pubs/gun_violence/sect08-i.html [October 2015].

3 For details, see http://www.stopbullying.gov/ [October 2015].

healthy development of youth, improving the safety of schools and students, and reducing rates of bullying behavior. There are several other federal initiatives that address student bullying directly or allow funds to be used for bullying prevention activities.

Definitional Context

The terms “bullying,” “harassment,” and “peer victimization” have been used in the scientific literature to refer to behavior that is aggressive, is carried out repeatedly and over time, and occurs in an interpersonal relationship where a power imbalance exists ( Eisenberg and Aalsma, 2005 ). Although some of these terms have been used interchangeably in the literature, peer victimization is targeted aggressive behavior of one child against another that causes physical, emotional, social, or psychological harm. While conflict and bullying among siblings are important in their own right ( Tanrikulu and Campbell, 2015 ), this area falls outside of the scope of the committee’s charge. Sibling conflict and aggression falls under the broader concept of interpersonal aggression, which includes dating violence, sexual assault, and sibling violence, in addition to bullying as defined for this report. Olweus (1993) noted that bullying, unlike other forms of peer victimization where the children involved are equally matched, involves a power imbalance between the perpetrator and the target, where the target has difficulty defending him or herself and feels helpless against the aggressor. This power imbalance is typically considered a defining feature of bullying, which distinguishes this particular form of aggression from other forms, and is typically repeated in multiple bullying incidents involving the same individuals over time ( Olweus, 1993 ).

Bullying and violence are subcategories of aggressive behavior that overlap ( Olweus, 1996 ). There are situations in which violence is used in the context of bullying. However, not all forms of bullying (e.g., rumor spreading) involve violent behavior. The committee also acknowledges that perspective about intentions can matter and that in many situations, there may be at least two plausible perceptions involved in the bullying behavior.

A number of factors may influence one’s perception of the term “bullying” ( Smith and Monks, 2008 ). Children and adolescents’ understanding of the term “bullying” may be subject to cultural interpretations or translations of the term ( Hopkins et al., 2013 ). Studies have also shown that influences on children’s understanding of bullying include the child’s experiences as he or she matures and whether the child witnesses the bullying behavior of others ( Hellström et al., 2015 ; Monks and Smith, 2006 ; Smith and Monks, 2008 ).

In 2010, the FPBP Steering Committee convened its first summit, which brought together more than 150 nonprofit and corporate leaders,

researchers, practitioners, parents, and youths to identify challenges in bullying prevention. Discussions at the summit revealed inconsistencies in the definition of bullying behavior and the need to create a uniform definition of bullying. Subsequently, a review of the 2011 CDC publication of assessment tools used to measure bullying among youth ( Hamburger et al., 2011 ) revealed inconsistent definitions of bullying and diverse measurement strategies. Those inconsistencies and diverse measurements make it difficult to compare the prevalence of bullying across studies ( Vivolo et al., 2011 ) and complicate the task of distinguishing bullying from other types of aggression between youths. A uniform definition can support the consistent tracking of bullying behavior over time, facilitate the comparison of bullying prevalence rates and associated risk and protective factors across different data collection systems, and enable the collection of comparable information on the performance of bullying intervention and prevention programs across contexts ( Gladden et al., 2014 ). The CDC and U.S. Department of Education collaborated on the creation of the following uniform definition of bullying (quoted in Gladden et al., 2014, p. 7 ):

Bullying is any unwanted aggressive behavior(s) by another youth or group of youths who are not siblings or current dating partners that involves an observed or perceived power imbalance and is repeated multiple times or is highly likely to be repeated. Bullying may inflict harm or distress on the targeted youth including physical, psychological, social, or educational harm.

This report noted that the definition includes school-age individuals ages 5-18 and explicitly excludes sibling violence and violence that occurs in the context of a dating or intimate relationship ( Gladden et al., 2014 ). This definition also highlighted that there are direct and indirect modes of bullying, as well as different types of bullying. Direct bullying involves “aggressive behavior(s) that occur in the presence of the targeted youth”; indirect bullying includes “aggressive behavior(s) that are not directly communicated to the targeted youth” ( Gladden et al., 2014, p. 7 ). The direct forms of violence (e.g., sibling violence, teen dating violence, intimate partner violence) can include aggression that is physical, sexual, or psychological, but the context and uniquely dynamic nature of the relationship between the target and the perpetrator in which these acts occur is different from that of peer bullying. Examples of direct bullying include pushing, hitting, verbal taunting, or direct written communication. A common form of indirect bullying is spreading rumors. Four different types of bullying are commonly identified—physical, verbal, relational, and damage to property. Some observational studies have shown that the different forms of bullying that youths commonly experience may overlap ( Bradshaw et al., 2015 ;

Godleski et al., 2015 ). The four types of bullying are defined as follows ( Gladden et al., 2014 ):

  • Physical bullying involves the use of physical force (e.g., shoving, hitting, spitting, pushing, and tripping).
  • Verbal bullying involves oral or written communication that causes harm (e.g., taunting, name calling, offensive notes or hand gestures, verbal threats).
  • Relational bullying is behavior “designed to harm the reputation and relationships of the targeted youth (e.g., social isolation, rumor spreading, posting derogatory comments or pictures online).”
  • Damage to property is “theft, alteration, or damaging of the target youth’s property by the perpetrator to cause harm.”

In recent years, a new form of aggression or bullying has emerged, labeled “cyberbullying,” in which the aggression occurs through modern technological devices, specifically mobile phones or the Internet ( Slonje and Smith, 2008 ). Cyberbullying may take the form of mean or nasty messages or comments, rumor spreading through posts or creation of groups, and exclusion by groups of peers online.

While the CDC definition identifies bullying that occurs using technology as electronic bullying and views that as a context or location where bullying occurs, one of the major challenges in the field is how to conceptualize and define cyberbullying ( Tokunaga, 2010 ). The extent to which the CDC definition can be applied to cyberbullying is unclear, particularly with respect to several key concepts within the CDC definition. First, whether determination of an interaction as “wanted” or “unwanted” or whether communication was intended to be harmful can be challenging to assess in the absence of important in-person socioemotional cues (e.g., vocal tone, facial expressions). Second, assessing “repetition” is challenging in that a single harmful act on the Internet has the potential to be shared or viewed multiple times ( Sticca and Perren, 2013 ). Third, cyberbullying can involve a less powerful peer using technological tools to bully a peer who is perceived to have more power. In this manner, technology may provide the tools that create a power imbalance, in contrast to traditional bullying, which typically involves an existing power imbalance.

A study that used focus groups with college students to discuss whether the CDC definition applied to cyberbullying found that students were wary of applying the definition due to their perception that cyberbullying often involves less emphasis on aggression, intention, and repetition than other forms of bullying ( Kota et al., 2014 ). Many researchers have responded to this lack of conceptual and definitional clarity by creating their own measures to assess cyberbullying. It is noteworthy that very few of these

definitions and measures include the components of traditional bullying—i.e., repetition, power imbalance, and intent ( Berne et al., 2013 ). A more recent study argues that the term “cyberbullying” should be reserved for incidents that involve key aspects of bullying such as repetition and differential power ( Ybarra et al., 2014 ).

Although the formulation of a uniform definition of bullying appears to be a step in the right direction for the field of bullying prevention, there are some limitations of the CDC definition. For example, some researchers find the focus on school-age youth as well as the repeated nature of bullying to be rather limiting; similarly the exclusion of bullying in the context of sibling relationships or dating relationships may preclude full appreciation of the range of aggressive behaviors that may co-occur with or constitute bullying behavior. As noted above, other researchers have raised concerns about whether cyberbullying should be considered a particular form or mode under the broader heading of bullying as suggested in the CDC definition, or whether a separate defintion is needed. Furthermore, the measurement of bullying prevalence using such a definiton of bullying is rather complex and does not lend itself well to large-scale survey research. The CDC definition was intended to inform public health surveillance efforts, rather than to serve as a definition for policy. However, increased alignment between bullying definitions used by policy makers and researchers would greatly advance the field. Much of the extant research on bullying has not applied a consistent definition or one that aligns with the CDC definition. As a result of these and other challenges to the CDC definition, thus far there has been inconsistent adoption of this particular definition by researchers, practitioners, or policy makers; however, as the definition was created in 2014, less than 2 years is not a sufficient amount of time to assess whether it has been successfully adopted or will be in the future.


This report builds on the April 2014 workshop, summarized in Building Capacity to Reduce Bullying: Workshop Summary ( Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, 2014c ). The committee’s work was accomplished over an 18-month period that began in October 2014, after the workshop was held and the formal summary of it had been released. The study committee members represented expertise in communication technology, criminology, developmental and clinical psychology, education, mental health, neurobiological development, pediatrics, public health, school administration, school district policy, and state law and policy. (See Appendix E for biographical sketches of the committee members and staff.) The committee met three times in person and conducted other meetings by teleconferences and electronic communication.

Information Gathering

The committee conducted an extensive review of the literature pertaining to peer victimization and bullying. In some instances, the committee drew upon the broader literature on aggression and violence. The review began with an English-language literature search of online databases, including ERIC, Google Scholar, Lexis Law Reviews Database, Medline, PubMed, Scopus, PsycInfo, and Web of Science, and was expanded as literature and resources from other countries were identified by committee members and project staff as relevant. The committee drew upon the early childhood literature since there is substantial evidence indicating that bullying involvement happens as early as preschool (see Vlachou et al., 2011 ). The committee also drew on the literature on late adolescence and looked at related areas of research such as maltreatment for insights into this emerging field.

The committee used a variety of sources to supplement its review of the literature. The committee held two public information-gathering sessions, one with the study sponsors and the second with experts on the neurobiology of bullying; bullying as a group phenomenon and the role of bystanders; the role of media in bullying prevention; and the intersection of social science, the law, and bullying and peer victimization. See Appendix A for the agendas for these two sessions. To explore different facets of bullying and give perspectives from the field, a subgroup of the committee and study staff also conducted a site visit to a northeastern city, where they convened four stakeholder groups comprised, respectively, of local practitioners, school personnel, private foundation representatives, and young adults. The site visit provided the committee with an opportunity for place-based learning about bullying prevention programs and best practices. Each focus group was transcribed and summarized thematically in accordance with this report’s chapter considerations. Themes related to the chapters are displayed throughout the report in boxes titled “Perspectives from the Field”; these boxes reflect responses synthesized from all four focus groups. See Appendix B for the site visit’s agenda and for summaries of the focus groups.

The committee also benefited from earlier reports by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine through its Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education and the Institute of Medicine, most notably:

  • Reducing Risks for Mental Disorders: Frontiers for Preventive Intervention Research ( Institute of Medicine, 1994 )
  • Community Programs to Promote Youth Development ( National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 2002 )
  • Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence ( National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 2003 )
  • Preventing Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Disorders Among Young People: Progress and Possibilities ( National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 2009 )
  • The Science of Adolescent Risk-Taking: Workshop Report ( Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, 2011 )
  • Communications and Technology for Violence Prevention: Workshop Summary ( Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, 2012 )
  • Building Capacity to Reduce Bullying: Workshop Summary ( Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, 2014c )
  • The Evidence for Violence Prevention across the Lifespan and Around the World: Workshop Summary ( Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, 2014a )
  • Strategies for Scaling Effective Family-Focused Preventive Interventions to Promote Children’s Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Health: Workshop Summary ( Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, 2014b )
  • Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults ( Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, 2015 )

Although these past reports and workshop summaries address various forms of violence and victimization, this report is the first consensus study by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine on the state of the science on the biological and psychosocial consequences of bullying and the risk and protective factors that either increase or decrease bullying behavior and its consequences.


Given the variable use of the terms “bullying” and “peer victimization” in both the research-based and practice-based literature, the committee chose to use the current CDC definition quoted above ( Gladden et al., 2014, p. 7 ). While the committee determined that this was the best definition to use, it acknowledges that this definition is not necessarily the most user-friendly definition for students and has the potential to cause problems for students reporting bullying. Not only does this definition provide detail on the common elements of bullying behavior but it also was developed with input from a panel of researchers and practitioners. The committee also followed the CDC in focusing primarily on individuals between the ages of 5 and 18. The committee recognizes that children’s development occurs on a continuum, and so while it relied primarily on the CDC defini-

tion, its work and this report acknowledge the importance of addressing bullying in both early childhood and emerging adulthood. For purposes of this report, the committee used the terms “early childhood” to refer to ages 1-4, “middle childhood” for ages 5 to 10, “early adolescence” for ages 11-14, “middle adolescence” for ages 15-17, and “late adolescence” for ages 18-21. This terminology and the associated age ranges are consistent with the Bright Futures and American Academy of Pediatrics definition of the stages of development. 4

A given instance of bullying behavior involves at least two unequal roles: one or more individuals who perpetrate the behavior (the perpetrator in this instance) and at least one individual who is bullied (the target in this instance). To avoid labeling and potentially further stigmatizing individuals with the terms “bully” and “victim,” which are sometimes viewed as traits of persons rather than role descriptions in a particular instance of behavior, the committee decided to use “individual who is bullied” to refer to the target of a bullying instance or pattern and “individual who bullies” to refer to the perpetrator of a bullying instance or pattern. Thus, “individual who is bullied and bullies others” can refer to one who is either perpetrating a bullying behavior or a target of bullying behavior, depending on the incident. This terminology is consistent with the approach used by the FPBP (see above). Also, bullying is a dynamic social interaction ( Espelage and Swearer, 2003 ) where individuals can play different roles in bullying interactions based on both individual and contextual factors.

The committee used “cyberbullying” to refer to bullying that takes place using technology or digital electronic means. “Digital electronic forms of contact” comprise a broad category that may include e-mail, blogs, social networking Websites, online games, chat rooms, forums, instant messaging, Skype, text messaging, and mobile phone pictures. The committee uses the term “traditional bullying” to refer to bullying behavior that is not cyberbullying (to aid in comparisons), recognizing that the term has been used at times in slightly different senses in the literature.

Where accurate reporting of study findings requires use of the above terms but with senses different from those specified here, the committee has noted the sense in which the source used the term. Similarly, accurate reporting has at times required use of terms such as “victimization” or “victim” that the committee has chosen to avoid in its own statements.

4 For details on these stages of adolescence, see https://brightfutures.aap.org/Bright%20Futures%20Documents/3-Promoting_Child_Development.pdf [October 2015].


This report is organized into seven chapters. After this introductory chapter, Chapter 2 provides a broad overview of the scope of the problem.

Chapter 3 focuses on the conceptual frameworks for the study and the developmental trajectory of the child who is bullied, the child who bullies, and the child who is bullied and also bullies. It explores processes that can explain heterogeneity in bullying outcomes by focusing on contextual processes that moderate the effect of individual characteristics on bullying behavior.

Chapter 4 discusses the cyclical nature of bullying and the consequences of bullying behavior. It summarizes what is known about the psychosocial, physical health, neurobiological, academic-performance, and population-level consequences of bullying.

Chapter 5 provides an overview of the landscape in bullying prevention programming. This chapter describes in detail the context for preventive interventions and the specific actions that various stakeholders can take to achieve a coordinated response to bullying behavior. The chapter uses the Institute of Medicine’s multi-tiered framework ( National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 2009 ) to present the different levels of approaches to preventing bullying behavior.

Chapter 6 reviews what is known about federal, state, and local laws and policies and their impact on bullying.

After a critical review of the relevant research and practice-based literatures, Chapter 7 discusses the committee conclusions and recommendations and provides a path forward for bullying prevention.

The report includes a number of appendixes. Appendix A includes meeting agendas of the committee’s public information-gathering meetings. Appendix B includes the agenda and summaries of the site visit. Appendix C includes summaries of bullying prevalence data from the national surveys discussed in Chapter 2 . Appendix D provides a list of selected federal resources on bullying for parents and teachers. Appendix E provides biographical sketches of the committee members and project staff.

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Bullying has long been tolerated as a rite of passage among children and adolescents. There is an implication that individuals who are bullied must have "asked for" this type of treatment, or deserved it. Sometimes, even the child who is bullied begins to internalize this idea. For many years, there has been a general acceptance and collective shrug when it comes to a child or adolescent with greater social capital or power pushing around a child perceived as subordinate. But bullying is not developmentally appropriate; it should not be considered a normal part of the typical social grouping that occurs throughout a child's life.

Although bullying behavior endures through generations, the milieu is changing. Historically, bulling has occurred at school, the physical setting in which most of childhood is centered and the primary source for peer group formation. In recent years, however, the physical setting is not the only place bullying is occurring. Technology allows for an entirely new type of digital electronic aggression, cyberbullying, which takes place through chat rooms, instant messaging, social media, and other forms of digital electronic communication.

Composition of peer groups, shifting demographics, changing societal norms, and modern technology are contextual factors that must be considered to understand and effectively react to bullying in the United States. Youth are embedded in multiple contexts and each of these contexts interacts with individual characteristics of youth in ways that either exacerbate or attenuate the association between these individual characteristics and bullying perpetration or victimization. Recognizing that bullying behavior is a major public health problem that demands the concerted and coordinated time and attention of parents, educators and school administrators, health care providers, policy makers, families, and others concerned with the care of children, this report evaluates the state of the science on biological and psychosocial consequences of peer victimization and the risk and protective factors that either increase or decrease peer victimization behavior and consequences.

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Effects of Verbal Bullying to High School Students

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Bullying is the repeated act of aggression by one or more person towards another individual. In our current generation, kids were mostly impulsive, insensitive and selfish. Most don't care what others will feel and what others will say, and that is a perennial problem nowadays. In a book written by Jay Asher entitled "Thirteen Reasons Why", a novel about a girl named Hannah Baker who committed suicide because of bullying, Hannah said that "Everything affects everything."

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Bullying is a pervasive problem affecting school-age children. Reviewing the latest findings on bullying perpetration and victimization, we highlight the social dominance function of bullying; the inflated self-views of bullies, and the effects of their behaviors on victims. Illuminating the plight of the victim, we review evidence on the cyclical processes between the risk factors and consequences of victimization and the mechanisms that can account for elevated emotional distress and health problems. Placing bullying in context, we consider the unique features of electronic communication that give rise to cyber bullying and the specific characteristics of schools that affect the rates and consequences of victimization. We then offer a critique of the main intervention approaches designed to reduce school bullying and its harmful effects. Finally, we discuss future directions that underscore the need to consider victimization a social stigma, conduct longitudinal research on protective factors, identify school context factors that shape the experience of victimization, and take a more nuanced approach to school-based interventions.

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Thesis Statement for Cyber Bullying

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    Thesis Submitted to the department of Communication, Media, and Theatre Arts ... statement one is what motivates an individual to engage in bullying behavior and/or become a bully. Research statement two is the bully's situational perceptions of bullying. ... research has concluded that verbal bullying is the most common type among face-to-

  9. Bullying in schools: the state of knowledge and effective interventions

    Abstract. During the school years, bullying is one of the most common expressions of violence in the peer context. Research on bullying started more than forty years ago, when the phenomenon was defined as 'aggressive, intentional acts carried out by a group or an individual repeatedly and over time against a victim who cannot easily defend him- or herself'.

  10. PDF Author: Johnson, Calyn G. Forms of Bullying, Implications, Demographics

    Four forms of bullying are defined: physical, verbal, relational, and cyberbullying. Verbal bullying has been found to be the most common type of bullying, but relational and cyberbullying are on the rise (Sharp, 1995; Slonje & Smith, 2008). Demographic differences exist in bullying behavior and for the reasons behind bullying.

  11. Impact of Bullying on Students' Behavioral Engagement

    Purpose statement e purpose of this study is to nd out the impact of bullying on ... Keywords: Bullying behavior, physical bullying, verbal bullying, social bullying, cyber bullying, mental health ...

  12. Campus Bullying in the Senior High School: A Qualitative Case Study

    Based on the narrative and thematic analysis, study revealed that victims of bullying experienced name-calling or verbal abuse, physical bullying, and social discrimination. ... statements as ...

  13. Title: The impact of bullying and violence in the school on the sense

    • Social bullying impacts every part of the female adolescent self but only affects the emotional, behavioural and creative sense of self of the male. • Verbal bullying has an impact on every part of the female adolescents sense of self and affects all parts of the male sense of self except the physical and intellectual sense of self.

  14. Thesis Statements: Examples

    Bullying in elementary schools is getting worse, because children model what they see at home and there are more cases of physical and emotional child abuse, and this causes various emotional problems in children. ... The first statement is too specific to be a thesis statement. If reworded for a more academic structure, the specific anecdote ...

  15. 1 Introduction

    The full statement of task for the committee is presented in Box 1-1. ... Examples of direct bullying include pushing, hitting, verbal taunting, or direct written communication. A common form of indirect bullying is spreading rumors. Four different types of bullying are commonly identified—physical, verbal, relational, and damage to property.

  16. Effects of Verbal Bullying to High School Students

    Since bullying seems to be a usual problem in schools in every country especially verbal bullying. Verbal bullies use words to hurt or humiliate another person. Verbal bullying includes name-calling, insulting, making racist comments and constant teasing. This type of bullying is the easiest to inflict on others. It is quick and to the point.

  17. Bullying Among Teenagers and Its Effects

    Cyber bullying is linked to psychological harm and suicidal thoughts or suicide among victims. It increases anxiety and emotional distress and in certain cases it results in self-mutilation as the victim tries to relief pressure or as a way of coping with this harassment against them. (kessel et al. 2008, 172.)

  18. Thesis the Impact of Bullying and Act Variables on Meaning in Life for

    Bullying victimization and perpetration, prevalent negative social events in the lives of many adolescents, may degrade the opportunity for adolescents to experience a meaningful life, but this hypothesis to date has remained untested. It is also unclear what may aid in the promotion of meaning in adolescents.

  19. Thesis Statement on Bullying: Research Essay

    A few examples of verbal bullying are teasing, insults, intimidation, racist remarks, and now homophobic remarks. Technology innovation has been gradually supplanting the pooch's job as man's closest companion. Technology is an increasingly underlying key factor in every lifestyle decision, task, solution, business venture, and educational ...

  20. Bullying Essay ⇒ Sample with Analysis and Topic Examples

    A bullying essay is a piece of writing that explores the issue of bullying, its causes, effects, and possible solutions. Bullying is a widespread problem that affects people of all ages, genders, and backgrounds. It is a form of aggressive behavior that can be physical, verbal, or psychological, and is often repeated over time.

  21. Bullying Thesis Statement

    Thesis Statement: Bullying in schools is believed to be a normal part of school life, however, when people begin to have this mentality, they forget that bullying is physically and psychologically harmful to both the bully and the victim. Bullying is one of the biggest problems that many children and teenagers have to face daily at school or ...

  22. Thesis Statement for Cyber Bullying

    In conclusion, cyberbullying is a growing issue in modern society, as individuals use technology to harass, intimidate, and threaten others online, leading to negative psychological and emotional consequences for victims.

  23. Thesis Statement Of Verbal Bullying

    Thesis Statement Of Verbal Bullying, Lasting Impressions Company Case Study Solution, What Score Is Needed On The Ap English Essay Tp Score A 4, Top Masters Homework Example, Analytic Rubric For Essay, Case Study Collective Memory, Poison In Hamlet Essay. ID 8764. amlaformulatorsschool. 4.6 stars - 1719 reviews.