Kazakhstan: interview on almaty earthquake preparedness.
ALMATY, 30 November (IRIN) - The Kazakh commercial capital Almaty, which was last destroyed by earthquakes in 1887 and 1911, is likely to suffer a major quake in the next 10 to 15 years, experts say. In an interview with IRIN, the deputy Director of Seismology at the National Academy of Sciences, Askar Ospanov, and Baurzhan Iskakov, the chief of local emergency services, outlined the dangers. But with sound preparation, loss of life and damage to buildings and infrastructure could be kept to a minimum, they say. QUESTION: Askar Ospanov, how susceptible is Almaty and southern Kazakhstan to another devastating earthquake?
ANSWER: Serious seismic activity in our region tends to occur every 80 to 100 years. The last period of seismological activity happened between 1885 and 1911. During that period there were serious eaarthquakes at Belovodskoye in 1885, Vernenskoye two years later and Keminskoye in 1889. These quakes dissipated the accumulated energy in the earth's crust. Today the crust has accumulated enough energy again and that energy is most likely to take the form of another series of earthquakes around this period - within the next 10 to 15 years. We do not know for sure that a strong earthquake will happen during this period, but the probability is high.
Q: Already last year a large earthquake happened in the Zhambyl region. Was that the start of this new seismic activity you have just spoken about?
A: According to preliminary findings, the earthquake in Zhambyl region did not release any energy from the earth's crust around Almaty, although this needs additional study. Our calculations predict that an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.5 on the Richter scale could hit the Almaty region. But this kind of shock is survivable without significant human and material losses if preparation is good.
Q: What sort of earthquake preparedeness are you advocating?
A: The Institution of Seismology has worked out a special programme for 2005-2010 at the instance of Almaty city authorities. It will be expensive, but it will save lives and will be lower than the cost of repairing the earthquake damage.
Q: Baurzhan Beysenovich, in the case of a serious earthquake, how many people in Almaty could be injured or made homeless?
A: In the case of such an earthquake, at least 5 percent of the population could be killed or injured and around 40 percent made homeless.
Q: How many buildings in the city are effectively earthquake proof?
A: That's difficult to predict and would depend greatly on the intensity of any quake. We estimate about 10 percent would be fully destroyed, 20 percent we think would be partially damaged and and about 70 percent would come through more or less unscathed. Most constructions in Almaty are enough strong and stand the earthquake not more than 9 scores. These are standards of construction. The firmness depends on [the quality of] soil any one district of the city.
Q: What should be done now to reduce the number of victims you have predicted in any quake?
A: Firstly, there are more than 1,000 houses in the city that are in very poor conditon - these should be knocked down immediately as they are death traps. More than 2,000 other structures need emergency repairs to strengthen them in the event of an earthquake. These measures would save many lives. Vast stocks of tents, blankets, food, medicine and water purification equipment need to be put in accessible places, these measures would also reduce death considerably. But city residents should have emergency rations of foodstuffs and medicine in their houses if they are to have a chance of surviving the inevitable shortages that would follow a big quake.
But another issue here is the lack of awareness among the population - people in the city are generally not so serious about safety concerns. We need more active involvement from people in earthquake exercises and trainings. Only 40 percent of companies and organisations have purchased tents and have trained employees on what to do in the event of a crisis of this nature.
Q: Will there be any warning of a serious earthquake?
A: We hope so, the equipment for research and early warning has improved and the network of the seismic monitoring around of the city of Almaty, [set up] in cooperation with Japanese seismologists, is now comprehensive. A system which allows authorities to disconnect gas and electricity supply lines at the first signs of an earthquake will be installed in 2005. But being prepared is the key to survival.
IRIN-Asia Tel: +92-51-2211451 Fax: +92-51-2292918 Email: [email protected]
[This Item is Delivered to the "Asia-English" Service of the UN's IRIN humanitarian information unit, but may not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations. For further information, free subscriptions, or to change your keywords, contact e-mail: [email protected] or Web: http://www.irinnews.org . If you re-print, copy, archive or re-post this item, please retain this credit and disclaimer. Reposting by commercial sites requires written IRIN permission.]
Copyright (c) UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs 2004
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Kazakhstan: earthquake - information bulletin n° 1.
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7 magnitude earthquake strikes Kazakhstan, ripple effects felt across Central Asia
In a seismic event recorded on January 23, 2024, at 00:09:02 Almaty time (January 22, 2024, at 18:09:02 GMT), a significant earthquake occurred with its epicenter situated 264 km southeast of Almaty on the border of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. The seismic activity was registered by the network of seismic stations operated by "NNTSSN and I" under the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Kazlenta.kz reported.
Key Details of the Earthquake:
- Epicenter: Located on the Kazakhstan-Kyrgyzstan border
- Energy Class: 15.1
- Magnitude MPV: 6.7
- Coordinates: 41.22° N, 1.78° W
- Depth: 65 km
The earthquake's impact prompted a swift response from relevant government agencies, as outlined by the city Emergency Situations Department. Following the interaction algorithm, notifications were sent to the appropriate authorities, and monitoring efforts were initiated to assess potential destruction. The operational duty officer of the police department received information to conduct visual inspections of buildings and structures in the city for signs of damage, telegram news channel Centralasianow reported.
The earthquake's effects were not limited to the Kazakhstan-Kyrgyzstan border, as a magnitude 7 earthquake was observed on the border of Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in China. The strength of the seismic activity reverberated across various regions of Uzbekistan.
Perceived Power in the Republic of Uzbekistan:
- Tashkent: 3 points, located 862 km from the epicenter
- Andijan region: 3-4 points, situated 602 km away
- Fergana region: 3-4 points, approximately 656 km from the epicenter
- Namangan region: 3-4 points, with a distance of 657 km from the epicenter
Residents are reported to be taking to the streets, Ulysmedia.kz reported .
Earlier, the head of the emergency response department of Almaty, Bekbolat Bugabaev, noted that in case of danger, it is necessary not to panic and go to a safe place. And he clarified that rescuers are ready for magnitude 7 earthquakes.
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7.6 magnitude earthquake strikes japan, tsunami warning follows , tokayev expresses condolences to japan’s prime minister in wake of earthquake , turkey initiates criminal cases against over 600 people for building collapse during 2023 earthquake , kazakhstan bans russian tv presenter tina kandelaki from entering over controversial remarks, kazakhstan and bonifiche ferraresi partner for agro-alliance with pasta production and export expansion, president tokayev discusses food security with un wfp director cindy mccain .
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Seasonality in Site Response: An Example from Two Historical Earthquakes in Kazakhstan
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Rami Alshembari , Stefano Parolai , Tobias Boxberger , Denis Sandron , Marco Pilz , Natalya Sylacheva; Seasonality in Site Response: An Example from Two Historical Earthquakes in Kazakhstan. Seismological Research Letters 2019;; 91 (1): 415–426. doi: https://doi.org/10.1785/0220190114
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During the past 150 yr, the city of Almaty (formerly Verny) in Kazakhstan has suffered significant damage due to several large earthquakes. The 9 June 1887 M w 7.3 Verny earthquake occurred at a time when the city mainly consisted of adobe buildings with a population of 30,000, with it being nearly totally destroyed with 300 deaths. The 3 January 1911 M w 7.8 Kemin earthquake caused 390 deaths, with 44 in Verny itself. Remarkably, this earthquake, which occurred around 40 km from Verny, caused significant soil deformation and ground failure in the city. A crucial step toward preparing for future events, mitigating against earthquake risk, and defining optimal engineering designs, involves undertaking site response studies. With regard to this, we investigate the possibility that the extreme ground failure observed after the 1911 Kemin earthquake could have been enhanced by the presence of a shallow frozen ground layer that may have inhibited the drainage of pore pressure excess through the surface, therefore inducing liquefaction at depth. We make use of information collected regarding the soil conditions around the city at the time of the earthquakes, the results from seismic noise analysis, borehole data, and surface temperature data. From these datasets, we estimated the necessary parameters for evaluating the dynamic properties of the soil in this area. We successively characterize the corresponding sediment layers at the sites of the observed liquefaction. Although the estimated soil parameters are not optimally constrained, the dynamic analysis, carried out using selected strong‐motion recordings that are expected to be compatible with the two considered events, indicated that the extensive ground failure that occurred during the Kemin event could be due to the presence of a superficial frozen soil layer. Our results indicate that for this region, possible seasonal effects should, therefore, be considered when undertaking site effect studies.
- Central Asia
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- earthquake prediction
- geologic hazards
- great earthquakes
- ground motion
- natural hazards
- peak ground acceleration
- risk assessment
- seismic response
- seismic risk
- Verny earthquake 1887
- Kemin earthquake 1911
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Map of Latest Earthquakes near Kazakhstan
Recent kazakhstan earthquake news.
These are the latest articles published related to earthquakes occurring near Kazakhstan. Check our Earthquake News section for a complete overview of articles written on earthquakes near Kazakhstan and elsewhere.
Kazakhstan Earthquake Statistics
A total of 791 earthquakes with a magnitude of four or above have struck within 300 km (186 mi) of Kazakhstan in the past 10 years. This comes down to a yearly average of 79 earthquakes per year, or 6 per month. On average an earthquake will hit near Kazakhstan roughly every 4 days.
A relatively large number of earthquakes occurred near Kazakhstan in 2024. A total of 183 earthquakes (mag 4+) were detected within 300 km of Kazakhstan that year. The strongest had a 7 magnitude.
The table below visualizes the distribution of all earthquakes that occurred within 300km of Kazakhstan in the past 10 years. No earthquakes with a magnitude of 7 or above have occurred near Kazakhstan during this time. Usually, higher magnitudes are less common than lower magnitudes. Small earthquakes with a magnitude below 4 on the Richter scale have been omitted from this overview.
Strongest earthquakes near Kazakhstan
The strongest recent earthquake of the past 10 years near Kazakhstan occurred on Jan 23, 2024 00:09 local time (Asia/Almaty timezone). It had a magnitude of 7 and struck 263 kilometers (163 mi) south-southeast of Almaty , at a depth of 13 km. Discover more strong earthquakes near Kazakhstan in the list below.
A longer time ago, a MAG-8 earthquake struck on Jan 4, 1911 04:33, 38 kilometers (24 mi) south-southeast of Almaty. It is the strongest earthquake near Kazakhstan in the past 124 years (Our data goes back to January 1st, 1900).
In the table below you will find the strongest earthquakes that occurred near Kazakhstan in the past 10 years. You can use the tabs to find the heaviest historic earthquakes since the year 1900 or within a specific year or distance from Kazakhstan.
Frequently Asked Questions
These questions are commonly asked in relation to earthquakes occurring near Kazakhstan.
When was the last earthquake in Kazakhstan?
A 4.3 magnitude earthquake hit near Kazakhstan on the evening of February 27, 2024 at 20:18 local time (Asia/Almaty). The center of this earthquake was located 256km south-southeast of Almaty at a depth of 3km under land. Check the list on our website for any earthquakes occurring near Kazakhstan in the past hours.
What was the strongest earthquake near Kazakhstan?
A 8 magnitude earthquake hit near Kazakhstan on the night of January 4, 1911 at 04:33 local time (Asia/Almaty). The center of this earthquake was located 38km south-southwest of Almaty at a depth of 20km under land. This is the strongest earthquake that occurred near Kazakhstan since the year 1900.
How often do earthquakes occur near Kazakhstan?
In the past 10 years, 791 earthquakes with a magnitude of four or higher occurred within a 300 kilometer range from Kazakhstan. This averages to 79 earthquakes yearly, or one earthquake every 5 days.
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Seasonality in Site Response: An Example from Two Historical Earthquakes in Kazakhstan
During the past 150 yr, the city of Almaty (formerly Verny) in Kazakhstan has suffered significant damage due to several large earthquakes. The 9 June 1887 Mw 7.3 Verny earthquake occurred at a time when the city mainly consisted of adobe buildings with a population of 30,000, with it being nearly totally destroyed with 300 deaths. The 3 January 1911 Mw 7.8 Kemin earthquake caused 390 deaths, with 44 in Verny itself. Remarkably, this earthquake, which occurred around 40 km from Verny, caused significant soil deformation and ground failure in the city. A crucial step toward preparing for future events, mitigating against earthquake risk, and defining opti- mal engineering designs, involves undertaking site response studies. With regard to this, we investigate the possibility that the extreme ground failure observed after the 1911 Kemin earthquake could have been enhanced by the presence of a shal- low frozen ground layer that may have inhibited the drainage of pore pressure excess through the surface, therefore inducing liquefaction at depth. We make use of information collected regarding the soil conditions around the city at the time of the earthquakes, the results from seismic noise analysis, borehole data, and surface temperature data. From these datasets, we estimated the necessary parameters for evaluating the dynamic properties of the soil in this area. We successively characterize the corresponding sediment layers at the sites of the observed liquefaction. Although the estimated soil parameters are not optimally constrained, the dynamic analysis, carried out using selected strong-motion recordings that are expected to be com- patible with the two considered events, indicated that the extensive ground failure that occurred during the Kemin event could be due to the presence of a superficial frozen soil layer. Our results indicate that for this region, possible seasonal effects should, therefore, be considered when undertaking site effect studies.
The preceding companion paper presented the updating of the seismic soil liquefaction triggering relationship of Cetin et al. , and compared the resulting updated relationship with the earlier version. In this second paper, a detailed cross-comparison is made between three triggering relationships: (1) Seed et al. , as slightly updated by the NCEER Working Group (Youd et al. ), (2) Boulanger and Idriss , and (3) Cetin et al. . Differences between these three triggering relationships, and the apparent causes of them are examined. Also studied are the impacts of these differences on levels of conservatism with regard to evaluation of liquefaction triggering hazard, and the resulting risks for engineering projects.
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering
Abstract. In this investigation, relations between the ground’s thermal properties and 70 earthquakes with a magnitude>4 Richter in the Alborz region during a pe-riod of 12 years (1992 to 2004) were studied. Typical changes of ground temperature, 0.4 ◦C; thermal diffusivity, 0.028 m2 s−1×10−6 and ground heat flux take place a few hours prior to the earthquakes. The values of thermal dif-fusivity depend on the ground moisture content, which may change during seismic activities. The analysis of ground heat flux from the epicentre and it’s surrounding regions show some anomalous behavior before the earthquakes but with different signs in the areas close to the sea and far away from the sea. The changes of the ground’s thermal properties prior to the earthquakes in the Alborz region are attributed to the in-crease in seismic activities in the epicentre and it’s surround-ing regions. The anomalous behavior in the ground thermal properties shows great potential in providing early warni...
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and The Environment
The Adana-Ceyhan earthquake (Ms=6.2) occurred in the southern part of Turkey on 27 June 1998 and resulted in the loss of 145 lives and extensive damage to buildings in Ceyhan town and the settlement areas in its vicinity. Soil liquefaction, ground failure due to lateral spreading and rock falls occurred. The area of Adana is characterised by a large alluvial basin with a delta shape. Most of the basin is filled with Quaternary recent Holocene deposits. The recent rapid deposition of sediments and the very shallow groundwater table throughout the basin create conditions conducive to liquefaction. The results of a preliminary investigation of soil liquefaction caused by the earthquake and liquefaction assessments based on field performance data are presented together with evaluations concerning the likely contribution of the soils to the damage sustained by buildings. The results of the liquefaction susceptibility analysis indicated that the data from the liquefied sites were within the empirical bounds suggested by the field-performance evaluation method. It was also shown that shallow sand layers should have liquefied and the surface disruption observed on the site could be predicted by the bounds used for the relationships between the thickness of liquefiable sediments and the overlying non-liquefiable soil. Site-response analyses based on acceleration response spectra from the actual earthquake's strong motion records revealed that soil behaviour was one of the most significant factors in the damage to buildings caused by the earthquake. Le tremblement de terre de Adana-Ceyhan survenu au sud de la Turquie le 27 juin 1998 á cause la perte de 145 vies humaines, des dommages étendus aux édifices dans la district de Ceyhan et la subsidence des alentours. La liquéfaction du sol, des mouvements latéraux de terrain et des choutes rocheuse sont aussi survenus dans la district. Dans cet article, les resultats d'une étude préliminaire de la liquéfaction du sol causée par le tremblement de terre, l'évaluation des liquéfaction basées sur les données terrain expérimentale ainsi que la contribution possible du sol sur les dommages causées aux édifices sont présentés. La region de Çukurova est un delta caracterisé par une grande plaine alluviale. Le pluspart de la region áété remblayée par des depots récent d'Holocène de l'aire Quaternaire. L'accumulation rapide des sédiments récents ainsi que la faible profoundeur de la nappe superfacielle dans le bassin a conduit à des conditions favorables à l'apparition de liquéfaction du sol. Les resultats des analyses de susceptibilité de liquéfaction ont montré que les données provenant des sites du sol liquéfiés sont dans les limites empiriques de la methode d'évaluation des performances de terrain. Il a aussi été montré que des couches de sable peu profondes ont pu étre liquéfiées et que les données provenant des sites avec ruptures de surface ont été predités dans les limités utilisées par les relations entre épaisseur des sediments liquéfiables et l'épaisseur du sol non-liquéfiable des couches supéreures. Les analyses de la response des sites basées ou les spectres de response des accelérations provenant des enregirstements des actuels tremblement de terre, ont revelé que le comportement du sol a été un au des facteurs majeurs sur les dommages des édifices causés par le tremblement de terre.
Leslie Youd , Turan Durgunoğlu
Valuable cases were presented regarding seismic performance of the shallow mat foundations of building structures in Adapazari, Turkey, during the 17 August 1999 Kocaeli ͑İzmit͒ earthquake. The authors attributed the occurrence of displacements of various forms and levels of the mats essentially to the liquefaction or cyclic softening of the saturated fine surface soils of ML/CL type, which dominated those sites. Subsequently, through contrasting the presumed field liquefaction to the analysis results, they evalu-ated the predictive capability of field-penetration-testing-based liquefaction triggering procedures. It was concluded that in Adapazari, the soils, though they contained significant amounts of clay-size particles and had grain-size distributions within ranges that were believed not to be susceptible to liquefaction, yet liquefied. Among others, the major drawback of the paper under discus-sion appears to be a priori reasoning of soil liquefaction to explain the observed di...
Dr. Amartya Kumar Bhattacharya
20500038 ILHAM RAMADHAN
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Earthquake Hazard level: High ?
In the area you have selected (Kazakhstan) earthquake hazard is classified as high according to the information that is currently available. This means that there is more than a 20% chance of potentially-damaging earthquake shaking in your project area in the next 50 years. Based on this information, the impact of earthquake must be considered in all phases of the project, in particular during design and construction. Project planning decisions, project design, and construction methods should take into account the level of earthquake hazard . Further detailed information should be obtained to adequately account for the level of hazard.
Understanding the earthquake history of any place is important to acknowledge the possibility that an earthquake can affect the region again and also to consider the extent of possible damage. While the latter is a function of the vulnerability of the built environment, the former informs us of the prevalent hazard, especially in regions with a history of earthquakes.
In many countries, earthquake history can be obtained from written historical records. It may seem unlikely that a large earthquake would take place hundreds of kilometers away from a tectonic plate boundary in areas with low levels of strain on the crust from tectonic motion. But such earthquakes have happened in the past, and understanding the earthquake history of a place is important before determining a location for a project and initiating the design of the structures.
Community memory and historical accounts of earthquakes can provide useful information to supplement scientific studies. Recording of earthquakes using scientific instruments began only around 1900. In many areas, centuries may pass between major earthquakes, meaning that instrumental records provide an incomplete picture of the hazard. Scientists who study earthquakes use other tools: they investigate faults where earthquakes occur, measure the slow movement of tectonic plates, and search for geologic traces left by ancient earthquakes.
Most countries that fall within earthquake hazard zones have maps that show how strong scientists expect earthquake shaking to be throughout the country. The building code or regulations for earthquake resistant design typically contain these maps, or they may be available from the government agency responsible for earth science or emergency management. Building code hazard maps provide sufficient information to properly design ordinary buildings and other typical structures. For critical facilities such as major dams, power plants, or major hospitals, a more detailed analysis should be done to determine the expected level of earthquake shaking at that particular site. Engineers need this additional information to design the facility properly.
Earthquakes can cause secondary hazards that include fires, landslides, liquefaction (see definition below), floods (can be triggered by failing dams and embankments, glacial lake outbursts, or by landslide-blocked rivers) and tsunami in coastal areas. Obtain information on these hazards from the government agency responsible for emergency management. Maps may exist that describe the extent of tsunami inundation, liquefaction, or land-sliding. Historical records may also contain accounts of secondary hazard events triggered by past earthquakes. Learning about potential tsunami hazard is essential in coastal areas with high earthquake risk.
Liquefaction takes place when loosely packed, saturated sediments at or near the ground surface lose their strength in response to strong ground shaking, and flow like a thick fluid. This can result in major damage during earthquakes. (More details at http://www.usgs.gov/faq/categories/9829/3301). Liquefaction occurs up to a certain depth of the soil and hence if we are able to pre-determine the potential and the possible depth of liquefaction, building foundations can be designed to go below the liquefiable depth and can remain unaffected in earthquake shaking. Knowing the height of the water table in the soil helps us determine its liquefaction potential, the viability of sub-soil floors and housing of critical utilities in such areas.
Earthquakes triggered or induced by human activity are not included in these hazard levels. Instances of 'induced seismicity' and its causes are recorded at http://inducedearthquakes.org/ .
Building standards, often called building codes, provide the first line of defense against potential earthquake damage and help to ensure safety in buildings designed and constructed in conformance with the codes. It is important to find out if the local building regulations provide for earthquake protection in the project location. If they do, then comply with the regulating provisions with respect to planning, design and construction, including typology of construction and quality materials for use in areas of seismic hazard.
Reviewing local building regulations is essential for setting the standards for planning, design and construction. Similarly, it is necessary to determine to what extent these regulations take into consideration the earthquake hazard in the region, and whether they provide sufficient protection. To do this, engage the local engineering community, especially those serving with the local government, in discussions. However, in regions where it is felt that local engineers’ capacities are low, consider consulting with external experts who understand the building standards needed in high earthquake hazard zones.
Similarly, it is necessary to understand when these standards were last revised, and how often revisions occur. Earthquake information and engineering developments are rapid, and standards that have not been revised for more than five years may not meet requirements for project design. In such cases, more stringent design standards may have to be followed.
Many provisions in the building standards, if implemented, are intended to ensure that structures can adequately resist seismic forces during earthquakes. Building standards in some parts of the world are based on the required performance of a particular building in a future earthquake event. The performance levels could range from a building designed to prevent collapse in earthquakes, to a slightly improved ‘life safety’ (typically used for ordinary buildings), to ‘immediate occupancy’ where a building is designed to be usable minutes after an earthquake. It should be understood however, that the costs will increase substantially for higher performance levels. Hence, if such standards are in use in the project area, it is essential to understand and consider the performance required for each building in the project, and to set the building-performance goal needed for each. ‘Design Considerations’ provides further detail.
According to the building standards in some countries, the design will be influenced by how important the building is. Importance depends on the functional use of the building, the hazardous consequences of its failure, its post-earthquake functional needs, historical value, occupancy and/or economic importance. An Importance Factor (say 1.5) is multiplied in the calculations to provide additional earthquake resistance to buildings of greater significance. This however, is still an indirect approach. More direct and better approaches are also available for important facilities (see Design Considerations).
If the local building codes do not reflect the seismicity of the area, consider adopting and complying with building standards from other regions sharing similar geological conditions and earthquake hazards. In many countries, seismic hazard is not considered in building standards either because these are rare events or because the earthquake history is incomplete. However, it should be remembered that rare events can happen within the lifespan of the building and result in large losses.
More Information: The Importance of Building Codes in Earthquake-Prone Communities: http://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/1410554614185-e0da148255b25cd17a5510a80b0d9f48/Building%20Code%20Fact%20Sheet%20Revised%20August%202014.pdf
Understanding the geology of the project site is one of the first steps in the design process. One needs to determine whether the project site is likely to be affected by ground failure or other site hazards during an earthquake. Maps showing landslide hazard, liquefaction potential (defined below), shaking amplification due to soft soil, and active fault zones may be available. Sometimes these maps are part of a seismic microzonation study report, or they might be available from the government earth science agency.
The foundation is the lowest part of a building which interacts with the soil and transmits the load of the structure to the soil below. Before a foundation type is decided, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of the soil at the site of construction. This is done by soil investigations which should be conducted by a geotechnical engineer who will test the soil at the site and will prepare a report that indicates physical properties of the soil, its bearing capacity, chemical composition, its liquefaction (see below) potential, the stability of natural slopes and other considerations for design. The soil properties can vary from place to place and from layer to layer, even within the proposed project. It is thus very important for projects to undertake these tests, as buildings based on unfavorable soils can experience excessive ground motion or be subjected to the effects of liquefaction and ground failure. The results of the soil studies and their analysis will be used by structural designers to design the foundations and structural elements required for earthquake resistance of the buildings.
Site Hazards: Make sure to select sites with minimal site hazards if possible. Ensure that the proposed project is not built on or in close proximity to active earthquake faults. The project site should not be exposed to falling rocks and landslides from nearby mountains. The presence of large rocks that may have fallen from nearby mountains several years back is a good indication that there is a rockfall hazard.
In most earthquakes, building collapses cause the majority of deaths and injuries. Building standards help to ensure safety of constructions. It is important for the technical personnel involved in building projects in earthquake-prone areas to understand all provisions in the building standards, and also why these are necessary to design and build earthquake resistant structures. They must understand the demands induced during earthquake shaking in the various building components and design measures to counter them so that loss of life and damage to property can be limited.
Sound technical advice is essential to ensure project structures can resist multiple hazards. For project structures to have adequate earthquake resistance, the technical personnel involved must also have relevant experience and expertise in conceptualizing, designing and constructing earthquake resistant structures. Designing and building large structures is always a challenge, and that challenge is even greater when they are built in earthquake-prone areas. Earthquake engineering requires additional technical skills than ordinary structural engineering. All projects in areas of high earthquake hazard should engage the services of technical personnel with knowledge and experience in constructing earthquake resistant structures. It is also important that the team contain geologists who specialize in applying geology to engineering projects, commonly called engineering geologists, in order to better understand current geological processes, the earthquake potential and threat of secondary geologic hazards.
It will be useful to contact local or international experts that have prior experience working in the project area to understand how they sought to reduce earthquake risk in past projects. These experts may be in private consulting practice, in the government, or in universities.
Read More: ● http://science.howstuffworks.com/engineering/structural/earthquake-resistant-buildings.htm ● http://www.exploratorium.edu/faultline/damage/building.html
While designing a project in an area of high or medium earthquake hazard, it is important to set standards for the design of each structure which match the importance of the structure’s function (e.g. the emergency department building within a hospital complex, or a bridge on a major highway). When calculating performance requirements, consider how collapse, serious damage, or functional losses of project- associated infrastructure could affect the local population and environment. Also, it is obligatory to follow the building standards applicable in the area and all basic cost estimates will consider design to these standards. It is also important to ensure that there is good quality control and strict adherence to prescribed standards of construction materials and construction processes during the construction. Regular testing of construction materials, periodic training of workmen, and on-site evaluation of the technical work are important elements of good quality control. Good materials and quality construction have benefits beyond earthquake safety, because they reduce maintenance costs.
Several modern international building codes have now adopted Performance Based Seismic Design (PBSD – also called Performance Based Engineering) standards for construction of buildings in earthquake prone regions. Traditionally, all building standards had the design philosophy based on preventing any damage in low-intensity earthquakes, limiting the damage to repairable levels in medium-intensity earthquakes, and preventing the overall or partial collapse of buildings in high-intensity earthquakes. However, several large earthquakes showed that the amount of damage, the economic loss due to downtime, and repair cost of structures were unacceptably high, even though these structures complied with available seismic codes based on traditional design philosophy.
Performance-Based Seismic Design (PBSD) is a methodology which helps in designing buildings according to performance levels classified as a) operational, b) immediate occupancy c) life-safety, and d) collapse prevention, in relation to local hazard levels for events that are categorized as frequent, occasional, rare, and very rare. At the beginning of the design process, the owner and the designer should consult to select a combination of performance and hazard levels and design criteria for each structure based on its function and importance. This method of design can be followed for the most critical structures within the project, even if the local building standards do not cater to performance based engineering.
Read More: ● ATC 58 ‘Seismic Performance Assessment of Buildings’ (technical) ● http://www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/wcee/article/WCEE2012_5606.pdf ● http://peer.berkeley.edu/course_modules/eqrd/227info03/Lect2PBEbasics03.pdf ● http://www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/EQTips/EQTip08.pdf ● http://www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/EQTips/EQTip09.pdf
Utilities such as power supply, water supply, and sanitation are critical for the continuous functioning of any building in the project. In a strong earthquake, off-site utilities can be disrupted and may remain so for a few days. It is important to ensure that adequate on-site backup is available, and that each critical utility system has been built earthquake resistant. When designing projects in earthquake-prone areas, it is imperative to ensure that the utility systems resist damage due to earthquake shaking. Earthquake shaking can damage electrical equipment, generators and water pumps; break pipelines; and disrupt utility services.
Utility services are interdependent, and damage to one can affect other services as well. Examples include: a) If electrical power is lost, water cannot be pumped; and b) if the access route to the facility is damaged, fuel for the generator cannot be delivered, which will in turn affect the ability to pump water. It is important to understand the criticality of each facility and to address all possible vulnerabilities in the design stage itself, so that the facility can limit disruption due to damage, to one or more of the utility services.
Consider the effects of earthquake forces on the components that form the utility services. Ensure that adequate steps are implemented to limit damage to these critical services by taking steps such as anchoring, bracing and adding flexible connectors. It is also important to estimate how long it would take to repair or reestablish damaged lifeline utilities and to consider the extent to which emergency supplies can meet local needs.
Consider the effects of an earthquake on the access to the buildings under the project, especially if these are lifeline buildings which will be required to be accessed immediately following an earthquake. Road access can be lost by building collapses on to the road, damage to bridges, earthquake induced landslides.
Interior and exterior finishes, equipment, utility systems (sometimes called “non-structural components” by engineers) and contents can represent 80–90% of the capital investment at risk in commercial, office and residential buildings during an earthquake (Perry et al, 2009). Reconnaissance following earthquakes in a number of countries indicates significant economic losses are the result of damage to architectural elements (such as windows, suspended ceilings and doors), equipment, contents, and building utility systems. Damage to these items in earthquakes can cause deaths, injuries, the building losing ability to function, and economic losses. Any of these non-structural components or contents placed close to exits may block exits and impede evacuations following earthquakes. Thus, constructions in earthquake prone regions require adequate steps to limit damage to these elements in the design stages. The design standards will depend on the functions of the building structure and the nature of the equipment and utilities within the building.
In most countries, non-structural components and the majority of the building contents are not covered by building standard provisions and remain vulnerable to earthquake damage. Mitigation solutions for most of these components are available in various manuals published across the world (a few examples below) and can be incorporated in the construction and maintenance phases so that losses due to them are limited.
Read More: ● FEMA-74 ‘Reducing the Risks of Non-structural Earthquake Damage—A Practical Guide’ ● Perry, C., Phipps, M., and Hortacsu, A. (2009). ‘Reducing the Risks of Nonstructural Earthquake Damage,’ Proceedings, Improving the Seismic Performance of Existing Buildings and Other Structures, p 674-685. http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/41084(364)62 ● For schools: http://www.caloes.ca.gov/PlanningPreparednessSite/Documents/Nonstructural_EQ_Hazards_For_Schools_July2011.pdf http://www.geohaz.in/upload/files/Non-Structural_Risk_Book.pdf ● For health facilities: FEMA 577 ‘Design Guide for Improving Hospital Safety in Earthquakes, Floods, and High Winds: Providing Protection to People and Buildings’ Reducing Earthquake Risk in Hospitals from Equipment, Contents, Architectural Elements and Building Utility Systems: http://www.geohaz.in/upload/files/hospitalsafetymanual.pdf
In addition to all the other recommendations, the design of each building in the project must incorporate emergency evacuation considerations in the planning stage. This includes considering space requirements and information regarding the functions of the building and the needs of its users (for example, critically ill patients’ beds may have to be wheeled out of a Hospital Intensive Care Unit) and their ability to evacuate in an emergency. Incorporate emergency considerations in the buildings’ planning and construction, such as clear circulation areas, well located emergency exits, and clear signage to facilitate safe evacuation in the event of an emergency. For projects where buildings will have to remain functional following an earthquake (such as hospitals or emergency operations centers), in addition to having the entire building - including structure, finishes and equipment - protected from earthquake damage and providing back-up for critical utilities, a clear emergency management plan should be drafted and practiced to prepare the staff for crisis mitigation.
Other recommendations for High earthquake prone regions include a. Understanding the earthquake history of the region b. The adequacy of local building regulations c. Understanding the site and soil conditions at the project area d. Ensuring adequately experienced and qualified technical personnel are involved in the design and construction e. Setting standards for design of project buildings depending on the importance of the building’s functions f. Ensuring that utility supplies such as electricity, water supply etc are built earthquake resistant g. Reducing the risk due to damage to architectural elements and building contents in an earthquake and h. Purchasing adequate earthquake insurance to cover potential losses on the project.
Consider purchasing earthquake insurance to cover potential losses on the project. Earthquake insurance may be available from the government or from private insurers. Insurance can help provide funds after an earthquake, to help in reconstruction and replacement of damaged buildings, contents or other project components. This can ultimately enable the project to recover from the effects of the earthquake and regain its function more quickly. However, it is important to note that insurance only provides coverage for financial losses, but cannot prevent damage, business interruption, injuries or deaths.
More information: • Insurance against Losses from Natural Disasters in Developing Countries : https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Reinhard_Mechler/publication/265286458_Insurance_against_Losses_from_Natural_Disasters_in_De- veloping_Countries/links/54ac53150cf21c477139d8c3.pdf • Earthquake Insurance in Japan: http://www.giroj.or.jp/english/pdf/earthquake/Chapter2.pdf • Insurance-related instruments for disaster risk reduction - http://www.preventionweb.net/english/hyogo/gar/2011/en/bgdocs/Suarez &_Linnerooth-Bayer_2011.pdf
The data set used to classify the hazard in this area is not publicly available to view or download due to licensing restrictions. Please contact for further information.
- Kazakhstan National Data Center Website http://www.kndc.kz/index.php?lang=en Phone E-mail [email protected]
- Ministry of Emergency Situations Website http://emer.kz/ Phone E-mail
For further information the following resources could be consulted:
- Central Asia Fault Database
- Overview of Natural Disasters and their Impacts in Asia and the Pacific 1970 - 2014
- Comprehensive Safe Hospital Framework
- E-learning course: Understanding Risk (World Bank)
- Hospital Safety Index Guide
- » see more see less
- Building Urban Resilience - Principles, Tools, and Practice
- Defining disaster resilience: a DFID approach paper
- EMDAT: Country Profile on Historical Disaster Events
- Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction: Country Profiles
- Global Earthquake Model - GEM Foundation
- Global Risk Patterns and Trends in Global Assessment Report
- Guidance on Safe School Construction
- INFORM: Index for Risk Management
- Reducing Earthquake Risk in Hospitals
- Towards Safer School Construction
- Understanding Risk in an Evolving World - Emerging Best Practices in Natural Disaster Risk Assessment
If you have any, please provide feedback .
A Year After a Devastating Quake: Container Cities, Trials and Grief
On the anniversary of a catastrophic earthquake, Turkey is still struggling to rebuild, help survivors and hold people responsible for shoddy construction.
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By Ben Hubbard and Safak Timur
Reporting from Istanbul
At 4:17 a.m. on Tuesday, thousands of people in cities across southern Turkey gathered to cry, light candles and chant against the government, marking the moment a year ago that a powerful earthquake devastated the region.
The 7.8-magnitude quake, and a second violent tremor hours later, damaged or destroyed hundreds of thousands of buildings, killing more than 53,000 people in southern Turkey and another 6,000 people in northern Syria. It was the area’s broadest and deadliest earthquake in hundreds of years.
The scale of the destruction, and the failure of emergency services to reach many people buried in the rubble until days later , angered survivors. Many accused building contractors of cutting corners to increase their profits and the government of failing to enforce safe building standards.
President Recep Tayyip Erdogan promised in the disaster’s aftermath to build large numbers of new homes in a year. That vow remains only partly fulfilled, and efforts to hold people accountable over faulty constructions are proceeding slowly.
Many survivors are still displaced, grieving for lost loved ones and struggling with long-term injuries.
A look at southern Turkey, one year after the earthquake:
How much has been rebuilt?
After the quake, the government said that 227,000 buildings, containing more than 637,000 units, had been heavily damaged or destroyed. Mr. Erdogan promised that the government would build 319,000 new residences within a year.
But as of late January, only 46,000 new units were ready to be passed to owners, according to the Urban and Environment Ministry. Officials have said that hundreds of thousands of new units are planned or under construction, and that many should be done this year.
The government has also paid rent support to displaced families and started a project to help apartment owners rebuild their collapsed buildings, although some survivors have struggled to access that aid.
But the lag in getting survivors back into their own homes is apparent in the sprawling “container cities” that still dot the quake zone, where hundreds of thousands of people are living in cramped, prefabricated homes. Many lack the money to rent elsewhere or to rebuild destroyed homes.
Has anyone been held accountable?
Much of the anger in the immediate aftermath of the quake focused on building contractors and inspectors, whom survivors accused of doing shoddy work to save money.
So far, courts have taken up 275 cases and others are still being examined, Justice Minister Yilmaz Tunc announced last week. More than 260 suspects have been detained pending trial.
Court hearings have recently begun in a number of cases.
Last month, the trial opened for 11 defendants who stand accused of “willful negligence” in connection with collapse of the Grand Isias Hotel in the city of Adiyaman. More than 70 people were killed, including a group of student volleyball players and some of their parents and coaches.
Another court agreed to hear a case against eight people accused of skirting regulations in the construction of Renaissance Residence, an upscale housing complex in the city of Antakya that toppled, killing hundreds.
A New York Times investigation and forensic analysis found that flawed design, minimal oversight and insufficient safety checks contributed to the collapse.
It is unclear how long such cases will take to make it through the courts, or whether any government officials will be tried.
Last week, Human Rights Watch said that “not a single public official, elected mayor or city council member has yet faced trial” for roles they may have played in greenlighting or failing to protect people from poor construction.
Many survivors fear they will ultimately be denied justice.
Busra Yildiz, a graphic designer based in Britain, said in an interview that her mother, grandmother and two other relatives died when their building collapsed in the quake.
The contractor who built it is in jail, being prosecuted in connection with other failed buildings, but not for her family’s, said Ms. Yildiz, 25. Still, she wants him to be punished.
“I don’t want him to see the sun again,” she said.
How are survivors doing?
Many survivors, dealing with injuries and coping with grief , feel that the government has failed to keep up with the size of the disaster.
On Tuesday, people in Hatay, one of the hardest-hit provinces, booed the provincial mayor and the national health minister , forcing them to flee, according to videos posted on social media. Elsewhere, survivors dropped carnations in the Orontes River to commemorate the dead, and protesters chanted, “We won’t forget! We won’t forgive!”
Asked about residents’ sense that not enough had been done to help, Huseyin Yayman, a lawmaker from Hatay from Mr. Erdogan’s Justice and Development Party, said that feeling was natural.
“We need houses, buildings and mostly psychologists,” he said in an interview. “All of us are in grave pain.”
In addition to the more than 53,000 killed in Turkey, 134 were still missing, he said. Eighty-three were from his province.
“A year has passed and our pain is still overwhelming,” he said.
How has the president fared?
Despite frustration in the quake zone with the government’s initial response, Mr. Erdogan won another presidential term in May — even as he faced one of the greatest electoral challenges of his 20 years as Turkey’s paramount politician.
He has defended the government’s response to the earthquake, which he has called “the disaster of the century.”
“We experienced a disaster that collapsed our homes on our heads and burned our hearts, and we will carry the pain it caused inside of us like a burning coal until the end of our lives,” he said on Tuesday, during a ceremony to give new homes to survivors in the city of Kahramanmaras.
Mr. Erdogan said that in recent days, the government had given out keys for more than 27,000 new units in quake-stricken cities and that 20,000 more would be ready soon.
“There are only a few countries and societies that could stand against such a disaster as strongly as Turkey,” he said. “Thank God, on the first anniversary of the earthquake, we have cleaned up the rubble and made significant progress in reconstructing the cities, and people are reclaiming their lives.”
Ben Hubbard is the Istanbul bureau chief, covering Turkey and the surrounding region. More about Ben Hubbard
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Latest quakes in or near Kazakhstan - list, stats and map
Number of quakes per year
In the past 30 days, kazakhstan has had 229 quakes of magnitudes up to 4.8:.
- 27 quakes above magnitude 4
- 87 quakes between magnitude 3 and 4
- 61 quakes between magnitude 2 and 3
- 54 quakes below magnitude 2 that people normally don't feel.
Latest today: Mag. 3.3 Earthquake Xinjiang , China - writeAge(1709140376)
Strongest: mag. 4.8 earthquake charyshskiy rayon , altai krai , russia - writeage(1707553500), number of recent quakes in or near kazakhstan by magnitude, quakes in nearby regions.
About our data
Kazakhstan quake-o-meter, quakes, magnitude and depth over time.
Latest seismic signals
Earthquake Catalog - Look up past earthquakes
Earthquake statistics, average number of earthquakes.
- Mag. 7 or higher: 0.04 quakes per year (or 1 quake every 25 years)
- Mag. 6 or higher: 0.94 quakes per year (or 1 quake every 1.1 years)
- Mag. 5 or higher: 4.1 quakes per year
- Mag. 4 or higher: 169 quakes per year (or 14.1 quakes per month)
- Mag. 3 or higher: 488 quakes per year (or 41 quakes per month)
- Mag. 2 or higher: 612 quakes per year (or 51 quakes per month)
- Mag. 1 or higher: 703 quakes per year (or 59 quakes per month)
Number of earthquakes over time
Magnitude and seismic energy over time
Magnitude and energy distribution
Kazakhstan Earthquake FAQ
How frequent are earthquakes in kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan has relatively few earthquakes. Based on data from the past 10 years and our earthquake archive back to 1900, there are about 7,600 quakes on average per year in Kazakhstan. However, Kazakhstan has had at least 2 quakes above magnitude 7 since 1970, which suggests that larger earthquakes of this size occur infrequently, probably on average approximately every 25 to 30 years.
When was the latest earthquake in Kazakhstan?
A light magnitude 3.3 earthquake hit KAZAKHSTAN-XINJIANG BORDER REGION in the early morning of Thursday, Feb 29, 2024 at 1.12 am local time (Asia/Urumqi GMT +8). The quake had a very shallow depth of 10 km (6 mi) and was not felt (or at least not reported so).
How many quakes were there in Kazakhstan in the past 30 days?
In the past 30 days, Kazakhstan has been shaken by 27 quakes of magnitude 4.0 or above, 87 quakes between 3.0 and 4.0, and 61 quakes between 2.0 and 3.0. There have been also 54 quakes below magnitude 2.0 which people don't normally feel.
What was the strongest quake in Kazakhstan in the past 30 days?
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Earthquake Essay for Students and Children
500+ Words Essay on Earthquake
Simply speaking, Earthquake means the shaking of the Earth’s surface. It is a sudden trembling of the surface of the Earth. Earthquakes certainly are a terrible natural disaster. Furthermore, Earthquakes can cause huge damage to life and property. Some Earthquakes are weak in nature and probably go unnoticed. In contrast, some Earthquakes are major and violent. The major Earthquakes are almost always devastating in nature. Most noteworthy, the occurrence of an Earthquake is quite unpredictable. This is what makes them so dangerous.
Types of Earthquake
Tectonic Earthquake: The Earth’s crust comprises of the slab of rocks of uneven shapes. These slab of rocks are tectonic plates. Furthermore, there is energy stored here. This energy causes tectonic plates to push away from each other or towards each other. As time passes, the energy and movement build up pressure between two plates.
Therefore, this enormous pressure causes the fault line to form. Also, the center point of this disturbance is the focus of the Earthquake. Consequently, waves of energy travel from focus to the surface. This results in shaking of the surface.
Volcanic Earthquake: This Earthquake is related to volcanic activity. Above all, the magnitude of such Earthquakes is weak. These Earthquakes are of two types. The first type is Volcano-tectonic earthquake. Here tremors occur due to injection or withdrawal of Magma. In contrast, the second type is Long-period earthquake. Here Earthquake occurs due to the pressure changes among the Earth’s layers.
Collapse Earthquake: These Earthquakes occur in the caverns and mines. Furthermore, these Earthquakes are of weak magnitude. Undergrounds blasts are probably the cause of collapsing of mines. Above all, this collapsing of mines causes seismic waves. Consequently, these seismic waves cause an Earthquake.
Explosive Earthquake: These Earthquakes almost always occur due to the testing of nuclear weapons. When a nuclear weapon detonates, a big blast occurs. This results in the release of a huge amount of energy. This probably results in Earthquakes.
Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas
Effects of Earthquakes
First of all, the shaking of the ground is the most notable effect of the Earthquake. Furthermore, ground rupture also occurs along with shaking. This results in severe damage to infrastructure facilities. The severity of the Earthquake depends upon the magnitude and distance from the epicenter. Also, the local geographical conditions play a role in determining the severity. Ground rupture refers to the visible breaking of the Earth’s surface.
Another significant effect of Earthquake is landslides. Landslides occur due to slope instability. This slope instability happens because of Earthquake.
Earthquakes can cause soil liquefaction. This happens when water-saturated granular material loses its strength. Therefore, it transforms from solid to a liquid. Consequently, rigid structures sink into the liquefied deposits.
Earthquakes can result in fires. This happens because Earthquake damages the electric power and gas lines. Above all, it becomes extremely difficult to stop a fire once it begins.
Earthquakes can also create the infamous Tsunamis. Tsunamis are long-wavelength sea waves. These sea waves are caused by the sudden or abrupt movement of large volumes of water. This is because of an Earthquake in the ocean. Above all, Tsunamis can travel at a speed of 600-800 kilometers per hour. These tsunamis can cause massive destruction when they hit the sea coast.
In conclusion, an Earthquake is a great and terrifying phenomenon of Earth. It shows the frailty of humans against nature. It is a tremendous occurrence that certainly shocks everyone. Above all, Earthquake lasts only for a few seconds but can cause unimaginable damage.
FAQs on Earthquake
Q1 Why does an explosive Earthquake occurs?
A1 An explosive Earthquake occurs due to the testing of nuclear weapons.
Q2 Why do landslides occur because of Earthquake?
A2 Landslides happen due to slope instability. Most noteworthy, this slope instability is caused by an Earthquake.
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Essay on Kazakhstan
Students are often asked to write an essay on Kazakhstan in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.
Let’s take a look…
100 Words Essay on Kazakhstan
Introduction to kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan is a big country in Central Asia. It’s the ninth-largest in the world. This place used to be part of the Soviet Union until 1991. Now it’s its own country with Astana as the capital.
People and Culture
Lots of people live in Kazakhstan, from different backgrounds. They have their own language, Kazakh, but many also speak Russian. They enjoy music, dance, and tasty food like beshbarmak.
Nature and Geography
Kazakhstan has mountains, flat lands, and lakes. The land is home to animals like snow leopards. People visit to see its beauty and rare creatures.
The country is rich in oil and minerals. These resources help Kazakhstan make money and grow. It also farms a lot, growing things like wheat.
Kazakhstan faces problems like pollution and changing weather. Leaders are working to make things better for the future.
250 Words Essay on Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan is a big country in Central Asia. It is the ninth largest country in the world. This nation is known for its beautiful nature and rich history.
Kazakhstan has many kinds of places, like mountains, deserts, and flat lands. It has long, cold winters and hot summers. The country is home to many animals and plants.
Lots of different people live in Kazakhstan. They speak Kazakh and Russian. The country is famous for its traditional music and dances. People there also enjoy sports, especially soccer and ice hockey.
Kazakhstan has a long past. It used to be part of the Soviet Union until 1991. When the Soviet Union broke up, Kazakhstan became its own country.
The country is rich in resources like oil and minerals. These resources help Kazakhstan make money and provide jobs for people. The nation is working to grow its economy and improve life for its citizens.
Kazakhstan is an interesting place with a lot to offer. It has a mix of old traditions and new ideas. The country is growing and changing as it looks to the future.
500 Words Essay on Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan is a large country located in Central Asia. It is the ninth biggest country in the world. This land has a rich history and is known for its beautiful landscapes that include mountains, flatlands, and lakes. Kazakhstan is also a place where many different kinds of people live together, sharing their cultures and traditions.
Geography and Climate
Kazakhstan has a lot of different types of places within it. There are huge areas of flat land called steppes, tall mountains like the Tian Shan, and even parts of the Caspian Sea. Because Kazakhstan is so big, the weather can change a lot depending on where you are. Some places are very cold, especially in the winter, while others can be quite warm.
People and Language
Many people live in Kazakhstan, and they come from different backgrounds. The main language spoken here is Kazakh, but Russian is also widely used. The country has a mix of cultures, with people celebrating their own traditions and holidays. This makes Kazakhstan a colorful and interesting place.
Government and Economy
Kazakhstan is a country that decides things through a government called a republic. This means they have a president and other leaders who help make important decisions. The country has a lot of natural resources, like oil and minerals, which help it make money. Farming is also important, with crops like wheat grown in the fertile lands.
Education and Cities
Education is a big part of life in Kazakhstan. Children go to school to learn many subjects, and there are also universities for higher education. The biggest city is Almaty, which used to be the capital. Now, the capital is Nur-Sultan, which was known as Astana before. These cities are modern and have many buildings, shops, and places to visit.
Culture and Traditions
Kazakhstan has a rich culture with music, dance, and art that people enjoy. There are traditional clothes and foods that are special to this country. Holidays like Nauryz, which marks the start of spring, are celebrated with joy and bring people together.
Nature and Wildlife
The nature in Kazakhstan is beautiful, with places like the Altai Mountains and the Charyn Canyon. There are also many animals, such as eagles, wolves, and the rare snow leopard. People work to protect these animals and the natural places they live in.
Kazakhstan is a country with a lot to offer. It has a mix of old traditions and new ideas. The people are friendly, and there are many beautiful places to see. From its snowy mountains to its busy cities, Kazakhstan is a land of diversity and beauty that is worth learning about.
That’s it! I hope the essay helped you.
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Recent Earthquakes Near Kyrgyzstan
- Recent Quakes
- Biggest Quakes
- The Middle East
- Almaty, Almaty Qalasy, Kazakhstan
- Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
- Tashkent, Toshkent Shahri, Uzbekistan
- Ürümqi, Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu, China
- Andorra la Vella
- Sant Julià de Loria
- Central Kazakhstan
- Eastern Uzbekistan
- Eastern Kazakhstan
- Kazakhstan Xinjiang Border
- Northwestern Kashmir
- Hindu Kush, Afghanistan
- Southern Xinjiang, China
- Kashmir Xinjiang Border
- Eastern Kashmir
- Southwestern Kashmir
- Northern Xinjiang, China
- Western Uzbekistan
Kyrgyzstan has had: (M1.5 or greater)
- 0 earthquakes in the past 24 hours
- 8 earthquakes in the past 7 days
- 30 earthquakes in the past 30 days
- 163 earthquakes in the past 365 days
The largest earthquake in Kyrgyzstan:
- this week: 5.4 in Kyzyl-Suu , Ysyk-Köl , Kyrgyzstan
- this month: 5.7 in Aykol , Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu , China
- this year: 7.0 in Aykol , Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu , China
4.3 magnitude earthquake
2024-02-27 14:18:00 UTC at 14:18 February 27, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.259, 78.467 126.2 km from Kyzyl-Suu (78.2 miles)
Depth: 3 km
4.4 magnitude earthquake
2024-02-26 17:46:04 UTC at 17:46 February 26, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.29, 78.723 124.2 km from Aykol (77.2 miles)
Depth: 10 km
2024-02-26 12:28:43 UTC at 12:28 February 26, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.238, 78.832 113.2 km from Aykol (70.2 miles)
4.5 magnitude earthquake
2024-02-26 01:28:52 UTC at 01:28 February 26, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.297, 78.422 120.2 km from Kyzyl-Suu (75.2 miles)
5.4 magnitude earthquake
2024-02-25 04:15:00 UTC at 04:15 February 25, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.165, 78.439 135.2 km from Kyzyl-Suu (84.2 miles)
5.0 magnitude earthquake
2024-02-23 22:58:55 UTC at 22:58 February 23, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.068, 78.593 130.2 km from Aykol (80.2 miles)
4.0 magnitude earthquake
2024-02-23 10:33:07 UTC at 10:33 February 23, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.234, 78.521 130.2 km from Kyzyl-Suu (80.2 miles)
2024-02-23 04:08:34 UTC at 04:08 February 23, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.149, 78.643 127.2 km from Aykol (79.2 miles)
2024-02-21 18:26:45 UTC at 18:26 February 21, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.395, 78.682 119.2 km from Kyzyl-Suu (74.2 miles)
4.6 magnitude earthquake
2024-02-21 07:03:58 UTC at 07:03 February 21, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 40.432, 77.663 177.2 km from At-Bashi (110.2 miles)
2024-02-18 08:59:15 UTC at 08:59 February 18, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.424, 78.913 114.2 km from Aykol (71.2 miles)
2024-02-16 13:47:16 UTC at 13:47 February 16, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 38.687, 73.531 68.2 km from Murghob (42.2 miles)
Depth: 94 km
2024-02-15 03:52:40 UTC at 03:52 February 15, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.275, 78.826 115.2 km from Aykol (71.2 miles)
2024-02-15 03:41:36 UTC at 03:41 February 15, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.231, 78.456 128.2 km from Kyzyl-Suu (80.2 miles)
4.1 magnitude earthquake
2024-02-12 15:52:52 UTC at 15:52 February 12, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.337, 78.712 126.2 km from Kyzyl-Suu (78.2 miles)
4.9 magnitude earthquake
2024-02-11 04:57:13 UTC at 04:57 February 11, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.288, 78.733 123.2 km from Aykol (76.2 miles)
2024-02-11 03:03:37 UTC at 03:03 February 11, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.273, 78.764 120.2 km from Aykol (74.2 miles)
2024-02-07 08:55:30 UTC at 08:55 February 07, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.205, 78.467 131.2 km from Kyzyl-Suu (82.2 miles)
4.8 magnitude earthquake
2024-02-04 01:18:58 UTC at 01:18 February 04, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.209, 78.694 124.2 km from Aykol (77.2 miles)
2024-02-03 18:02:31 UTC at 18:02 February 03, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.194, 78.627 129.2 km from Aykol (80.2 miles)
2024-02-03 16:34:47 UTC at 16:34 February 03, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.192, 78.608 131.2 km from Aykol (81.2 miles)
2024-02-03 13:44:38 UTC at 13:44 February 03, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.208, 78.609 131.2 km from Aykol (81.2 miles)
2024-02-03 13:26:27 UTC at 13:26 February 03, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.232, 78.608 131.2 km from Aykol (81.2 miles)
2024-02-03 08:36:30 UTC at 08:36 February 03, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.342, 78.698 125.2 km from Kyzyl-Suu (77.2 miles)
2024-01-31 19:21:27 UTC at 19:21 January 31, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.344, 78.742 124.2 km from Aykol (77.2 miles)
4.2 magnitude earthquake
2024-01-30 03:52:35 UTC at 03:52 January 30, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.18, 78.629 125.2 km from Aykol (77.2 miles)
2024-01-30 01:44:58 UTC at 01:44 January 30, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.259, 78.75 121.2 km from Aykol (75.2 miles)
2024-01-29 23:30:55 UTC at 23:30 January 29, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.3, 78.602 125.2 km from Kyzyl-Suu (78.2 miles)
2024-01-29 23:17:08 UTC at 23:17 January 29, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.198, 78.705 123.2 km from Aykol (76.2 miles)
Depth: 15 km
5.7 magnitude earthquake
2024-01-29 22:27:41 UTC at 22:27 January 29, 2024 UTC
Location: Epicenter at 41.187, 78.716 122.2 km from Aykol (75.2 miles)