Entitled vs. titled

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When they are synonymous with named  or  called , there is no substantive difference between entitled and titled . Some people object to this use  entitled , but the objection is baseless. The use of entitled to mean named goes back centuries, and entitled was in fact the preferred term until recently. Google Books uncovers only 23 instances of the phrase “book titled” in works published in the 19th century, against some 31,000 instances of “book entitled.” ( Titled in those days was much more often used to mean having a noble title .) This ngram , which graphs occurrence of the two phrases in English-language texts published from 1800 to 2000, shows that “book titled” did not gain significant ground until the second half of the 20th century:

Book Entitled Vs Book Titled English

The trend in this century goes against tradition. Google News searches covering the last few years show that titled now prevails by an approximately three-to-one margin. This is probably due to the growing use of entitled to mean having a right or claim to something .

Here are a few examples, spanning the last two centuries, of entitled used to mean named :

this thesis entitled

Mr Miller of Lincoln’s Inn has just published a book, entitled, “An Inquiry into the Present State of the Civil Law of England.” [ Blackwood’s Magazine (1825) ] A clever article entitled “Why Progress is in Leaps” might better have been entitled “A Review of the World’s Scientific Progress. [ Michigan Law Journal (1896) ] Both  the foregoing series by Hiroshige and Hiroshige II have been copied, practically line for line, by Hasegawa Sadanobu in a quarter-plate set entitled Shokoku Meisho Hyak’kei . [ A Guide to Japanese Prints and their Subject Matter , Basil Stewart (1922) ] So certain were the Brazilians of victory that they had already written and recorded a victory samba entitled “Brazil the Victora.” [ The Guardian (1950) ] The Rev. Donald Cozzens, author of a new and challenging book entitled ”The Changing Face of the Priesthood” will be the featured speaker. [ Boston Globe (2002) ]

Most examples of the use of titled from before the last few decades are like these (re-create our Google Books search here ):

The titled Aristocracy being the choosers, we may in practice reject the two last Classes of Eligibles, as they would scarcely ever be resorted to. [ Pamphlets for the People (1835) ] With such triumphs of aerial architecture did Mrs Nickleby occupy the whole evening after her accidental introduction to Ralph’s titled friends. [ The Life and Times of Nicholas Nickleby , Charles Dickens (1839) ] Returning with her to the principal room, where a titled lady sat ensconced in the corner of a sofa, he rudely pushed her aside with the words: “Get out of the way, fat cow.” [ Art and Life (1918) ]

Titled here means bearing a noble title .  

In current news publications, however, titled is very often used in place of entitled —for example:

Six years ago, The Times’ editorial board wrote a piece titled “The Math of the Market,” which argued that there was something special about having at least four companies competing in every segment. [ Los Angeles Times ] The talent hunt, titled Scene Stealers, asked amateur film-makers to borrow from Film 4 productions over the years. [ Guardian ] In a new e-book, titled  How to Survive in a Recession , Mr. Thug (née Stayve Jerome Thomas) doles out forthright financial advice. [ Globe and Mail ] Titled Ecce Homo (Behold the Man), the original was painted in oil in 1910 directly onto a column in the Iglesia del Santuario de Misericordia church in Borja, northeastern Spain.[ News.com.au ]

Examples of entitled used to mean named are still out there, but they are buried under thousands of instances of entitled used in its other sense.

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When is it appropriate to use "titled" vs. "entitled"?

When is it appropriate to use "titled" vs. "entitled"? For example, which is the correct word to use in the following sentence?

I really liked the conclusion to rands’ latest blog post entitled “How to Run a Meeting”.
  • word-choice

Lauren's user avatar

6 Answers 6

From the NOAD :

titled /ˈtaɪdld/ adjective (of a person) having a title indicating high social or official rank. entitle /ɪnˈtaɪdl/ /ɛnˈtaɪdl/ verb [trans.] (usually be entitled) 1. give (someone) a legal right or a just claim to receive or do something: employees are normally entitled to severance pay | [trans.] the landlord is entitled to require references . 2. give (something, especially a text or work of art) a particular title: an article entitled "The Harried Society." - [trans.] archaic give (someone) a specified title expressing their rank, office, or character: they entitled him Sultan .

In your example, you should say I really liked the conclusion to rands' latest blog post entitled "How to Run a Meeting."

apaderno's user avatar

  • I think NAOD has it right but what is missing is the active voice. To say something was 'entitled' as opposed to 'titled' is, as the NAOD points out archaic. IE: "I was looking at the painting titled 'Dejuener sur l'herbe'" vs "I was looking at the painting entitled 'Dejuener sur l'herbe'". Neither one is particularly right/wrong, but the latter is confusing. –  mfg Commented Aug 19, 2010 at 19:24
  • @mfg: Only the second meaning (to give someone a title) is reported to be archaic. –  apaderno Commented Aug 19, 2010 at 20:06
  • right, but the first example does not pertain to the title of the blog entry; the usage of the second definition is what the post is asking about. –  mfg Commented Aug 19, 2010 at 20:28
  • @mfg: That is 2.2; the OP is referring to 2.1, the one with an article entitled "The Harried Society." as example. –  apaderno Commented Aug 19, 2010 at 20:33

The verbs entitle and title are synonyms. Regarding nouns, title is a noun, entitle is not. Title on its own is an adjective (the title story - the story from the book the book got its title from), entitle is not. Entitle has an additional association to the meaning of having rights to or honor: I was entitled to the deduction.

The verb entitle regards the given name as a more distinguished feature of an object, more than the verb title .

When you say

The book is titled "Far away from here".

you are saying that technically it has that title, but when you say

The book is entitled "Far away from here".

you are implying some sort of preference, either that you liked the book, or that the title was appropriate, or that the book has become famous, or that you want to suggest people to read it, something that gives to the book more than just a simple title.

I entitle this book with her name.

means I am giving this book something special by giving it a title of more importance to me , suggesting strong emotions.

The director wanted to title the movie "Loud air".

means what it says. In this sentence using entitle instead of title would be kind of strange, unless something more is said about the movie or the director.

In your sentence "I really liked..." suggests preference, honor, and, although titled and entitled are both correct, entitled suggests "appropriately titled" or "nicely titled" which is what the author really wanted to express.

Aleksandar's user avatar

There is an interesting article on this topic at the following URL. It provides usage statistics. http://grammarist.com/usage/entitled-titled/

David's user avatar

  • 2 Hello and welcome! Please see how to answer questions , specifically: Provide context for links. Always quote or summarize the key points that you're linking to. –  Bradd Szonye Commented May 20, 2013 at 1:12

"Titled", I believe, typically refers to title as in rank or nobility . "Entitled" means (for one) "to give a title to" or designate.

cori's user avatar

  • Entitled : To have a right to do something –  Roberto Aloi Commented Apr 28, 2011 at 9:08

"Entitled" would denote a usage whereby one is deserving of, as opposed to "Titled" where someone is already honored. "Entitled", when used to refer to how something is titled, is just confusing usage. Using "the article was titled ... " is more concise.

mfg's user avatar

  • Another usage for 'entitled' is in the sense of 'entitled to', or 'entitlements'; one might use entitled like this "I am entitled to my retirement benefits." which brings about another layer of confusion with using 'entitled.' It seems that a more accurate signal phrase would use a more current word (esp in MLA/APA citations). –  mfg Commented Aug 19, 2010 at 19:34

According to dictionary.com, 'title' as a verb means "to furnish with a title; designate by an appellation; entitle." I conclude both are acceptable. I think I tend to use 'titled' preferentially, probably because it's shorter.

moioci's user avatar

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this thesis entitled

On the Rightful Use of 'Entitle'

Some people who encounter entitled used of the name of a book or other work of art, as in "the book (was) entitled such-and-such," do not think that the word is entitled to such use, and that the definition of the verb entitle , meaning "to designate" or "to give a title to," can only refer to the act of giving a person a title, as of deputy or vice president or what-have-you—or that the verb implies giving someone a right or privilege (as in, "volunteers are entitled to ice cream").

In sum, some believe entitle can only be applied to bestowing things that are legally or hierarchically claimed as a right or are earned in some way. But we disagree.

entitle vs title usage

This book is entitled, uh, 'We Don't Know.'

Entitle can designate the name of a book, song, movie, etc., (as in "the dictionary is entitled Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's English Dictionary " or "the 2002 movie entitled Spellbound is about the 1999 National Spelling Bee") and it has been used in that sense since at least the 14th century.

This booke of which I make mencion, / Entitled was right thus, as I shall tell, / Tullius, of the dreame of Scipion; Chapiters seven it had…. — Geoffrey Chaucer, Parlement of Foules , circa 1381

In fact, the use of entitle to refer to any designation other than the title of an artistic work is now rare and, more or less, archaic. Here is a rather obscure example from the 19th-century novel In the Roar of the Sea by the Reverend Sabine Baring-Gould:

Are our readers acquainted with that local delicacy entitled, in Cornwall and Devon, Squab Pie? To enlighten the ignorant, it shall be described. First, however, we premise that of squab pies there are two sorts: Devonian squab and Cornish squab.

(Essentially, a squab pie is made of mutton, pork, apples, and onions.)

To put an end to this squabble, the act of entitling one's own intellectual property is actually older than the other senses of the word referring to the act of bestowing a person with a certain designation or right or claim to something. The sense of the verb title referring to the act of giving a title to something also enters English in the 14th century, and both title and entitle are related to Latin, via Anglo-French, titulus . However, as past participial adjectives, entitled and titled diverge, and entitled is semantically stronger.

Since the 20th century, entitled has had the additional meaning of "believing oneself to be inherently deserving of certain privileges or special treatment" (as well as the disparaging meaning of "acting spoiled and self-important.")

The reality is, kids aren't born feeling entitled or spoiled. They learn it from well-intentioned parents who don't realize they’re teaching it by giving in to demands. — Eva Dwight, USA Today , 22 Nov. 2018

The related nominal entitlement —referring to the condition of having a right to have, do, or get something—goes back to the 18th century, and it, too, extended in meaning in the 20th century. In American English, it not only became a word for the services or benefits granted by the government to qualified individuals (such as Social Security) but came to pejoratively denote a feeling or belief that one deserves to be given certain privileges or special treatment.

But it does appear that—for, well, People Who Are Not Me, "entitlement" is a pejorative. For reasons that aren't entirely clear to me, those who object to the phrase connect it up with a negative sort of behavior, "having a sense of entitlement," meaning expecting success in life that one doesn't deserve, for instance, a stereotypical young man … feeling "entitled" to a good grade in his college class or a pay raise or promotion regardless of effort. — Elizabeth Bauer, Forbes , 5 Nov. 2018

Obviously, you're entitled to your opinion and have a right to express a dislike for the use of entitle in contexts relating to the naming of creative "things," preferring title instead, but usage evidence shows entitle being used in such contexts for centuries, and it continues to be a standard and growing part of the English language. We tolerate all facets of its current verbal and adjectival uses, as well as its related noun.

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Titled vs. Entitled: Which Is Correct?

⚡ quick summary.

Both titled and entitled are used as past tense verbs to mean “to be called by a particular title.” In modern usage, titled is the more commonly used word in this sense. The word entitled is more commonly used as an adjective to mean “assuming one has a right or claim to a special privilege.” 

Let’s say that your favorite movie is The Godfather. If you held a copy of it in your hand, would you use the word titled or entitled to say what the name of the movie is? Which word is correct? Are they both correct?

In this article, we will break down the difference between titled and entitled , explain how they are typically used, and give example sentences that show how we use both words. 

When to use titled or entitled

The word titled is almost always used as the past tense and past participle form of the verb title , which means “to give a distinguishing name (title) to.” If someone says that a movie is titled Jurassic Park , for example, they are saying that the name of the movie is Jurassic Park . While titled can also be used as an adjective to mean “having a distinctive or honorary name (title),” this usage is uncommon. 

The word entitled has several meanings. As an adjective, it’s most often used to mean “assuming one has the right to do something or has a claim to a special privilege.” As an adjective, entitled can also mean “called by the given distinguishing name (title)” or “having a legitimate right to something.” 

Here are examples of these senses:

  • The older generations often accuse millennials of acting entitled. 
  • My favorite Star Wars movie is entitled Rogue One: A Star Wars Story .
  • According to the will, the billionaire’s daughter, not his son, is legally entitled to the family fortune. 

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Entitled is also the past tense and past participle form of the verb entitle . In this sense it means “to call by a particular title or name,” making it a synonym for the past tense verb titled . 

For example:

  • There is a lot of speculation as to why the song is entitled “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds.” 

Until the 2000s, the word entitled was much more commonly used to refer to the title of things. Today in casual usage, both titled and entitled are used to refer to the titles of things, but titled is more commonly used. However, modern style guides often differ on whether both titled and entitled can or should be used to refer to the titles of things. For example, AP Stylebook states that only titled can refer to actual titles, while The Chicago Manual of Style allows for both words but seems to prefer titled .

Titles of works can convey specific meanings and raise questions—like in Prince Harry's memoir.

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How To Write An Effective Declaration Page For Your Thesis – Template

Published by Alvin Nicolas at March 13th, 2024 , Revised On April 5, 2024

A declaration page stands as a testament to the integrity and authenticity of a thesis. It is a succinct section at the beginning of the document and outlines key information and affirmations regarding the authorship and originality of the work. 

Essentially, it serves as a formal declaration of the author’s adherence to ethical standards and their acknowledgement of the contributions made towards the completion of the thesis. 

A declaration page acts as a cornerstone of academic integrity and helps reinforce the credibility of the research presented within the thesis or dissertation . 

By explicitly stating that the work is original and free from plagiarism, the author not only upholds the principles of honesty but also demonstrates their commitment to scholarly standards. 

Let’s explore this further. 

What Is A Thesis Declaration Page

The declaration page within a thesis serves as a foundational element, providing essential information and affirmations crucial for academic integrity. 

The declaration page, often positioned at the beginning of a thesis, is a formal section dedicated to asserting the authenticity, originality, and ethical adherence of the work presented within the document. It serves as a declaration of the author’s commitment to scholarly integrity and honesty.

This declaration is typically mandated by academic institutions as a requisite component of thesis submission, aimed at upholding rigorous standards of academic conduct.

Purpose Of A Dissertation Declaration

The primary purpose of the declaration page is twofold: to affirm the originality of the research and to acknowledge the contributions of individuals or sources that have assisted in the thesis’s completion. 

By formally declaring the work’s authenticity and adherence to ethical standards, the author establishes credibility and trustworthiness, essential qualities in academic discourse.

Moreover, the declaration page functions as a transparent record of the author’s involvement in the research process , delineating their contributions and attributions. 

It serves as a testament to the author’s accountability and responsibility for the content presented within the thesis, thus safeguarding against plagiarism and intellectual dishonesty.

Key Components To Include

Here are some of the key components to include in your declaration guide. 

Title Of The Thesis

The declaration page typically begins with the title of the thesis , serving as a concise identifier of the research topic or subject matter. The title should accurately reflect the scope and focus of the thesis, providing readers with a clear understanding of its contents.

Name Of The Author

Following the title, the declaration page includes the name of the author, affirming their authorship and responsibility for the research presented within the thesis.

The author’s name serves as a key identifier, linking them directly to the work and asserting their ownership of intellectual contributions.

Declaration Of Originality

Central to the declaration page is the declaration of originality, wherein the author asserts that the work presented within the thesis is their own original creation.

This declaration typically includes statements affirming that the research has not been plagiarised and that any sources or references utilised have been properly cited.

Statement Of Contributions

The statement of contributions provides an opportunity for the author to acknowledge the individuals or entities that have contributed to the completion of the thesis. This may include supervisors , advisors, collaborators, or funding agencies, among others. 

The statement should clearly delineate the specific contributions made by each party, highlighting their roles in the research process.

Acknowledgements (If Applicable)

In some cases, the declaration page may include a section for acknowledgements, wherein the author expresses gratitude to individuals or organisations who have provided support, guidance, or inspiration during the course of the research. 

Acknowledgements may include mentors, peers, family members, or institutions that have facilitated the author’s academic pursuits.

Date Of Submission

Finally, the declaration page concludes with the date of submission, indicating the date on which the thesis was formally submitted for evaluation or examination. 

The inclusion of the submission date serves as a record of the thesis’s completion and submission timeline, ensuring compliance with academic deadlines and requirements.

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How To Write A Declaration Page

Creating a declaration page that is both impactful and professional requires attention to detail and adherence to certain principles. 

Clear & Concise Language

One of the cardinal rules of crafting an effective declaration page is to use clear and concise language. Avoid ambiguity or verbosity, and strive for clarity in expressing your affirmations and acknowledgements. 

The declaration should be easily understandable to readers, conveying your commitment to academic integrity without unnecessary embellishment.

Formatting & Presentation Tips

Formatting plays a crucial role in the presentation of the declaration page. Ensure that the page layout is clean and organised, with consistent font styles and sizes. 

Use headings and subheadings to delineate different sections of the declaration, making it easier for readers to navigate. Additionally, pay attention to spacing and alignment to maintain a polished appearance.

Honesty & Integrity

Honesty and integrity are paramount when crafting a declaration page. It is essential to uphold the highest ethical standards and truthfully affirm the originality of your work. 

Avoid any misleading statements or exaggerations, as they can undermine the credibility of your thesis. Demonstrating integrity in your declaration not only reflects positively on your character but also reinforces the trustworthiness of your research.

Institutional Guidelines & Requirements

Every academic institution may have its own specific guidelines and requirements for declaration pages. Before crafting your declaration, familiarise yourself with these guidelines to ensure compliance. 

Pay attention to formatting specifications, word limits, and any specific language or statements that may be required. Adhering to institutional guidelines demonstrates your attention to detail and respect for academic conventions.

Writing The Declaration Of Originality

The declaration of originality is a crucial component of the declaration page, affirming the authenticity and uniqueness of your work. 

What Constitutes Original Work

Original work refers to content that is created by the author and has not been previously published or plagiarised from other sources. When writing the declaration of originality, it is important to understand what constitutes original work within the context of your field of study. 

This may include original research findings, innovative ideas, or creative interpretations of existing knowledge.

Avoiding Plagiarism

Plagiarism is a serious offence in academia and must be strictly avoided. When writing the declaration of originality, explicitly state that the work presented in your thesis is your own and properly acknowledge any sources or references used. 

Take care to cite all sources accurately and follow citation conventions prescribed by your institution. By demonstrating a commitment to academic honesty, you uphold the integrity of your research.

Declaration Template

I, [Your Name], hereby declare that this thesis entitled “[Title of Your Thesis]” is my own work and that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma at any university or equivalent institution.

I also declare that the intellectual content of this thesis is the product of my own work, except to the extent that assistance from others in the project’s design and conception or in style, presentation, and linguistic expression is acknowledged. Where applicable, any part of this thesis containing materials prepared jointly with others has been explicitly identified.

Any views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of [University Name] or any other institution.

Signed: ____________________

Date: [Date]

Frequently Asked Questions

What is an example of a declaration in a thesis.

An example of a declaration in a thesis might state: “I hereby declare that this thesis is my original work, conducted under the supervision of [supervisor’s name], and all sources used have been properly cited and acknowledged.”

Where does the declaration go in a thesis?

The declaration typically appears as a preliminary page in a thesis, preceding the abstract and acknowledgements. It is usually located after the title page and before the table of contents, providing a formal statement from the author regarding the originality and integrity of their work.

What is an example of a declaration statement?

An example of a declaration statement in a thesis could be: “I solemnly declare that this thesis is the result of my own research endeavours, conducted under the guidance of [supervisor’s name]. All sources used have been duly acknowledged and referenced according to the conventions of academic integrity and citation.”

What is the declaration format for Phd thesis?

The declaration format for a PhD thesis typically includes a statement asserting the author’s originality of work, acknowledgement of sources, compliance with ethical standards, and declaration of any assistance received. It’s usually structured in a formal, concise manner and is placed at the beginning of the thesis document.

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Entitled vs. Titled: What’s the Difference?

Home » Entitled vs. Titled: What’s the Difference?

There is a lot of information floating around about these two words. Are they both the same? Is one wrong to use? Is one more preferred than the other? There’s no need to worry, however. Once you know the functions of each word, using entitled vs. titled is easy.

What is the Difference Between Entitled and Titled?

Today I want to talk about the difference between these two words, how they should be used in a sentence, and summarize the most popular and authoritative usage guides’ opinions on them.

After reading this post, you should have a clear understanding on how to use both of these words, and you can decide how to use them in your future writings.

When to Use Entitled

titled or entitled grammar

  • As an employee here, you are entitled to two weeks of vacation.
  • She worked the hardest; she is entitled to the promotion.
  • You are entitled to your opinion, but I think you are wrong.

The second sense of entitled is “to give a name or title to.” For example,

  • She wrote a book entitled To Kill a Mockingbird .
  • Today I read an article entitled “Why No One Reads,” and it was eye opening.

When to Use Titled

Titled is the past tense of the transitive verb title . It is defined as “to give a name or title to.” For example,

  • What are you going to title your book?
  • After much thought, the author titled her book.

Can I Use Entitled and Titled Interchangeably?

a book titled or a book entitled

Some people emphatically say that you cannot use entitled in this sense, and that it should be restricted in its use to the first sense seen above, “to give a legal right or just claim to something.”

The problem with this claim, however, is that the use of entitled in sense two from above is very well established, dating back to the 14th century, and it actually predates the use of sense one.

The AP Stylebook and several other newspaper guides reserve entitled to the first sense. Other usage guides, such as Fowler’s Modern English Usage , say that both uses are acceptable.

Still, other guides say that entitled can be used in both senses but must be done so within limits.

Garner’s Modern American Usage states that in best usage entitled should be reserved to functioning as a past-participle adjective. For example,

  • I read a book entitled Huckleberry Finn . (CORRECT)
  • The article entitled “America’s Moving Habits” was a good read. (CORRECT)
  • What did you entitle your book? (WRONG)

It goes on to say that as a transitive verb, title is preferred. For example,

  • What did you title your book? (CORRECT)

I think Garner’s suggestion makes the most sense. Given the history of the two words, clearly entitled can be used in both senses, and it’s also clear why title would be a preferred choice in certain circumstances.

It’s a general rule in writing that simpler is better, and since titled is simpler than entitled , we can see why it may be preferred.

Of course, as my college English professor used to say, “A good writer knows when to break the rules.”

Despite what some people say, titled vs. entitled can both be used to indicate book titles, but in certain circumstances, as outlined above, one may be preferable to another.

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  • thesis entitled

This phrase is correct and commonly used in English.

Alternatives:

thesis titled

Last Updated: April 14, 2024

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Titled or entitled?

Is a book titled or entitled.

Reader’s question:  Which should you say?

The book is titled … or The book is entitled …

Answer:  Based on dictionary definitions, you can use either. The  Macquarie Dictionary  gives one definition of entitled as ‘to call by a particular title or name; name’.

Not everyone agrees. Some people think you should use  entitled  to mean ‘given a title, claim or right to something’ and  titled  for titles.

For instance,  Daily Writing Tips  says:

‘If something is “titled” it means that it received such a title, either by the author or by someone else.

‘Entitled, on the other hand, means that a person has rights to something. If you are entitled to a house, for instance, it means that the law protects your right to own that house.’

If in doubt, why not change the word?

The book is called … (This is my preference.)

Or just give the book title:

The book, Gone with the Wind , …

Learn  more about word usage with my online Business Writing course.

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  • Knowledge Base
  • How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples

How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples

Published on January 11, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on August 15, 2023 by Eoghan Ryan.

A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . It usually comes near the end of your introduction .

Your thesis will look a bit different depending on the type of essay you’re writing. But the thesis statement should always clearly state the main idea you want to get across. Everything else in your essay should relate back to this idea.

You can write your thesis statement by following four simple steps:

  • Start with a question
  • Write your initial answer
  • Develop your answer
  • Refine your thesis statement

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Table of contents

What is a thesis statement, placement of the thesis statement, step 1: start with a question, step 2: write your initial answer, step 3: develop your answer, step 4: refine your thesis statement, types of thesis statements, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about thesis statements.

A thesis statement summarizes the central points of your essay. It is a signpost telling the reader what the essay will argue and why.

The best thesis statements are:

  • Concise: A good thesis statement is short and sweet—don’t use more words than necessary. State your point clearly and directly in one or two sentences.
  • Contentious: Your thesis shouldn’t be a simple statement of fact that everyone already knows. A good thesis statement is a claim that requires further evidence or analysis to back it up.
  • Coherent: Everything mentioned in your thesis statement must be supported and explained in the rest of your paper.

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

The thesis statement generally appears at the end of your essay introduction or research paper introduction .

The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. The use of the internet in academic contexts and among young people more generally is hotly debated. For many who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful. This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education: the internet facilitates easier access to information, exposure to different perspectives, and a flexible learning environment for both students and teachers.

You should come up with an initial thesis, sometimes called a working thesis , early in the writing process . As soon as you’ve decided on your essay topic , you need to work out what you want to say about it—a clear thesis will give your essay direction and structure.

You might already have a question in your assignment, but if not, try to come up with your own. What would you like to find out or decide about your topic?

For example, you might ask:

After some initial research, you can formulate a tentative answer to this question. At this stage it can be simple, and it should guide the research process and writing process .

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See an example

this thesis entitled

Now you need to consider why this is your answer and how you will convince your reader to agree with you. As you read more about your topic and begin writing, your answer should get more detailed.

In your essay about the internet and education, the thesis states your position and sketches out the key arguments you’ll use to support it.

The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education because it facilitates easier access to information.

In your essay about braille, the thesis statement summarizes the key historical development that you’ll explain.

The invention of braille in the 19th century transformed the lives of blind people, allowing them to participate more actively in public life.

A strong thesis statement should tell the reader:

  • Why you hold this position
  • What they’ll learn from your essay
  • The key points of your argument or narrative

The final thesis statement doesn’t just state your position, but summarizes your overall argument or the entire topic you’re going to explain. To strengthen a weak thesis statement, it can help to consider the broader context of your topic.

These examples are more specific and show that you’ll explore your topic in depth.

Your thesis statement should match the goals of your essay, which vary depending on the type of essay you’re writing:

  • In an argumentative essay , your thesis statement should take a strong position. Your aim in the essay is to convince your reader of this thesis based on evidence and logical reasoning.
  • In an expository essay , you’ll aim to explain the facts of a topic or process. Your thesis statement doesn’t have to include a strong opinion in this case, but it should clearly state the central point you want to make, and mention the key elements you’ll explain.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . Everything else you write should relate to this key idea.

The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons:

  • It gives your writing direction and focus.
  • It gives the reader a concise summary of your main point.

Without a clear thesis statement, an essay can end up rambling and unfocused, leaving your reader unsure of exactly what you want to say.

Follow these four steps to come up with a thesis statement :

  • Ask a question about your topic .
  • Write your initial answer.
  • Develop your answer by including reasons.
  • Refine your answer, adding more detail and nuance.

The thesis statement should be placed at the end of your essay introduction .

Cite this Scribbr article

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McCombes, S. (2023, August 15). How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved June 11, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/academic-essay/thesis-statement/

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The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Thesis Statements

What this handout is about.

This handout describes what a thesis statement is, how thesis statements work in your writing, and how you can craft or refine one for your draft.

Introduction

Writing in college often takes the form of persuasion—convincing others that you have an interesting, logical point of view on the subject you are studying. Persuasion is a skill you practice regularly in your daily life. You persuade your roommate to clean up, your parents to let you borrow the car, your friend to vote for your favorite candidate or policy. In college, course assignments often ask you to make a persuasive case in writing. You are asked to convince your reader of your point of view. This form of persuasion, often called academic argument, follows a predictable pattern in writing. After a brief introduction of your topic, you state your point of view on the topic directly and often in one sentence. This sentence is the thesis statement, and it serves as a summary of the argument you’ll make in the rest of your paper.

What is a thesis statement?

A thesis statement:

  • tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion.
  • is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper.
  • directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, or topic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the novel.
  • makes a claim that others might dispute.
  • is usually a single sentence near the beginning of your paper (most often, at the end of the first paragraph) that presents your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation.

If your assignment asks you to take a position or develop a claim about a subject, you may need to convey that position or claim in a thesis statement near the beginning of your draft. The assignment may not explicitly state that you need a thesis statement because your instructor may assume you will include one. When in doubt, ask your instructor if the assignment requires a thesis statement. When an assignment asks you to analyze, to interpret, to compare and contrast, to demonstrate cause and effect, or to take a stand on an issue, it is likely that you are being asked to develop a thesis and to support it persuasively. (Check out our handout on understanding assignments for more information.)

How do I create a thesis?

A thesis is the result of a lengthy thinking process. Formulating a thesis is not the first thing you do after reading an essay assignment. Before you develop an argument on any topic, you have to collect and organize evidence, look for possible relationships between known facts (such as surprising contrasts or similarities), and think about the significance of these relationships. Once you do this thinking, you will probably have a “working thesis” that presents a basic or main idea and an argument that you think you can support with evidence. Both the argument and your thesis are likely to need adjustment along the way.

Writers use all kinds of techniques to stimulate their thinking and to help them clarify relationships or comprehend the broader significance of a topic and arrive at a thesis statement. For more ideas on how to get started, see our handout on brainstorming .

How do I know if my thesis is strong?

If there’s time, run it by your instructor or make an appointment at the Writing Center to get some feedback. Even if you do not have time to get advice elsewhere, you can do some thesis evaluation of your own. When reviewing your first draft and its working thesis, ask yourself the following :

  • Do I answer the question? Re-reading the question prompt after constructing a working thesis can help you fix an argument that misses the focus of the question. If the prompt isn’t phrased as a question, try to rephrase it. For example, “Discuss the effect of X on Y” can be rephrased as “What is the effect of X on Y?”
  • Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? If your thesis simply states facts that no one would, or even could, disagree with, it’s possible that you are simply providing a summary, rather than making an argument.
  • Is my thesis statement specific enough? Thesis statements that are too vague often do not have a strong argument. If your thesis contains words like “good” or “successful,” see if you could be more specific: why is something “good”; what specifically makes something “successful”?
  • Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? If a reader’s first response is likely to  be “So what?” then you need to clarify, to forge a relationship, or to connect to a larger issue.
  • Does my essay support my thesis specifically and without wandering? If your thesis and the body of your essay do not seem to go together, one of them has to change. It’s okay to change your working thesis to reflect things you have figured out in the course of writing your paper. Remember, always reassess and revise your writing as necessary.
  • Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? If a reader’s first response is “how?” or “why?” your thesis may be too open-ended and lack guidance for the reader. See what you can add to give the reader a better take on your position right from the beginning.

Suppose you are taking a course on contemporary communication, and the instructor hands out the following essay assignment: “Discuss the impact of social media on public awareness.” Looking back at your notes, you might start with this working thesis:

Social media impacts public awareness in both positive and negative ways.

You can use the questions above to help you revise this general statement into a stronger thesis.

  • Do I answer the question? You can analyze this if you rephrase “discuss the impact” as “what is the impact?” This way, you can see that you’ve answered the question only very generally with the vague “positive and negative ways.”
  • Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? Not likely. Only people who maintain that social media has a solely positive or solely negative impact could disagree.
  • Is my thesis statement specific enough? No. What are the positive effects? What are the negative effects?
  • Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? No. Why are they positive? How are they positive? What are their causes? Why are they negative? How are they negative? What are their causes?
  • Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? No. Why should anyone care about the positive and/or negative impact of social media?

After thinking about your answers to these questions, you decide to focus on the one impact you feel strongly about and have strong evidence for:

Because not every voice on social media is reliable, people have become much more critical consumers of information, and thus, more informed voters.

This version is a much stronger thesis! It answers the question, takes a specific position that others can challenge, and it gives a sense of why it matters.

Let’s try another. Suppose your literature professor hands out the following assignment in a class on the American novel: Write an analysis of some aspect of Mark Twain’s novel Huckleberry Finn. “This will be easy,” you think. “I loved Huckleberry Finn!” You grab a pad of paper and write:

Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn is a great American novel.

You begin to analyze your thesis:

  • Do I answer the question? No. The prompt asks you to analyze some aspect of the novel. Your working thesis is a statement of general appreciation for the entire novel.

Think about aspects of the novel that are important to its structure or meaning—for example, the role of storytelling, the contrasting scenes between the shore and the river, or the relationships between adults and children. Now you write:

In Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain develops a contrast between life on the river and life on the shore.
  • Do I answer the question? Yes!
  • Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? Not really. This contrast is well-known and accepted.
  • Is my thesis statement specific enough? It’s getting there–you have highlighted an important aspect of the novel for investigation. However, it’s still not clear what your analysis will reveal.
  • Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? Not yet. Compare scenes from the book and see what you discover. Free write, make lists, jot down Huck’s actions and reactions and anything else that seems interesting.
  • Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? What’s the point of this contrast? What does it signify?”

After examining the evidence and considering your own insights, you write:

Through its contrasting river and shore scenes, Twain’s Huckleberry Finn suggests that to find the true expression of American democratic ideals, one must leave “civilized” society and go back to nature.

This final thesis statement presents an interpretation of a literary work based on an analysis of its content. Of course, for the essay itself to be successful, you must now present evidence from the novel that will convince the reader of your interpretation.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Anson, Chris M., and Robert A. Schwegler. 2010. The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers , 6th ed. New York: Longman.

Lunsford, Andrea A. 2015. The St. Martin’s Handbook , 8th ed. Boston: Bedford/St Martin’s.

Ramage, John D., John C. Bean, and June Johnson. 2018. The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing , 8th ed. New York: Pearson.

Ruszkiewicz, John J., Christy Friend, Daniel Seward, and Maxine Hairston. 2010. The Scott, Foresman Handbook for Writers , 9th ed. Boston: Pearson Education.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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The Savvy Scientist

The Savvy Scientist

Experiences of a London PhD student and beyond

Thesis Title: Examples and Suggestions from a PhD Grad

Graphic of a researcher writing, perhaps a thesis title

When you’re faced with writing up a thesis, choosing a title can often fall to the bottom of the priority list. After all, it’s only a few words. How hard can it be?!

In the grand scheme of things I agree that picking your thesis title shouldn’t warrant that much thought, however my own choice is one of the few regrets I have from my PhD . I therefore think there is value in spending some time considering the options available.

In this post I’ll guide you through how to write your own thesis title and share real-world examples. Although my focus is on the PhD thesis, I’ve also included plenty of thesis title examples for bachelor’s and master’s research projects too.

Hopefully by the end of the post you’ll feel ready to start crafting your own!

Why your thesis title is at least somewhat important

It sounds obvious but your thesis title is the first, and often only, interaction people will have with your thesis. For instance, hiring managers for jobs that you may wish to apply for in the future. Therefore you want to give a good sense of what your research involved from the title.

Many people will list the title of their thesis on their CV, at least for a while after graduating. All of the example titles I’ve shared below came from my repository of academic CVs . I’d say roughly 30% of all the academics on that page list their thesis title, which includes academics all the way up to full professor.

Your thesis title could therefore feature on your CV for your whole career, so it is probably worth a bit of thought!

My suggestions for choosing a good thesis title

  • Make it descriptive of the research so it’s immediately obvious what it is about! Most universities will publish student theses online ( here’s mine! ) and they’re indexed so can be found via Google Scholar etc. Therefore give your thesis a descriptive title so that interested researchers can find it in the future.
  • Don’t get lost in the detail . You want a descriptive title but avoid overly lengthy descriptions of experiments. Unless a certain analytical technique etc was central to your research, I’d suggest by default* to avoid having it in your title. Including certain techniques will make your title, and therefore research, look overly dated, which isn’t ideal for potential job applications after you graduate.
  • The title should tie together the chapters of your thesis. A well-phrased title can do a good job of summarising the overall story of your thesis. Think about each of your research chapters and ensure that the title makes sense for each of them.
  • Be strategic . Certain parts of your work you want to emphasise? Consider making them more prominent in your title. For instance, if you know you want to pivot to a slightly different research area or career path after your PhD, there may be alternative phrasings which describe your work just as well but could be better understood by those in the field you’re moving into. I utilised this a bit in my own title which we’ll come onto shortly.
  • Do your own thing. Having just laid out some suggestions, do make sure you’re personally happy with the title. You get a lot of freedom to choose your title, so use it however you fancy. For example, I’ve known people to use puns in their title, so if that’s what you’re into don’t feel overly constrained.

*This doesn’t always hold true and certainly don’t take my advice if 1) listing something in your title could be a strategic move 2) you love the technique so much that you’re desperate to include it!

Thesis title examples

To help give you some ideas, here are some example thesis titles from Bachelors, Masters and PhD graduates. These all came from the academic CVs listed in my repository here .

Bachelor’s thesis title examples

Hysteresis and Avalanches Paul Jager , 2014 – Medical Imaging – DKFZ Head of ML Research Group –  direct link to Paul’s machine learning academic CV

The bioenergetics of a marine ciliate, Mesodinium rubrum Holly Moeller , 2008 – Ecology & Marine Biology – UC Santa Barbara Assistant Professor –  direct link to Holly’s marine biology academic CV

Functional syntactic analysis of prepositional and causal constructions for a grammatical parser of Russian Ekaterina Kochmar , 2008 – Computer Science – University of Bath Lecturer Assistant Prof –  direct link to Ekaterina’s computer science academic CV

Master’s thesis title examples

Creation of an autonomous impulse response measurement system for rooms and transducers with different methods Guy-Bart Stan , 2000 – Bioengineering – Imperial Professor –  direct link to Guy-Bart’s bioengineering academic CV

Segmentation of Nerve Bundles and Ganglia in Spine MRI using Particle Filters Adrian Vasile Dalca , 2012 – Machine Learning for healthcare – Harvard Assistant Professor & MIT Research Scientist –  direct link to Adrian’s machine learning academic CV

The detection of oil under ice by remote mode conversion of ultrasound Eric Yeatman , 1986 – Electronics – Imperial Professor and Head of Department –  direct link to Eric’s electronics academic CV

Ensemble-Based Learning for Morphological Analysis of German Ekaterina Kochmar , 2010 – Computer Science – University of Bath Lecturer Assistant Prof –  direct link to Ekaterina’s computer science academic CV

VARiD: A Variation Detection Framework for Color-Space and Letter-Space Platforms Adrian Vasile Dalca , 2010 – Machine Learning for healthcare – Harvard Assistant Professor & MIT Research Scientist –  direct link to Adrian’s machine learning academic CV

Identification of a Writer’s Native Language by Error Analysis Ekaterina Kochmar , 2011 – Computer Science – University of Bath Lecturer Assistant Prof –  direct link to Ekaterina’s computer science academic CV

On the economic optimality of marine reserves when fishing damages habitat Holly Moeller , 2010 – Ecology & Marine Biology – UC Santa Barbara Assistant Professor –  direct link to Holly’s marine biology academic CV

Sensitivity Studies for the Time-Dependent CP Violation Measurement in B 0 → K S K S K S at the Belle II-Experiment Paul Jager , 2016 – Medical Imaging – DKFZ Head of ML Research Group –  direct link to Paul’s machine learning academic CV

PhD thesis title examples

Spatio-temporal analysis of three-dimensional real-time ultrasound for quantification of ventricular function Esla Angelini  – Medicine – Imperial Senior Data Scientist –  direct link to Elsa’s medicine academic CV

The role and maintenance of diversity in a multi-partner mutualism: Trees and Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Holly Moeller , 2015 – Ecology & Marine Biology – UC Santa Barbara Assistant Professor –  direct link to Holly’s marine biology academic CV

Bayesian Gaussian processes for sequential prediction, optimisation and quadrature Michael Osborne , 2010 – Machine Learning – Oxford Full Professor –  direct link to Michael’s machine learning academic CV

Global analysis and synthesis of oscillations: a dissipativity approach Guy-Bart Stan , 2005 – Bioengineering – Imperial Professor –  direct link to Guy-Bart’s bioengineering academic CV

Coarse-grained modelling of DNA and DNA self-assembly Thomas Ouldridge , 2011– Bioengineering – Imperial College London Senior Lecturer / Associate Prof –  direct link to Thomas’ bioengineering academic CV

4D tomographic image reconstruction and parametric maps estimation: a model-based strategy for algorithm design using Bayesian inference in Probabilistic Graphical Models (PGM) Michele Scipioni , 2018– Biomedical Engineer – Harvard Postdoctoral Research Fellow –  direct link to Michele’s biomedical engineer academic CV

Error Detection in Content Word Combinations Ekaterina Kochmar , 2016 – Computer Science – University of Bath Lecturer Assistant Prof –  direct link to Ekaterina’s computer science academic CV

Genetic, Clinical and Population Priors for Brain Images Adrian Vasile Dalca , 2016 – Machine Learning for healthcare – Harvard Assistant Professor & MIT Research Scientist –  direct link to Adrian’s machine learning academic CV

Challenges and Opportunities of End-to-End Learning in Medical Image Classification Paul Jager , 2020 – Medical Imaging – DKFZ Head of ML Research Group –  direct link to Paul’s machine learning academic CV

K 2 NiF 4  materials as cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells Ainara Aguadero , 2006 – Materials Science – Imperial Reader –  direct link to Ainara’s materials science academic CV

Applications of surface plasmons – microscopy and spatial light modulation Eric Yeatman , 1989 – Electronics – Imperial Professor and Head of Department –  direct link to Eric’s electronics academic CV

Geometric Algorithms for Objects in Motion Sorelle Friedler , 2010 – Computer science – Haverford College Associate Professor –  direct link to Sorelle’s computer science academic CV .

Geometrical models, constraints design, information extraction for pathological and healthy medical image Esla Angelini  – Medicine – Imperial Senior Data Scientist –  direct link to Elsa’s medicine academic CV

Why I regret my own choice of PhD thesis title

I should say from the outset that I assembled my thesis in quite a short space of time compared to most people. So I didn’t really spend particularly long on any one section, including the title.

However, my main supervisor even spelled out for me that once the title was submitted to the university it would be permanent. In other words: think wisely about your title.

What I started with

Initially I drafted the title as something like: Three dimensional correlative imaging for cartilage regeneration . Which I thought was nice, catchy and descriptive.

I decided to go for “correlative imaging” because, not only did it describe the experiments well, but it also sounded kind of technical and fitting of a potential pivot into AI. I’m pleased with that bit of the title.

What I ended up with

Before submitting the title to the university (required ahead of the viva), I asked my supervisors for their thoughts.

One of my well intentioned supervisors suggested that, given that my project didn’t involve verifying regenerative quality, I probably shouldn’t state cartilage regeneration . Instead, they suggested, I should state what I was experimenting on (the materials) rather than the overall goal of the research (aid cartilage regeneration efforts).

With this advice I dialled back my choice of wording and the thesis title I went with was:

Three dimensional correlative imaging for measurement of strain in cartilage and cartilage replacement materials

Reading it back now I’m reminder about how less I like it than my initial idea!

I put up basically no resistance to the supervisor’s choice, even though the title sounds so much more boring in my opinion. I just didn’t think much of it at the time. Furthermore, most of my PhD was actually in a technique which is four dimensional (looking at a series of 3D scans over time, hence 4D) which would have sounded way more sciency and fitting of a PhD.

What I wish I’d gone with

If I had the choice again, I’d have gone with:

Four-dimensional correlative imaging for cartilage regeneration

Which, would you believe it, is exactly what it states on my CV…

Does the thesis title really matter?

In all honesty, your choice of thesis title isn’t that important. If you come to regret it, as I do, it’s not the end of the world. There are much more important things in life to worry about.

If you decide at a later stage that you don’t like it you can always describe it in a way that you prefer. For instance, in my CV I describe my PhD as I’d have liked the title to be. I make no claim that it’s actually the title so consider it a bit of creative license.

Given that as your career progresses you may not even refer back to your thesis much, it’s really not worth stressing over. However, if you’re yet to finalise your thesis title I do still think it is worth a bit of thought and hopefully this article has provided some insights into how to choose a good thesis title.

My advice for developing a thesis title

  • Draft the title early. Drafting it early can help give clarity for the overall message of your research. For instance, while you’re assembling the rest of your thesis you can check that the title encompasses the research chapters you’re included, and likewise that the research experiments you’re including fall within what the title describes. Drafting it early also gives more time you to think it over. As with everything: having a first draft is really important to iterate on.
  • Look at some example titles . Such as those featured above!
  • If you’re not sure about your title, ask a few other people what they think . But remember that you have the final say!

I hope this post has been useful for those of you are finalising your thesis and need to decide on a thesis title. If you’ve enjoyed this article and would like to hear about future content (and gain access to my free resource library!) you can subscribe for free here:

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Her dissertation entitled , "The German Garden City Movement: Architecture, Politics and Urban Transformation, 1902-1931," investheated the intellectual history and built work of the German Garden City Movement.

Her dissertation entitled Educational-Entertainment as an Intervention for Adolescents Exposed to Community Violence is published online at ProQuest and Scholarly Commons.

Her dissertation , entitled "A World of Wonder: Exotic Animals in Early Modern Europe," examines how European travelers, naturalists, scholars, and collectors in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries reacted to, described, and understood exotic animals in the age of European expansion.

Her dissertation , entitled "War by Coalition: The Effects of Institutionalization on Coalition Military Performance," seeks to account for variation in the military performance of coalitions and alliances on the battlefield.

She is currently writing her dissertation , entitled "Riots and Railways: the Journey of the Dangerous Classes through Paris's Gare du Nord (1864 2010)," with the support of the Weatherhead Center Dissertation Completion Fellowship.

Carolyn will receive her Ph.D. from the Department of Art History and Archaeology at Columbia in Fall 2011; her dissertation , entitled "The Paradox of Precision: Architectural Drawing between Ancients and Moderns," is advised by Hilary Ballon.

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THE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON THE SELF-ESTEEM OF GRADE 12 STUDENTS OF ASIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, SCIENCES, AND THE ARTS, (AITSA) INC. CABUYAO

Profile image of Adrienne Dayne Atienza

2022, THE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON THE SELF-ESTEEM OF GRADE 12 STUDENTS OF ASIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, SCIENCES, AND THE ARTS, (AITSA) INC. CABUYAO

This thesis entitled "The Effects of Social Media on the Self-Esteem of Grade 12 Students of Asian Institute of Technology, Sciences, and the Arts, (AITSA) Inc. Cabuyao" is known to answer the questions 1) what are the demographic profile of respondents?, 2) what are the effects of social media on the self-esteem of grade 12 students?, and 3) what is the significant relationship between the demographic profile of the respondents and the effects of social media on the self-esteem of grade 12 students. The main purpose of this study is to is to know what is affecting the student's self-esteem on social media. Because in social media, they are allowed to share and upload whatever they wanted to, making other people compare themselves to other people. Social media has become a part of everyday lives, especially for teenagers. Most of the times, it is used for entertainment, and sometimes, for academic use. However, not everything we see on social media is meant to make us feel positive and confident about ourselves, that is why the researchers decided to come up with this research study.

Related Papers

IOSR Journals

Social media is a platform which helps to connects the world. It is a computer tool which allows people to create, share or exchange ideas, information, images, videos and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks. Social media has immense popularity and its power has long lasting effects on people and leads to change in behavior. This research paper examines the relationship between the social media and its impact on behavioral change of the youth. Adolescence and young adulthood are crucial stage in development where youth begin to form their own identity and create meaningful relationships but the usage of social media can impact on area of their development hence this paper evaluates the impact of social media on self-esteem of youth. Thispresent study is based on both primary and secondary data. Simple random sampling is used to select the samples of the study. The analysis of data is been done with simple statistics using the MS-Excel.

this thesis entitled

Sergei Joson

Chew Yee Herng, Carlson

Dr Nawaz Ahmad , Muqaddas Jan , Sanobia Anwar Soomro

Social media has gained immense popularity in the last decade and its power has left certain long-lasting effects on people. The upward comparisons made using social networking sites have caused people to have lower self-esteems. In order to test the hypothesis 150 students from institute of business management were surveyed through questionnaires and interviews. This research was limited to the students of IoBM and Facebook, being the most popular social networking site was used as the representative of social media. Correlation and regression model was applied to the data with the help of SPSS statistics to test the relationship between social media and self-esteem. The major findings suggest that approximately 88% people engage in making social comparisons on Facebook and out of the 88%, 98% of the comparisons are upward social comparisons. Further this research proves there that there is a strong relationship between social media and self-esteem. Increase in social media usage causes the self-esteem of individuals to decrease. One hour spent on Facebook daily results in a 5.574 decrease in the self-esteem score of an individual.

Mary Grace Alegado

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the level of social networking sites and students’ self-esteem. This includes some factor namely the level of confidence and time spent in social network. The participants of the study included 30 adolescents from 12 HUMSS students in University of Cebu- Main Senior High School Department. The participants were administered using Social Networking Usage Questionnaire (SNUQ) by Liyaqat Bashir and Gupta Savita and Rosenberg Self -Esteem Scale questionnaire including the demographic profile of the respondents. Findings revealed that most of the respondents are female and Facebook is the commonly used social networking sites. It further revealed that the level of social networking sites usage among student holds high which means they are using this for various reason; the level of students’ self-esteem holds average level. The finding of the study shows that there is no significant relationship between social networking sites usage and students’ self-esteem, which conclude that social networking sites usage and students’ self-esteem does not correlate to each other. Based on the results, the researchers recommend that the respondents may impose time limits on using social networking sites so that it may not affect to their other daily activities such as studying, making school projects and etc.; and the future researchers may conduct similar studies with larger sample size. Keywords: social networking sites usage; students’ self-esteem

Eric Stenly II

This paper focuses on how the social media effects on user's self esteem. The paper's main goal is to investigate the relationship between social media and user's self esteem factor. The paper collected data from a number of the most active social media users to participate with probably random sampling system. Data was collected with the use of a questionnaire that contained closed-ended questions. This paper has been effectuated by the examination of the events such as the the effect of social network sites on adolescents' social and academic development: current theories and controversies. The paper examines the relationship between social network and social capital, privacy, youth safety, psychological well-being, and educational achievement. Last paper explored the social network sites effects on active social media user's social and academic development, this research highlights the importance relations of the user's self esteem and the affected physiologycal, safety, love, and self actualization need factors.

Jericho Getalado

Nowadays, communicating is essential in coping with the world’s demand on altered aspects in life like work, health, learning and face-to-face interaction. Socialization is a vital part of young adults in their daily life (Kirschner & Karpinski, 2010). Humans are equal and similar in some point and because of that, they compare themselves to others in social settings. As innovation enhances and advances, social media sites such as Facebook have a much bigger contribution in society as part of their everyday lives so it often has effects on self-esteem. The curiosity into other people’s personal and social lives has created a huge social accumulation on the World Wide Web. It has been observed by the changing behavior of the people that social media has many negative outcome on people. Social networking sites help people to make social comparisons which increase the psychological distress of individuals and as a result lower the overall level of self-esteem (Chen & Lee, 2013). Presently the largest social networking site is Facebook with 727 million daily active users and 1.19 billion monthly active users. The amount of time spent on Facebook varies and ranging from 10-30 minutes per day to 90 minutes and 60-120 minutes per day. Studies have showed that one of the primary uses of Facebook is to keep in touch with old friends and make new ones. Other researchers found results indicating that Facebook is used for self-promotion and to impress others. According to We Are Social (2018), there were 67 million accounts on Facebook in the country matching the total number of internet users with spent an average of 3 hours and 57 minutes a day. With all this time spent, it allows users to communicate, share information and build up a self-image in online world. In this regard, the usage of smartphones of the students and their easy access to the mainstream media especially on Facebook and having a less face-to-face communication affect their personal interaction. Students who have a strong Facebook presence that may display psychological disorders like anti-social behaviours, they seldom participate in school activities or not participating at all. This can be quite dangerous. Facebook usage might also cause them stress, anxiety or worst depression. They are more visible to possible danger that may affect their self-esteem. Social media help to make social comparisons which lead to psychological distress of individuals’ that may results in lowering the overall level of self-esteem. But then again they use it to cope with the feeling of sameness with peers. The excessive use of Facebook increases the possibilities in personal socializing either positive or negative thus affect their performance in school. One of the researchers’ objectives is to determine the effects of Facebook; as a most popular and frequently used social to the students’ self-esteem. Also, the aim of the researchers' is to enhance their study through the use of a theoretical framework and provide a useful guide that will help the students to analyze their over indulgence on social media and its possible consequences on lowering their social esteem.

Nurse and Holistic Care

kadek aryandari

Background: Factors that influence self-esteem among young people are social environments. The social environment renders the individuals doing the interaction and one type of interaction which does not need of face to face is through social media such as Instagram. Objective: This study aimed to obtain the correlations between the intensity of using social media Instagram with the level of self-esteem among eleventh-grade youth in a public senior high school in Malang. Method: This research used cross-sectional design. A sample of this research was eleventh-grade youth of senior high school with 86 active Instagram users. Data collecting in this study used the purposive sampling technique. A questionnaire used in this research intensively used Instagram and self-esteem questionnaires on social media. The data analysis used the Spearman test. Result: The result showed that the intensity of using social media Instagram with the level of self-esteem of eleventh-grade youth were mostly...

Psychology and Education: A Multidisciplinary Journal

Psychology and Education , Alexis Daniel D. Damaso

The study was conducted to the BS Psychology students of the Lyceum of Subic Bay during the academic year 2022-2023. This study investigated the relationship between social media use and the self, focusing on the five key areas of the self: self-confidence, identity, competence, self-control, and belongingness. The purpose of this study was to explore whether social media use has a significant relationship with these said key areas.The study employed a quantitative research method. A survey intended to measure the five key areas of self and social media usage was administered to the sample of participants, consisting of the entirety of the BS Psychology students of Lyceum of Subic Bay during the academic year of 2022-2023. The findings of the study revealed that social media use has no significant relationship with self-confidence, identity, and self-control, except for belongingness. Belongingness was found to have a significant relationship with social media use. This suggests that students who use social media more frequently may feel a greater sense of belongingness than those who use it less often.

DR.Gladys Jerobon Kiptiony

The recent rapid development of information and communication technologies has sparked the creative incorporation of social media into current pedagogical applications and processes. Social media is a way that people communicate with family and friends, get information, and share photographs. Social media sites which include Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, Skype, Yahoo Messenger, MySpace, YouTube among others have gained popularity among undergraduate students and are becoming an indispensable constituent of majority of their daily routines. This paper argues that the social media affects self-esteem of the users. Particularly, the paper reiterates that although the social media is a source of entertainment, it can be a cause of low self – esteem amongst students. According to past research, there appears to be connection between more time spent online and a decline in face-to-face communication with family and peers, which leads to feelings of loneliness and depression. The purpose of...

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  • Copy URL https://www.pbs.org/newshour/politics/federal-judge-throws-out-florida-law-blocking-treatment-for-transgender-children

Federal judge throws out Florida law blocking treatment for transgender children

FORT LAUDERDALE, Fla. (AP) — A federal judge on Tuesday struck down a 2023 Florida law that blocked gender-affirming care for transgender minors and severely restricted such treatment for adults, calling the statute unconstitutional.

Senior Judge Robert Hinkle said the state went too far when it barred transgender minors from being prescribed puberty blockers and hormonal treatments with their parents’ permission. He also stopped the state from requiring that transgender adults only receive treatment from a doctor and not from a registered nurse or other qualified medical practitioner. And he barred a ban on online treatment for transgender adults.

READ MORE: Under ‘Don’t Say Gay’ settlement, Florida teachers can discuss sexual orientation and gender identity

Hinkle said transgender people are constitutionally entitled to the legitimate treatment they need and, quoting the late Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., compared those who oppose it to those who were once against equality for minorities and women.

“Some transgender opponents invoke religion to support their position, just as some once invoked religion to support their racism or misogyny,” Hinkle wrote in his 105-page decision. “Transgender opponents are of course free to hold their beliefs. But they are not free to discriminate against transgender individuals just for being transgender.

“In time, discrimination against transgender individuals will diminish, just as racism and misogyny have diminished,” he continued. “To paraphrase a civil-rights advocate from an earlier time, the arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends toward justice.”

Republican Gov. Ron DeSantis’ office blasted Hinkle’s ruling, issuing a statement calling it “erroneous,” and vowing to appeal.

“Through their elected representatives, the people of Florida acted to protect children in this state, and the Court was wrong to override their wishes,” the statement said. “As we’ve seen here in Florida, the United Kingdom, and across Europe, there is no quality evidence to support the chemical and physical mutilation of children. These procedures do permanent, life-altering damage to children, and history will look back on this fad in horror.”

But those who sued the state celebrated the decision.

Lucien Hamel, a transgender adult, issued a statement saying, “I’m so relieved the court saw there is no medical basis for this law — it was passed just to target transgender people like me and try to push us out of Florida.”

“This is my home. I’ve lived here my entire life,” he said. “This is my son’s home. I can’t just uproot my family and move across the country. The state has no place interfering in people’s private medical decisions, and I’m relieved that I can once again get the healthcare that I need here in Florida.”

A mother of one of the children who sued said, “This ruling means I won’t have to watch my daughter needlessly suffer because I can’t get her the care she needs.”

“Seeing Susan’s fear about this ban has been one of the hardest experiences we’ve endured as parents,” said the woman. She was identified in court documents only as Jane Doe and her daughter as Susan Doe to protect their privacy. “All we’ve wanted is to take that fear away and help her continue to be the happy, confident child she is now.”

DeSantis had signed the law last year as he was gearing up for a presidential campaign that was highly based on culture wars.

“We never did this through all of human history until like, what, two weeks ago? Now this is something?” he told cheering supporters as he signed the bill. “They’re having third graders declare pronouns? We’re not doing the pronoun Olympics in Florida.”

At trial, Florida’s attorneys had conceded that the state cannot stop someone from pursuing a transgender identity, but said it can regulate medical care.

For minors, the only treatments at issue are puberty blocking treatments and cross-sex hormones — giving testosterone to someone assigned female at birth, for example. Those who were undergoing treatment when the law was adopted in May 2023 were allowed to continue. Surgery, which is rare for minors, was still blocked.

For adults, treatment was still allowed but could only be done by a physician instead of an advanced practice registered nurse or other professional. It required the patient to sign a consent form in person while in the same room with the doctor, meaning the treatment couldn’t be done on a video call or otherwise online — something not normally required with other medical procedures. Violators could be charged criminally and medical providers could lose their licenses.

Hinkle wrote that Florida had long allowed treatment for gender dysphoria, the feeling that one’s gender identity does not match one’s sex as registered at birth.

“But then the political winds changed,” Hinkle wrote. He was appointed to the bench by Democratic President Bill Clinton in 1996.

For 99% of people, Hinkle wrote, their biological sex and their gender identity are the same. But for a few, they differ. Hinkle said the state admitted that during the trial, even if some won’t believe it and think transgender people are making a choice like “whether to read Shakespeare or Grisham.”

“Many people with this view tend to disapprove of all things transgender and so oppose medical care that supports (it),” he said.

He said even though the state concedes it cannot constitutionally block people from identifying as transgender and presenting themselves as they wish, several legislators made it clear in their comments that this was their goal.

At least 25 states have adopted laws restricting or banning gender-affirming medical care for transgender minors, and most of those states face lawsuits.

The only other one to be struck down so far as unconstitutional is the ban in Arkansas, which the state has appealed to the 8th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals.

Advocates are asking the U.S. Supreme Court to block Tennessee’s ban on gender-affirming care for minors.

Judges’ orders are in place temporarily blocking enforcement of a ban in Montana and aspects of the ban in Georgia.

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A Public Housing Playground Barred Outsiders. Neighbors Objected.

Signs put up at Wise Towers say the playground is only for residents. There have been tense encounters with some neighbors on the wealthy, liberal Upper West Side.

Signs that say “Please respect the Wise Tower playground” and “For Wise Towers residents only” are affixed to a playground fence.

By Mihir Zaveri

At the new playground on the Upper West Side, children clamber over a rocket-shaped jungle gym, spin on a tire swing and splash and scream among water sprinklers.

It is hard to believe that the scene is anything other than New York City at its summer best. The playground, however, is at the center of a controversy over questions of race and privilege in one of Manhattan’s affluent, liberal neighborhoods.

The turmoil was prompted by a simple question: Who should be allowed to play there?

The playground, which was recently reopened after an extensive makeover, is part of a 60-year-old public housing complex known as the Stephen Wise Towers and is nestled at street level between two tall apartment buildings.

People who think everyone should be allowed to play there want it to reflect what they believe New York City should be known for: incredible diversity and a spirit of openness. But some residents of the housing development want the park, which is legally private property, to be exclusively for them and their children, and they resent others who take up the space.

The renovations, which included repairing a set of horse sculptures made in 1964 by the Italian modernist Costantino Nivola , had delighted both Wise residents and others living in a neighborhood of brownstones and luxury condos and apartments.

Now, those groups seem increasingly at odds. Some neighbors from the surrounding blocks have argued that the renovated playground should be open to all because the New York City Housing Authority — and the upkeep of its properties — is mostly funded by the public . But people who live at the development, who are mostly Black or Latino, say that white and wealthy outsiders are being disrespectful.

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    SEP. In short, what Elisa Chilet has found in her recent thesis dissertation entitled 'Gender bias in clinical research, pharmaceutical marketing and the prescription of drugs', a review of which is published in this issue of the journal (1), is a significant amount of gender bias. 5. Global Health Action. In 1913 he read Bradley's Appearance ...

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    Thesis. Your thesis is the central claim in your essay—your main insight or idea about your source or topic. Your thesis should appear early in an academic essay, followed by a logically constructed argument that supports this central claim. A strong thesis is arguable, which means a thoughtful reader could disagree with it and therefore ...

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  24. Federal judge throws out Florida law blocking treatment for ...

    Senior Judge Robert Hinkle ruled Tuesday that the state went too far when it barred transgender minors from being prescribed puberty blockers and hormonal treatments with their parents' permission.

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