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Emotional Intelligence Essay

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Published: Mar 5, 2024

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Emotional Intelligence Essay | Essay on Emotional Intelligence for Students and Children in English

February 13, 2024 by Prasanna

Emotional Intelligence Essay:  Emotional intelligence is the capability and the ability to understand and manage your own emotions in a positive manner. It is a positive way to release stress and communicate effectively. It helps to make relations stronger.

It is as important as intellectual ability. It helps to connect with feelings and turns intentions into actions. It is a helping hand in achieving personal goals.

You can also find more  Essay Writing  articles on events, persons, sports, technology and many more.

Long and Short Essays on Emotional Intelligence for Students and Kids in English

We are providing the students with essay samples on a long essay of 500 words and a short essay of 150 words on the topic of Emotional Intelligence Essay for reference.

Long Essay on Emotional Intelligence 500 Words in English

Long Essay on Emotional Intelligence is usually given to classes 7, 8, 9, and 10.

Emotional intelligence is one of the essential components of leadership and an inbuilt ability of an individual to perceive the emotions and feelings of other people. It is also known as emotional quotient or EQ. It is defined as the capability of individuals to identify their own emotions. To discern between different feelings and to use the appropriate emotional guide to label each feeling and emotion in the correct way forms a part of emotional intelligence.

Empathy is an emotion that is somewhat related to emotional intelligence because it relates to an individual who connects their personal experiences with those of others. Emotional intelligence is commonly divided into four attributes which include self attributes in which a person can control his impulsive feelings and behaviour and manage his or her emotions in healthy ways. The second attribute is self-awareness, where the person gets to recognize his emotions and the thoughts that affect his behaviour.

The third attribute of emotional intelligence is social awareness. The person has empathy and can understand emotions, needs and concerns of other people. The person who has empathy can pick up on emotional cues and is able to recognize the power of dynamics in a group. The last attribute is the aspect of relationship management. This attribute helps to develop and maintain good relationships and to communicate early and manage a conflict.

Emotional intelligence has its affects. High emotional intelligence helps to navigate the social complexities of the workplace or place of education and helps to motivate others and excel in a career. Emotional intelligence helps to manage emotions. If the emotions are not handled properly, then the stress will not be handled ideally. Being in proper tune with emotions, a social purpose can be served. It helps to connect to people all around the world.

The skills that make up emotional intelligence can be learned at any time. There lies a difference between learning emotional intelligence and applying it in your daily life activities. In order to permanently change behaviour to stand up to pressure, one needs to learn how to overcome stress to be emotionally aware.

Self-awareness is an essential feature of emotional intelligence. It helps an individual to know their own strengths and use them wisely. In today’s scenario, emotional intelligence is one of the most significant aspects to reach the goal and succeed in life. Emotional intelligence leads to general happiness.

Having emotional intelligence leads to a satisfied and peaceful mind. It also leads to rationality in behaviour. With this aspect, a person can see the situation under which the behaviour takes place in the right perspective. With such a perspective, the person can establish the right relationship. Studies say that people with high EI have more excellent mental health, better job performance, leadership skills and better personality traits.

High emotional intelligence helps to deal with low self-esteem and helps a person to upgrade his life and have a better living scenario.

Short Essay on Emotional Intelligence 150 Words in English

Short Essay on Emotional Intelligence is usually given to classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.

Emotional intelligence or emotional quotient is an aspect or an ability to manage emotions in a positive way. It also defines the capability of managing the emotion of others. Emotional intelligence generally includes three skills which are, emotional awareness, the ability to harness a person or others’ emotions and regulating them.

There is no validated psychometric test or scale for emotional intelligence. A highly emotional intelligent individual is both highly conscious of his or her own emotional states, like negativity, frustration or sadness and being able to manage those aspects and emotions.

It is a crucial component of leadership. It is considered to be one of the most vital indicators of workplace performance. Studies have shown that 90% of top performers possess high emotional intelligence. There are online courses and training that an individual can undertake to boost the emotional intelligence and perform better in life and reach their desired goal.

10 Lines on Emotional Intelligence Essay in English

1. Building emotional intelligence helps an individual to coach teams effectively at a workplace. 2. Writing down thoughts of your entire day, be it negative or positive will help to spot behavioural patterns of an individual. 3. Daniel Goleman’s work on emotional intelligence points out five areas of intelligence. 4. A person with high emotional intelligence can express himself openly and respectfully without the fear of offending his co-workers. 5. High emotional intelligence can navigate complex and challenging decision making with the ideal emotional response. 6. Emotional intelligence impacts every aspect of a career to be successful. 7. Psychologists Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer coined the term “emotional intelligence” in the year 1990. 8. It is a critical factor in leadership effectiveness. 9. Emotional intelligence takes diligence and practice to incorporate into interactions on a daily basis. 10. It helps to identify a person’s triggers.

FAQ’s on Emotional Intelligence Essay

Question 1. What are the four types of emotional intelligence?

Answer: The four types of emotional intelligence are social awareness, self-awareness, self-management and relationship management.

Question 2. How is Emotional Intelligence different from Regular Intelligence?

Answer: Emotional intelligence is the ability to express and control emotions. Regular intelligence is used to define academic abilities.

Question 3.  Does emotional intelligence matter in the workplace?

Answer: Yes, emotional intelligence matters in the workplace.

Question 4.  Why do we take up the topic of emotions in the context of business?

Answer: Emotions drive behaviour, thus by engaging with the emotions of your team, you are more likely to be successful in your interaction.

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The Importance of Emotional Intelligence (Incl. Quotes)

The importance of emotional intelligence

Can you manage those feelings without allowing them to swamp you?

Can you motivate yourself to get jobs done? Do you sense the emotions of others and respond effectively?

If you answered yes to these questions, it is likely that you have developed some or all of the skills that form the basis of emotional intelligence.

Emotional intelligence ( EI ) forms the juncture at which cognition and emotion meet, it facilitates our capacity for resilience, motivation, empathy, reasoning, stress management, communication, and our ability to read and navigate a plethora of social situations and conflicts. EI matters and if cultivated affords one the opportunity to realize a more fulfilled and happy life.

Before you read on, we thought you might like to download our three Emotional Intelligence Exercises for free . These science-based exercises will not only enhance your ability to understand and work with your emotions but will also give you the tools to foster the emotional intelligence of your clients, students or employees.

This Article Contains:

What is the importance of emotional intelligence, five categories of emotional intelligence (ei/eq), value and benefits of emotional intelligence.

  • Self Management, Self Regulation, and EQ

Resilience and EQ

Does emotional intelligence matter more than iq, is there a link between ei and job performance, how about emotional intelligence and motivation, using emotional intelligence to deal with stress, linking ei and decision-making, can emotional intelligence and success be related, goals and ei, how eq affects communication, why emotional intelligence matters for happiness.

  • 6 Youtube Videos and TED Talks on Emotional Intelligence

21 Quotes on the Value of Emotional Intelligence

A take-home message.

The term ‘ Emotional Intelligence ’, first coined by psychologists Mayer and Salovey (1990), refers to one’s capacity to perceive, process and regulate emotional information accurately and effectively, both within oneself and in others and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions and to influence those of others.

Emotional intelligence can lead us on the path to a fulfilled and happy life by providing a framework through which to apply standards of intelligence to emotional responses and understand that these responses may be logically consistent or inconsistent with particular beliefs about emotion.

As the workplace evolves, so too does the body of research supporting that individuals (from interns to managers) with higher EI are better equipped to work cohesively within teams, deal with change more effectively, and manage stress – thus enabling them to more efficiently pursue business objectives.

Goleman (1995) recognized five distinct categories of skills which form the key characteristics of EI and proposed that, unlike one’s intelligence quotient (IQ), these categorical skills can be learned where absent and improved upon where present.

Thus, EI, unlike its relatively fixed cousin, IQ, is instead a dynamic aspect of one’s psyche and includes behavioral traits that, when worked upon, can yield significant benefits, from personal happiness and wellbeing to elevated success in a professional context.

Self-awareness is the first step toward introspective self-evaluation and enables one to identify behavioral and emotional aspects of our psychological makeup which we can then target for change.

Emotional self-awareness is also about recognizing what motivates you and, in turn, what brings you fulfillment.

  • Self-regulation: the ability to manage one’s negative or disruptive emotions, and to adapt to changes in circumstance. Those who are skilled in self-regulation excel in managing conflict, adapt well to change and are more likely to take responsibility.
  • Motivation: the ability to self-motivate, with a focus on achieving internal or self-gratification as opposed to external praise or reward. Individuals who are able to motivate themselves in this way have a tendency to be more committed and goal focused.
  • Empathy: the ability to recognize and understand how others are feeling and consider those feelings before responding in social situations. Empathy also allows an individual to understand the dynamics that influence relationships, both personal and in the workplace.
  • Social skills: the ability to manage the emotions of others through emotional understanding and using this to build rapport and connect with people through skills such as active listening, verbal and nonverbal communication.
  • Self-awareness: the ability to recognize and understand one’s own emotions and their impact on others.

Emotional intelligence has been shown to play a meaningful role in academic success, mental and physical health, as well as attainment in professional domains; the findings of Bar-On (1997) suggested that people with higher EI performed better than those with lower EI in life.

In the modern, agile workplace, there is an ever-increasing emphasis from employers on the importance of EI over academic qualifications.

The importance of EI should not go unappreciated; the ability to understand and manage your emotions is the first step in realizing your true potential. How can we achieve meaningful progress if we don’t recognize and acknowledge the point from where we’re starting? When checking directions on your sat-nav, a destination is useless unless we know the origin.

Whether it be connecting with others and improving interpersonal communication, achieving success in the workplace or social relationships, dealing with stress and improving motivation or refining decision-making skills – emotional intelligence plays a central role in realizing success in both personal and professional life.

The value and benefits of emotional intelligence are vast in terms of personal and professional success. It is a core competency in many vocations, can support the advancement towards academic and professional success, improve relationships, and boost communication skills, the list goes on.

Bar-On (1997) goes so far as to suggest that people with higher EI tend to perform better than those with lower EI in life overall, regardless of IQ. There has been much discussion regarding the benefits of teaching EI in schools , with an emphasis on the idea that emotionally intelligent children grow up to become emotionally intelligent adults.

Proficiency in EI is becoming a vital prerequisite in prolonged or intense areas of ‘emotional work’ such as nursing, social work, the service industry, and management roles. High EI improves the physical and psychological health of people and encourages academic and business performance (Bar-On & Parker, 2000).

Emotional intelligence is an integral part of forming and developing meaningful human relationships. Schutte et al (2001) found that, over a series of studies, there were significant links between high EI and more successful interpersonal relations.

Those participants who exhibited higher levels of EI also showed a greater propensity for empathic perspective taking, cooperation with others, developing affectionate and more satisfying relationships as well as greater social skills in general.

So far, we have focused on the social and psychological benefits of EI, it is important to note that self-awareness – the ability to manage emotions and stress – and the ability to solve personal, as well as interpersonal problems, are also significantly related to physical health.

Chronic stress and the prolonged negative effects which accompany it such as anger, depression, and anxiety can precipitate the onset and progression of hypertension, heart problems, and diabetes; increase susceptibility to viruses, and infections; delay healing of wounds and injuries; and exacerbate conditions such as arthritis and atherosclerosis (Bar-On, 2006, Black & Garbutt, 2002).

The value of EI is immense; developing emotional intelligence encourages many positive traits, from resilience to communication, motivation to stress management, all of which can be seen as conducive to effectively achieving personal, physical and occupational health, and success.

Undoubtedly you know how valuable it is to develop your emotional intelligence abilities, but have you ever wondered exactly why?

Research shows there are many benefits for those with high levels of emotional intelligence, including greater resilience, social skills and connection.

But how do you reach a stage where you can reap these benefits? What barriers stand in your way? How can you help your clients, friends, colleagues, students and even your children develop excellent EI skills?

For answers to all these questions and more, check out our Emotional Intelligence Masterclass© .

an essay about emotional intelligence

Self-Management, Self-Regulation, and EQ

While it’s commonly accepted that our emotions are driven by impulses over which we have little-to-no control, we do have the capacity for self-management and  self-regulation ; the ability to manage – if not control – the resultant emotions and our reactions thereto.

Consider the calm and rational pilot despite the aircraft’s landing gear being jammed or the surgeon who carries on with their duties despite losing a patient.

This form of self-regulation builds on the basis of self-awareness and is an integral part of becoming emotionally intelligent by exercising the capacity to liberate ourselves from impulse-driven reaction (Goleman, 1995).

Self-management builds on this further and allows an individual to use knowledge about their emotions to better manage them in order to self-motivate and to create positive social interactions.

Leaders with an aptitude for self-regulation are far less likely to be aggressively confrontational and make snap decisions. Self-regulation and self-management do not pertain to the absence of anger; rather it’s about remaining in control of your emotions and not allowing your actions to be emotion-driven.

In instances of negative emotions such as anger, EI can help identify what you are feeling and determine the cause of the emotion through reflection and self-analysis allowing one to respond in a rational manner.

Self-regulation is critical in relation to other facets of EI and can be developed from early childhood, adolescence and throughout adulthood. Mastering self-management allows us the opportunity to open the door to the other beneficial aspects of EI while in the absence of self-regulation other competencies, such as effective communication and conflict management, are challenging.

The good news is that it’s never too late to embark on self-management and regulation training; the potential benefits are numerous and should not be underestimated.

The skills enabled through the development of self-regulation can aid success for (but by no means limited to) counselors, psychotherapists, small business owners, managers, and executives.

Those with stronger skills in this area are less likely to become angry or exhibit stress while being more likely to respond calmly to negative environments, harness personal needs in order to achieve goals and remain motivated.

Emotional intelligence is undoubtedly a valuable tool to utilize in the face of adversity; it has the potential to enhance not only leadership abilities and teamwork effectiveness but also personal resilience.

Focusing on the impact of EI on one’s resilience, that is, one’s ability to cope with stressful conditions, research suggests that those who display higher levels of emotional intelligence are less likely to succumb to the negative impacts of stressors.

In the context of a leadership role, one might expect increased responsibility to coincide with elevated potential stressors, highlighting the importance of strong EI for those in leadership or management positions.

An investigation into the relationship between emotional intelligence and the stress process found that participants who displayed higher levels of EI were less likely to be negatively impacted by the presence of stressors.

Participants completed an ability-based test of EI before rating the subjectively perceived threat level posed by two stressors, they then self-reported their emotional reaction to said stressors and were also subjected to physiological stress-response tests in order to assess their response.

In summary, the findings suggested that “ EI facets were related to lower threat appraisals, more modest declines in positive affect, less negative affect and challenge physiological responses to stress… This study provides predictive validity that EI facilitates stress resilience, ” (Schneider, Lyons & Khazon, 2013, pp 909).

Further research suggested a link between higher emotional intelligence, resilience and the propensity for depressive behaviors. In an examination of medical professionals – an occupation with a relatively high ‘burnout’ rate – Olson & Matan (2015) found a positive correlation between EI and resilience as well as a negative correlation between resilience, mindfulness, and self-compassion with the ‘burnout’ rate.

In a nutshell, those with higher levels of emotional intelligence also displayed greater resilience and were less likely to ‘burnout’ or succumb to depression.

These results build on previous research which found EI scores were positively correlated with psychological wellbeing while being negatively correlated with depression and burnout. Given the dynamic nature of EI, the study highlighted the potential ability to reduce one’s susceptibility to depression by way of interventions to increase EI (Lin, Liebert, Tran, Lau, & Salles 2016).

Interestingly, EI is strongly correlated with individual advancement and performance, with evidence suggesting a significant link between one’s resilience and one’s motivation to achieve (Magnano, Craparo & Paolillo, 2016).

Furthermore, it is suggested that resilience plays a mediational role between EI and self-motivated achievement. In other words, emotional intelligence is a prerequisite for resilience, and resilience can lead to greater motivation. Resilience has an underlying perseverance component that motivates endurance in the face of obstacles (Luthans, Avey & Avolio, 2010).

When psychologists began to discuss intelligence, the focus was very much on cognitive aspects relating to memory and problem-solving.

While there had been references to intelligence as having “non-intellective”, as well as “intellective” elements such as affective, personal, and social factors (Wechsler, 1943), historically, the concepts of emotion and intelligence, have been regarded as being mutually exclusive. How can one be intelligent about the emotional aspects of life when emotions can hinder individuals from achieving their goals? (Lloyd, 1979).

In reality, high IQ is no guarantee of success. How successful we are in life is determined by both emotional intelligence and by IQ, though intellect works best when it’s accompanied by high emotional intelligence.

Goleman (1995, 2011) suggests that it is not simply a case of IQ versus EI, instead, both have considerable value. Where IQ tells us the level of cognitive complexity a person can achieve and may to some degree predetermine levels of academic achievement, EI tells us which individuals will make the best leaders within top management positions, for example.

IQ has limited connections to both work and life success. Snarey & Vaillant (1985) suggested it is actually less of a predictor of how well we will do in life than our ability to handle frustration, control emotions, and get along with other people – characteristics not only accounted for but also learnable under current EI theory .

Today, standards of intelligence are still commonly applied to cognitive performance. The misconception that IQ alone is the predictor of success is still very real.

In reality, IQ contributes to around 20% of the factors that determine life success – we all know someone (or perhaps are that person) who has a high IQ yet struggles to do ‘well’. So what accounts for the other 80%? Outwith factors such as social class and plain old luck, Goleman (1995) argued that life success is influenced more by an individual’s ability to engage the 5 aspects of EI detailed above.

While there is much discussion regarding the capability of individuals to improve IQ scores, EI can be developed and refined over time with the condition – just like any skill – that it is given the necessary focus and effort to do so. Many would argue that the ability to connect with and understand others is a more powerful skill to possess than cognitive intellect alone.

In the words of American civil rights activist, Maya Angelou:

“I’ve learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel.”

The increasing awareness of emotional intelligence in management-focused literature and leadership training suggests the link between emotional intelligence and job performance not only exists but has value in myriad areas.

The workplace represents a distinct social community, separate from our personal lives, in which there is a growing appreciation that higher EI allows a person to understand themselves and others better, communicate more effectively, and cope with challenging situations.

Utilizing and developing emotional intelligence in the workplace can significantly improve the personal and social capabilities of individuals within that workplace.

EI is about managing emotions in order to improve job performance and, in turn, helping people stay calm and to think logically in order to establish good relationships and achieve goals. There is an undeniable relationship between EI and the way senior executives manage their employees – managers with higher emotional intelligence have the tools at their disposal to not only manage stress but to also recognize and address stress in others.

If we think of emotional intelligence in terms of managing stress and building relationships, the link between emotional intelligence skills and job performance is clear, with stress management positively impacting job commitment and satisfaction.

It is also important to mention that EI does not only apply at management level, likewise, employees lower down the business hierarchy with sophisticated emotional intelligence skills have the desire and ability to establish and maintain high-quality relationships in the workplace (Lopes, Salovey, & Straus, 2003).

Additionally, individuals with high EI are better equipped to effectively manage conflicts and, in turn, sustain relationships within the workplace when compared to those with low to moderate levels of EI.

Increasingly, organizations are recognizing the value of employees who exhibit the skills to cope with change and respond accordingly. EI is an important factor in job performance both on an individual level and a group level. In fact, as an individual moves up an organizational hierarchy, the positive effect of emotional intelligence on coping with situations and doing tasks in effective ways increases (Moghadam, Tehrani & Amin, 2011).

Emotional intelligence matters for motivation, and motivation matters for success. Whether it’s in relation to work, personal goals or health, the emotionally intelligent individual understands the deeper meaning of their aspirations and the self-motivation skills required to achieve them.

Goleman (1995) identified four elements that make up motivation: our personal drive to improve, our commitment to the goals we set for ourselves, our readiness to act on opportunities that present themselves to us and our resilience.

Magnano et al (2016) assert that motivation is the basic psychological process we use to stimulate ourselves into action to achieve a desired outcome. Whether it’s picking up the remote to change the TV channel or dedicating hundreds of hours to delivering a project, without motivation we’d be unable to act.

Motivation arouses, energizes, directs and sustains behavior and performance. Intrinsic motivation, that is, motivation that comes from within, pushes us to achieve our full potential. An Emotionally Intelligent individual not only possesses the skills for self-motivation but also the skills required to motivate others, a useful talent to have especially in management positions.

While self-motivation is central to achieving one’s goals, emotionally intelligent leaders within a business can also impact employee motivation. The capacity to recognize the emotions and, in turn, the concerns of others is an invaluable skill to have at your disposal in terms of realizing the most effective ways to motivate teams and individuals.

In a recent study, the EI levels of first-year medical undergraduates were found to be positively related to self-motivation to study medicine and satisfaction with choosing to study medicine (Edussuriya, Marambe, Tennakoon, Rathnayake, Premaratne, Ubhayasiri, & Wickramasinghe, 2018).

A study of senior managers with high EI employed in public sector organizations found that EI augments positive work attitudes, altruistic behavior, and work outcomes. It seems, unsurprisingly, that happy employees are motivated employees.

The ability to better cope with stress and anxiety, for example, is also a useful EI tool in terms of motivation – if one can recognize the emotions that may have a negative impact on motivation, they can be addressed and managed effectively (Carmeli, 2003).

We all endure stressful days, it’s completely normal and completely manageable if you have the right skills at your disposal. An individual with high Emotional Intelligence has sufficient self-awareness to recognize negative feelings and respond accordingly to prevent escalation. Uncontrolled and misunderstood emotions can exacerbate our vulnerability to other mental health issues, like stress, anxiety, and depression.

The skills associated with emotional intelligence can effectively help individuals deal with negative emotional states like stress and promote more positive emotions in its place. Failure to address and manage stress can lead to a further deterioration of one’s mental state and impact our physical health in turn.

Research into the social, psychological and medical components of stress emphasizes the importance of dealing with negative emotions to effectively cope with stress and in turn, reduce the potential for negative psychological and physical health outcomes.

Ganster & Schaubroeck (1991) consider our working and professional environment as the primary source of the stress, going on to suggest the ability to effectively recognize and deal with emotions and emotional information in the workplace is a vital tool in preventing negative stress and coping with occupational stress.

Emotional intelligence allows us to effectively cope with stress. Furthermore, emotionally intelligent people also have the ability to initially evaluate situations as less stressful.

While this has the obvious effect of lessening the adverse impact thereof, it also results in greater life satisfaction and happiness. Conversely, a deficit in EI and self‐regulation can lead to lower subjective wellbeing and a relatively exaggerated response to stressors.

The intelligent use of emotions is a fundamental mechanism in psychological adaptation and wellbeing. Individuals with higher EI have been found to report lower levels of stress and higher levels of happiness, indicating that the ability to regulate perceived stress directly impacts satisfaction (Ruiz‐Aranda, Extremera & Pineda‐Galán, 2014).

The role of emotional intelligence in perceiving occupational stress and preventing employees of human services from negative health outcomes is essential (Oginska-Bulk, 2005).

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Emotional Intelligence is closely related to personal and professional development, it impacts on more than how we manage our behavior and navigate social complexities, it also affects how we make decisions.

Having an authentic understanding of the emotions we feel and why we are feeling them can have a huge impact on our decision-making abilities, if we can’t look at our emotions objectively how can we avoid making misguided decisions based on them?

Superior emotional intelligence is an important element in the prevention of decision making based on emotional biases, whereas lower EI can create anxiety and lead to poor decisions. It’s not about removing emotions completely from the decision-making process, rather it’s about recognizing the emotions that are unrelated to the problem and not allowing them to be influential to the final result.

Negative emotions can impede problem-solving and decision making both in the workplace and personal circumstances. The ability to recognize emotions that are superfluous to forming a rational decision and having the capacity to effectively disregard said emotions, negating their impact on the final outcome, holds obvious benefits for decision-making processes.

Through a series of questions and observations with a focus on improving EI awareness and using EI skills to enhance the decision-making process, Hess & Bacigalupo (2011) found that organizations and individuals benefitted from the practical application of EI in decision-making scenarios.

The observations suggest EI training is an effective strategy to introduce when developing decision-making skills and aids in understanding the potential consequences of bad decision making.

Understanding the causes and consequences of emotions allows an individual to both manage the feeling and make an objective decision. Imagine you have a disagreement with your partner and go to work angry and a little stressed out, later that day you dismiss a proposal from a colleague without really paying attention to what they’re suggesting – you’re just not in the mood.

This form of emotional interference can be detrimental to the decision-making process, those with more developed EI can identify and manage this kind of emotional interference and avoid emotionally-driven decisions.

Much like happiness, ask someone to define success and you will probably get more than one answer. Does your career make you successful? Your intelligence? How much money you have? Finding contentment and happiness? Depending on who you ask, it can be anything!

What is clear is that no matter your definition of success, emotional intelligence can play a vital role in achieving it.

As addressed, it isn’t always the most intelligent people who achieve the greatest success. IQ alone is not enough to excel in life. You can be the most intelligent person in the room, but if you don’t have EI do you have the skills to quieten negative thoughts or the mental fortitude to manage stress? Goleman (1995) described EI as being powerful and, at times, more powerful than IQ in predicting success in life.

It’s your Emotional Intelligence that really helps you achieve your goals and attain greater levels of success, developing EI can greatly influence our success by contributing to increased morale, motivation and greater co-operation (Strickland, 2000).

In the workplace, managers who consistently outperform their peers not only have technical knowledge and experience, but more importantly, they utilize the strategies associated with EI to manage conflict, reduce stress and as a result, improve their success.

There is growing evidence that the range of abilities that constitute what is now commonly known as ’emotional intelligence’ play a key role in determining success – both in one’s personal life and in the workplace – with real-life applications extending to parenting, relationships, businesses, medical professionals, service workers and so many more.

Emotional intelligence enables one to manage emotions in anxiety-provoking situations, such as taking exams at school or university and also has positive associations with success in personal relationships and social functioning.

Success within social relationships can be achieved by using EI competencies to detect others’ emotional states, adopt others’ perspectives, enhance communication, and regulate behavior.

If we think of goals as an aim or desired result, we can see how emotional intelligence skills can help one to achieve personal goals and when exercised correctly by leaders and managers, can also help to drive change and progress in the workplace.

The facets of EI are interwoven, to achieve self-actualization, we must first achieve motivation, in order to achieve motivation we must also be happy in what we are doing. Without happiness, it is a challenge to reach the levels of motivation required to achieve our goals. In essence, if we are not motivated how can we expect to achieve our goals?

There is a wealth of management literature emphasizing the importance of utilizing EI in relation to success and performance, with a focus on how individuals with high EI perform better in all aspects of a management role.

The average level of Emotional Intelligence of team members is reflected by the team process effectiveness and in team goal focus, conversely teams with lower EI skills performed at a lower level of goal achievement. (Jordana, Ashkanasyb, Härtelb, & Hooperb, 2007)

In order to produce our best and achieve our goals, we need positive self-regard, heightened emotional self-awareness, effective problem solving and decision-making skills. We must understand clearly what our goals are, and be motivated to accomplish all we can.

How EQ affects communication

Our ability to be aware of and understand our own emotions can aid our awareness and understanding of the feelings of others.

This sensitivity, or lack thereof, impacts our communication capabilities in both personal and work life.

If we consider communication in the workplace, and more specifically, conflict resolution in the workplace, individuals with higher emotional intelligence are more likely to approach conflict resolution in a collaborative manner, working together with others in order to effectively reach a mutually acceptable outcome.

Relationships in the workplace are affected by how we manage our own emotions and our understanding of the emotions of those around us.

The ability to identify, manage, and understand emotions help us communicate without resorting to confrontation. A person with high EI is better equipped to manage conflict and build meaningful relationships given their elevated capacity to understand, and therefore address, the needs of those with whom they engage. (Lopez, 2005).

Emotional intelligence has unquestionably received greater attention in recent years as a driver of effective communication within teams, including the growing area of virtual teams (also known as remote or geographically dispersed teams). If we examine EQ as a predictor of virtual team success, the results support that not only is EQ a driver of team viability, but also positively impacts the quality of communication (De Mio, 2002).

The process of successful communication and, in terms of conflict, successful negotiation are closely linked to high levels of EQ. Where those with low levels of EQ may react defensively in stressful situations and escalate conflict, individuals with higher emotional intelligence have the skills available at their disposal to communicate effectively without resorting to confrontation or escalating tension.

Happiness seems like a simple enough concept, but have you ever tried to define it? Try now – what is happiness? It is more difficult than it seems because it means something different to each of us. While it is true that happiness means distinctly different things to different people, what is clear is that emotional intelligence really does matter for happiness irrespective of your interpretation.

EI facilitators such as happiness contribute to our self-actualization and self-actualization, in turn, contributes to our happiness in a positive feedback loop. Happiness, according to Wechsler (1943), is the key factor that has a positive impact on intelligent behavior.

Studies examining the link between EI and a range of interpersonal relations found that participants with higher EQ scores had higher scores for empathic perspective taking, self-monitoring and social skills, cooperation with partners, relationship satisfaction, and more affectionate relationships. (Schutte, Malouff, Bobik, Coston, Greeson, Jedlicka, Rhodes, & Wendorf, 2001).

By developing the skills for EI one can reduce stress, which consequently has a positive impact on wellbeing and happiness. In addition to its motivational value, happiness monitors one’s immediate wellbeing and interjects positive mood in the way individuals cope with daily demands, challenges, and pressures.

It is this positivity that encourages the emotional energy required to increase one’s motivational level to get things done, in short, it helps individuals to achieve what they want to achieve and tells them how well they are doing (Bar-On, 2001).

Research conducted by Furnham (2003) indicated that a large amount of the variance found in happiness and wellbeing to be determined by people’s emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions such as the ability to regulate emotions, relationship skills, and social competence.

While these EI skills are not the sole contributor to levels of happiness, it is important to recognize their impact, with over 50% of the total variances in happiness being attributed to emotional intelligence competencies.

From Aristotle to Freud, the emphasis on the optimization of happiness has been thoroughly discussed. To augment happiness one is often required to use more sophisticated behavioral patterns such as self-regulation to subdue instant pleasure motivations.

Contemporary psychological research continues to recognize the need for this form of optimization. Mischel (1974) explicitly taught children how to delay immediate pleasures for greater long-term gain. The ability to delay gratification is important in many aspects of cognitive development given the capacity for such delays encourages an increase in cognitive competence and social maturity.

an essay about emotional intelligence

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6 YouTube Videos and TED Talks on Emotional Intelligence

We recommend watching the following videos for more insight into Emotional Intelligence.

The Power of Emotional Intelligence – Travis Bradberry

You aren’t at the mercy of your emotions – your brain creates them – Lisa Feldman Barrett

6 Steps to Improve Your Emotional Intelligence – Ramona Hacker

Learning Human Values Via Emotional Intelligence – Ruby Bakshi Khurdi

Your Forensic Mirror: Applying Emotional Intelligence To Achieve Success – Paula Clarke

The People Currency: Practicing Emotional Intelligence – Jason Bridges

See also: 15 Most Valuable Emotional Intelligence TED Talks on YouTube .

“Emotional intelligence is a way of recognizing, understanding, and choosing how we think, feel, and act. It shapes our interactions with others and our understanding of ourselves. It defines how and what we learn; it allows us to set priorities; it determines the majority of our daily actions. Research suggests it is responsible for as much as 80 percent of the “success” in our lives.”

Joshua Freedman

“If your emotional abilities aren’t in hand, if you don’t have self-awareness, if you are not able to manage your distressing emotions, if you can’t have empathy and have effective relationships, then no matter how smart you are, you are not going to get very far.”

Daniel Goleman

Maya Angelou

“Anybody can become angry, that is easy; but to be angry with the right person, and to the right degree, and at the right time, and for the right purpose, and in the right way, that is not within everybody’s power, that is not easy.”
“Emotional intelligent people use self-awareness to their advantage to assess a situation, get perspective, listen without judgment, process, and hold back from reacting head on. At times, it means the decision to sit on your decision. By thinking over your situation rationally, without drama, you’ll eventually arrive at other, more sane conclusions.”

Marcel Schwantes

“Never stop because you are afraid – you are never so likely to be wrong.”

Fridtjof Nansen

“We are dangerous when we are not conscious of our responsibility for how we behave, think, and feel.”

Marshall B. Rosenberg

“What really matters for success, character, happiness and life long achievements is a definite set of emotional skills – your EQ — not just purely cognitive abilities that are measured by conventional IQ tests.”
“Whatever is begun in anger, ends in shame.”

Benjamin Franklin

“If you are interested in emotions, learning about them will satisfy your curiosity. If you depend upon emotional knowledge in your job, learning more about emotions would likely help.”
“Do not judge me by my successes, judge me by how many times I fell down and got back up again.”

Nelson Mandela

“When dealing with people, remember you are not dealing with creatures of logic, but with creatures of emotion.”

Dale Carnegie

“It is very important to understand that emotional intelligence is not the opposite of intelligence, it is not the triumph of heart over head – it is the unique intersection of both.”

David Caruso

“Until you make the unconscious conscious, it will direct your life and you will call it fate.”
“It takes something more than intelligence to act intelligently.”

Fyodor Dostoyevsky

“No doubt emotional intelligence is more rare than book smarts, but my experience says it is actually more important in the making of a leader. You just can’t ignore it.”
“Emotional intelligence is what humans are good at and that’s not a sideshow. That’s the cutting edge of human intelligence.”

Ray Kurzweil

“Emotional intelligence is the ability to sense, understand, and effectively apply the power and acumen of emotions as a source of human energy, information, connection, and influence.”

Robert K. Cooper

“The strength of character and emotional intelligence to face your failures and learn from them are at the core of success.”

Robert Kiyosaki

“Surround yourself with amazingly intelligent men and women. The people I work with not only are smarter than I am, possessing both intellectual and emotional intelligence, but also share my determination to succeed. I will not make an important decision without them.”

George Steinbrenner

“What I’ve come to realize is that emotional intelligence was the only way I knew how to lead, and is, in my option, the only way to inspire real change.”

Kevin Allen

Find more emotional intelligence quotes here .

Emotional Intelligence is important, the value and benefits of developing your EQ are extensive and in many areas massively under-utilised. Emotional intelligence is the gateway to living a more fulfilled and happy life, and here’s why:

  • Emotional intelligence allows you to understand and manage your emotions in order to self-motivate and to create positive social interactions; it’s the first step in realizing your true potential.
  • The value and benefits of EI are vast in terms of personal, academic, and professional success.
  • Individuals with higher levels of emotional intelligence are less likely to succumb to the negative impacts of stressors, while effectively help individuals deal with negative emotions and promote more positive emotions in its place.
  • Intellect works best when it’s accompanied by high emotional intelligence.
  • Utilizing and developing emotional intelligence in the workplace can greatly improve both job performance and the social capabilities of individuals within that workplace.
  • Emotional Intelligence is a useful skill to prevent making decisions based on emotional biases.
  • The process of successful communication and negotiation are closely linked to high levels of EQ.
  • Key EI facilitators such as happiness contribute to our self-actualization.

Thanks for reading! I hope you have enjoyed this journey into the world of emotional intelligence and the important role it plays in achieving personal, physical and occupational success.

For further reading:

  • 13 Emotional Intelligence Activities & Exercises
  • 26 Best Emotional Intelligence Books (Reviews + Summaries)
  • The Emotion Wheel: What is It and How to Use it? [+PDF]

We hope you found this article useful. Don’t forget to download our three Emotional Intelligence Exercises for free .

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  • Furnham, A., & V. Petrides, K. (2003). Emotional Intelligence and Happiness. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal. 31 . 815-823.
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  • Lopes, P. N., Salovey, P., Cote, S. & Beers, M. (2005), Emotion regulation ability and the quality of social interaction. Emotion, 5 (1), 112-121.
  • Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., Avolio, B. J., & Peterson, S. J. (2010). The development and resulting performance impact of positive psychological capital. Human Resource Development Quarterly , 21(1), 41–67.
  • Magnano, P., & Craparo, G., & Paolillo, A. (2016). Resilience and Emotional Intelligence: which role in achievement motivation. International Journal of Psychological Research . 9. 9-20.
  • Mischel, W., & Underwood, B. (1974) Instrumental Ideation in Delay of Gratification. The Journal of Child Development, 45 (4) pp. 1083-1088.
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Colile Dlamini

This is great because it is a skill that can be developed over time and the results is towards success and more meaningful personal awareness of oneself life in general and the life of an entrepreneur especially

Bridgette Kigongo Nambirige

Now i know that helping others develop their own EI is part of my own EI growth as well. i plan to put this into action more intentionally to increase overall productivity.

Philip Sykes

I think it’s important to remember that emotional intelligence is a skill that can be developed and improved over time. By practicing mindfulness, improving communication skills, and working on self-awareness, individuals can become more emotionally intelligent and ultimately, more successful in all aspects of their lives. Thank You!

Lillian

The article is powerful, it offers 360 degree of EQ with practical examples.

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Emotional Intelligence: How We Perceive, Evaluate, Express, and Control Emotions

Is EQ more important than IQ?

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

an essay about emotional intelligence

Shereen Lehman, MS, is a healthcare journalist and fact checker. She has co-authored two books for the popular Dummies Series (as Shereen Jegtvig).

an essay about emotional intelligence

Hinterhaus Productions / Getty Images 

  • How Do I Know If I'm Emotionally Intelligent?
  • How It's Measured

Why Is Emotional Intelligence Useful?

  • Ways to Practice
  • Tips for Improving

Emotional intelligence (AKA EI or EQ for "emotional quotient") is the ability to perceive, interpret, demonstrate, control, evaluate, and use emotions to communicate with and relate to others effectively and constructively. This ability to express and control  emotions  is essential, but so is the ability to understand, interpret, and respond to the emotions of others. Some experts suggest that emotional intelligence is  more important than IQ  for success in life.

While being book-smart might help you pass tests, emotional intelligence prepares you for the real world by being aware of the feelings of others as well as your own feelings.

How Do I Know If I'm Emotionally Intelligent?

Some key signs and examples of emotional intelligence include:

  • An ability to identify and describe what people are feeling
  • An awareness of personal strengths and limitations
  • Self-confidence and self-acceptance
  • The ability to let go of mistakes
  • An ability to accept and embrace change
  • A strong sense of curiosity, particularly about other people
  • Feelings of empathy and concern for others
  • Showing sensitivity to the feelings of other people
  • Accepting responsibility for mistakes
  • The ability to manage emotions in difficult situations

How Is Emotional Intelligence Measured?

A number of different assessments have emerged to measure levels of emotional intelligence. Such tests generally fall into one of two types: self-report tests and ability tests.

Self-report tests are the most common because they are the easiest to administer and score. On such tests, respondents respond to questions or statements by rating their own behaviors. For example, on a statement such as "I often feel that I understand how others are feeling," a test-taker might describe the statement as disagree, somewhat disagree, agree, or strongly agree.

Ability tests, on the other hand, involve having people respond to situations and then assessing their skills. Such tests often require people to demonstrate their abilities, which are then rated by a third party.

If you are taking an emotional intelligence test administered by a mental health professional, here are two measures that might be used:

  • Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is an ability-based test that measures the four branches of Mayer and Salovey's EI model. Test-takers perform tasks designed to assess their ability to perceive, identify, understand, and manage emotions.
  • Emotional and Social Competence Inventory (ESCI)   is based on an older instrument known as the Self-Assessment Questionnaire and involves having people who know the individual offer ratings of that person’s abilities in several different emotional competencies. The test is designed to evaluate the social and emotional abilities that help distinguish people as strong leaders.

There are also plenty of more informal online resources, many of them free, to investigate your emotional intelligence.

Try Our Free Emotional Intelligence Test

Our fast and free EQ test can help you determine whether or not your responses to certain situations in life indicate a high level of emotional intelligence:

What Are the 4 Components of Emotional Intelligence?

Researchers suggest that there are four different levels of emotional intelligence including emotional perception, the ability to reason using emotions, the ability to understand emotions, and the ability to manage emotions.  

  • Perceiving emotions : The first step in understanding emotions is to perceive them accurately. In many cases, this might involve understanding nonverbal signals such as body language and facial expressions.
  • Reasoning with emotions : The next step involves using emotions to promote thinking and cognitive activity. Emotions help prioritize what we pay attention and react to; we respond emotionally to things that garner our attention.
  • Understanding emotions :   The emotions that we perceive can carry a wide variety of meanings. If someone is expressing angry emotions, the observer must interpret the cause of the person's anger and what it could mean. For example, if your boss is acting angry, it might mean that they are dissatisfied with your work, or it could be because they got a speeding ticket on their way to work that morning or that they've been fighting with their partner.
  • Managing emotions : The ability to manage emotions effectively is a crucial part of emotional intelligence and the highest level. Regulating emotions and responding appropriately as well as responding to the emotions of others are all important aspects of emotional management.

Recognizing emotions - yours and theirs - can help you understand where others are coming from, the decisions they make, and how your own feelings can affect other people.

The four branches of this model are arranged by complexity with the more basic processes at the lower levels and the more advanced processes at the higher levels. For example, the lowest levels involve perceiving and expressing emotion, while higher levels require greater conscious involvement and involve regulating emotions.

Interest in teaching and learning social and emotional intelligence has grown in recent years. Social and emotional learning (SEL) programs have become a standard part of the curriculum for many schools.

The goal of these initiatives is not only to improve health and well-being but also to help students succeed academically and prevent bullying. There are many examples of how emotional intelligence can play a role in daily life.

Thinking Before Reacting

Emotionally intelligent people know that emotions can be powerful, but also temporary. When a highly charged emotional event happens, such as becoming angry with a co-worker, the emotionally intelligent response would be to take some time before responding.

This allows everyone to calm their emotions and think more rationally about all the factors surrounding the argument.

Greater Self-Awareness

Emotionally intelligent people are not only good at thinking about how other people might feel but they are also adept at understanding their own feelings. Self-awareness allows people to consider the many different factors that contribute to their emotions.

Empathy for Others

A large part of emotional intelligence is being able to think about and empathize with how other people are feeling. This often involves considering how you would respond if you were in the same situation.

People who have strong emotional intelligence are able to consider the perspectives, experiences, and emotions of other people and use this information to explain why people behave the way that they do.

How You Can Practice Emotional Intelligence

Emotional intelligence can be used in many different ways in your daily life. Some different ways to practice emotional intelligence include:

  • Being able to accept criticism and responsibility
  • Being able to move on after making a mistake
  • Being able to say no when you need to
  • Being able to share your feelings with others
  • Being able to solve problems in ways that work for everyone
  • Having empathy for other people
  • Having great listening skills
  • Knowing why you do the things you do
  • Not being judgemental of others

Emotional intelligence is essential for good interpersonal communication. Some experts believe that this ability is more important in determining life success than IQ alone. Fortunately, there are things that you can do to strengthen your own social and emotional intelligence.

Understanding emotions can be the key to better relationships, improved well-being, and stronger communication skills. 

Press Play for Advice On How to Be Less Judgmental

Hosted by therapist Amy Morin, LCSW, this episode of The Verywell Mind Podcast , shares how you can learn to be less judgmental. Click below to listen now.

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Are There Downsides to Emotional Intelligence?

Having lower emotional intelligence skills can lead to a number of potential pitfalls that can affect multiple areas of life including work and relationships. People who have fewer emotional skills tend to get in more arguments, have lower quality relationships, and have poor emotional coping skills.

Being low on emotional intelligence can have a number of drawbacks, but having a very high level of emotional skills can also come with challenges. For example:

  • Research suggests that people with high emotional intelligence may actually be less creative and innovative.
  • Highly emotionally intelligent people may have a hard time delivering negative feedback for fear of hurting other people's feelings.
  • Research has found that high EQ can sometimes be used for manipulative and deceptive purposes.

Can I Boost My Emotional Intelligence?

While some people might come by their emotional skills naturally, some evidence suggests that this is an ability you can develop and improve. For example, a 2019 randomized controlled trial found that emotional intelligence training could improve emotional abilities in workplace settings.

Being emotionally intelligent is important, but what steps can you take to improve your own social and emotional skills? Here are some tips.

If you want to understand what other people are feeling, the first step is to pay attention. Take the time to listen to what people are trying to tell you, both verbally and non-verbally. Body language can carry a great deal of meaning. When you sense that someone is feeling a certain way, consider the different factors that might be contributing to that emotion.

Picking up on emotions is critical, but we also need to be able to put ourselves into someone else's shoes in order to truly understand their point of view. Practice empathizing with other people. Imagine how you would feel in their situation. Such activities can help us build an emotional understanding of a specific situation as well as develop stronger emotional skills in the long-term.

The ability to reason with emotions is an important part of emotional intelligence. Consider how your own emotions influence your decisions and behaviors. When you are thinking about how other people respond, assess the role that their emotions play.

Why is this person feeling this way? Are there any unseen factors that might be contributing to these feelings? How to your emotions differ from theirs? As you explore such questions, you may find that it becomes easier to understand the role that emotions play in how people think and behave.

Drigas AS, Papoutsi C. A new layered model on emotional intelligence . Behav Sci (Basel). 2018;8(5):45. doi:10.3390/bs8050045

Salovey P, Mayer J. Emotional Intelligence . Imagination, Cognition, and Personality.  1990;9(3):185-211.

Feist GJ. A meta-analysis of personality in scientific and artistic creativity . Pers Soc Psychol Rev . 1998;2(4):290-309. doi:10.1207/s15327957pspr0204_5

Côté S, Decelles KA, Mccarthy JM, Van kleef GA, Hideg I. The Jekyll and Hyde of emotional intelligence: emotion-regulation knowledge facilitates both prosocial and interpersonally deviant behavior . Psychol Sci . 2011;22(8):1073-80. doi:10.1177/0956797611416251

Gilar-Corbi R, Pozo-Rico T, Sánchez B, Castejón JL. Can emotional intelligence be improved? A randomized experimental study of a business-oriented EI training program for senior managers . PLoS One . 2019;14(10):e0224254. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0224254

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

pathdoc/shutterstock

  • Emotional Intelligence

Reviewed by Psychology Today Staff

Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to identify and manage one’s own emotions, as well as the emotions of others. Emotional intelligence is generally said to include a few skills: namely emotional awareness, or the ability to identify and name one’s own emotions; the ability to harness those emotions and apply them to tasks like thinking and problem solving; and the ability to manage emotions, which includes both regulating one’s own emotions when necessary and helping others to do the same.

  • The Roots of Emotional Intelligence
  • How to Cultivate Emotional Intelligence

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The theory of emotional intelligence was introduced by Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer in the 1990s, and further developed and brought to the lay public by Daniel Goleman . The concept, also known as emotional quotient or EQ, has gained wide acceptance. However, some psychologists argue that because EQ cannot be captured via psychometric tests (as can, for example, general intelligence ), it lacks true explanatory power.

The emotionally intelligent are highly conscious of their own emotional states, even negative ones—from frustration or sadness to something more subtle. They are able to identify and understand what they are feeling, and being able to name an emotion helps manage that emotion . Because of this, the emotionally intelligent have high self-confidence and are realistic about themselves.

A person high in EQ is not impulsive or hasty with their actions. They think before they do. This translates into steady emotion regulation , or the ability to reduce how intense an emotion feels. Taking anger or anxiety down a notch is called down-regulation . The emotionally intelligent are able to shift gears and lighten mood, both internally and externally.

Such people are especially tuned into the emotions that others experience. It’s understandable that sensitivity to emotional signals both from within oneself and from one's social environment could make one a better friend, parent, leader , or romantic partner. Being in tune with others is less work for others.

This person is able to recognize and understand the emotions of others, a skill tied to empathy. The person with a high EQ can hear and understand another person’s point of view clearly. The empathic are generally supportive of the people in their lives, and they easily modulate their emotions to match the mood of another person as well.

This is a subject of active debate within the field. Some personality psychologists argue that emotional intelligence can be more parsimoniously described by traits such as agreeableness , and even charisma . A  highly charismatic person, for example, is socially adept and can quickly read a room.

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We are naturally drawn to a person with high EQ. We are comfortable and at ease with their easy rapport. It feels as though they can read social cues with superhuman ability. Perhaps they can even mind-read how other people feel to some extent. This effortlessness is welcome in all domains of life—at home, in social settings, and at work. Who wouldn’t want a boss who understood how you are feeling and what you are trying to accomplish?

Yes, you can. You can start by learning to identify the emotions you are feeling as well as understanding them. If you are able to name the emotion you are feeling, you have a better chance of understanding what you are feeling. You can also learn to better regulate your emotions just by stopping and thinking before you act and judge. These skills will help you martial inner resolve and stick to what really matters in life.

While some studies have found a link between emotional intelligence and job performance, many others have shown no correlation whatsoever, and the lack of a scientifically valid scale makes it difficult to truly measure or predict how emotionally intuitive a person may be on the job or in other areas of life.

These people are able to mobilize and utilize their emotions, and they are motivated to manage tasks and problem-solve obstacles. They are connected to who they are and what they value in life, which are foundational for prioritizing and reaching any objective or goal. Knowing what matters is crucial for productivity .

In recent years, some employers have incorporated emotional intelligence tests into their application and interview processes, on the theory that someone high in emotional intelligence would make a better leader or coworker . However, it is not clear if these measures are accurate or even useful.

Testing for EQ in the workplace, for example, is difficult because there is no validated psychometric test or scale for emotional intelligence as there is for the general intelligence factor—and many argue that emotional intelligence is therefore not an actual construct, but a way of describing interpersonal skills.

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Examples Of Emotional Intelligence

Sara Viezzer

BSc (Hons) Psychology, MSc in Applied Neuropsychology

Sara Viezzer is a graduate of psychological studies at the University of Bristol and Padova. She has worked as an Assistant Psychologist in the NHS for the past two years in neuroscience and health psychology. Sara is presently pursuing a Doctorate in Clinical Psychology at the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust.

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Olivia Guy-Evans, MSc

Associate Editor for Simply Psychology

BSc (Hons) Psychology, MSc Psychology of Education

Olivia Guy-Evans is a writer and associate editor for Simply Psychology. She has previously worked in healthcare and educational sectors.

Saul Mcleod, PhD

Editor-in-Chief for Simply Psychology

BSc (Hons) Psychology, MRes, PhD, University of Manchester

Saul Mcleod, PhD., is a qualified psychology teacher with over 18 years of experience in further and higher education. He has been published in peer-reviewed journals, including the Journal of Clinical Psychology.

Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to recognize, understand and manage our own emotions while acknowledging and engaging with the emotions of others (Goleman, 1996).

Emotional intelligence comprises a set of skills, including empathy , problem-solving, interpersonal skills, and the capacity to regulate our own emotions. 

It plays a significant role in the contemporary world and is a better predictor of success, quality of relationships, and life satisfaction than intellectual intelligence (IQ) (Koubova and Buchko, 2013). 

In addition, research suggests that people with a higher emotional quotient (EQ) are more innovative and perform better in both academic and work environments (MacCann et al., 2020; Krén and Séllei, 2021). 

A man surrounded by emotive faces

Emotional Intelligence in Everyday Life

Every day, we experience various emotions that drive us to feel or behave a certain way. 

We feel before we think, and this is an adaptive mechanism designed to respond quickly to stimuli in the environment. However, our minds also evolved in a way that allows us to reflect on and regulate our emotions so that they do not control our actions (Goleman, 2001). 

The ‘pause before you act’ is an example of how we can prevent temporary emotions from overriding us.

Thinking before lashing out at someone because we feel stressed or carefully evaluating a situation before attributing one’s fault are some of the little efforts we can take to separate our emotions from our thoughts and behaviors.

Taking other people’s perspectives before judging or labeling them also facilitates the expression of empathetic behaviors, making people feel more comfortable about sharing their experiences. This, in turn, helps create deeper connections with others in the longer term.

Apologizing for our own mistakes and practicing forgiveness are also simple actions that can reinforce healthy relationships that are based on reciprocal respect. By setting aside unhelpful emotions, including pride and resentment, it is possible to prioritize our relationship over our ego.

Emotional Intelligence in Education

In education, EI is regarded as an important skill for students to develop, both for their academic performance and future careers. 

Although factors such as IQ and conscientiousness are the stronger predictors of academic achievement, several studies also found a positive correlation with EI, with evidence of incremental validity over other variables (MacCann et al., 2020).

Different explanations have been provided on what factors may account for this association. 

First, students with higher EI could be better able to manage challenging emotions related to academic performance, including anxiety , boredom, and disappointment.

In addition, greater EI may promote the formation of more positive relationships with peers, teachers, and family, resulting in an enriched supportive system around the student.

Furthermore, EI might help students perform better in humanistic subjects requiring correct understanding and expression of emotions, such as arts and literature. 

As EI is becoming an increasingly important component of students’ curricula, there is a growing demand for teachers to implement behaviors informed by EI principles in classrooms (Mortiboys, 2013).

This means promoting collaboration between students, creating opportunities for reflection and metacognition, and encouraging assertive communication to meet students’ needs and values.

Emotional Intelligence in Relationships

Since EI also includes the ability to understand and empathize with the emotions of others, it is crucial for developing strong and good-quality relationships. 

In a research study, EI was positively related to higher scores on empathetic perspective-taking and self-monitoring in social situations, meaning that people with higher EI were better able to understand social contexts and adjust their self-presentation accordingly (Schutte et al., 2001). 

In addition, EI predicted the level of cooperation and affection in romantic relationships. In couples where one partner had high EI, they demonstrated overall better relationship satisfaction. 

The possible underlying reasons are that EI can help lead more productive conversations, allowing for better intimacy in relationships. At the same time, it is a useful tool for managing conflicts constructively, understanding others’ negative emotions, and being more open to negotiation (Schutte et al., 2001). 

Some practical behaviors that can help build emotionally intelligent relationships are taking care and developing strategies to support each other, practicing transparent communication without making assumptions to be able to attune to others’ feelings, and using changes in circumstances as an opportunity to redefine and revitalize our relationships (Zeidner, Matthews and Roberts, 2012).

Emotional Intelligence at Work

EI in the workplace has been associated with a greater likelihood of professional growth, both for the individual and for companies. 

A boost in overall productivity at work has been observed in employees that are emotionally intelligent and seem to be more committed to their careers and organization (Miao, Humphrey, and Qian, 2017). 

In addition, the interpersonal aspects of EI can facilitate work interactions by allowing a greater degree of openness to other people’s perspectives, which can, in turn, enhance the success of leadership (Fianko, Jnr, and Dzogbewu, 2020).

For example, practicing active listening during meetings and showing appreciation for the initiatives of others can foster trust and cooperation between co-workers.

As companies now tend to rely more on effective teamwork, the ability to clearly communicate tasks and objectives also plays a pivotal role (Krén and Séllei, 2021). Being aware of our communication skills as well as the listener’s level of comprehension can prevent misunderstandings and uncertainty about the most effective course of action. 

In addition, the ability of leaders to communicate the purpose and values of an organization can help develop a collective sense of goals, generating greater enthusiasm and commitment.

Being open to and providing constructive feedback while avoiding criticism is also an important element for professional development in employees, who can work on becoming a better version of themselves without feeling demotivated.

This can be promoted by clearly identifying areas of improvement while providing new learning opportunities and rewarding excellent work (Chernis et al., 1998).

Examples of low emotional intelligence 

Low EI is characterized by the inability to perceive emotions accurately and maintain meaningful social interactions (Goleman, 1996)

There are various ways in which this can manifest. People with low EI may struggle to listen to others’ perspectives and have difficulty acknowledging their own mistakes, with the risk of provoking argumentative conversations. 

They may also have little insight into how their emotions drive inappropriate behaviors, failing to understand when something they say is insensitive or tending to blame others for their problems.

Low EI may also present with frequent emotional outbursts or changes in mood , which reflects a reduced ability to control emotions.

Finally, people with low EI may have a very limited social circle due to reduced empathy and connectedness in relationships and difficulty maintaining an equal balance between give and take. 

Components of Emotional Intelligence

According to Daniel Goleman’s model, first outlined in his book Emotional Intelligence: Why it Can Matter More Than IQ (1996), there are four main competencies of emotional intelligence (Figure 1).

Self-Awareness

Self-awareness is the ability to accurately assess our own emotions, including their origin and the external events that trigger them. It provides a useful tool for decision-making, allowing us to base our actions on true facts rather than impulsive reactions. 

It also encompasses awareness about our own capabilities – strengths and weaknesses – knowing how our emotions are brought up by specific circumstances.

This consequently leads to better self-confidence as we have the power to choose emotional responses that are more appropriate to the context. 

Self-Management

Self-management is the capacity to regulate emotions and impulses in a productive way and to be resilient in the face of changing circumstances. 

People with strong self-regulation skills tend to be better able to act with integrity and in line with their own values when making decisions (trustworthiness), and they take responsibility for their own actions (conscientiousness).

In addition, they engage in realistic efforts to improve their performance, trying to take the initiative to maximize their chances of success. 

Social Awareness

Social awareness entails the ability to empathize with others’ emotions, even when these are not expressed explicitly, and to comprehend the social contexts and group dynamics they occur in.

Through empathy, it is possible to create a strong emotional bond with others, showing sensitivity to their feelings and responding in ways that validate them.

Social awareness also allows an understanding of the forces and power dynamics present in relationships and influences a person’s emotions.

Relationship Management 

Relationship management is the ability to inspire, influence, and motivate others while managing hostile situations with diplomacy and strategy. 

It involves practicing active listening toward others’ needs and maintaining open and clear communication to develop strong and positive relationships.

It also includes the capacity to deal with conflict and maintain leadership skills when motivating a group to work towards a common goal.

The model, therefore, distinguishes between awareness (recognition of emotions) and management (regulation of emotions) applied to the self and others . 

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Figure 1. Readapted from Singh et al., 2022

How can emotional intelligence be increased?

Despite EI being correlated with personality traits, there is also evidence of it being a skill that can be improved with time and as our social interactions evolve (Nelis et al., 2009; Serrat, 2017). 

Below are some ways in which emotional intelligence can be increased:

Develop emotional awareness

  • Acknowledging, identifying, and naming our feelings can increase emotional awareness. 
  • A simple way to do this is by exploring our emotional reactions to life events with curiosity to validate feelings rather than avoiding them. 
  • Practicing mindfulness is also a proven method of gaining perspective on our feelings. 
  • Once we gain self-awareness, we also become more resilient to challenges, as we are better able not to feel overcome by adversity.

Practice active listening

  • Practicing attentive listening to attune to other people’s feelings can help develop empathy. 
  • While talking to others, it is important to avoid interrupting them or relating the conversation to ourselves, noticing the signals that indicate how the other person is feeling. 
  • This can increase our ability to understand their emotional needs and identify ways to offer help. 

Assertive communication

  • Assertive communication, which involves clearly expressing our perspectives, desires, and needs, can enhance our relationship with others as they can better understand our point of view. 
  • To increase assertiveness, we can try and identify which emotions are more difficult for us to share and rehearse ways to express them.

Acknowledge others’ emotions

  • When dealing with personal or job-related conflicts, it is important to acknowledge first the emotions that the counterpart is expressing. 
  • This can help reduce stress levels and gives space to resolve the problem more objectively. 

Reframe the situation

  • The second step is trying to reframe a problematic situation in a positive way, suggesting possible ways to help or finding a compromise to move toward conflict resolution.
  • Setting concrete goals to promote emotionally intelligent behaviors in everyday life may involve being more present for others and engaging in more meaningful conversations. 
  • To track our progress, we can ask our close ones for feedback and constantly identify areas of improvement.  

Frequently Asked Questions

Why is emotional intelligence important.

Possessing strong EI skills can have an overall positive impact on our life. It brings better awareness of our own feelings, allowing us to handle challenging situations with greater control and flexibility.

In addition, it helps create deeper connections with other people, strengthening the social support system around us and improving our mental well-being. People with high EI also seem to report better work-life balance as they can reconcile their roles in different aspects of their life.

When is emotional intelligence important?

EI is particularly important when dealing with everyday stressful situations. Preventing the escalation of negative emotions allows the introduction of more positive emotional states, protecting our general mental health and well-being. 

EI also plays a pivotal role in our ability to make objective decisions. Through EI skills, it is possible to be aware of superfluous emotions that can negatively influence the decision-making process and disregard them to enhance our ability to reach the final outcome. 

Finally, through greater emotional awareness, we can understand more clearly what our goals are and identify the motivations to accomplish them.

How does emotional intelligence make a good leader?

EI has proven to be a significant predictor of effective leadership and trust development in leader-employee interactions. 

Leaders with high EI can integrate the view of others when developing strategic plans directed towards a common goal and are committed to fostering a sense of purpose in their employees (Kennedy, Campis, and Leclerc, 2020). 

In addition, they prioritize the developmental needs of others, providing opportunities for professional development and reinforcing learning behaviors.

In general, with leadership tasks in an organization involving more complex and collaborative work, practicing relationship management skills becomes increasingly important.

Cherniss, C., Goleman, D., Emmerling, R., Cowan, K., & Adler, M. (1998). Bringing emotional intelligence to the workplace.  New Brunswick, NJ: Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations, Rutgers University , 1-34.

Fianko, S. K., Jnr, S. A. J. S. A., & Dzogbewu, T. C. (2020). Does the interpersonal dimension of Goleman’s emotional intelligence model predict effective leadership?.  African Journal of Business and Economic Research ,  15 (4), 221.

Goleman, D. (1996). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ . Bloomsbury Publishing.

Goleman, D. (2001). An EI-based theory of performance.  The emotionally intelligent workplace: How to select for, measure, and improve emotional intelligence in individuals, groups, and organizations ,  1 (1), 27-44.

Kennedy, K., Campis, S., & Leclerc, L. (2020). Human-Centered Leadership: Creating Change From the Inside Out.  Nurse Leader ,  18 (3), 227-231.

Koubova, V., & Buchko, A. A. (2013). Life‐work balance: Emotional intelligence as a crucial component of achieving both personal life and work performance.  Management Research Review .

Krén, H., & Séllei, B. (2021). The role of emotional intelligence in organizational performance.  Periodica Polytechnica Social and Management Sciences ,  29 (1), 1-9.

MacCann, C., Jiang, Y., Brown, L. E., Double, K. S., Bucich, M., & Minbashian, A. (2020). Emotional intelligence predicts academic performance: A meta-analysis.  Psychological bulletin ,  146 (2), 150.

Miao, C., Humphrey, R. H., & Qian, S. (2017). A meta‐analysis of emotional intelligence and work attitudes.  Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology ,  90 (2), 177-202.

Mortiboys, A. (2013).  Teaching with emotional intelligence: A step-by-step guide for higher and further education professionals . Routledge.

Nelis, D., Quoidbach, J., Mikolajczak, M., & Hansenne, M. (2009). Increasing emotional intelligence:(How) is it possible?.  Personality and individual differences ,  47 (1), 36-41.

Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Bobik, C., Coston, T. D., Greeson, C., Jedlicka, C., Rhodes, E. & Wendorf, G. (2001). Emotional intelligence and interpersonal relations.  The Journal of social psychology ,  141 (4), 523-536.

Serrat, O. (2017). Understanding and developing emotional intelligence. In  Knowledge solutions  (pp. 329-339). Springer, Singapore.

Singh, A., Prabhakar, R., & Kiran, J. S. (2022). Emotional Intelligence: A Literature Review Of Its Concept, Models, And Measures.  Journal of Positive School Psychology ,  6 (10), 2254-2275.

Zeidner, M., Matthews, G., & Roberts, R. D. (2012).  What we know about emotional intelligence: How it affects learning, work, relationships, and our mental health . MIT press.

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Emotional Intelligence Measures: A Systematic Review

Lluna maría bru-luna.

1 Department of Basic Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Speech Therapy, Universitat de València, 46010 Valencia, Spain; [email protected]

Manuel Martí-Vilar

César merino-soto.

2 Psychology Research Institute, Universidad de San Martín de Porres, Lima 15102, Peru

José L. Cervera-Santiago

3 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal, San Miguel 15088, Peru; ep.ude.vfnu@arevrecj

Associated Data

Not applicable.

Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, express, understand, and manage emotions. Current research indicates that it may protect against the emotional burden experienced in certain professions. This article aims to provide an updated systematic review of existing instruments to assess EI in professionals, focusing on the description of their characteristics as well as their psychometric properties (reliability and validity). A literature search was conducted in Web of Science (WoS). A total of 2761 items met the eligibility criteria, from which a total of 40 different instruments were extracted and analysed. Most were based on three main models (i.e., skill-based, trait-based, and mixed), which differ in the way they conceptualize and measure EI. All have been shown to have advantages and disadvantages inherent to the type of tool. The instruments reported in the largest number of studies are Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), Schutte Self Report-Inventory (SSRI), Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test 2.0 (MSCEIT 2.0), Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS), Wong and Law’s Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS), and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). The main measure of the estimated reliability has been internal consistency, and the construction of EI measures was predominantly based on linear modelling or classical test theory. The study has limitations: we only searched a single database, the impossibility of estimating inter-rater reliability, and non-compliance with some items required by PRISMA.

1. Introduction

1.1. emotional intelligence.

Emotional intelligence (EI) was first described and conceptualized by Salovey and Mayer [ 1 ] as an ability-based construct analogous to general intelligence. They argued that individuals with a high level of EI had certain skills related to the evaluation and regulation of emotions and that consequently they were able to regulate emotions in themselves and in others in order to achieve a variety of adaptive outcomes. This construct has received increasing attention from both the scientific community and the general public due to its theoretical and practical implications for daily life. The same authors defined EI as “the ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought” [ 2 ] (p. 511). This definition suggests that EI is far from being conceptualized as a one-dimensional attribute and that a multidimensional operationalization would be theoretically coherent.

1.2. Conceptualizations of Emotional Intelligence

However, over the past three decades, different ways of conceptualizing EI have emerged, which are mainly summarized in three models: ability, trait, and mixed. These models have influenced the construction of measuring instruments. In the ability model, developed by Mayer and Salovey, EI is seen as a form of innate intelligence made up of several capacities that influence how people understand and manage their own emotions and those of others. These emotion processing skills are: (1) perception, evaluation and expression of emotions, (2) emotional facilitation of thought, (3) understanding and analysis of emotions, and (4) reflective regulation of emotions [ 3 , 4 ]. Consistent with this conceptualization, the measures were designed as performance tests. Subsequently, the model proposed by Petrides and Furnham [ 5 ], the trait model, was developed. This model defines EI as a trait; that is, as a persistent behaviour pattern over time (as opposed to skill, which increases with time and training), and it is associated with dispositional tendencies, personality traits or self-efficacy beliefs. It is composed of fifteen personality dimensions, grouped under four factors: well-being, self-control, emotionality and sociability [ 6 ]. The last of the three main models of conceptualization of EI is the mixed one. It is made up of two large branches that consider this construct a mixture of traits, competencies and abilities. According to the first one, developed by Bar-On [ 7 ], EI is a set of non-cognitive abilities and competences that influence the ability to be successful in coping with environmental demands and pressures, and it is composed of five key components: intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, adaptation skills, stress management skills and general mood. The second one, proposed by Goleman [ 8 ], also conceptualizes EI as a mixed model that shares certain aspects with the Bar-On model. It is made up of the following elements: recognition of one’s own emotions, management of emotions, self-motivation, recognition of emotions in others, and management of relationships. These emotional and social competencies would contribute to managerial performance and leadership.

1.3. Importance of Emotional Intelligence

To date, the importance that academics attach to the study of EI has been recognized by the literature in many areas, such as the workplace. For example, in professions where working with people is needed, burnout syndrome is common. It is a syndrome that is expressed by an increase in emotional exhaustion and indifference, as well as by a decrease in professional effectiveness [ 9 ]. To date, numerous studies have shown that EI can help change employee attitudes and behaviours in jobs involving emotional demands by increasing job satisfaction and reducing job stress [ 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ]. Likewise, on the one hand, it has been found that certain psychological variables, including EI and social competence, are related to less psychological distress. On the other hand, the acquisition of emotional and social skills can serve to develop resilience, which is a protective variable against psychological distress [ 14 ].

1.4. Types of Measures

With the challenge of choosing the conceptual model of EI also appears the challenge of choosing the appropriate measures to estimate it. For this reason, part of the work developed in the field of EI has focused on the creation of objective instruments to evaluate aspects associated with this construct. Most of them have been created around the main conceptualization models described in the previous paragraphs. Ability-based tools indicate people’s ability to understand emotions and how they work. These types of tests require participants to solve problems that are related to emotions and that contain answers deemed correct or incorrect (e.g., participants see several faces and respond by indicating the degree to which a specific emotion is present in the face). These instruments are maximal capacity tests and, unlike trait tests, they are not designed to predict typical behaviour. Ability EI instruments are usually employed in situations where a good theoretical understanding of emotions is required [ 15 ].

Trait-based instruments are generally composed of self-reported measures and are often developed as scales where there are no correct or incorrect answers, but the individual responds by choosing the item which relates more or less to their behaviour (e.g., “Understanding the needs and desires of others is not a problem for me”). They tend to measure typical behaviour, so they tend to provide a good prediction of actual behaviours in various situations [ 5 ]. Trait EI is a good predictor of effective coping styles when facing everyday stressors, both in adults and children, so these instruments are often used in situations characterized by stressors such as educational and employment contexts [ 15 ].

Questionnaires based on the EI mixed conceptualization often measure a combination of traits, social skills, competencies, and personality measures through self-reported modality (e.g., “When I am angry with others, I can tell them”). Some measures typically take 360-degree forms of assessment too (i.e., a self-report along with reports from supervisors, colleagues and subordinates). They are generally used in work environments, since they are often designed to predict and improve workplace performance and are often focused on emotional competencies that correlate with professional success. Despite the different ways of conceptualizing EI, there are some conceptual similarities between most instruments: they are hierarchical (i.e., they produce a total EI score along with scores on the different dimensions) and they have several conceptual overlaps that often include emotional perception, emotional regulation, and adaptive use of emotions [ 15 ].

1.5. Relevance of the Study

The proliferation of EI measures has received a lot of attention. However, this has not been the case in studies that synthesize their psychometric qualities, as well as those that describe their strengths and limitations. Therefore, there is a lack of studies that collect, with a wide review coverage, the instruments developed in recent years. The few reviews that can be found [ 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ] are limited to describing both the most popular measures (e.g., Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test [MSCEIT], Emotional Quotient Inventory [EQ-i], Trait Meta-Mood Scale [TMMS], Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire [TEIQue], or Schutte Self-Report Inventory [SSRI]) and those validated only in English, producing an apparent “Tower of Babel” effect (i.e., the over-representation of studies in one language and the under-representation in others) [ 20 ]. This is a problem that is not only more common than is believed, but it is also persistent [ 21 ]. This effect produces a barrier for the complete knowledge of current EI measures, the breadth of their uses in different contexts, and their incorporation into substantive studies relevant to multicultural understanding. In summary, it reduces the commonality of efforts made in different contexts to identify common and communicable objectives [ 22 ], specifically around the study of EI.

Therefore, a systematic review allows us to establish a knowledge base that contributes by (a) guiding and developing research efforts, (b) assisting in professional practice when choosing the most appropriate model in possible practical scenarios, and (c) facilitating the design of subsequent systematic evaluative reviews and meta-analysis of relevant psychometric parameters (e.g., factorial loads, reliability coefficients, correlations, etc.). For this reason, the aim of this article is to provide an updated systematic review of the existing instruments that allow the evaluation of EI in professionals, focusing on the description of its characteristics, as well as on its psychometric properties (reliability and validity). This systematic review is characterized by having a wide coverage (i.e., studies published in languages other than English) and having as a framework a consensus of description and taxonomy of valid evidence (i.e., “Standards”) [ 23 ].

2. Materials and Methods

This work contains a systematic review of the scientific literature published to date that includes measurements of EI. For its preparation, the guidelines proposed in the PRISMA statement [ 24 ] ( Table A1 ) carrying out systematic reviews have been followed. Regarding the evaluation of the quality of the articles, since our study does not analyse the studies that employ the EI instruments but the instruments themselves, the assessment of the internal or external validity of the studies is not applicable to this research. However, an internationally proposed guide to the study of the validity of instruments, called “Standards”, has also been used [ 23 ]. It presents guidelines for the study of the composition, use, and interpretation of what a test aims to measure and proposes five sources of validity of evidence: content, response processes, internal structure, relationship with other variables and the consequences of testing. Likewise, a recently proposed registration protocol [ 25 ] for carrying out systematic reviews has also been followed based on the five validity sources of the “Standards”.

2.1. Information Sources

The bibliographic search was carried out in three phases: an initial search to obtain an overview of the current situation, a system that applies inclusion–exclusion criteria, and a manual search to evaluate the results obtained. The search was conducted in February 2021 in the Web of Science (WoS) database, including all articles published from 1900 to 2020 (inclusive). This database was selected to perform the search because (a) it is among the databases that allows for a more efficient and adequate search coverage [ 26 ]; (b) it provides a better quality of indexing and of bibliographic records in terms of accuracy, control and granularity of information compared to other databases [ 27 ]; (c) the results are highly correlated with those of other search engines (e.g., Embase, MEDLINE and Google Scholar) [ 26 ]; (d) it is controlled by a human team specialising in the selection of its content (i.e., it is not fully automated) [ 28 ]; and (e) it has experienced a constant increase in scientific publications [ 29 ].

2.2. Eligibility Criteria

Although no protocol was written or registered prior to the research, the inclusion and exclusion criteria for articles and instruments were previously defined. The search was conducted according to these criteria.

2.2.1. Inclusion Criteria

The inclusion criteria for the studies are made up of the following points: (a) published in peer-reviewed journals, (b) presented as full articles or short communications, (c) containing empirical and quantifiable results on psychometric properties (i.e., not only narrative descriptions), (d) containing cross-sectional or longitudinal designs, (e) written in any language (in order to collect as many instruments as possible, as well as to reduce the “Tower of Babel” effect) [ 20 ], and (f) published from 1900 to 2020 (to maximize the identification of EI measures).

As for the inclusion criteria of the instruments, they are made up of the following points: (a) instruments that measure EI, (b) articles that are the first creation study of the instrument, (c) instruments aimed at people over 18 years, (d) instruments that can be applied in the workplace.

2.2.2. Exclusion Criteria

On the other hand, research that presented at least one of the following exclusion criteria was discarded: (a) contains synthesis studies (i.e., systematic reviews or meta-analyses), instrument manuals or narrative articles of instrument characteristics, (b) contains only qualitative research designs, (c) published after 2020.

Instruments that presented at least one of the following exclusion criteria were discarded: (a) instruments that were validations of the original one, (b) instruments aimed at people under 18, (c) instruments to be used in areas specifically different from the workplace.

2.3. Search Strategy

All available methods to obtain empirical answers have been included so as to maximize the coverage of the results. The following terms were included: test, measure, questionnaire, scale and instrument. The combinations of terms used were: “emotional intelligence AND test”, “emotional intelligence AND measure”, “emotional intelligence AND questionnaire”, “emotional intelligence AND scale”, and “emotional intelligence AND instrument”. Only those article-type studies were selected.

In the selection process, the title, abstract and keywords of the studies identified in the search were reviewed with the aforementioned criteria. This was carried out by only one of the authors.

2.4. Data Collection

The data to be extracted from each of the instruments were also defined in advance, ensuring that the information was extracted in a uniform manner. The selected documents were then recorded in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to check for duplicate records.

Thus, the name of the instrument and its acronym, the language and country in which it was created, and its structural characteristics (i.e., type of measurement, number of items, dimensions and items of which they were composed, and theoretical model) were extracted together with relevant psychometric information (i.e., reliability and validity). This procedure was also carried out by the same author. Articles that used different versions of the original EI instrument were accepted, but the analysis was made only on their originals. Instruments whose original manuscript were inaccessible were discarded ( n = 10), but they are presented at the end of the results. All those articles that were duplicated or that had used measures aimed at people under 18 or for contexts specifically different from the professional area (e.g., school contexts, sports contexts, etc.) were eliminated. The search process and the number of selected and excluded results can be seen in Figure 1 . Regarding the ethical standards, no ethical approval or participant consent is required for this type of research (i.e., systematic review).

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is healthcare-09-01696-g001.jpg

Flowchart according to PRISMA.

A total of 40 instruments were found ( Table 1 shows a synthesis of all of them). Below, a brief description of each one is presented, following which a division according to the theoretical model they use (i.e., ability-based model, trait-based model, mixed approach model, and others that do not correspond to any of them), and the psychometric properties of each one are explained.

Main characteristics of the included instruments.

MeasureStructural CharacteristicsLanguages (Origin Country)Psychometric DataOther VersionsLast Validation
ReliabilityValidity
Ability-Based Model
Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS)
[ ]
Format: scale (five-point Likert)
Num. items: 48
Dimensions and items:
·Attention to feelings (21)
·Emotional clarity (15)
·Repair of the emotions (12)
English
(USA)
Internal consistency:
= 0.82–0.88
Test–retest:
None
Convergent:
(+): Self-Consciousness Scale, optimism (LOT) and beliefs about the changeability of negative moods (CES-D), and the Expectancies for Negative Mood Regulation
(−): ambivalence over emotional expression, depression
TMMS-30 version (recommended by the authors)
TMMS-24 version (widely and internationally adapted and used) [ ]
Translated into several languages
Team-Trait Meta Mood Scale (T-TMMS) [ ]
Schutte Self-Report Inventory (SSRI)
[ ]
Format: questionnaire (five-point Likert)
Num. items: 33
Dimensions and items:
Appraisal and expression of emotion (13)
Regulation of emotion (10)
Utilization of emotion (10)
English
(USA)
Internal consistency:
= 0.90
Test–retest:
= 0.78 (after 2 weeks)
Internal structure:
Principal-components analysis
Convergent:
(+): attention to feelings and mood repair (TMMS), optimism (LOT), and openness to experience (BFP)
(−): pessimism (LOT), TAS, ZDS, and BIS
Predictive:
Therapist scored significantly higher than prisoners, and scores significantly predicted grade point average at the end of the year of college students
Modified version by Austin et al. [ ]
Brief version-10 items by Davies et al. [ ]
Translated into several languages
Validation for pre-service physical education teachers [ ]
Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS)
[ ]
Format: scale
Num. items: 402
Dimensions and items:
Perceiving emotion (186)
Assimilating emotion (88)
Understanding emotion (80)
Managing emotion (48)
English
(USA)
Internal consistency:
= 0.49–0.94
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Exploratory factor analysis
Content:
Scoring evaluated by consensus, experts, and target
Translated into several languages
Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT)
[ ]
Format: test (five-point Likert and multiple-choice items with correct or incorrect answers)
Num. items: 141
Dimensions and items:
Perceiving and identifying emotions
Facilitation of thought
Understanding emotions
Managing emotions
English
(USA)
Internal consistency:
= 0.76–0.91 for the four branch scores for both methods
Split-half = 0.93 and 0.91 for
consensus and expert scoring, respectively
Test–retest:
= 0.55–0.88 (after 3 weeks)
Content:
The scoring is evaluated by consensus, and experts
MSCEIT Revised Version (MSCEIT 2.0)
MSCEIT Youth Version (MSCEIT-YV)Translated into several languages
Traditional Chinese version (MSCEIT-TC) for people with schizophrenia [ ]
Profile of Emotional Intelligence (PIEMO)
[ ]
Format: inventory (true and false answer options)
Num. items: 161
Dimensions and items:
Impulse inhibition (25)
Empathy (17)
Optimism (28)
Social skills (16)
Emotional expression (14)
Achievement’s acknowledgement (23)
Self-esteem (27)
Kindness (11)
Spanish
(Mexico)
Internal consistency:
= 0.96
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Confirmatory factor analysis
Content:
Experts asked about the items
Wong and Law’s Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS)
[ ]
Format: scale (7-point Likert)
Num. items: 16
Dimensions and items:
Self-emotional appraisal (4)
Others’ emotional appraisal (4)
Regulation of emotion (4)
Use of emotion (4)
English
(China)
Internal consistency:
= 0.76–0.89
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Exploratory factor analysis
Convergent:
(+): EQ-i
Discriminant:
Not correlated with BFP
Translated into several languagesKorean version for Nurses [ ]
Workgroup Emotional Intelligence Profile-3 (WEIP-3)
[ ]
Format: scale (7-point Likert)
Num. items: 27
Dimensions and items:
Awareness of own emotions
Ability to discuss own emotions
Ability to use own emotions to facilitate thinking
Ability to recognise others’ emotions
Ability to detect false displays of emotion in others
Empathetic concern
Ability to manage others’ emotions
English
(Australia)
Internal consistency:
= 0.86
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Exploratory factor analysis
Convergent:
(+): Revised Self-Monitoring Scale, TMMS, IRI, and JABRI
Workgroup Emotional
Intelligence Profile-Short version (WEIP-S)
Later versions
Translated into few languages
Spanish version of the short version (WEIP-S) in the sports context [ ]
Multidimensional Emotional Intelligence Assessment (MEIA)
[ ]
Format: scale (6-point Likert)
Num. items: 150
Dimensions and items:
Recognition of emotion in the self
Nonverbal emotional expression
Recognition of emotion in others
Empathy
Regulation of emotion in the self
Regulation of emotion in others
Intuition versus reason
Creative thinking
Mood redirected attention
Motivating emotions
English
(USA)
Internal consistency:
= 0.81
Test–retest:
= 0.67–0.88 (after 4–6 weeks)
Internal structure:
Principal component analysis
Convergent:
(+/−): JPI-R
Content:
Retained only items judged a priori as representing a particular construct
Criterion:
(+): three satisfaction measures are consistent with the corresponding reported results for other self-report EI scales
Multidimensional Emotional Intelligence Assessment —Workplace (MEIA-W)Multidimensional Emotional Intelligence Assessment—Workplace—Revised (MEIA-W-R; 2006, unpublished)
Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (EmIn)
[ ]
Format: scale (4-point Likert)
Num. items: 40
Dimensions and items:
Interpersonal EI
Intrapersonal EI
Russian
(Russia)
Internal consistency:
= 0.76–0.78
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Factor analysis
Sojo and Steinkopf Emotional Intelligence Inventory—Revised version (IIESS-R)
[ ]
Format: inventory
Num. items: 34
Dimensions and items:
Perception of emotions in other people (11)
Perception of own emotions (11)
Emotion management (12)
Spanish
(Venezuela)
Internal consistency:
= 0.90
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Exploratory factor analysis
Principal component analysis
Convergent:
(+/−): IRI, and Scale of Emotional Sensitivity
Content:
Content of items reviewed by expert judges
Self-Rated Emotional Intelligence Scale (SREIS)
[ ]
Format: scale (five-point Likert)
Num. items: 19
Dimensions and items:
Perceiving emotions (4)
Using emotions (3)
Understanding emotions (4)
Managing emotions (8)
English
(USA)
Internal consistency:
= 0.84
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Confirmatory factor analysis
Content:
Before the administration, graduate students familiar with Mayer and Salovey’s (1997) model of EI rated the validity of each item
Emotional Intelligence Self-Description Inventory (EISDI)
[ ]
Format: inventory (7-point Likert)
Num. items: 24
Dimensions and items:
Perception and appraisal of emotions (6)
Facilitating thinking with emotions (6)
Understanding emotion (6)
Regulation and management of emotion (6)
English
(USA)
Internal consistency:
= 0.91
Test–retest:
= 0.75–0.83 (after 2 weeks)
Internal structure:
Confirmatory factor analysis
Convergent:
(+): WLEIS and SREIS
(+/−): BFP
Discriminant:
Acceptable discriminant validity vis-à-vis the Big Five Personality variables because of the criticism from scholars that EI is “little more than a repackaging of personality characteristics”
Greek Emotional Intelligence Scale (GEIS)
[ ]
Format: scale
Num. items: 52
Dimensions and items:
Expression and recognition of emotions (15)
Control of emotions (15)
Use of emotions for facilitating thinking (12)
Caring and empathy (10)
Greek
(Greece)
Internal consistency:
= 0.89
Test–retest:
= 0.90 (after 2 weeks)
Internal structure:
Principal component analysis
Convergent:
(+/−): BFP, SSRI, TAS, TMMS, SSI, EES, SWLS, PANAS, Locus of Control, and ASSET
Situational Test of Emotion Management (STEM)
[ ]
Format: test (multiple-choice/rate the extent)
Num. items: 44 items
Dimensions and items:
Anger (18)
Sadness (14)
Fear (12)
English
(Australia)
Internal consistency:
= 0.68 (multiple choice)
= 0.92 (rate the extent)
Test–retest:
None
Convergent:
(+): multiple-choice STEM with Vocabulary test, agreeableness (OCEANIC-20), and retrospective (SWLS)
(−): externally oriented thinking (TAS-20)
Criterion:
(+): multiple-choice STEM with psychology grade, and weighted average mark
Situational Test of Emotional Management-brief version
Translated into few languages
STEM-B in Chinese context [ ]
Situational Test of Emotional Understanding (STEU)
[ ]
Format: test (multiple-choice items)
Num. items: 42
Dimensions and items:
Context-reduced (14)
Personal-life context (14)
Workplace context (14)
English
(Australia)
Internal consistency:
= 0.71
Test–retest:
None
Convergent:
(+): STEM (multiple choice and rate the extent; Stories (MEIS), Vocabulary test, and agreeableness (OCEANIC-20)
(−): externally oriented thinking (TAS-20)
Criterion:
(+): psychology grade, and weighted average mark
Situational Test of Emotional Understanding-brief version
Translated into few languages
STEU-B in Chinese context [ ]
Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ)
[ ]
Format: questionnaire (five-point Likert)
Num. items: 45
Dimensions and items:
Perceive and understand emotions (15)
Express and label emotions (14)
Manage and regulate emotions (16)
Croatian
(Croatia)
Internal consistency:
= 0.67–0.90
Test–retest:
None
Internal Structure:
Confirmatory factor analysis
Convergent:
(+): SSRI, SSI, and BFP
(−): TAS
Translated into several languagesPortuguese academic context [ ]
Audiovisual Test of Emotional Intelligence (AVEI)
[ ]
Format: test (multiple-choice items with correct or incorrect answers)
Num. items: 27
Dimensions and items:
Love
Pride
Shame
Anger
Frustration
Happiness
Care
Fear
Satisfaction
Anger
Sadness
Envy
English
(Israel)
Intraclass correlation:
ICC = 0.65
Test–retest:
None
Content:
Experts asked about the items
Criterion:
(+): academic achievement, psychometric exam score, clinical practice grade, and interpersonal skill workshop grade (measures that are traditionally considered to be proxies of cognitive mental abilities)
Geneva Emotion Recognition Test (GERT)
[ ]
Format: test (forced-choice format)
Num. items: 83
Dimensions and items:
Amusement (6)
Irritation (6)
Anger (6)
Joy (6)
Disgust (6)
Fear (6)
Despair (5)
Pleasure (6)
Pride (6)
Relief (6)
Anxiety (6)
Surprise (6)
Interest (6)
Sadness (6)
German
(Germany)
IRT parameters ( = 0.92)
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Comparative factor analysis
Ecological:
Multimodal stimuli; videos portrayed by 10 actors, men and women, and of different ages
Construct:
Women scored significantly higher than men
Geneva Emotion Recognition Test short version (GERT-S)
Translated into few languages
Geneva Emotional Competence Test (GECo) workplace context [ ]
Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE)
[ ]
Format: test (five-point Likert)
Num. items: 24
Dimensions and items:
Perception (6)
Understanding (6)
Facilitation (6)
Management (6)
Polish
(Poland)
Internal consistency:
= 0.88
Test–retest:
None
Convergent:
(+): SSRI and SIE-T
Discriminant:
Not correlated with NEO-FFI
Construct:
Women scored significantly higher than men
Videotest of Emotion Recognition
[ ]
Format: test (6-point Likert)
Num. items: 15
Dimensions and items:
Anger (1)
Displeasure (1)
Relaxation (1)
Arousal (1)
Surprise (1)
Suffering (1)
Contempt (1)
Happiness (1)
Shame (1)
Fear (1)
Anxiety (1)
Calmness (1)
Disgust (1)
Guilt (1)
Interest (1)
Russian
(Russia)
Internal consistency:
= 0.74
Test–retest:
= 0.55
Convergent:
(+): MSCEIT and EmIn
Self-Perception of Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (EIQ-SP)
[ ]
Format: questionnaire (five-point Likert)
Num. items: 18
Dimensions and items:
Perception, evaluation and emotional expression (4)
Emotional facilitation of thought (5)
Emotional understanding and analysis (6)
Emotion regulation (3)
Portuguese
(Portugal)
Internal consistency:
= 0.70–0.77
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Exploratory factor analysis
Confirmatory factor analysis
Three-Branch Emotional Intelligence Forced-Choice Assessment (TEIFA)
[ ]
Format: forced-choice assessment
Num. items: 18
Dimensions and items:
Emotion perception (6)
Emotion understanding (6)
Emotion management (6)
English
(USA)
Reliability of TEIFA is not reported as reliability for forced-choice tests is artificially highInternal structure:
Confirmatory factor analysis
Convergent:
(+/−): SSRI
Three-Branch Emotional Intelligence Rating Scale Assessment (TEIRA)
[ ]
Format: scale (6-point Likert)
Num. items: 18
Dimensions and items:
Emotion perception (6)
Emotion understanding (6)
Emotion management (6)
English
(USA)
Internal consistency:
= 0.79–0.90
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Confirmatory factor analysis
Convergent:
(+): STEU-B, STEM-B and SREIS
North Dakota Emotional Abilities Test (NEAT)
[ ]
Format: test (rate-the-extent)
Num. items: 30
Dimensions and items:
Perception (10)
Understanding (10)
Management (10)
English
(USA)
Internal consistency:
= 0.74–0.90
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Confirmatory factor analysis
Predictive:
NEAT scores predicted the ability to decode facial expressions of emotion, the ability to assign accurate evaluations to word stimuli, and the ability to make judgments consistent with appraisal theories of emotion
Convergent:
(+): DANVA 2-AF, STEU and STEM
Perceived Emotional Intelligence Inventory (IIEP)
[ ]
Format: inventory (five-point Likert)
Num. items: 101
Dimensions and items:
Emotional attention (interpersonal) (21)
Emotional understanding (intrapersonal) (20)
Emotional regulation (intrapersonal) (22)
Emotional attention (intrapersonal) (13)
Emotional understanding and regulation (interpersonal) (13)
Emotional expression (12)
Spanish
(Argentina)
Internal consistency:
= 0.81–0.93
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Exploratory factor analysis
Content:
Judges asked to classify each item according to the dimensions evaluated, judge each item considering its relevance and formal quality, and make all necessary observations and suggestions in order to improve them
Mobile Emotional Intelligence Test (MEIT)
[ ]
Format: test (different tasks)
Num. items: 42
Dimensions and items:
Perceiving emotions
Understanding emotions
Managing emotions
Spanish
(Spain)
Internal consistency:
= 0.91
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Confirmatory factor analysis
Convergent:
(+): TMMS-24, RAVEN and SWLS
Emotional Intelligence Test (EIT)
[ ]
Format: test
Num. items:
Dimensions and items:
Perceiving emotions
Facilitation of thought using emotions
Understating and analyzing emotions
Conscious managing of emotions
Russian
(Russia)
Internal consistency:
= 0.93
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Factor analysis
Convergent:
(+): MSCEIT 2.0
Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i)
[ ]
Format: inventory (five-point Likert)
Num. items: 133
Dimensions and items:
Intrapersonal
Interpersonal
Adaptability
Stress management
General mood
English
(USA)
Internal consistency:
= 0.75–0.84
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Principal component analysis
Construct:
(+): measures of emotional stability
(−): measures of neuroticism and psychopathology
EQ-i: Short Version (EQ-i: S)
EQ-i 2.0
EQ-i: 360° Version (EQ-i: 360°)
EQ-i: Youth Version (EQ-i: YV) and EQ-i: Youth Short Version (EQ-i: YVS)
Translated into more than 30 languages
EQ-i: YV in Spanish adolescents with Down syndrome [ ]
Emotional Competence Inventory 2.0, (ECI 2.0, previously ECI)
[ ]
Format: inventory (6-point Likert)
Num. items: 72
Dimensions and items:
Self-awareness (18)
Self-management (18)
Social awareness (18)
Relationship management (18)
English
(USA)
Internal consistency for “others” ratings:
= 0.78
Internal consistency for “self” ratings:
= 0.63
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Confirmatory factor analysis
ECI (older version)
ECI-University Version (ECI-U)
Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (EIQ)
[ ]
Format: questionnaire
Num. items: 69
Dimensions and items:
Self-awareness (12)
Emotional resilience (11)
Motivation (10)
Interpersonal sensitivity (12)
Influence (10)
Decisiveness (7)
Conscientiousness and integrity (7)
English
(UK)
Internal consistency:
= 0.70–0.59
Split-half = 0.52–0.71
Test–retest:
None
Face:
Adverse comments not received and many subjects said that the questionnaire was measuring EI
Content:
Extensive literature revised about aspects of EI
Construct:
(+/−): 16PF, OPQ, and BTR
Predictive:
EQ competences scale predicted organisational level advancement over a seven-year period
Emotional Intelligence Inventory
[ ]
Format: inventory (7-point Likert)
Num. items: 61
Dimensions and items:
Emotionality and impulsiveness (15)
Self-acceptance (5)
Problem-solving orientation (6)
Self- awareness (6)
Self-confidence (4)
Decisiveness and independence (7)
Personal fulfilment (4)
Empathy (4)
Anxiety and stress (7)
Assertiveness (3)
English
(India)
Internal consistency:
= 0.76–0.78
Test–retest:
None
Predictive:
(+): several scales and number of promotions attained and rated job success
Emotional Intelligence Appraisal (EIA)
[ ]
Format: test (6-point Likert)
Num. items: 28
Dimensions and items:
Self-awareness (6)
Social awareness (5)
Self-management (9)
Relationship management (8)
English
(USA)
Internal consistency:
= 0.85–0.91
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Principal component analysis
Content:
Experts asked about the items
Me Edition (online self-report version)
MR Edition (online multi-rater method with combination of responses from co-workers)
Team EQ Edition (anonymous ratings from multiple individuals to yield an EQ score for the entire team)
Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS)
[ ]
Format: scale (4-point Likert)
Num. items: 23
Dimensions and items:
Self-management and creativity
Social capacity
Emotional self-awareness
English
(Norway)
Internal consistency:
= 0.93
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Exploratory factor analysis
Content:
Tested by means of expert evaluation
USM Emotional Quotient Inventory (USMEQ-i)
[ ]
Format: inventory (five-point Likert)
Num. items: 46
Dimensions and items:
Emotional control
Emotional maturity
Emotional conscientiousness
Emotional awareness
Emotional commitment
Emotional fortitude
Emotional expression
Malaysian
(Malaysia)
Internal consistency:
= 0.96
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Factor analysis
Indigenous Scale of Emotional Intelligence [ ]Format: scale (4-point Likert)
Num. items: 56
Dimensions and items:
Interpersonal skill (8)
Self-regard (6)
Assertiveness (7)
Emotional self-awareness (5)
Empathy (5)
Impulse control (5)
Flexibility (5)
Problem solving (5)
Stress tolerance (5)
Optimism (5)
Urdu
(Pakistan)
Internal consistency:
= 0.95
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Principal component analysis
Construct:
Women scored significantly higher than men
Convergent:
(+): EQ-i
Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue)
[ ]
Format: questionnaire (five-point Likert)
Num. items: 153
Dimensions and items:
Emotionality
Self-control
Sociality
Well-being
English
(UK)
Internal consistency:
= 0.89–0.92
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Principal component analysis
Convergent:
(+): BFP
TEIQue Short Form (TEIQue-SF)
TEIQue-360° and 360°-SF
TEIQue Adolescent Form (TEIQue-AF) and TEIQue-ASF
TEIQue Child Form (TEIQue-CF)
Translated into several languages
Spanish-Chilean short form [ ]
Rotterdam Emotional Intelligence Scale (REIS)
[ ]
Format: scale (five-point Likert)
Num. items: 28
Dimensions and items:
Self-focused emotion appraisal (7)
Other-focused emotion appraisal (7)
Self-focused emotion regulation (7)
Other-focused emotion regulation (7)
Dutch
(Netherlands)
Internal consistency:
= 0.80–0.85
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Confirmatory factor analysis
Convergent:
(+): WEIS, TEIQue, and PEC
Criterion:
(−): self-focused emotion regulation with tutors’ perceived stress
(+): other-focused emotion regulation with tutors’ work engagement, jobseekers’ other-rated interview performance and leaders’ transformational leadership style
Genos Emotional Intelligence Inventory (previously SUIET)
[ ]
Format: inventory (five-point Likert)
Num. items: 70
Dimensions and items:
Emotional self-awareness (10)
Emotional expression (10)
Emotional awareness of others (10)
Emotional reasoning (10)
Emotional self-management (10)
Emotional management of others (10)
Emotional self-control (10)
English
(Australia)
Internal consistency:
= 0.96
Test–retest:
= 0.83 (after 2 month)
= 0.72 (after 6 month)
Internal Structure:
Confirmatory factor analysis
Convergent:
(+): SUEIT and TMMS
Predictive:
(+): performance (i.e., sales revenue) in a sample of pharmaceutical sales representatives
31-item Concise Version
14-item Short Version
Profile of Emotional Competence (PEC)
[ ]
Format: scale (five-point Likert)
Num. items: 50
Dimensions and items:
Intrapersonal emotional competence (25)
Interpersonal emotional competence (25)
French
(France)
Internal consistency:
= 0.93
Test–retest:
None
Convergent:
(+): TEIQue-SF
Criterion:
(+): happiness, subjective health, social relationships, and positive affectivity
(−): negative affectivity
Divergent:
Not correlated with general cognitive ability
Translated into few languagesFrench short version for cancer patients [ ]
Group-level Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire
[ ]
Format: questionnaire (five-point Likert)
Num. items: 36
Dimensions and items:
Group learning ability (11)
Emotional capability (9)
Performance (5)
Relationship capability (9)
New member conformity (2)
English
(USA)
Internal consistency:
= 0.80
Test–retest:
None
Internal structure:
Exploratory factor analysis
Confirmatory factor analysis

TMMS: Trait Meta-Mood Scale, LOT: Life Orientation Test, CES-D: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; SSRI: Schutte Self-Report Inventory, BFP: Big Five Personality, TAS: Toronto Alexithymia Scale, ZDS: Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, BIS: Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; MEIS: Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale; MSCEIT: Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, MSCEIT 2.0: Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Revised Version, MSCEIT-YV: Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Youth Version, MSCEIT-TC: Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Chinese Version; PIEMO: Profile of Emotional Intelligence; WLEIS: Wong and Law’s Emotional Intelligence Scale, EQ-i: Emotional Quotient Inventory; WEIP-3: Workgroup Emotional Intelligence Profile-3, WEIP-S: Workgroup Emotional Intelligence Profile-Short Version, IRI: Interpersonal Reactivity Index, JABRI: Job Associate-Bisociate Review Index; MEIA: Multidimensional Emotional Intelligence Assessment, JPI-R: Jackson Personality Inventory-Revised, MEIA-W: Multidimensional Emotional Intelligence Assessment-Workplace, MEIA-W-R: Multidimensional Emotional Intelligence Assessment-Workplace-Revised; EmIn: Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire; IIESS-R: Sojo and Steinkopf Emotional Intelligence Inventory-Revised Version; SREIS: Self-Rated Emotional Intelligence Scale; EISDI: Emotional Intelligence Self-Description Inventory; GEIS: Greek Emotional Intelligence Scale, SSI: Social Skills Inventory, EES: Emotion Empathy Scale, SWLS: Satisfaction with Life Scale, PANAS: Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, ASSET: An Organisational Stress Screening Tool; STEM: Situational Test of Emotion Management; OCEANIC-20: Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism Index Condensed 20-item version, STEM-B: Situational Test of Emotion Management-Brief Version; STEU: Situational Test of Emotional Understanding, STEU-B: Situational Test of Emotional Understanding-Brief Version; ESCQ: Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire; AVEI: Audiovisual Test of Emotional Intelligence; GERT: Geneva Emotion Recognition Test, GERT-S: Geneva Emotion Recognition Test-Short Version, GECo: Geneva Emotional Competence Test; TIE: Test of Emotional Intelligence, SIE-T: Emotional Intelligence Scale-Faces, NEO-FFI: NEO Five-Factor Inventory; EIQ-SP: Self-Perception of Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire; TEIFA: Three-Branch Emotional Intelligence Forced-Choice Assessment; TEIRA: Three-Brach Emotional Intelligence Rating Scale Assessment; NEAT: North Dakota Emotional Abilities Test, DANVA 2-AF: Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy-Adult Faces; IIEP: Perceived Emotional Intelligence Inventory; MEIT: Mobile Emotional Intelligence Test; RAVEN: Raven’s Progressive Matrices; EIT: Emotional Intelligence Test; EQ-i: S: Emotional Quotient Inventory Short Version, EQ-i: 2.0: Emotional Quotient Inventory Revised Version, EQ-i: 360°: Emotional Quotient Inventory-360-degree version; EQ-i: YV: Emotional Quotient Inventory-Youth Version, EQ-i: YVS: Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Short Version; ECI 2.0: Emotional Competence Inventory 2.0, ECI-U: Emotional Competence Inventory University Version; EIQ: Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire; 16PF: Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, OPQ: Occupational Personality Questionnaire, BTR: Belbin Team Roles; EIA: Emotional Intelligence Appraisal; EIS: Emotional Intelligence Scale; USMEQ-I: USM Emotional Quotient Inventory; TEIQue: Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, TEIQue-SF: Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form, TEIQue-360°: Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-360-degree version, TEIQue-AF: Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Adolescent Form, TEIQue-CF: Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form; REIS: Rotterdam Emotional Intelligence Scale, PEC: Profile of Emotional Competence.

3.1. Ability-Based Measures

The first category includes those instruments based on the ability-based model, mainly on that of Mayer and Salovey [ 4 ]. The first instrument created under this conceptualization is the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS) [ 30 ], a self-report scale designed to assess people’s beliefs about their own emotional abilities. It measures three key aspects of perceived EI: attention to feelings, emotional clarity and repair of emotions. It presents a very good reliability [ 80 ] and convergent validity with various instruments, although the authors recommend the use of a later version of 30 items. It also presents a widely used 24-item version [ 31 ] that has been validated in many countries.

Three years later, the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (SSRI) test was developed [ 33 ]. This questionnaire is answered through a five-point Likert scale and is composed of one factor that is divided into three categories: appraisal and expression of emotion in the self and others, regulation of emotion in the self and others and utilization of emotions in solving problems. It shows excellent internal consistency. It presents negative correlations with instruments that measure alexithymia, depression and impulsivity among others, which confirms its convergent validity. There is a modified version [ 34 ] and an abbreviated version [ 35 ], and it has been translated into many languages.

The Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS) [ 37 ] is another tool developed by the authors that originally defined and conceptualized EI. The MEIS is a scale made up of 12 different tasks that contains 402 items and it has been translated into several languages. However, it has strong limitations such as its length and the low internal consistency offered by some of the tasks (e.g., “blends” and “progressions”; α = 0.49 and 0.51, respectively). These authors developed, years later, the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) [ 38 ]. The items developed for the MEIS served as the starting point for the MSCEIT. This measure is composed of a five-point Likert scale and multiple response items with correct and incorrect options, which comprise eight tasks. Each of the four dimensions is assessed through two tasks. It presents an adequate internal consistency. It currently has a revised version by the same authors, and another validated in a young population. In addition, it has been translated into many languages. This instrument has detractors. Its convergent validity has been questioned since no correlation has been found between the emotional perception scale of MSCEIT and other emotional perception tests [ 81 ]. As can be seen in Table 1 , the MSCEIT has two different approaches to construct the score (consensus score and expert score). In the case of EI, it is difficult to classify an answer as correct or incorrect, so if a person responds in a different way to the experts or the average, it might mean that they have low emotional capacity or present a different way of thinking [ 81 ].

In the same year, three more instruments based on this conceptualization were developed in different countries. The first one, the Profile of Emotional Intelligence (PIEMO) [ 40 ] is an inventory developed in Mexico. Their items consist of a statement that represents a paradigmatic behaviour trait of EI with true and false answers. It is composed of eight independent dimensions that together constitute a profile. Its internal consistency is excellent and its validity has been tested by a confirmatory factor analysis and expert consultations on the items.

The second instrument is Wong and Law’s Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) [ 41 ]. It was developed in China to measure EI in a brief way in leadership and management studies. It has an adequate internal consistency and has positive correlations with the TMMS and the EQ-i. Subsequent studies have shown its predictive validity in relation to life satisfaction, happiness or psychological well-being, and its criteria’s validity with respect to personal well-being. Measurement equivalence of scores in different ethnic and gender groups has also been tested [ 82 ]. It has been translated into a multitude of languages and it is currently one of the most widely used instruments.

The third instrument is the Workgroup Emotional Intelligence Profile-3 (WEIP-3) [ 43 ]. It is a scale designed in Australia as a self-report to measure the EI of people in work teams. It has very good internal consistency and presents correlations with several instruments that prove its convergent validity. The authors made a particularly interesting finding in their study. Teams that scored lower in the WEIP-3 performed at lower levels in their work than those with high EI. This instrument has a short version and has been translated into different languages.

The Multidimensional Emotional Intelligence Assessment (MEIA) [ 45 ] was developed in the USA. The authors state that the test takes only 20 min. It has very good internal consistency. Its validity has been tested in different ways. Content validity was tested by independent experts who considered each element as representative of its target scale. Convergent validity was tested by significant correlations between the scores and personality tests. Finally, the lack of correlation between the MEIA and theoretically unrelated personality tests proved the divergent validity. It has a version for the work context.

The Sojo and Steinkopf Emotional Intelligence Inventory—Revised version (IIESS-R) [ 47 ] was developed in Venezuela to measure the three dimensions that compose it. It presents 34 phrases that describe the reactions of people with high EI, as well as contrary behaviours. It has excellent internal consistency and its content has been validated through expert judgment. It shows correlations with some scales of similar instruments and its internal structure has been tested by exploratory analysis and PCA.

In the original article of the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (EmIn), created for the Russian population [ 46 ], its author proposes his own model of ability-based EI that differs in some aspects from that proposed by Mayer and Salovey. Accordingly, he designed a questionnaire to measure the participants’ beliefs about their emotional abilities under this model. It is composed of two dimensions answered using a 4-point Likert scale. Their scales have a good internal consistency, but their validity has not been tested beyond the factor analysis of its internal structure. Years later, this same author developed the Videotest of Emotion Recognition [ 59 ], an instrument that uses videos as stimuli. It was also designed in Russia to obtain precision indexes in the recognition of the types of emotions, as well as the sensitivity and intensity of the observed emotions. It has 15 scales that measure through a single item each of the emotions recorded by the instrument. Its internal consistency is good. It is correlated with MSCEIT and EmIn, which proves its convergent validity.

Another instrument based on the Mayer and Salovey model is the Self-Rated Emotional Intelligence Scale (SREIS) [ 49 ]. It was developed throughout three studies that used the MSCEIT as a comparison. The first one did not show a very high correlation between the scores of both tools. In the second one, only men’s MSCEIT scores correlated with perceived social competence after personality measures remained constant. Finally, in the third only MSCEIT predicted social competence, but only for males again. Internal consistency was also not consistent throughout the three studies, as the α yielded values were 0.84, 0.77, and 0.66, respectively. Its internal structure was tested by a confirmatory factor analysis and the content of each item was validated by the judgment of students familiar with the Mayer and Salovey model. It has been translated into several languages.

The Emotional Intelligence Self-Description Inventory (EISDI) [ 49 ] is also a short instrument, consisting of four dimensions designed to assess EI in the workplace. It has an excellent internal consistency. It presents correlations with instruments such as the WLEIS and the SREIS and a discriminant validity with the Big Five Personality. The same year, the Greek Emotional Intelligence Scale (GEIS) [ 51 ] was developed in Greek to assess four basic dimensions of EI. Its internal consistency is very good, as well as its test–retest value. Its internal structure was verified by a PCA, and its convergent and divergent validity were tested by a series of studies with 12 different instruments.

MacCann and Roberts [ 51 ] developed two instruments to assess EI according to the ability-based model: the Situational Test of Emotion Management (STEM) and the Situational Test of Emotional Understanding (STEU). Both are made up of three dimensions and a similar number of items. The first one measures the management of emotions such as anger, sadness and fear, and it can be administered in two formats: multiple choice response and rate-the-extent (i.e., test takers rate the appropriateness, strength, or extent of each alternative, rather than selecting the correct alternative). The STEU presents a series of situations about context-reduced, personal-life context, and workplace-context, which provoke a main emotion that is the correct answer to be chosen by the participant among other incorrect ones. Both instruments have similar internal consistency for the multiple response format, while for the rate-the-extent format it is much higher. Both present criteria and convergent validity and have an abbreviated version.

The Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ) [ 53 ] is an instrument developed in Croatia that measures EI through three basic dimensions using a five-point Likert scale. The subscales have a reliability that varies between good an excellent, and they correlate with other EI and personality instruments. The ESCQ has been translated into several languages.

The Audiovisual Test of Emotional Intelligence (AVEI) [ 55 ] is an Israeli instrument aimed at educational settings related to care-centred professions. Their items are developed from primary and secondary emotions, both positive and negative. Each one consists of short videos generated by researchers with training in psychology and visual arts. People should choose the correct answer among 10 alternatives and it takes between 12 and 18 min to be completed. It requires computers equipped with audio. The internal consistency was calculated using ICC coefficients. It has content validations through expert consultations on the items and criteria since it correlates with measures traditionally related to EI.

The Geneva Emotion Recognition Test (GERT) [ 57 ] is a German test composed of 14 scales. The stimuli are, as in the AVEI, short image and audio videos recorded by five men and five women of different ages. Thus, people must choose which of the 14 emotions is being expressed by the actors, with the responses labelled as correct or incorrect. The reliability of the test is considered excellent, and the ecological and construct validity of the instrument has been tested.

The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) [ 58 ] is developed in Poland. It consists of the same four dimensions as the MSCEIT. After providing participants with different emotional problems, they should indicate which emotion is most likely to occur or choose the most appropriate action. The score is based on expert judgment. It has a very good internal consistency. It has convergent validity since it correlates with the SSEIT and has construct since women scored higher than men.

The Self-Perception of Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (EIQ-SP) [ 60 ] is an instrument designed in Portugal and composed of the four dimensions belonging to the Mayer and Salovey’s ability-based model. Their scales have good internal consistency and are correlated with each other.

The Three-Branch Emotional Intelligence Rating Scale Assessment (TEIRA) [ 61 ] and the Three-Branch Emotional Intelligence Forced-Choice Assessment (TEIFA) [ 61 ] were developed in 2015. The first is made up of three scales and is answered by a six-point Likert scale. It presents internal consistency between good and excellent and convergent validity with STEU-B and STEM-B. On the other hand, TEIFA presents a format of forced choice in order to avoid the problem of social desirability in the rating scales. In this format, participants must choose among several positive statements and therefore they cannot simply rate themselves highly on everything (e.g., “Which one is more like you: I know why my emotions change or I manage my emotions well”). It consists of the same items and dimensions as the TEIRA. The study does not report the reliability of TEIFA, as the reliability of the forced-choice tests is artificially high. It presents convergent validity with the SSRI.

A year later, the North Dakota Emotional Abilities Test (NEAT) [ 62 ] was developed in the USA to assess the ability to perceive, understand and control emotions in the workplace. It contains items that describe scenarios of work environments, in which the person must rate the extent of certain emotions that the protagonist would experience in a certain situation. The internal consistency of its scales varies between good and excellent and its internal structure has been tested by a confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, the predictive validity of the instrument has also been tested.

The Inventory of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (IIEP) [ 63 ] was developed in Argentina. It measures different components of intrapersonal and interpersonal EI. This inventory is answered using a five-point Likert scale and it has reliable dimensions. Its content validity has been tested through consultations with judges to evaluate the items.

The last of the instruments in this category is the Emotional Intelligence Test (EIT) [ 65 ]. It was developed in Russia and has four dimensions that assess EI in the workplace. It has excellent internal consistency and convergent validity tested by correlations with the MSCEIT 2.0. No information regarding the items that compose it has been found.

3.2. Measures Based on the Mixed Model

The second category includes those instruments based on the mixed EI model, mainly the Bar-On model [ 7 ] and the Goleman model [ 8 ]. The first instrument of this model is the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) [ 7 ]. Its author was the first to define EI as a mixed concept between ability and personality trait. It is a self-report measure of behaviour that provides an estimate of EI and social intelligence. Their items are composed of short sentences that are answered using a five-point Likert scale. It takes about 30 min to complete, so other shorter versions have been developed, as well as a 360-degree version and a version for young people. It has been translated into more than 30 languages. It has an internal consistency between good and very good and its construct validity has been tested by correlations with other variables.

Emotional Competence Inventory 2.0 (ECI 2.0) [ 67 ], also called ESCI, is a widely used instrument. It was developed in the USA by another of the authors who conceptualized the mixed model of EI. It was designed in a 360-degree version to assess the emotional competencies of individuals and organizations. The internal consistency of others’ ratings is good, while that of oneself is questionable, and it shows positive correlations with constructs related to the work environment. It has a version for university students and has been translated into several languages.

The Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (EIQ) [ 68 ] is another tool designed to measure EI in the workplace. It has face, content, construct, and predictive validity, although the internal consistency of its scales varies between good and not very acceptable. Years later, the Emotional Intelligence Inventory [ 69 ] was developed in India. It was also designed to measure EI using a mixed concept in the workplace. It is made up of 10 dimensions, which have an internal consistency between acceptable and excellent. It has correlations with several related scales and with the number of promotions achieved and success in employment, which is proof of its predictive validity.

The Emotional Intelligence Appraisal (EIA) [ 70 ] is a set of surveys that measures EI in the workplace using the four main components of the Goleman model. Their items have been evaluated by experts. It has an internal consistency between very good and excellent. It has three versions: an online self-report, an online multi-rater report (which is combined with responses from co-workers), and another one that has anonymous ratings from several people to get an EI score for the whole team. The Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS) [ 71 ] is another tool based on the Goleman model. It is composed of three dimensions and it has excellent internal consistency. The content of the items has been validated by expert evaluations.

The USM Emotional Quotient Inventory (USMEQ-i) [ 72 ] is a tool developed in Malaysia. It consists of a total of seven dimensions composed of 46 items. Seven of these items make up the “faking index items”, that measure the tendency of respondents to manifest social desirability and have a very good internal consistency ( α = 0.83). The reliability of the total instrument yields excellent values.

The Indigenous Scale of Emotional Intelligence [ 73 ] is a Pakistani instrument developed in the Urdu language. The final items were selected from an initial set after passing through the judgment of four experts based on the fidelity to the construct: clarity, redundancy, reliability, and compression. It has excellent internal consistency. Additionally, it presents construct validity (as women obtain higher scores than men) and correlations with the EQ-i.

Years later, the Mobile Emotional Intelligence Test (MEIT) was developed [ 64 ]. It is a Spanish instrument used to measure EI online in work contexts. It is made up of seven tasks (perceptive tasks and identification tasks) to assess the emotional perception of both others and oneself, respectively, face task, in which the most appropriate photograph related to the demanded emotion must be chosen, three comprehension tasks (composition, deduction and retrospective), and story task, in which participants must choose the best action to manage feelings in a given story. It presents excellent internal consistency and convergent validity.

3.3. Trait-Based Measures

This category is composed of trait-based instruments. The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) [ 6 ] is the main instrument of this model. It is a tool widely used in many countries. It has excellent internal consistency and it shows significant correlations with the Big Five Personality. It has a short version, a 360-degree version, a version for children and another one for teenagers. It has been translated into many languages.

Years later, the Rotterdam Emotional Intelligence Scale (REIS) [ 75 ] was developed, the other instrument belonging to this category. It is a self-report instrument designed in Dutch. It has a very good internal consistency and it presents correlations with WEIS, TEIQue and PEC and its validity criterion has also been tested.

3.4. Measures Based on Other Models

Some instruments cannot be included within these categories since they have been conceptualized under different models. The first one is the Genos Emotional Intelligence Inventory [ 76 ], previously known as SUEIT. It is based on an original model. It was specifically designed for use in the workplace, but it does not measure EI per se, but rather the frequency with which people display a variety of emotionally intelligent behaviours in the workplace. It presents very good reliability and convergent and predictive validity. In addition, it has two reduced versions.

The Profile of Emotional Competence (PEC) [ 77 ] is based on the model of Mikolajczak [ 83 ], which replicates the four dimensions proposed by Mayer and Salovey but separates the identification from the expression of the emotions and distinguishes the intrapersonal aspect from the interpersonal aspect of each dimension. It contains two main scales, and has excellent internal consistency and convergent, divergent and criterion validity. The original one was developed in French, but it has been translated into several languages.

The last of the instruments identified is the Group-level Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire [ 79 ]. It was designed in the USA to assess EI in work groups under Ghuman’s theoretical model [ 79 ]. This model conceives EI as a two-component construct: group relationship capability (GRC) and group emotional capability (GEC). All of them have very good internal consistency.

Regarding the framework of the Standards, differences were found among them, resulting in an unequal distribution throughout the articles. The percentages of each type of validity can be seen in Table 2 .

Number of studies and percentages for each validity test.

StudyContentResponse
Processes
Internal StructureRelationship with Other
Variables
Consequences of Testing
Factorial AnalysisReliabilityTest–
Retest
Invariance
Yes11 (27.5%)1 (2.5%)23 (57.5%)40 (100%)7 (17.5%)17 (42.5%)22 (55%)5 (12.5%)
No29 (72.5%)39 (97.5%)17 (42.5%)033 (82.5%)23 (57.5%)18 (45%)35 (87.5%)

The instruments whose original sources could not be retrieved are cited in Table 3 . The main reasons were that they were articles from books to which the authors did not have access, unpublished documents or documents with restricted access.

Information of the non-accessible instruments.

MeasureType of SourceInformation SourceModelDimensions and Items
Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire(UEK-45) [ ]BookMitić, P., Nedeljković, J., Takšić, V., Sporiš, G., Stojiljković, N., & Milčić, L. (2020). Sports performance as a moderator of the relationship between coping strategy and emotional intelligence. Kinesiology, 52(2), 281–289. (accessed on 7 July 2021)UnknownDimensions: 3
Items: 45
Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire
[ ]
BookDaryani, S., Aali, S., Amini, A., & Shareghi, B. (2017). A comparative study of the impact of emotional, cultural, and ethical intelligence of managers on improving bank performance. International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 6, 197–210. (accessed on 7 July 2021)MixedDimensions: 6
Items: unknown
EQ Self-Assessment Checklist
[ ]
BookKumar, A., Puranik, M., & Sowmya, K. (2016). Association between dental students’ emotional intelligence and academic performance: a study at six dental colleges in India. Journal of Dental Education, 80(5), 526–532. (accessed on 8 July 2021)UnknownDimensions: 6
Items: 30
Emotional Intelligence Scale
(EIS) [ ]
BookSingh, S., Mohan, M., & Kumar, R. (2011). Enhancing physical health, psychological health and emotional intelligence through Sahaj Marg Raj yoga meditation practice. Indian Journal of Psychological Science, 2, 89–98. (accessed on 8 July 2021)UnknownDimensions: 10
Items: 34
Test of Emotional Intelligence
(TEMINT) [ ]
Paper presented at a congressJanke, K., Driessen, M., Behnia, B., Wingenfeld, K., & Roepke, S. (2018). Emotional intelligence in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder and healthy controls. Psychiatry Research, 264, 290–296. (accessed on 8 July 2021)AbilityDimensions: unknown
Items: 12
Emotional Intelligence Scale—Faces
(SIE-T) [ ]
Paper of a psychological test laboratoryPiekarska, J. (2020). Determinants of perceived stress in adolescence: the role of personality traits, emotional abilities, trait emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 16(4), 309. (accessed on 8 July 2021)AbilityDimensions: unknown
Items: 18
Test Rozumienia Emocji (TRE) [ ]Peer review articlePiekarska, J. (2020). Determinants of perceived stress in adolescence: the role of personality traits, emotional abilities, trait emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 16(4), 309. (accessed on 9 July 2021)AbilityDimensions: 5
Items: 30
Emotional Intelligence Index
[ ]
Peer review articleVeltro, F., Latte, G., Ialenti, V., Bonanni, E., di Padua, P., & Gigantesco, A. (2020). Effectiveness of psycho-educational intervention to promote mental health focused on emotional intelligence in middle-school. Annali dell’Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 56(1), 66–71. (accessed on 9 July 2021)AbilityDimensions: unknown
Items: 15
Quick Emotional Intelligence Self-Assessment
[ ]
Peer review article (accessed on 9 July 2021)UnknownDimensions: 4
Items: 10
Emotional Maturity Scale [ ]BookIshfaq, N. & Kamal, A. (2018). Translation and validation of Emotional Maturity Scale on juvenile delinquents of Pakistan. Psycho-Lingua, 48(2), 140–148. (accessed on 9 July 2021)UnknownDimensions: 5
Items: 48

4. Discussion

The main aim of this study is to offer an updated systematic review of EI instruments in order to provide researchers and professionals with a list of tools that can be applied in the professional field with their characteristics, psychometric properties and versions, as well as a brief description of the instrument. For this purpose, a systematic review of the scientific literature on EI has been carried out using the WoS database through a search of all articles published between 1900 and the present.

The number of instruments developed has been increasing in recent years. In the 1990s barely any instruments were developed and their production was limited to approximately one per year and to practically one country (i.e., the USA). This may be due to the recent conceptualisation of EI, as well as to the difficulty that researchers found in constructing emotion-centred questions with objective criteria [ 15 ]. However, over the years, the production of instruments to measure EI has been increasing and, in addition, it has been extended to other geographical areas. This may be due to the importance that EI has reached over the years in multiple areas (e.g., health, organizational, educational, etc.). With the passage of time, and the introduction of new technologies, multimedia platforms have begun to be used to present stimuli to participants. Recent research in EI has determined that emotions are expressed and perceived through visual and auditory signals (i.e., the tone of voice and the dynamic movements of the face and body) [ 94 ]. Thus, a meta-analysis revealed that video-based tests tend to have a higher criterion-related validity than text-based stimuli [ 95 ].

Regarding the results, a total of 40 instruments produced from 1995 to 2020 have been located. The instruments registered in a greater number of studies, and that have been most used over the years are EQ-i, SSRI, MSCEIT 2.0, TMMS, WLEIS, and TEIQue. These tools have the largest number of versions (e.g., reduced or for different ages or contexts) and are the ones that have been validated in more languages. The most recent instruments hardly have translations apart from their original version, and they have been tested on very few occasions. Most of the articles have not been developed for a specific context.

On the other hand, as can be seen in the results, most of the instruments are grouped under the three main conceptual models described in the introduction (ability, trait and mixed). These models are vertebrated around the construct of EI. However, they present differences in the way of conceptualizing it and, therefore, also of measuring it. For example, the ability-based concept of EI is measured by maximum performance tests while trait-based EI is measured by self-report questionnaires. This may, in itself, lead to different outcomes, even if the underlying model used is the same [ 96 , 97 ].

The ability model, introduced by Mayer and Salovey, is composed of other hierarchically ordered abilities, in which the understanding and management dimensions involve higher-order cognitive processes (strategic), and are based on perception and facilitation, which involve instantaneous processing of emotional information (experiential) [ 4 ]. This model has received wide recognition and has served as a basis for the development of other models. However, it has been questioned through factor analysis that does not support a hierarchical model with an underlying global EI factor. Furthermore, emotional thought facilitation (second dimension) did not arise as a separate factor and was found to be empirically redundant with the other branches [ 96 ].

Intelligence and personality researchers have questioned the very existence of ability EI, and they suggest that it is nothing more than intelligence. This fact is supported by the high correlations found between ability-based EI and the intellectual quotient [ 15 , 96 ]. On the other hand, there is the possibility of falsifying the results by responding strategically for the purpose of social desirability. However, one of the advantages of the ability model is that, through the maximum performance tests, it is not possible to adulterate them. This is because participants must choose the answer they think is correct to get the highest possible score. Another advantage is that these types of instruments tend to be more attractive because they are made up of tests in which it is required to resolve problems, solve puzzles, perform comprehension tasks or choose images [ 15 ].

The Petrides and Furnham model [ 5 ] emerged as an alternative to the ability-based model and is related to dispositional tendencies, personality traits, or self-efficacy beliefs that are measured by self-report tests. The tools based on this model are not exempt from criticism. These instruments present a number of disadvantages, the most frequently cited are being vulnerability to counterfeiting and social desirability [ 96 ]. The participant can obtain a high EI profile by responding in a strategically and socially desirable way, especially when they are examined in work contexts by supervisors or in job interviews. People are not always good judges of their emotional abilities [ 98 ], and may tend to unintentionally underestimate or overestimate their EI. Another criticism of self-report tools is their ecological validity (i.e., external validity that analyses the test environment and determines how much it influences the results) [ 96 ].

On the contrary, the fact that such tools do not present correct or incorrect answers can be advantageous in certain cases. High EI trait scores are not necessarily adaptive or low maladaptive. That is, self-report tools give rise to emotional profiles that simply fit better and are more advantageous in some contexts than in others [ 97 ]. On the other hand, trait-based tools have demonstrated good incremental validity over cognitive intelligence and personality compared to ability-based EI tests [ 99 ]. Furthermore, they tend to have very good psychometric properties, have no questionable theoretical basis, and are moderately and significantly correlate with a large set of outcome variables [ 15 ].

One aspect observed in this systematic review is that the main measure of the estimated reliability in the analysed studies has been internal consistency. However, this estimate is not interchangeable with other measurement error estimates. This coefficient gives a photographic picture of the measurement error and does not include variability over time. There are other reliability indicators (e.g., stability or test–retest) that are more relevant for social intervention purposes [ 100 ], and that according to the estimation design, can differentiate into trait variability or state variability, that is, respectively stability and dependability [ 101 ]. It has been found that the use of stability measures as a reliability parameter is not frequent. In methodological and substantive contexts, reproducibility is essential for the advancement of knowledge. For this reason, it is necessary to identify measures that can be used as parameters to compare the results of different studies [ 102 ]. On the other hand, the standard coefficient of internal consistency has been coefficient α [ 103 ]. This measure has been questioned in relation to its apparent misinformed use of its restrictions [ 104 , 105 , 106 ], of which Cronbach himself highlighted its limited applications [ 104 ]. Other reliability measures have been recommended (e.g., ω) [ 107 ], and the reliability estimation practice in the creation of EI measurements needs to be updated. Usually, ω estimation is integrated into the modelling-based estimation, where SEM or IRT methodology is required to corroborate the internal structure of the score [ 108 , 109 , 110 ] and extract the parameters used to calculate reliability (i.e., factorial loads).

Another methodological aspect to highlight is that predominantly, the construction of EI measures was based on linear modelling or classical test theory. In contrast, the least used approach was item response theory (IRT), which provides other descriptive and evaluative parameters of the quality of the score measurement, such as the information function or the characteristic curves of the options, among others.

On the other hand, it is striking that some of the articles found prove the construct validity of their instruments by obtaining higher EI scores by women than men [ 56 , 58 , 73 ]. This has also been seen in the scientific literature and in research such as that of Fischer et al. [ 111 ], in which it was found that women tend to score higher in EI tests or empathy tests than men, especially, but not only, if it is measured through self-report. Additionally, striking is the study by Molero et al. [ 112 ], in which significant differences were observed among the various EI components between men and women. However, this is not the case in all the articles analysed in this study, nor in all the most current scientific literature. This fact has led to the development of different hypotheses about how far, why, and under what circumstances women could outperform men. There are several theories that have emerged around it. There is one that claims that these differences could be related to different modes of emotional processing in the brain [ 113 , 114 ]. Another theory points to possible differences in emotional perception that suggest that women are more accurate than men in this process when facial manifestations of emotion are subtle, but not when stimuli are highly expressive [ 115 ]. Additionally, another one points out that the expression of emotions is consistent with sex, which may be influenced by contextual factors, including the immediate social context and broader cultural contexts [ 116 ]. However, other variables such as age or years of experience in the position should also be taken into account. For example, the study by Miguel-Torres et al. [ 117 ] showed a better ability to feel, express, and understand emotional states in younger nurses, while the ability to regulate emotions was greater in those who had worked for more years. For this reason, nowadays firm conclusions cannot be drawn and it must be taken into account that the differences found are generally small. Thus, more research is needed on the differences that may exist between men and women in the processes of perception, expression and emotional management before establishing possible social implications of these findings.

4.1. Limitations

This study is not without limitations. Some are inherent in this type of studies, such as publication bias (i.e., the non-publication of studies with results that do not show significant differences) that could have resulted in a loss of articles that have not been published and that used instruments other than those found. In addition, instruments that could not be accessed from their original manuscript could not be included in the systematic review. On the other hand, despite the advantages of WoS, the fact that the search was conducted in a single database may lead to some loss of literature. Furthermore, the systematic review was restricted to peer-reviewed publications and thus different studies may be presented in other information sources, such as books or grey literature. Articles that were in the press and those that may have been published in the course of the compilation of this study have not been collected either. Additionally, the entire process of searching for references was carried out by only one investigator, so an estimate of inter-judge reliability cannot be made, as well as data extraction. There are many aspects of the PRISMA statement that, due to the purpose of our research, our study does not include (visible as NA in Table A1 ). However, it is necessary to develop a protocol for recording the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the primary studies to prevent bias (e.g., bias in the selection process). There are also some methodological aspects to be improved, such as the lack of methods used to assess the risk of bias in the included studies, the preparation or synthesis of the data, or the certainty in the body of evidence of a result. In future research it is necessary to take into account and develop these aspects in order to improve the replicability and methodological validity of the study, and to facilitate the transparency of the research process. In contrast to the above, one of the strengths of this study was to minimize the presence of biases that could alter the results. To minimize language bias, articles submitted in any language were searched for and accepted to avoid over-presentation of studies in one language, and under-presentation in others [ 20 ]. In addition, this study takes into account and exposes five sources of evidence of validity of the instruments through the Standards: content, response processes, internal structure, relationship with other variables and the consequences of testing. Other aspects to be improved in the future include performing the same search in other databases such as EBSCO and Scopus to obtain possible articles not covered in WoS. A manual search for additional articles would also be useful, for example, in the references of other articles or in the grey literature.

4.2. Practical Implication

The relationship between EI and personal development has been of great interest in psychological research over time [ 8 ]. A good study of the instruments that measure constructs such as EI can be of great help both in the field of prevention and psychological intervention in social settings. The revision of EI instruments is intended to contribute to facilitating work in the general population in a way that the development of EI is promoted and antisocial behaviours are reduced. In addition, since it correlates with variables that serve as protectors against psychological distress, this work also contributes to improving, in some cases, the general level of health.

Through this systematic review, we can see the great effort that has been made by researchers not only to improve existing EI measurement instruments, but also in the construction of new instruments that help professionals in the educational, business and health fields, as well as the general population. However, given the rapid changes that society is experiencing, partly due to the effects of modernization and technology, there is a demand to go beyond measurement. For example, from educational and business institutions and from family and community organizations it is necessary to promote activities, support and commitment towards actions oriented to EI under the consideration that this construct can be improved at any age and that it increases with experience.

5. Conclusions

From the results obtained in this study, numerous instruments have been found that can be used to measure EI in professionals. Over the years, the production of instruments to measure EI has been increasing and, moreover, has spread to other geographical areas. The most recent instruments have hardly been translated beyond their original version and have been tested very rarely. In order for future research to benefit from these new instruments, a greater number of uses in larger samples and in other contexts would be desirable.

In addition, most of the instruments are grouped under the three main conceptual models described in the introduction (ability, trait and mixed). Each model has a number of advantages and disadvantages. In the ability model it is not possible to adulterate the results by strategic responses and they tend to be more attractive tests; however, factor analyses do not support a hierarchical model with an underlying global EI factor. The trait-based model, on the other hand, employs measures that have no right or wrong answers, so they result in emotional profiles that are more advantageous in some contexts than others, and they tend to have very good psychometric properties. However, they are susceptible to falsification and social desirability.

On the other hand, it is necessary to identify measures that can be used as parameters to compare the results of different studies. In addition, the standard coefficient of internal consistency has been the α coefficient, which has been questioned in relation to its apparent misinformed use of its restrictions. It would be advisable to use other reliability measures and to update the reliability estimation practice in the creation of EI measures.

Finally, some of the articles found test the construct validity of their instruments by obtaining higher EI scores from women than from men. Different hypotheses have been developed about to what extent, why and under what circumstances women would outperform men; differences may be related to different modes of emotional processing in the brain or possible differences in emotional perception or to the influence of contextual factors. However, it would be interesting to further investigate the differences that may exist between men and women or to take into account other factors such as age or number of years of experience before establishing possible practical implications.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the casual helpers for their aid with information processing and searching.

PRISMA 2020 checklist.

TITLE
Title 1Identify the report as a systematic review.Page 1
ABSTRACT
Abstract 2See the PRISMA 2020 for Abstracts checklist.Page 1
INTRODUCTION
Rationale 3Describe the rationale for the review in the context of existing knowledge.Pages 1–3
Objectives 4Provide an explicit statement of the objective(s) or question(s) the review addresses.Page 3
METHODS
Eligibility criteria 5Specify the inclusion and exclusion criteria for the review and how studies were grouped for the syntheses.Page 4
Information sources 6Specify all databases, registers, websites, organisations, reference lists and other sources searched or consulted to identify studies. Specify the date when each source was last searched or consulted.Page 4
Search strategy7Present the full search strategies for all databases, registers and websites, including any filters and limits used.Page 4
Selection process8Specify the methods used to decide whether a study met the inclusion criteria of the review, including how many reviewers screened each record and each report retrieved, whether they worked independently, and if applicable, details of automation tools used in the process.Page 4
Data collection process 9Specify the methods used to collect data from reports, including how many reviewers collected data from each report, whether they worked independently, any processes for obtaining or confirming data from study investigators, and if applicable, details of automation tools used in the process.Page 4
Data items 10aList and define all outcomes for which data were sought. Specify whether all results that were compatible with each outcome domain in each study were sought (e.g., for all measures, time points, analyses), and if not, the methods used to decide which results to collect.Page 4
10bList and define all other variables for which data were sought (e.g., participant and intervention characteristics, funding sources). Describe any assumptions made about any missing or unclear information.Page 4
Study risk of bias assessment11Specify the methods used to assess risk of bias in the included studies, including details of the tool(s) used, how many reviewers assessed each study and whether they worked independently, and if applicable, details of automation tools used in the process.Page 4
Effect measures 12Specify for each outcome the effect measure(s) (e.g., risk ratio, mean difference) used in the synthesis or presentation of results.NA
Synthesis methods13aDescribe the processes used to decide which studies were eligible for each synthesis (e.g., tabulating the study intervention characteristics and comparing against the planned groups for each synthesis (item #5)).Page 5
13bDescribe any methods required to prepare the data for presentation or synthesis, such as handling of missing summary statistics, or data conversions.-
13cDescribe any methods used to tabulate or visually display results of individual studies and syntheses.Page 5
13dDescribe any methods used to synthesize results and provide a rationale for the choice(s). If meta-analysis was performed, describe the model(s), method(s) to identify the presence and extent of statistical heterogeneity, and software package(s) used.Page 3
13eDescribe any methods used to explore possible causes of heterogeneity among study results (e.g., subgroup analysis, meta-regression).NA
13fDescribe any sensitivity analyses conducted to assess robustness of the synthesized results.Page 3
Reporting bias assessment14Describe any methods used to assess risk of bias due to missing results in a synthesis (arising from reporting biases).-
Certainty assessment15Describe any methods used to assess certainty (or confidence) in the body of evidence for an outcome.-
RESULTS
Study selection 16aDescribe the results of the search and selection process, from the number of records identified in the search to the number of studies included in the review, ideally using a flow diagram.Page 5
16bCite studies that might appear to meet the inclusion criteria, but which were excluded, and explain why they were excluded.Pages 29–31
Study characteristics 17Cite each included study and present its characteristics.Pages 6–23
Risk of bias in studies 18Present assessments of risk of bias for each included study.NA
Results of individual studies 19For all outcomes, present, for each study: (a) summary statistics for each group (where appropriate) and (b) an effect estimate and its precision (e.g., confidence/credible interval), ideally using structured tables or plots.Pages 24–29
Results of syntheses20aFor each synthesis, briefly summarise the characteristics and risk of bias among contributing studies.Pages 6–23
20bPresent results of all statistical syntheses conducted. If meta-analysis was done, present for each the summary estimate and its precision (e.g., confidence/credible interval) and measures of statistical heterogeneity. If comparing groups, describe the direction of the effect.NA
20cPresent results of all investigations of possible causes of heterogeneity among study results.NA
20dPresent results of all sensitivity analyses conducted to assess the robustness of the synthesized results.Page 29
Reporting biases21Present assessments of risk of bias due to missing results (arising from reporting biases) for each synthesis assessed.NA
Certainty of evidence 22Present assessments of certainty (or confidence) in the body of evidence for each outcome assessed.-
DISCUSSION
Discussion 23aProvide a general interpretation of the results in the context of other evidence.Pages 31–33
23bDiscuss any limitations of the evidence included in the review.Page 33
23cDiscuss any limitations of the review processes used.Page 33
23dDiscuss implications of the results for practice, policy, and future research.Page 34
OTHER INFORMATION
Registration and protocol24aProvide registration information for the review, including register name and registration number, or state that the review was not registered.Page 4
24bIndicate where the review protocol can be accessed, or state that a protocol was not prepared.Page 4
24cDescribe and explain any amendments to information provided at registration or in the protocol.-
Support25Describe sources of financial or non-financial support for the review, and the role of the funders or sponsors in the review.Page 34
Competing interests26Declare any competing interests of review authors.Page 34
Availability of data, code and other materials27Report which of the following are publicly available and where they can be found: template data collection forms; data extracted from included studies; data used for all analyses; analytic code; any other materials used in the review.Page 34

NA = Not applicable.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, L.M.B.-L. and M.M.-V.; methodology, L.M.B.-L.; validation, L.M.B.-L.; formal analysis, L.M.B.-L.; investigation, L.M.B.-L.; data curation, L.M.B.-L.; writing—original draft preparation, L.M.B.-L.; writing—review and editing, L.M.B.-L., M.M.-V., C.M.-S. and J.L.C.-S. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Informed consent statement, data availability statement, conflicts of interest.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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For Individuals

What is emotional intelligence and why is it important?

businesswoman-clapping-hands-after-successful-brainstorming

Emotional intelligence (EI), also known as emotional quotient (EQ), refers to the ability to recognize, understand, manage, and effectively act on your emotions and the emotions of others. It involves a set of skills and traits that are crucial for personal and social success. 

But these skills come more naturally to some than others. The good news is, that with some effort, you can improve your emotional intelligence.

The first step is understanding your own emotions and what you need to handle different situations. Doing so requires radical emotional awareness and confronting parts of yourself you might not like. This process of self-discovery can be scary. But it’s worth it. 

You’ll learn to take better care of yourself, including your mental and emotional health . And after, you’ll be better equipped to extend that emotional support to others.

So, what is emotional intelligence? And how can you develop yours?

Let’s get into it.

What is emotional intelligence?

Psychologist and author of the New York Times bestselling book, Emotional Intelligence , Daniel Goleman, Ph.D. , states that emotional intelligence is the culmination of a select group of skills : self-awareness, relationship management, and social awareness.

In addition, there are several schools of thought on how emotional intelligence works. Simply put, the concept of emotional intelligence describes your ability to:

  • Perceive, evaluate, express, and regulate your emotions . If you’re angry about something your boss said in a meeting, emotional intelligence promotes the necessary self-regulation to discuss the situation calmly and privately.
  • Understand, interpret, and respond well to the emotions of others. If your co-worker had a death in the family, emotional intelligence could involve offering comfort and support and covering their workload while they grieve.

For some, these abilities don’t come naturally. More often than not, they require copious self-work and self-discovery.

As you begin to understand yourself better, this knowledge becomes a framework for your interpersonal relationships. You can better support a grieving colleague because you understand how a similar event would impact you and your emotions.

And if you know the person well, you might recognize that what you need isn’t what they need. Your emotional intelligence will help you intuit how to react to the situation. 

happy-coworkers-discussing-at-office-what-is-emotional-intelligence

What is a lack of emotional intelligence?

A lack of emotional intelligence can manifest in various ways. Here are some common signs and behaviors associated with lower emotional intelligence:

Difficulty recognizing and expressing emotions

People with low emotional intelligence may struggle to identify and articulate their emotions. They might not be able to describe how they feel or why they feel a certain way.

Poor impulse control

Individuals with low emotional intelligence may have difficulty managing their impulses and may react impulsively in emotional situations. This can lead to outbursts, overreacting, or making hasty decisions without considering the consequences.

Insensitivity to others

People with low EQ may be less attuned to the feelings and needs of others. They may inadvertently disregard or dismiss the emotions of those around them, leading to strained relationships.

Difficulty with empathy

Lack of empathy means they struggle to understand and connect with others emotionally. They may not be able to put themselves in someone else's shoes or appreciate the perspectives and feelings of others.

Ineffective communication

Poor emotional intelligence can result in difficulties in conveying thoughts and emotions effectively. This may lead to misunderstandings, conflicts, and breakdowns in communication.

Difficulty with conflict resolution

Those with low emotional intelligence may struggle to resolve conflicts constructively . They may escalate disagreements, avoid addressing issues, or refuse to acknowledge their own role in conflicts.

Limited social skills

Low EQ can hinder the development of social competencies necessary for building and maintaining healthy relationships. This may include difficulty in establishing rapport, cooperating, and collaborating with others.

Difficulty adapting to change

People with low emotional intelligence may have a hard time coping with change and may resist it, which can impede personal and professional growth.

Stress and burnout

A lack of emotional intelligence can make individuals more susceptible to stress, as they may have difficulty managing their own emotions and the demands of challenging situations.

Poor leadership and teamwork

In leadership roles or team settings, individuals with low emotional intelligence may struggle to inspire and motivate others , resulting in ineffective leadership and decreased team cohesion.

Examples of emotional intelligence

High emotional intelligence will look slightly different from one individual to the next. Typically, they are empathic, understanding, and agile. Here are some ways these competencies and other related qualities can exemplify high EI:

  • Active listening : Someone with high emotional intelligence listens attentively and empathetically to others, making them feel heard and understood.
  • Empathy : They can put themselves in others' shoes, understanding and sharing their feelings, which helps in building strong, supportive relationships.
  • Self-regulation : Individuals with high emotional intelligence can manage their emotions effectively , staying composed and rational in stressful situations.
  • Conflict resolution : They are skilled at resolving conflicts by addressing underlying emotions and finding mutually beneficial solutions.
  • Motivation : Those with high emotional intelligence are self-motivated and can inspire and encourage others to achieve their goals.

For a clearer view of how emotional intelligence can be perceived in day-to-day life, here are three real-world examples of high emotional intelligence in action:

Example of emotional intelligence during conflict resolution

In a team meeting, two colleagues disagree about a project. A team leader with high emotional intelligence steps in to facilitate the discussion. They actively listen to both sides, validate their emotions, and help the individuals identify common goals. By acknowledging the emotional aspects of the conflict and guiding the conversation toward a solution, the team leader helps resolve the issue amicably and maintains a positive working environment.

Example of emotional intelligence in customer service

A customer contacts a customer service representative with a complaint. The representative with high emotional intelligence actively listens to the customer's concerns, acknowledges their frustration, and empathizes with their situation. They remain calm and composed, even in the face of a challenging interaction. By demonstrating empathy and a willingness to address the issue, the representative not only resolves the problem but also leaves the customer feeling valued and satisfied.

Example of emotional intelligence in leadership

A manager with high emotional intelligence leads a diverse team of employees . They understand the individual strengths and weaknesses of team members and know how to motivate and support each person effectively. By recognizing and appreciating their team's emotions and needs, the manager fosters a collaborative and harmonious work environment, which leads to increased productivity and job satisfaction among team members.

In these examples, individuals with high emotional intelligence demonstrate their ability to navigate emotionally charged situations, build positive relationships, and effectively lead and influence others. Their skills in recognizing, understanding, and managing emotions contribute to successful outcomes and stronger interpersonal connections.

businessman-holding-papers-and-smiling-what-is-emotional-intelligence

Positive impacts of emotional intelligence

Developing your emotional intelligence takes work, but it will positively impact your work and personal life:

  • Some research suggests emotional intelligence leads to better social relationships in children and adults . 
  • People often have positive perceptions of those with high emotional intelligence.
  • According to a study from 2017, higher emotional intelligence is associated with improved job performance .
  • Emotional intelligence can make you a better leader and collaborator .
  • As you become more emotionally intelligent, you’ll form closer relationships with friends, family, and colleagues .
  • Emotional intelligence can help you set healthy boundaries at work .
  • Your motivation can also improve . 

Potential negative impacts of emotional intelligence

Being highly emotionally intelligent has its benefits, but there are also potential downsides to consider. Here are some of the drawbacks:

  • People with high emotional intelligence may excel at building relationships and working well with others, but they may struggle with thinking outside the box and generating creative ideas.
  • Highly emotionally intelligent individuals may find themselves agreeing to compromising actions or being tempted to manipulate others due to their ability to understand people's emotions.
  • Individuals with high EQ may struggle with making tough decisions or choices that go against popular opinion due to their desire to maintain harmonious relationships source.

The 9 components of emotional intelligence

To fully develop your emotional intelligence, you’ll go through nine phases. Each builds on the last, taking the shape of a pyramid . When you reach the peak, you’ll have developed healthy emotional skills that allow you to connect more deeply with yourself and the people around you.

Here’s a breakdown of each phase:

1. Emotional stimuli

The pyramid’s base is composed of your reactions to the world around you. When an event occurs, you process it through your physical senses — such as sight, smell, or touch. Your brain then interprets the event through its emotional mechanisms, inciting behavioral responses.

For example, if someone cuts you off in traffic, your brain might react with anger, and your behavioral response is to honk your horn.

2. Emotion recognition

This is the second layer of the pyramid. It refers to your ability to recognize others’ feelings through non-verbal communication . Humans have an innate ability to read others’ emotions through cues like facial expressions, tone of voice, and body language — whether we’re conscious of it or not.

If you’ve ever asked someone how they’re doing and heard “I’m fine” as a response, their non-verbal cues might have communicated something different to you. If their voice sounded tight, you might think they were angry. Or, if they’re sniffling and their eyes are watery, you might deduce that they’ve been crying and aren’t fine at all.

3. Self-awareness

The third layer involves knowing yourself. This means clearly perceiving your strengths, weaknesses, thoughts, beliefs, values , motives, and feelings. If you don’t know these things about yourself, it’s difficult to understand and interact with others, making it nearly impossible to properly respond to others’ feelings.

If you have a stressed-out colleague, you won’t know how to support them unless you know your types of stressors and how to deal with them.

stressed-business-woman-working-at-home-what-is-emotional-intelligence

4. Self-management

Once you’ve mastered self-awareness, you can intervene and change any of your bad behaviors. Identifying what you’re feeling, what caused it, and how you usually respond helps you recognize negative behaviors and work to react differently. 

Next time an employee makes a mistake, you might change your approach. Instead of immediately scolding them like usual, you might take a moment to decompress before offering constructive feedback.

5. Social awareness

Now that you can manage your emotions, turn your attention to the world around you. You’re now better equipped to recognize and respond to others’ feelings, needs, and concerns. You can put yourself in their shoes and understand their point of view.

Perhaps you’re a working mom who is also a manager . You previously had a boss who didn’t understand the challenges of balancing work and family life. Ideally, this would help you understand what working parents on your team need.

6. Social skills

At this level in the pyramid, you should be able to identify other people’s emotions, understand their points of view, and act on that information.

Your social skills and adapting to other people’s needs allow you to be a great collaborator, accommodating different communication styles, diffusing tension, and resolving conflict.

If you’re a team leader, your empathy will inspire your workers to do their best. You know what motivates each of them and can support them accordingly.

7. Universality of emotions and self-actualization

At this point in the pyramid, you understand that everyone, including yourself, is an emotional being that requires care and compassion . You also see that everyone is capable of reaching their full potential and deserves support.

You might experience this with an intern. Fresh out of school, they definitely don’t have the experience to hit the ground running — but you recognize that, if given a chance, they can make a difference on your team.

8. Transcendence

When you reach transcendence, you can help others self-actualize, find fulfillment, and realize their potential. You recognize your struggles in getting to this point, so you want to help others progress up their own pyramids. 

At this point, you’re ready to be a leader. You understand your team’s emotions, strengths, weaknesses, and main motivators. Because of this, you’re equipped to support, inspire, and elevate them to new heights.

9. Emotional unity

At the pyramid’s peak, you have a new appreciation for your interconnectedness with people. You understand your own emotional dependence on others and their dependence on you.  

This makes you a more caring and compassionate person. Recognizing other people’s emotions comes more easily to you because you feel connected to them. They’re struggling through life, just like you are.

BetterUp can help you master each phase of the pyramid. Our coaches will help you recognize patterns and behaviors you weren’t previously aware of. Then you can take your first steps toward higher levels of emotional intelligence.

How to measure emotional intelligence skills

Emotional intelligence is measured through an emotional quotient (EQ). Your EQ is a reflection of your proficiency in:

  • Managing emotions and emotional responses
  • Being aware of your emotional state
  • Interpersonal skills
  • Self-control
  • Social Intelligence
  • Relationship management

Rating your behaviors on a scale through a self-report test is the most common way to measure your EQ. Afterward, tally up your results to determine your EQ.

Mental health professionals can also administer EQ tests. Doctors John Mayer, Peter Salovey, and David R. Caruso created one of the most popular tests in the field, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). The MSCEIT measures your ability to perceive, identify, understand, and manage emotions.

Goleman developed the Emotional and Social Competence Inventory (ESCI) with his colleague and professor Richard Boyatis of Case Western Reserve University, and researchers at the McClelland Institute.

How to tell if someone is emotionally intelligent

You might be able to tell if someone is emotionally intelligent by looking for certain signs and characteristics. Here are some common indicators:

  • Self-awareness : Emotionally intelligent individuals have a strong sense of self-awareness and understand their own emotions, strengths, and weaknesses .
  • Empathy : They show empathy towards others, meaning they can understand and share the feelings of others .
  • Ability to manage emotions : Emotionally intelligent people can effectively manage their own emotions and handle challenging situations without becoming overwhelmed .
  • Good communication skills : They can communicate assertively and effectively, expressing their thoughts and feelings while also being receptive to others.
  • Openness to feedback : Emotionally intelligent individuals welcome and benefit from constructive criticism, using it as an opportunity for growth.
  • Authenticity : They demonstrate authenticity and genuineness in their interactions, being true to themselves and others.
  • Resilience : Emotionally intelligent people are resilient and can bounce back from setbacks, using challenges as learning experiences .

friends-at-work-what-is-emotional-intelligence

Tips to improve emotional intelligence

These components of emotional intelligence offer insight into how to improve your emotional intelligence to understand yourself and others. 

Here are some example techniques on how to improve your emotional intelligence:

1. Meditate

Meditation is known to increase mindfulness, boost your mood, decrease perceived stress, and increase interpersonal awareness in the workplace . It’s a powerful tool for introspection and helps you solidify the foundation of your emotional intelligence pyramid.

2. Read literary fiction

In some cases, reading fiction can help enhance empathy. This type of literature often offers detailed depictions of characters’ minds, psychology, and relationships, which can translate to real-life emotional insight.

3. Develop your communication skills

Emotional intelligence can lead to effective communication. Do this in conversations by:

  • Listening closely and reflecting on what was said before responding
  • Acknowledging and affirming other people’s opinions before presenting your own — even if you disagree
  • Gathering information to aid in decision-making 

4. Identify your boundaries

Emotional intelligence doesn’t mean putting other people’s emotional well-being before yours if it’s a detriment to your own . Instead, it’s about being aware of your and other people’s limits. Setting and respecting boundaries is a fundamental part of emotional intelligence.

5. Ask for help

A professional therapist or BetterUp coach can help you identify your toxic behaviors and emotions and how to address them. This will improve your self-awareness, ability to cope with stress, and overall mental health.

6. Step out of your comfort zone

Challenging yourself and trying new things will teach you a lot about handling and overcoming stress, your limits, and the type of support you need. The more you step outside of your comfort zone, the larger your frame of reference for connecting with other people. 

Try taking a class, going on a trip, or taking on new projects. These experiences will help you improve your emotional intelligence.

Developing emotional intelligence

Sometimes, things get messy. Emotions become overwhelming, and people lose their cool. In these moments, you may want to abandon feelings altogether. Life would certainly be less complicated if we were all robots. But, it would also be a lot duller.

Emotions make us human. And what is emotional intelligence if not a way to authentically connect with others?

At BetterUp, we want to help you build meaningful connections. We can help you develop emotional intelligence, improve your social skills, and present your best self to the people in your life.

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Improve your social skills, confidence, and build meaningful relationships through personalized coaching.

Maggie Wooll, MBA

Maggie Wooll is a researcher, author, and speaker focused on the evolving future of work. Formerly the lead researcher at the Deloitte Center for the Edge, she holds a Bachelor of Science in Education from Princeton University and an MBA from the University of Virginia Darden School of Business. Maggie is passionate about creating better work and greater opportunities for all.

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Physical robots in education: a systematic review based on the technological pedagogical content knowledge framework.

an essay about emotional intelligence

1. Introduction

  • RQ1: What learning domain has been adopted for the application of robots in educational teaching?
  • RQ2: What teaching strategy has been used in the application of robots in educational teaching?
  • RQ3: What robot types have been used in the application of robots in educational teaching?
  • RQ4: What learning results have been identified in the application of robots in educational teaching?
  • RQ5: What problems with using robots have been identified in the application of robots in educational teaching?
  • RQ6: What robotic support has been identified in the application of robots in educational teaching?
  • RQ7: What robotic personality has been used in the application of robots in educational teaching?

2. Research Methods

2.1. literature search, 2.2. data selection, 2.3. coding schemes, 3.1. content knowledge—learning domain, 3.2. pedagogical knowledge—teaching strategy, 3.3. technological knowledge—robot types, 3.4. technological content knowledge—learning results, 3.5. technological pedagogical knowledge—problems with using robots, 3.6. pedagogical content knowledge—robotic support, 3.7. technological pedagogical content knowledge—robotic personality, 4. discussion, 4.1. content knowledge—learning domain, 4.2. pedagogical knowledge—teaching strategy, 4.3. technological knowledge—robot types, 4.4. technological content knowledge—learning results, 4.5. technological pedagogical knowledge—problems with using robots, 4.6. pedagogical content knowledge—robotic support, 4.7. technological pedagogical content knowledge—robotic personality, 5. conclusions, 5.1. contributions to the literature, 5.2. practical contributions, 5.3. limitations and further research endeavors, 5.4. implications of the findings, author contributions, institutional review board statement, informed consent statement, data availability statement, conflicts of interest.

ArticleLearning DomainLearning ResultsRobot TypesRobotic SupportRobotic PersonalityTeaching Strategy
Engwall and Lopes [ ]LanguagesBehavioralRobotic headsInformation supportExtraversionCommunication
Fridin [ ]LanguagesBehavioralHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportOpennessCommunication
Hughes-Roberts, Brown [ ]Health, Medical or NursingBehavioralHumanoid robotsInformation supportConscientiousnessCommunication
Wu, Wang [ ]LanguagesAffective, behavioral, cognitiveFace or belly screen robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionPhysical interaction
Özdemir and Karaman [ ]Health, Medical or NursingBehavioralHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionPhysical interaction
Banaeian and Gilanlioglu [ ]LanguagesAffective, behavioralHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionCLL
Yang, Luo [ ]Engineering or computersAffective, behavioral, cognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessPhysical interaction
Noh and Lee [ ]ScienceCognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessPhysical interaction
Hong, Huang [ ]LanguagesAffective, cognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessCLL
Lei, Clemente [ ]Social science or social studiesBehavioralFace or belly screen robotsInformation supportNeuroticismCommunication
Engwall, Lopes [ ]LanguagesAffectiveRobotic headsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionCommunication
Al Hakim, Yang [ ]LanguagesAffective, behavioralFace or belly screen robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionRole play
Velentza, Fachantidis [ ]ScienceBehavioralHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportAgreeablenessCommunication
Kewalramani, Kidman [ ]ScienceAffective, behavioral, cognitiveToy-like robotsInformation support and emotional supportAgreeablenessCommunication
Chen, Park [ ]LanguagesAffective, behavioralToy-like robotsInformation support and emotional supportOpennessRole play
Hung, Chao [ ]LanguagesAffectiveFace or belly screen robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionPractice on specific learning material
Crompton, Gregory [ ]Social science or social studiesAffective, behavioral, cognitiveHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportConscientiousnessPhysical interaction
Chen Hsieh [ ]LanguagesAffective, behavioralFace or belly screen robotsInformation support and emotional supportNeuroticismPractice on specific learning material
Wei, Hung [ ]MathematicsAffective, cognitiveToy-like robotsInformation support and emotional supportConscientiousnessCommunication
Alemi and Haeri [ ]LanguagesBehavioralHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportOpennessPhysical interaction
Chang, Lee [ ]LanguagesBehavioralHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionPhysical interaction
Mioduser, Levy [ ]LanguagesCognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessPhysical interaction
Iio, Maeda [ ]LanguagesCognitiveFace or belly screen robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionRole play
Leeuwestein, Barking [ ]LanguagesBehavioralHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionCLL
Sen, Ay [ ]Engineering or computersCognitiveToy-like robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessPractice on specific learning material
Keane, Chalmers [ ]LanguagesAffective, behavioralHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportAgreeablenessCommunication
David, Costescu [ ]Health, Medical or NursingCognitiveHumanoid robotsInformation supportExtraversionPhysical interaction
Kewalramani, Palaiologou [ ]Social science or social studiesAffective, behavioralToy-like robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionRole play
Mitnik, Nussbaum [ ]ScienceCognitiveFace or belly screen robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessCLL
Resing, Bakker [ ]Social science or social studiesCognitiveToy-like robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionCommunication
Kim, Marx [ ]Non-specifiedBehavioralToy-like robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionCommunication
Chen Hsieh and Lee [ ]LanguagesAffective, behavioral, cognitiveFace or belly screen robotsInformation support and emotional supportNeuroticismPractice on specific learning material
Van den Berghe, de Haas [ ]LanguagesAffectiveHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportConscientiousnessPractice on specific learning material
Nam, Kim [ ]ScienceCognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation support and emotional supportAgreeablenessPhysical interaction
Merkouris, Chorianopoulou [ ]ScienceCognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessPhysical interaction
Han, Jo [ ]Arts or designAffective, behavioralFace or belly screen robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionPractice on specific learning material
Konijn and Hoorn [ ]ScienceCognitiveHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionCommunication
Valente, Caceffo [ ]Social science or social studiesBehavioralToy-like robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessRole play
Yueh, Lin [ ]LanguagesBehavioralFace or belly screen robotsInformation support and emotional supportAgreeablenessPractice on specific learning material
Evripidou, Amanatiadis [ ]ScienceAffective, behavioral, cognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation support and emotional supportAgreeablenessPractice on specific learning material
Mazzoni and Benvenuti [ ]LanguagesBehavioral, cognitiveHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportOpennessPhysical interaction
Lee, Noh [ ]LanguagesAffective, cognitiveFace or belly screen robotsInformation support and emotional supportOpennessRole play
Kim and Tscholl [ ]LanguagesAffective, behavioral, cognitiveFace or belly screen robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionCLL
Shumway, Welch [ ]MathematicsBehavioral, cognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessPhysical interaction
Liao and Lu [ ]LanguagesBehavioralFace or belly screen robotsInformation supportNeuroticismCommunication
Hsiao, Chang [ ]LanguagesAffective, behavioral, cognitiveFace or belly screen robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionCLL
Çakır, Korkmaz [ ]Engineering or computersCognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation support and emotional supportAgreeablenessPhysical interaction
Chernyak and Gary [ ]Social science or social studiesAffective, behavioral, cognitiveToy-like robotsInformation support and emotional supportAgreeablenessPhysical interaction
Yang, Ng [ ]ScienceCognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessPhysical interaction
Resing, Vogelaar [ ]ScienceCognitiveToy-like robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionPhysical interaction
Brainin, Shamir [ ]Engineering or computersCognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessPractice on specific learning material
Neumann, Neumann [ ]Arts or designBehavioralHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionPhysical interaction
Benvenuti and Mazzoni [ ]Social science or social studiesCognitiveHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportConscientiousnessCommunication
Pop, Simut [ ]Social science or social studiesCognitiveFace or belly screen robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionCommunication
Chevalier, Giang [ ]Engineering or computersCognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessCommunication
Chew and Chua [ ]LanguagesBehavioralHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionCLL
Pérez-Marín, Hijón-Neira [ ]Social science or social studiesBehavioral, cognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessPhysical interaction
Bravo, Hurtado [ ]Arts or designAffective, cognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessRole play
Demir-Lira, Kanero [ ]LanguagesBehavioralHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportConscientiousnessCLL
Alemi and Bahramipour [ ]LanguagesBehavioral, cognitiveHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionCLL
Cherniak, Lee [ ]Engineering or computersBehavioralProgrammable robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessPractice on specific learning material
Silva, Fonseca [ ]Engineering or computersCognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessPractice on specific learning material
Arar, Belazoui [ ]LanguagesCognitiveRobotic headsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionCLL
Khalifa, Kato [ ]LanguagesBehavioral, cognitiveHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportConscientiousnessCommunication
Hall and McCormick [ ]ScienceCognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation support and emotional supportAgreeablenessPhysical interaction
Tolksdorf, Crawshaw [ ]LanguagesBehavioralHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportConscientiousnessCLL
Ferrarelli and Iocchi [ ]ScienceBehavioral, cognitiveFace or belly screen robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessPhysical interaction
Ishino, Goto [ ]Social science or social studiesCognitiveHumanoid robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessCommunication
Alhashmi, Mubin [ ]Non-specifiedAffectiveHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportConscientiousnessPhysical interaction
Welch, Shumway [ ]Engineering or computersCognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessPhysical interaction
Keller and John [ ]Engineering or computersAffectiveHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionRole play
Paucar-Curasma, Villalba-Condori [ ]Engineering or computersAffective, cognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation support and emotional supportAgreeablenessPhysical interaction
Urlings, Coppens [ ]Social science or social studiesCognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation support and emotional supportAgreeablenessPractice on specific learning material
So, Wong [ ]Health, Medical or NursingBehavioral, cognitiveHumanoid robotsInformation supportExtraversionRole play
Liang and Hwang [ ]LanguagesBehavioralFace or belly screen robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessCommunication
Peura, Mutta [ ]LanguagesBehavioralHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportConscientiousnessPractice on specific learning material
Veivo and Mutta [ ]LanguagesBehavioralHumanoid robotsInformation supportConscientiousnessPractice on specific learning material
Chung [ ]Arts or designBehavioral, cognitiveHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionPhysical interaction
Chang, Hwang [ ]Health, Medical or NursingAffective, behavioralFace or belly screen robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionCommunication
Kalmpourtzis and Romero [ ]Social science or social studiesBehavioral, cognitiveToy-like robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessPhysical interaction
Saadatzi, Pennington [ ]LanguagesCognitiveHumanoid robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessPractice on specific learning material
Chiang, Cheng [ ]LanguagesCognitiveFace or belly screen robotsInformation supportConscientiousnessCLL
Cheng, Wang [ ]LanguagesBehavioral, cognitiveFace or belly screen robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionRole play
Sabena [ ]ScienceBehavioral, cognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessPhysical interaction
Kwon, Jeon [ ]Engineering or computersCognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessPhysical interaction
Chen, Qiu [ ]Non-specifiedAffectiveHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionCommunication
Hsieh, Yeh [ ]LanguagesAffective, behavioral, cognitiveFace or belly screen robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionCLL
Angeli and Georgiou [ ]Engineering or computersBehavioral, cognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessPhysical interaction
Kim, Hwang [ ]Social science or social studiesAffective, behavioralToy-like robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionCommunication
Bargagna, Castro [ ]Health, Medical or NursingBehavioral, cognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessPhysical interaction
Cervera, Diago [ ]Engineering or computersCognitiveProgrammable robotsInformation supportAgreeablenessPhysical interaction
So, Cheng [ ]Health, Medical or NursingAffective, behavioral, cognitiveHumanoid robotsInformation support and emotional supportExtraversionRole play
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Inclusion CriteriaExclusion Criteria
Research must use physical robots.Research papers from conference proceedings, book chapters, magazines, news, and posters are excluded.
Research must report on the effectiveness of the robot in the actual teaching and learning process.Incomplete studies were excluded, for example, studies that reported only on the development and design of robotic software or systems but not on empirical results.
Research must be published in peer reviewed journals.Empirical research that merely used self-report data collections, such as interviews or surveys, is excluded.
Research must be reported as an empirical study to demonstrate the actual effectiveness of the robot in an educational setting.Research on building robots in programming courses is not included.
Research must be reported in English.Studies of faculty and student perceptions of robots were not included.
Full text is available.
ComponentsDimensionsCoding ItemsReferences
CKLearning domainLanguages; engineering or computers; science; health, medical or nursing; social science or social studies; business and management; arts or design; mathematicsHwang and Chang [ ]
PKTeaching strategyPractice on specific learning material, physical interaction, communication, role play, and collaborative language learningEngwall and Lopes [ ]
TKRobot typesToy-like robots, face or belly screen robots, humanoid robots, robotic heads, and programmable robotsEngwall and Lopes [ ]
TCKLearning resultsCognitive, behavioral, and affectiveAlbarracin, Hepler [ ]
TPKProblems with using robotsAnalyze the problem from 3 perspectives: teacher, student, and robot.Huang, Hew [ ]
PCKRobotic supportInformation support, information support, and emotional supportLeite, Castellano [ ]
TPCKRobotic personalityOpenness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticismDiener and Lucas [ ]
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Share and Cite

Wang, H.; Luo, N.; Zhou, T.; Yang, S. Physical Robots in Education: A Systematic Review Based on the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework. Sustainability 2024 , 16 , 4987. https://doi.org/10.3390/su16124987

Wang H, Luo N, Zhou T, Yang S. Physical Robots in Education: A Systematic Review Based on the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework. Sustainability . 2024; 16(12):4987. https://doi.org/10.3390/su16124987

Wang, Huayi, Ningfeng Luo, Tong Zhou, and Shuai Yang. 2024. "Physical Robots in Education: A Systematic Review Based on the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework" Sustainability 16, no. 12: 4987. https://doi.org/10.3390/su16124987

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Emotional Intelligence and Effective Leadership Essay

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Introduction

Emotional intelligence, decision-making, biases and becoming effective leader and decision-maker.

Nowadays, there are various psychological tools and instruments that help measure one’s emotional intelligence, evaluate one’s decision-making skills, and describe the decision-making mechanisms and principles. Business practitioners and HR managers view these components as highly important since they help understand the abilities of the employees and their potentials of becoming leaders and managers in future (Batool, 2013). To understand the importance of these aspects I have completed a series of tests to discover the main features of an effective leader. Assessing their ability to evaluate personality and their connection with the role in organization and leadership are the main goals of this paper. Simultaneously, it is critical to underline biases and determine the main qualities of a leader and decision-maker. In the end, the conclusions are drawn to summarize the main findings of the paper.

In this case, one of the first aspects to be considered is emotional intelligence. Nowadays, this social term pertains to being able to take into account emotions of other individuals, interpret them correctly, and use them as a basis for decision-making in different contexts (Batool, 2013). To understand its working principles, I have completed Emotional Intelligence Test. MEIT test helps assess and reflects the spheres such as emotions, goals setting, autonomy in decision-making, self-evaluation, making decisions under pressure, and relationships with others. According to the main features of emotional intelligence, the leader has to be independent of external opinions, empathetic, optimistic, and socially responsible (Batool, 2013). It could be said that these matters are the main definers of one’s level of emotional intelligence. In terms of the assessment of my personality, it portrays that a have to pay critical attention to the emotions and feelings of other individuals, as disregarding them will question my leadership and abilities to build trusting relationships and networks with the subordinates in the recent future.

Based on the factors depicted above, it could be said that emotional intelligence is a complex phenomenon and its main features are the main definers of effective leadership (Batool, 2013). Nowadays, it is critical to consider this component. The organizational structure continues to evolve, and it is important to become closer to the subordinates, understand their ideas and emotions, and encourage them to participate in the decision-making process (Batool, 2013). In this case, it fulfills the existence gap in power distance between managers and employees and makes a leader not only an autocratic ruler of the company but also helps develop trusting relationships with the employees. Simultaneously, the principles of emotional intelligence can enhance decision-making and improve communication within a group (Hess & Bacigulapo, 2011). These concepts change the organizational structure by increasing the freedom of choice and expression inside the company.

Despite a substantial importance of emotional intelligence, leadership is one of the critical aspects that have to be taken into account by the modern managers. In this case, I have completed Leadership Assessment Questionnaire. This test attempts to reflect and cover the attitudes towards risk-taking, goal-setting, alignment with the company’s strategy, the effectiveness of decisions, ability to inspire, motivate, and provide continuous feedback and distributing resources effectively. It remains apparent that complying with these characteristics refers to being an effective and recognized leader, and these matters are main definers of the company’s success and financial prosperity. In this instance, this test helps highlight the main areas that require improvement. For example, my test reflected that I have average scores, and this result implies that I should continue developing my leadership skills and changes my attitudes towards interpersonal relationships for the company’s success.

The factors depicted above could be discovered as critical for the company’s development and survival. Nowadays, being a leader is vehemently important, as it not only helps increase the efficiency of the employees but also assists in cultivating change (Ikinci, 2014). At the same time, it motivates and inspires employees to continue training, as they understand their contribution to the company’s prosperity and profitability (Ikinci, 2014). Alternatively, the leader has to be interested in the dynamic environment and adapt to the constantly changing trends ( Center for Creative Leadership , 2012). Overall, along with emotional intelligence, one cannot underestimate the significance of leadership since it helps find a rapport with the employees and creates an interference between company’s mission and personal goals.

Another matter that has a clear connection with the organizational effectiveness is the principles of decision-making. In this case, the test How Good Is Your Decision-Making helped me understand my personal traits and competences. In the first place, this test tends to cover topics such as principles of decision-making and potential sources of bias such as emotionality. This assessment has a clear connection with the main features of the effective decision-maker that may include rationality, critical thinking, strong support by facts, a reasonable involvement of intuition, and risk assessment. As for my personal assessment, the score indicated that I tend to rely on rational decision-making. The primary benefit of this approach is its strong focus on logic and factual support (Walter, Kellermanns, & Lechner, 2010). Nonetheless, I have to focus on the development of my intuitive skills, as the business environment may experience unpredictable changes and require making decisions quickly.

The main features of the concept mentioned above emphasize that it could be considered as equally important as leadership and emotional intelligence. It could be said that this aspect helps the organization select only rational and logical options that may have a beneficial influence on the firm’s stability and financial performance (Walter et al., 2010). At the same time, it assists in avoiding external risks and modifying the organizational culture to comply with the external trends and fluctuations of the economic cycles. Underestimating this matter may lead to failure and a substantial financial loss.

Despite the clarity of the decision-making and its well-balanced intuitive and logical components, there are various external factors that affect the effectiveness of selecting a particular option. The assessment presented above attempted to cover some types of biases. One of them is emotionality, as they leaders tend to rely on intuition while overconfident that particular event will take place (Murata, Nakamura, & Karwowski, 2015). Apart from the cognitive biases that tend to underestimate the possibility of the social influence, there are various phenomena such as groupthink (Murata et al. 2015). In this case, the inability to discover issue from dissimilar angles minimizes the effectiveness of decision-making and may be discovered as a potential cause of failure or financial loss. It remains evident that different biases and external factors have to be considered at the same time since underestimating them will question the effectiveness of the leadership style and selected decision-making strategy.

Based on the assessments mentioned above, it could be said that effective leader and decision-maker has to combine various emotional traits that include the main features of emotional intelligence, leadership, and the key principles of decision-making mechanisms. In this case, the leader has to pay attention to the emotions of other individuals and take them into account when making particular decisions (Batool, 2013). At the same time, one cannot underestimate the importance of social responsibility and ensuring alignment with the personal and group goals with the company’s mission. Using a well-balanced combination of intuition and rationality will also boost the efficiency of decision-making and have a positive impact on the development of the company. Being able to combine these features will contribute to being a motivating and inspiring role model to the employees and effective problem-solver.

Overall, this essay helped see that personal assessments are not only completed for pleasure and entertainment, but they also identify the areas for improvement. They tend to take into account the characteristics that one has to have a high level of emotional intelligence and be effective leader and decision-maker. These tests helped understand the significance of individual traits and emotional features in the organizational structure and success of the company.

At the same time, this essay tends to underline that these concepts are vehemently important for the organizational performance and have to be considered as the main components of the effective leadership and decision-making. Using their combination will have a positive impact on establishing internal and external relationships and change the principles of the decision-making style. Following these new tendencies will assist the leader in establishing trusting relationships with the employees and creating a suitable environment for encouraging employees to share their opinions. It could be said that these factors will not only optimize the working processes of the company but also enhance company’s competitive edge.

Batool, B. (2013). Emotional intelligence and effective leadership. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 4 (3), 84-94.

Center for Creative Leadership : Leadership image. (2012). Web.

Hess, J., & Bacigulapo, A. (2011). Enhancing decisions and decision-making processes through the application of emotional intelligence. Management Decisions, 49 (5), 720-721.

Ikinci, S. (2014). Organizational change: Importance of leadership style and training. Management and Organizational Studies, 1 (2), 122-128.

Murata, A., Nakamura, T., & Karwowski, W. (2015). Influence of cognitive biases on distortive decision-making and leading to critical unfavorable incidents. Safety, 1 (1), 44-58.

Walter, J., Kellermanns, F., & Lechner, C. (2012). Decision making within and between organizations: Rationality, politics, and alliance performance. Journal of Management, 38 (5), 1582-1610.

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