The notes-bibliography method employs footnotes or endnotes along with a bibliography organized in alphabetical order. Often your instructor or publisher will specify whether they prefer that you use footnotes or endnotes.
Citing Sources in the Text
Notes come at the bottom of each page, separated from the text with a typed line, 1 and 1/2 inches long. Some instructors will allow you to (or prefer that you) place notes, instead, as endnotes on a separate page (titled Notes) at the end of your paper, after any appendices. To acknowledge a source in your paper, place a superscript number (raised slightly above the line) immediately after the end punctuation of a sentence containing the quotation, paraphrase, or summary–as, for example, at the end of this sentence. 1 Do not put any punctuation after the number.
In the footnote or endnote itself, use the same number, but do not raise or superscript it; put a period and one space after the number. The first line of each note is indented five spaces from the left margin. Publishers often prefer notes to be double spaced.
If a single paragraph of your paper contains several references from the same author, it is permissible to use one number after the last quotation, paraphrase, or summary to indicate the source for all of the material used in that paragraph.
Generally, there is no need to use the abbreviations “p.” and “pp.” before page numbers; simply list the appropriate numbers as the last piece of information in the note.
What follows is a sample set of footnotes/endnotes. Please notice the order of the items in each note as well as the punctuation. The first time a work is cited, full information is given (author, title, volume, publication information, page, etc.).
Sample Notes (First References)
Book by a Single Author, First Edition
Steven Nadler, A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza’s Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011), 8.
Author First name Last name, Book title (Publisher city: Publisher, year), page number.
Book by a Singe Author, Later Edition
Paul S. Boyer, Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age , 2nd ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002), 24.
Author First name Middle initial. Last name, Book title , number ed. (Publisher city: Publisher, year), page number.
Book by a Single Author, Reprinted
Leonora Neville, Authority in Byzantine Provincial Society, 950-1100 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004; repr., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), 101.
Author First name Last name, Book title (Original publisher city: Original publisher, original year; repr., Reprint publisher city, Reprint publisher, reprint year), page number.
Book by Two Authors
Gerald Marwell and Pamela Oliver, The Critical Mass in Collective Action (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 104.
First author first name Last name and Second author first name Last name, Book title (Publisher city: Publisher, year), page number.
Book by Three Authors
Julia Child, Louisette Bertholle, and Simone Beck, Mastering the Art of French Cooking (New York: Knopf, 1961), 23.
First author first name Last name, Second author first name Last name, and Third author first name Last name, Book title (Publisher city: Publisher, year), page number.
Book by More Than Three Authors
Anne Ellen Geller et al., The Everyday Writing Center (Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2007), 52.
First author first name Last name et al., Book title (Publisher city, State initials: Publisher, year), page number.
An Anthology with no Known Author
O: A Presidential Novel , (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2011), 3.
Anthology title , (Publisher city: Publisher, year) page number.
[If the author of an anonymously published book has been revealed, you can put that name in brackets at the beginning of the note. If the author is unknown but a particular writer is strongly suspected, you can put a question mark after the bracketed name.]
Book with Organization as Author
Central Intelligence Agency, CIA World Factbook (Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009), 64.
Organization name, Book title (Publisher city: Publisher, year), page number.
[Since the CIA is the organization that both authored and published this book, it is referenced twice in this citation.]
An Anthology with Editors in Place of Authors
Henry Louis Gates and Nellie Y. McKay, eds., The Norton Anthology of African American Literature (New York: Norton, 1997), 172.
First editor first name Middle name Last name and Second editor first name Middle initial. Last name, eds., Anthology title (Publisher city: Publisher, year), page number.
Chapter in an Edited Collection
Colleen Dunlavy, “Why Did American Businesses Get So Big?” in Major Problems in American Business History , ed. Regina Blaszczyk and Philip Scranton (New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 2006), 260.
Chapter Author First name Last name, “Chapter title” in Edited collection title , ed. First editor first name Last name and Second editor first name Last name (Publisher city: Publisher, year), page number.
Article in a Journal
Raúl Sánchez, “Outside the Text: Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity,” College English 74 (2012): 243.
Author First name Last name, “Article title,” Journal title volume number (year): page number.
[If a journal continues pagination across issues in a volume, you do NOT need to include the issue #.]
Nancy Rose Marshall, review of Joseph Crawhill, 1861-1913: One of the Glasgow Boys , by Vivian Hamilton, Victorian Studies 42 (1999/2000): 359.
Reviewer first name Middle name Last name, review of Reviewed work , by Author of reviewed work first name Last name, Journal in which review appears volume number (year): page number.
Tyler Marshall, “200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated,” Los Angeles Times , March 15, 1985, sec. 1A.
Article author first name Last name, “Article title,” Newspaper name , Month day, year, sec. number.
[Since prominent newspapers may have several different daily or regional editions, you don’t need to include the page number in this note.]
- John Morris-Jones, “Wales,” in Encyclopedia Britannica , 11th ed. (1911), 260.
- Author of entry first name Last name, “Title of entry,” in Encyclopedia title , number ed. (year), page number.
- Wikipedia , s.v. “Charles R. Van Hise,” last modified April 30, 2018, 15:21, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_R._Van_Hise.
- Encyclopedia name , s.v. “Title of entry,” last modified Month day, year, hour:minute, url.
[“s.v.” is an abbreviation of “sub verbo” which is Latin for “under the word”]
Interview by Writer of Research Paper
Richard Davidson, interview by author, Madison, WI, April 20, 2012.
Interviewee first name Last name, interview by Interviewer name, City, State initials, Month day, year of interview.
[Bibliographies only rarely include entries for personal interviews.]
Coie et al., “The Science of Prevention: A Conceptual Framework and Some Directions for a National Research Program,” American Psychologist 48 (1993): 1022, quoted in Mark T. Greenberg, Celene Domitrovich, and Brian Bumbarger, “The Prevention of Mental Disorders in School-Age Children: Current State of the Field,” Prevention and Treatment 4 (2001): 5.
First author Last name et al., “Title of secondary source,” Journal containing secondary source volume number (year): page number, quoted in First author firt name Middle initial. Last name, Second author First name Last name, and Third author First name Last name, “Title of Primary source,” Journal containing primary source volume number (year): page number.
[This indicates that you found the Coie et al. information in the Greenberg, Domitrovich, and Bumbarger article, not in the original article by Coie et al. In the bibliography, you would only cite the Greenberg, Domitrovich, and Bumbarger text.]
William Shakespeare, Othello , dir. Mark Clements, Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Milwaukee, April 20, 2012.
Author of work performed, Title , dir. Director First name Last name, Performing company, City of performance, Month day, year of performance.
[Live performances are not usually included in bibliographies. This is because, unless it has been recorded, a live performance cannot be located and reviewed by the reader.]
Sara M. Lindberg, “Gender-Role Identity Development During Adolescence: Individual, Familial, and Social Contextual Predictors of Gender Intensification” (Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin- Madison, 2008), 24.
Dissertation author first name Middle initial. Last name, “Dissertation title” (Ph. D. diss, University, year), page number.
Morris Young, “What Is Asian American? What is Asian American Literature?” (lecture, Survey of Asian American Literature, University of Wisconsin-Madison, January 22, 2013).
Lecturer First name Last name, “Lecture title.” (lecture, Course title, University, Month day, year of lecture).
Paper Presented at a Conference
Mary Louise Roberts, “The Public Practice of History in and for a Digital Age” (paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Historical Association, New Orleans, January 3, 2013).
Author first name Middle name Last name, “Paper title” (paper presented at the Conference, Conference city, Month day, year of presentation).
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, Pub. L. No. 111-148, 124 Stat. 794 (2010).
Document title, Pub. L. No. numbers, volume number Stat. number (year).
Notes: Pub. L. is an abbreviation for “public law.” Stat. is an abbreviation for “statue.”
Steven Soderbergh, dir., Che: Part One , (2008; New York: IFC Films), DVD.
Director first name Last name, dir., DVD Title , (year of release; City of production: Producer), DVD.
An Online Source That is Identical to a Print Source
Lee Palmer Wandel, “Setting the Lutheran Eucharist,” Journal of Early Modern History 17 (1998): 133-34, doi: 10.1163/157006598X00135.
Author First name Middle name Last name, “Article title,” Journal titler : volume number (year): page numbers, doi: number.
[The Chicago Manual recommends including a DOI (digital object identifier) or a URL to indicate that you consulted this source online. If there’s a DOI, you should use that rather than a URL. If there is no DOI, use the URL, including “http://.” There’s no need to include an access date if the online source includes a publication or revision date.]
An Online Newspaper
Kirk Johnson, “Health Care Is Spread Thin on Alaskan Frontier,” New York Times , May 28, 2013, https://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/29/us/health-care-in-vast-alaska-frontier-is-spread-thin.html.\
Article author first name Last name, “Title of article,” Newspaper , Month day, year issued.
“Human Rights,” The United Nations, accessed August 5, 2018, http://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/human-rights/.
“Title of webpage,” Website moderator, Month day, year of access, url.
[If a website has a publication or revision date, use that instead of an accessed date.]
Sample Notes (Second or Subsequent References)
When a source is used a second time, its reference is given in a shorter form. The Chicago Manual and Turabian suggest two ways to shorten second references. Either plan is acceptable, but you must remain consistent throughout your paper.
Method A: Shortened Form
For the second and all subsequent references to a work, use an abbreviated form. If the work and the author remain the same and if you are using only one book or article by that author, simply give the author’s last name and page reference. The following example has been shortened from the full information provided in note #3 above:
- Neville, 92.
If, however, you are using two or more works by that author, you must indicate which of the works you are citing. Use the last name, a shortened title, and page reference. The following example is shortened from the full information provided in note #1 above:
- Nadler, A Book Forged in Hell, 121.
If you use two authors with the same last name, give the full name in the shortened reference.
Method B: Latin Abbreviations
When referring to the same work as in the citation immediately preceding, use the abbreviation “Ibid.” for the second reference. “Ibid.” is an abbreviation for the Latin word “ibidem” which means “in the same place.” The abbreviation “Ibid.” is followed by a page number if the page from which the second reference is taken is different from the first. If the pages are the same, no number is necessary. As an example, here is how you would cite the first reference to a work:
- Eliza G. Wilkins, The Delphic Maxims in Literature (Chicago: Scott, Foresman and Co., 1929), 12.
If you continue drawing from the same page of the same source, your next reference would look like this:
If you continue drawing from the same source but the information comes from a different page, then your note would look like this:
Citing Sources at the End of the Text
The bibliography (as it is called in the note-bibliography system) is placed at the end of your paper, is a double-spaced alphabetized list of books, articles, and other sources used in writing the paper. This list provides all of the information someone would need to locate the source you’re referencing. (NOTE: This list titled “Bibliography” in the note-bibliography system and “References” in the author-date system. Otherwise, both follow the same format.)
The bibliographic form differs from notes in these ways:
- Sources are alphabetized. The author’s last name appears first (Smith, Betty) in a bibliography.
- While notes use commas and parentheses to separate items, a bibliography uses periods.
- While notes use two spaces after a period, a bibliography uses only one space after a period.
- While notes usually indicate specific pages from which you took information; a bibliography lists entire books or a complete chapter to which you referred.
- The first line of a bibliographic entry begins at the left margin and all the other lines are indented 1/2”. This is called a “hanging indent.”
If the author’s name or the title (or other item) is missing, simply go on to the next item as it should appear. When alphabetizing, use the author’s last name for your entry; if it is not given, simply go on to the next item in order (the title of the book or article, for example) and use that to alphabetize the entry.
A sample bibliography follows. Notice the form and order of the entries as well as the punctuation and arrangement within the entries. The sourced referenced are the same as those used in the notes citations above.
Boyer, Paul S. Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age . 2nd ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002.
Author last name, First name Middle initial. Book title , number ed. Publisher city: Publisher, year.
Central Intelligence Agency. CIA World Factbook . Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009.
Organization name, Book title . Publisher city: Publisher, year.
Child, Julia, Louisette Bertholle, and Simone Beck. Mastering the Art of French Cooking. New York: Knopf, 1961.
First author last name First name, Second author first name Last name, and Third author first name Last name. Book title . Publisher city: Publisher, year.
Dunlavy, Colleen. “Social Conceptions of the Corporation: Insights from the History of Shareholder Voting Rights.” Wash. And Lee L. Rev 63 (2006a): 1347-1388.
Author last name, First name. “Article title.” Journal title volume number (year published): page numbers.
—. “Why Did American Businesses Get So Big?” In Major Problems in American Business History , edited by Regina Blaszczyk and Philip Scranton, 257-63. New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 2006b.
–. “Chapter title.” In Edited collection title , edited by First editor first name Last name and Second editor first name Last name, page numbers. Publisher city: Publisher, year.
Note: –. is used when the author is the same as the citation above.
Gates, Henry Louis, and Nellie Y. McKay, eds. The Norton Anthology of African American Literature . New York: Norton, 1997.
First editor last name, First name Middle name, and Second editor first name Middle initial. Last name, eds., Anthology title. Publisher city: Publisher, year.
Geller, Anne Ellen, Michele Eodice, Frankie Condon, Meg Carroll, and Elizabeth H. Boquet. The Everyday Writing Center . Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2007.
First author last name, First name Middle name, Second author First name Last name, Third author First name Last name, Fourth author First name Last name, and Fifth author First name Middle initial. Last name. Book title . Publisher city, State initials: Publisher, year.
Greenberg, Mark T., Celene Domitrovich, and Brian Bumbarger. “The Prevention of Mental Disorders in School-Age Children: Current State of the Field.” Prevention and Treatment 4 (2001): 1-62.
First author last name, First name Middle initial., Second author first name Last name, and Third author first name, Last name. “Article title.” Journal title Volume number (year): page numbers.
Johnson, Kirk. “Health Care Is Spread Thin on Alaskan Frontier.” New York Times , May 28, 2013. https://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/29/us/health-care-in-vast-alaska-frontier-is-spread-thin.html.
Article author last name, First name. “Title of article,” Newspaper , Month day, year issued. Url.
Lindberg, Sara M. “Gender-Role Identity Development During Adolescence: Individual, Familial, and Social Contextual Predictors of Gender Intensification.” Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin- Madison, 2008.
Dissertation author last name, First name Middle initial. “Dissertation title.” Ph. D. diss, University, year.
Marshall, Nancy Rose. Review of Joseph Crawhill, 1861-1913, One of the Glasgow Boys , by Vivian Hamilton. Victorian Studies 42 (1999/2000): 358-60.
Reviewer last name, First name Middle name. Review of Reviewed work , by Author of reviewed work first name Last name, Journal in which review appears volume number (year): page number.
Marshall, Tyler. “200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated.” Los Angeles Times , 15 March 1985, sec. 1A.
Article author Last name, First name. “Article title.” Newspaper name , day Month year, sec. number.
Marwell, Gerald, and Pamela Oliver. The Critical Mass in Collective Action . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
First author last name, First name, and Second author first name Last name. Book title . Publisher city: Publisher, year.
Morris-Jones, John. “Wales.” In Encyclopedia Britannica , 11th ed. 29 vols. New York: Encyclopedia Britannica Corporation, 1911. 258-70.
Author of entry Last name, First name, “Title of entry.” In Encyclopedia title , number ed. Number vols. City: Publisher, year. pages.
Nadler, Steven. A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza’s Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age . Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.
Author last name, First name. Book title. Publisher city: Publisher, year.
Neville, Leonora. Authority in Byzantine Provincial Society, 950-1100 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Reprinted. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Author Last name, First name. Book title . Original publisher city: Original publisher, original year. Reprinted. Reprint publisher city: Reprint publisher, reprint year.
O: A Presidential Novel . New York: Simon and Schuster, 2011.
Anthology title . Publisher city: Publisher, year.
Sánchez, Raúl. “Outside the Text: Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity.” College English 74 (2012): 234-46.
Author Last name, First name. “Article title,” Journal title volume number (year): page number.
Soderbergh, Steven, dir. Che: Part One . 2008; New York: IFC Films. DVD.
Director Last name, First name, dir. DVD Title , Year of release; City of production: Producer. DVD.
United Nations. “Human Rights.” Accessed August 5, 2018. http://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/human-rights/.
Website moderator. “Title of webpage.” Accessed Month day, year of access. Url.
Wandel, Lee Palmer. “Setting the Lutheran Eucharist.” Journal of Early Modern History 17 (1998): 124-55. doi: 10.1163/157006598X00135.
Author Last name, First name Middle name. “Article title.” Journal title volume number (year): page numbers. doi: number.
Wikipedia . S.v. “Charles R. Van Hise.” Last modified April 30, 2018, 15:21, http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Charles_R._Van_Hise.
Encyclopedia name . S.v. “Title of entry.” Last modified Month day, year, hour:minute, url.
Young, Morris. “What Is Asian American? What is Asian American Literature?” Lecture at University of Wisconsin-Madison, January 22, 2013.
Lecturer last name, First name. “Lecture title.” Lecture at University, Month day, year of lecture.
This is an accordion element with a series of buttons that open and close related content panels.
Chicago/Turabian Table of Contents
CMOS Shop Talk
From the chicago manual of style, what’s the difference between a note citation and a bibliography citation.
A note tells where you learned something you wrote in your paper. Every time you quote someone or mention a fact that needs backing up, put a note number right there in the text.
For instance, if you say in your paper that most American students write their papers the night before they’re due, put a note number at the end of that sentence. 1 That small number says, “See note 1 for my source.” If you quote a researcher who wrote, “Papers written the night before they’re due tend to be shorter than other papers,” 2 put a note number at the end of the quote. That little 2 says, “See note 2 for the source of this quote.”
In your notes, write your sources. Let’s say that the source in note 1 is a book and the source in note 2 is an article. Books and articles have slightly different formats. If you learn those two formats, you’re halfway there:
- Sara Stickler, Habits of Harried Students (New York: Vanity Press, 2013), 42.
- Howard Noggin and Shirley Noddin, “The Psychology of Paper-Writing Panic,” Brain Fun Newsletter 32 (2013): 4.
If you put all your notes together at the end of your paper in one list, they’re called endnotes . If you put each note at the bottom of the page where its text number appears, they’re called footnotes . Endnotes and footnotes are exactly the same except for where you put them. Your instructor will probably tell you which to use.
A bibliography is a list of the sources you used in your notes. (Some teachers might also ask you to include sources you read but didn’t end up actually using. You might also be asked to include sources you didn’t read but that would be of interest for further reading. Be sure to ask what your instructor expects you to include in your bibliography.)
The sources are in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. The author’s last name comes first to make alphabetizing easier:
Noggin, Howard, and Shirley Noddin. “The Psychology of Paper-Writing Panic.” Brain Fun Newsletter 32 (2013): 4. Stickler, Sara. Habits of Harried Students . New York: Vanity Press, 2013.
This post has described the “notes-bibliography system.” Some teachers may ask you to use the “author-date system” of citing. You can read about that system here (click on the “Author-Date” tab).
Order the hardcover here .
More advice for students
Please see our commenting policy .
- Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)
- Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
- Click to email a link to a friend (Opens in new window)
Understanding Chicago-Style Notes and Bibliography Entries
How Do I Format a Reference List in Turabian/Chicago Style?
How do i format parenthetical author-date citations in turabian/chicago style.
- MJC Library & Learning Center
- Research Guides
Ready, Set, Cite (Chicago)
- Notes-Bibliography System
- Chicago Style Basics
- Formatting the Paper
- Citation Basics
NB System Basics ( CMS , Chapt. 14)
Bibliographies ( cms , chapter 14), citation examples, footnotes vs. endnotes ( cms , 14.24-14.28), notes rules & examples ( cms , chapter 14).
- Citations: Author-Date References System
- Annotated Bibliography
Use NoodleTools to help you create your citations. It's easy; it's a form you fill out with the information about your source; it helps you catch mistakes.
- NoodleTools Express
- NoodleTools (Login Full Database) This link opens in a new window
- NoodleTools Help Desk Look up questions and answers on the NoodleTools Web site
- Quick Guide for Librarians & Teachers Learn how to get the most out of NoodleTools
- NoodleTools for Researchers Research guide created for MJC students
In the notes-bibliography system, you signal that you have used a source by placing a superscript number at the end of the sentence in which you refer to it. For direct quotations, put the superscript number immediately following the quotation.
You then cite the source in a correspondingly numbered note that provides information about the source (author, title, and facts of publication) plus relevant page numbers. Notes are printed at the bottom of the page (called footnotes ) or in a list collected at the end of your paper (called endnotes ).
In most cases, you also list sources at the end of the paper in a Bibliography . That list normally includes every source you cited in a note and sometimes others you consulted but did not cite. Each bibliography entry includes the same information about the source contained in the full note, but in a slightly different form.
The resources below give you a great overview of the NB Chicago system and show you what your paper should look like: ______________________________
- Notes-Bibliography Powerpoint Presentation From the OWL at Purdue
- Sample Paper (with built-in instructions) Example of a paper written using the Notes and Bibliography system. From the Online Writing Lab at Purdue University
Your bibliography provides an alphabetical list of all your sources. This page, most often titled Bibliography , is usually placed at the end of your paper preceding the index (if any). It should include all the sources you cited within the work and may sometimes include other relevant sources that were not cited but provide further reading.
All of your sources (books, articles, Web sites, etc.) are arranged alphabetically by author’s last name. If no author or editor is listed, the title or keyword by which the reader would search for the source may be used instead.
Capitalization ( CMS , 8.155): Use headline style for capitalizing titles of works unless they are in a foreign language. This means that you capitalize the first and last words in titles and subtitles, and capitalize all other major words, similar to MLA format.
Punctuation: In bibliography list entries, separate most elements with periods. End each entry with a period. Be sure to single space after all commas, colons, and periods.
All entries in the bibliography will include the author (or editor, compiler, translator), title, and publication information.
Author: Full name of author(s) or editor as author or corporate/institutional author
Title: Full title of book including subtitle
Editor, compiler, or translator, if any, if listed on the title page in addition to author
Edition (only if not the first edition)
Volume: total number of volumes if you cite an entire multivolume work as a whole; individual number if you cite a single volume of multivolume work, and title of individual volume if applicable
Series: title and volume number within series if series is numbered
Facts of publication: city, publisher, and date
Page number or numbers (if applicable)
Electronic books consulted online: URL or DOI [digital object identifier], or type of medium (Kindle, etc.)
Electronic books accessed in a library database: include a URL only if the database includes a recommended stable or persistent one with the document. Otherwise, include the name of the database and, in parentheses, any identification number provided with the source. If there is no publication or revision date, include an access date.
- Notes and Bibliography Style: Sample Citations From The Chicago Manual of Style Online: Citation Quick Guide
- Chicago Style Citation Examples Blue cheat sheet created by MJC librarians
Examples of Less Common Sources:
- Miscellaneous Sources From the OWL at Purdue, this page includes examples for media and other sources, like Lectures.
- Legal, Public and Unpublished Materials These include documents produced by all levels of government throughout the world.
Unless otherwise instructed, you should generally use footnotes because they are easier to read. Endnotes force readers to flip to the back to check every citation.
However, you should choose endnotes when your footnotes are so long or numerous that they take up too much space on the page, making your paper unattractive and difficult to read. Also, endnotes better accommodate tables, quoted poetry, and other matter that requires special typography.
If in doubt, ask your teacher!
- The first note for each source should include all relevant information about the source: author’s full name, source title, and facts of publication.
- If you cite the same source again , the note need only include the last name of the author, a shortened form of the title (if more than four words), and page number(s).
- If you cite the same source and page number (s) from a single source two or more times consecutively, the corresponding note should use the word “Ibid.,” an abbreviated form of the Latin ibidem, which means “in the same place.”
- If you use the same source but a different page number , the corresponding note should use “Ibid.” followed by a comma and the new page number(s).
Referencing Notes in Text:
Whenever you use outside sources in your text you need to insert a superscript number that directs your reader to a note that identifies the source. For most quotations, put the number immediately following. For some quotations and for general citations, put reference numbers at the end of a sentence or clause, after the terminal punctuation mark, quotation mark, or closing parenthesis. If the note refers to material before a dash, put the reference number before the dash.
Number notes consecutively, beginning with 1. If your paper has separate chapters, restart each chapter with note 1.
- The first line of a footnote or endnote is indented .5" from the left margin. Subsequent lines within a note should be formatted flush left.
- Leave an extra line space between notes.
- Begin each note with its reference number, preferably printed not as a superscript but as regular text.
- Put a period and a space between the number and the text of the note.
Footnotes - Begin every footnote on the page on which you reference it. Put a short rule between the last line of text and the first footnote on each page, including any notes that run over from previous pages, even if your word processor doesn't do so automatically. If a footnote runs over to the next page, break it in mid-sentence, so that readers do not think the note is finished and overlook the part on the next page. If you have more than one footnote on a page, begin each subsequent note on its own line, with a blank line before it.
Endnotes - Endnotes should be listed together after the end of the text and any appendixes but before the bibliography. Start each note on a new line, with a blank line between notes. Label the list Notes .
A complete "note" citation for a book would look like this:
1. Jodi Dean, Democracy and Other Neoliberal Fantasies: Communicative Capitalism and Left Politics (Durham: Duke University Press, 2009). 30.
For more examples and to see how to use Word to format your notes check out these resources below.
- Endnotes Page Example Turabian tip sheet from the Chicago Manual of Style website.
- Add Footnotes and Endnotes in Word From Office help online these instructions apply to: Word 2016, Word 2013, Word 2010, Word 2007
- Notes and Bibliography Guidelines From the OWL at Purdue, guidelines with examples
- << Previous: Citation Basics
- Next: Citations: Author-Date References System >>
- Last Updated: Jan 19, 2023 11:01 AM
- URL: https://libguides.mjc.edu/chicago
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommerical International 4.0 License .
Notes and Bibliography
A subset of the Chicago/Turabian citation style, which uses footnotes to cite sources in the text.
Examples of Notes and Bibliography in the following topics:
How to reference different types of sources in footnotes.
- Footnotes are the preferred citation method for the Chicago/Turabian Notes and Bibliography citation style.
- These footnotes guide the reader to the corresponding entry in your bibliography .
- Different types of source require different citation information, but they always follow the form of: author, title, publication information, and then either page number or website URL (all separated by commas).
- And remember, this information will also be contained, in a slightly different form, in your bibliography .
- Stephen Dubner and Steven Levitt, Freakonomics (New York: William Morrow, 2005), 101.
Chicago/Turabian (NB): How to Reference Different Types of Sources
- In Chicago/Turabian NB style, there are different formats for citations in your bibliography depending on the type of source you are citing.
- Now that you know the different components of a book citation in Chicago/Turabian Notes and Bibliography (NB) style and how the citation should be formatted, you will be able to understand the citation formats for other source types.
- Dubner, Stephen, and Steven Levitt.
- "Detective Work and the Benefits of Colour Versus Black and White."
- List the ways to cite different source types in a Chicago/Turabian bibliography
Chicago/Turabian (NB): Footnotes and Endnotes
- In Chicago/Turabian Notes and Bibliography style, use footnotes or endnotes for citing sources in text.
- Fuller information about that source is then contained in the paper's bibliography .
- Think of the footnote as telling the reader where to go in your bibliography to find the source, and the bibliography entry as telling the reader where to go in the real world to find the source.
- In the note , you will have the author's name, the title of the work, the publication information, and the page number:
- If you cite this source again later in the paper (say, in your sixth note ), you would simply write the author, title, and page number, separated by commas:
Overall Structure and Formatting of a Chicago/Turabian Paper
- All text in your paper should be double-spaced except for block quotations and image captions.
- All page margins (top, bottom, left, and right) should be at least 1 inch and no more than 1.5 inches.
- The first line of every paragraph and footnote should be indented 0.5 inches.
- The UK includes the countries of England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.
- However, it's a requirement in Chicago style, so double-check all your lists and series to make sure you include it!
When to Use Chicago/Turabian Style
- Chicago style is a citation and formatting style you may encounter in your academic career.
- It is used by most historical journals and some social science publications.
- It allows the mixing of formats, provided that the result is clear and consistent.
- The most recent edition of The Chicago Manual of Style permits the use of both in-text citation systems ("Author–Date" style, which is usually used in the social sciences) or footnotes and endnotes (this is called " Notes and bibliography " style, which is usually used in the humanities).
- It can give information about in-text citation by page number or by year of publication; it even provides for variations in styles of footnotes and endnotes, depending on whether the paper includes a full bibliography at the end.
Maintaining an Annotated Bibliography
- An annotated bibliography is a list of all your sources, including full citation information and notes on how you will use the sources.
- An annotated bibliography is a list of all the sources you have researched, including both their full bibliographic citations and some notes on how you might want to use each resource in your work.
- Annotated bibliographies are useful for several reasons.
- Then explain if the source is credible, and note any potential bias you observe.
- Annotated bibliographies include notes that explain what you found useful in each source, making it easier for you to refer back to appropriate sources later.
Chicago/Turabian (NB): The Bibliography Section
- In Chicago/Turabian papers using the Notes and Bibliography (NB) citation system, all the sources you cite throughout the text of your paper are listed together and in full in the bibliography , which comes after the main text of your paper.
- On the first line, the title of the page—“ Bibliography ”—should appear centered and not italicized or bolded.
- Note that even though Chicago style says that the article title should not be italicized, the book titles within the article title are still italicized.
- Finally, list the page numbers of the article, followed by a period [ note that the dash between the first and second numbers is an en-dash (–), NOT a hyphen (-) or em-dash (—)]:
- " Bibliography of Published Studies Using the ASEBA."
Research Tips: Start Early, Use a Bibliography, and Evaluate Material Critically
- Start the research process early, consult a bibliography to find credible sources, and evaluate those sources critically.
- Mark Twain once said, "It usually takes me more than three weeks to prepare a good impromptu speech. " If it took that long for Mark Twain, one of the most eloquent speakers in American history, to write a "good impromptu speech," students of public speaking should take note and get a nice, early start on the research process.
- Bibliographies compile publication information about books, articles, and other resources that address a particular topic.
- However, if the bibliography is old, or if you need the most current information about your topic, you should fill the gap between the end of the bibliography and the present time by looking for articles and books from that time period.
- Explain why starting research early, using a bibliography , and evaluating material critically is crucial to the research process
- Boyce and R.
- Sands, and R.
- Haaser and J.
- Heald and J.
- Linear algebra and its application.
- Donald Jay Grout's A History of Western Music introduces both Greek and medieval modes.
- Lee Evans's Modes and Their Use in Jazz is both comprehensive and accessible for any musician who wants to begin to study that subject.
Go to Index
Notes and Bibliography: Sample Citations
Go to Author-Date: Sample Citations
The following examples illustrate the notes and bibliography system. Sample notes show full citations followed by shortened citations for the same sources. Sample bibliography entries follow the notes. For more details and many more examples, see chapter 14 of The Chicago Manual of Style . For examples of the same citations using the author-date system, follow the Author-Date link above.
1. Zadie Smith, Swing Time (New York: Penguin Press, 2016), 315–16.
2. Brian Grazer and Charles Fishman, A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015), 12.
3. Smith, Swing Time , 320.
4. Grazer and Fishman, Curious Mind , 37.
Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)
Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life . New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015.
Smith, Zadie. Swing Time . New York: Penguin Press, 2016.
For many more examples, covering virtually every type of book, see 14.100–163 in The Chicago Manual of Style .
Chapter or other part of an edited book
In a note, cite specific pages. In the bibliography, include the page range for the chapter or part.
1. Henry David Thoreau, “Walking,” in The Making of the American Essay , ed. John D’Agata (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 177–78.
2. Thoreau, “Walking,” 182.
Thoreau, Henry David. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay , edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.
In some cases, you may want to cite the collection as a whole instead.
1. John D’Agata, ed., The Making of the American Essay (Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016), 177–78.
2. D’Agata, American Essay , 182.
D’Agata, John, ed. The Making of the American Essay . Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.
For more examples, see 14.103–5 and 14.106–12 in The Chicago Manual of Style .
1. Jhumpa Lahiri, In Other Words , trans. Ann Goldstein (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016), 146.
2. Lahiri, In Other Words , 184.
Lahiri, Jhumpa. In Other Words . Translated by Ann Goldstein. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2016.
For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. For other types of e-books, name the format. If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the notes, if any (or simply omit).
1. Herman Melville, Moby-Dick; or, The Whale (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851), 627, http://mel.hofstra.edu/moby-dick-the-whale-proofs.html.
2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), chap. 10, doc. 19, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.
3. Brooke Borel, The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016), 92, ProQuest Ebrary.
4. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), chap. 3, Kindle.
5. Melville, Moby-Dick , 722–23.
6. Kurland and Lerner, Founder s ’ Constitution , chap. 4, doc. 29.
7. Borel, Fact-Checking , 104–5.
8. Austen, Pride and Prejudice , chap. 14.
Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice . New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle.
Borel, Brooke. The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016. ProQuest Ebrary.
Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.
Melville, Herman. Moby-Dick; or, The Whale . New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851. http://mel.hofstra.edu/moby-dick-the-whale-proofs.html.
For more examples, see 14.1 59 –63 in The Chicago Manual of Style .
In a note, cite specific page numbers. In the bibliography, include the page range for the whole article. For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins https://doi.org/. This URL is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser’s address bar.
1. Susan Satterfield, “Livy and the Pax Deum ,” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 170.
2. Shao-Hsun Keng, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem, “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality,” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 9–10, https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.
3. Peter LaSalle, “Conundrum: A Story about Reading,” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95, Project MUSE.
4. Satterfield, “Livy,” 172–73.
5. Keng, Lin, and Orazem, “Expanding College Access,” 23.
6. LaSalle, “Conundrum,” 101.
Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.
LaSalle, Peter. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95–109. Project MUSE.
Satterfield, Susan. “Livy and the Pax Deum .” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 165–76.
Journal articles often list many authors, especially in the sciences. If there are four or more authors, list up to ten in the bibliography; in a note, list only the first, followed by et al . (“and others”). For more than ten authors (not shown here), list the first seven in the bibliography, followed by et al .
7. Rachel A. Bay et al., “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures,” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May 2017): 465, https://doi.org/10.1086/691233.
8. Bay et al., “Predicting Responses,” 466.
Bay, Rachael A., Noah Rose, Rowan Barrett, Louis Bernatchez, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Jesse R. Lasky, Rachel B. Brem, Stephen R. Palumbi, and Peter Ralph. “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures.” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May 2017): 463–73. https://doi.org/10.1086/691233.
For more examples, see 14.1 68 – 87 in The Chicago Manual of Style .
News or magazine article
Articles from newspapers or news sites, magazines, blogs, and the like are cited similarly. Page numbers, if any, can be cited in a note but are omitted from a bibliography entry. If you consulted the article online, include a URL or the name of the database.
1. Rebecca Mead, “The Prophet of Dystopia,” New Yorker , April 17, 2017, 43.
2. Farhad Manjoo, “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera,” New York Times , March 8, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.
3. Rob Pegoraro, “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple,” Washington Post , July 5, 2007, LexisNexis Academic.
4. Tanya Pai, “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps,” Vox , April 11, 2017, http://www.vox.com/culture/2017/4/11/15209084/peeps-easter.
5. Mead, “Dystopia,” 47.
6. Manjoo, “Snap.”
7. Pegoraro, “Apple’s iPhone.”
8. Pai, “History of Peeps.”
Manjoo, Farhad. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times , March 8, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.
Mead, Rebecca. “The Prophet of Dystopia.” New Yorker , April 17, 2017.
Pai, Tanya. “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps.” Vox , April 11, 2017. http://www.vox.com/culture/2017/4/11/15209084/peeps-easter.
Pegoraro, Rob. “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple.” Washington Post , July 5, 2007. LexisNexis Academic.
Readers’ comments are cited in the text or in a note but omitted from a bibliography.
9. Eduardo B (Los Angeles), March 9, 2017, comment on Manjoo, “Snap.”
For more examples, see 14.1 88 – 90 (magazines), 14.191–200 (newspapers), and 14.208 (blogs) in The Chicago Manual of Style .
1. Michiko Kakutani, “Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges,” review of Swing Time , by Zadie Smith, New York Times , November 7, 2016.
2. Kakutani, “Friendship.”
Kakutani, Michiko. “Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges.” Review of Swing Time , by Zadie Smith. New York Times , November 7, 2016.
1. Kory Stamper, “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English,” interview by Terry Gross, Fresh Air , NPR, April 19, 2017, audio, 35:25, http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.
2. Stamper, interview.
Stamper, Kory. “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English.” Interview by Terry Gross. Fresh Air , NPR, April 19, 2017. Audio, 35:25. http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.
Thesis or dissertation
1. Cynthia Lillian Rutz, “ King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2013), 99–100.
2. Rutz, “ King Lear ,” 158.
Rutz, Cynthia Lillian. “ King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues.” PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2013.
It is often sufficient simply to describe web pages and other website content in the text (“As of May 1, 2017, Yale’s home page listed . . .”). If a more formal citation is needed, it may be styled like the examples below. For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, include an access date (as in example note 2).
2. “About Yale: Yale Facts,” Yale University, accessed May 1, 2017, https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts.
3. Katie Bouman, “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole,” filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA, video, 12:51, https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.
5. “Yale Facts.”
6. Bouman, “Black Hole.”
Bouman, Katie. “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole.” Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51. https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.
Yale University. “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Accessed May 1, 2017. https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts.
For more examples, see 14. 20 5–10 in The Chicago Manual of Style . For multimedia, including live performances, see 14. 261–68 .
Social media content
Citations of content shared through social media can usually be limited to the text (as in the first example below). A note may be added if a more formal citation is needed. In rare cases, a bibliography entry may also be appropriate. In place of a title, quote up to the first 160 characters of the post. Comments are cited in reference to the original post.
Conan O’Brien’s tweet was characteristically deadpan: “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets” (@ConanOBrien, April 22, 2015).
1. Pete Souza (@petesouza), “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit,” Instagram photo, April 1, 2016, https://www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.
2. Chicago Manual of Style, “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993,” Facebook, April 17, 2015, https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.
3. Souza, “President Obama.”
4. Michele Truty, April 17, 2015, 1:09 p.m., comment on Chicago Manual of Style, “singular they.”
Chicago Manual of Style. “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993.” Facebook, April 17, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.
Personal communications, including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text or in a note only; they are rarely included in a bibliography.
1. Sam Gomez, Facebook message to author, August 1, 2017.
Bibliography: Definition and Examples
Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms
- An Introduction to Punctuation
- Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia
- M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester
- B.A., English, State University of New York
A bibliography is a list of works (such as books and articles) written on a particular subject or by a particular author. Adjective : bibliographic.
Also known as a list of works cited , a bibliography may appear at the end of a book, report , online presentation, or research paper . Students are taught that a bibliography, along with correctly formatted in-text citations, is crucial to properly citing one's research and to avoiding accusations of plagiarism . In formal research, all sources used, whether quoted directly or synopsized, should be included in the bibliography.
An annotated bibliography includes a brief descriptive and evaluative paragraph (the annotation ) for each item in the list. These annotations often give more context about why a certain source may be useful or related to the topic at hand.
- Etymology: From the Greek, "writing about books" ( biblio , "book", graph , "to write")
- Pronunciation: bib-lee-OG-rah-fee
Examples and Observations
"Basic bibliographic information includes title, author or editor, publisher, and the year the current edition was published or copyrighted . Home librarians often like to keep track of when and where they acquired a book, the price, and a personal annotation, which would include their opinions of the book or of the person who gave it to them" (Patricia Jean Wagner, The Bloomsbury Review Booklover's Guide . Owaissa Communications, 1996)
Conventions for Documenting Sources
"It is standard practice in scholarly writing to include at the end of books or chapters and at the end of articles a list of the sources that the writer consulted or cited. Those lists, or bibliographies, often include sources that you will also want to consult. . . . "Established conventions for documenting sources vary from one academic discipline to another. The Modern Language Association (MLA) style of documentation is preferred in literature and languages. For papers in the social sciences the American Psychological Association (APA) style is preferred, whereas papers in history, philosophy, economics, political science, and business disciplines are formatted in the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) system. The Council of Biology Editors (CBE) recommends varying documentation styles for different natural sciences." (Robert DiYanni and Pat C. Hoy II, The Scribner Handbook for Writers , 3rd ed. Allyn and Bacon, 2001)
APA vs MLA Styles
There are several different styles of citations and bibliographies that you might encounter: MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard, and more. As described above, each of those styles is often associated with a particular segment of academia and research. Of these, the most widely used are APA and MLA styles. They both include similar information, but arranged and formatted differently.
"In an entry for a book in an APA-style works-cited list, the date (in parentheses) immediately follows the name of the author (whose first name is written only as an initial), just the first word of the title is capitalized, and the publisher's full name is generally provided.
APA Anderson, I. (2007). This is our music: Free jazz, the sixties, and American culture . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
By contrast, in an MLA-style entry, the author's name appears as given in the work (normally in full), every important word of the title is capitalized, some words in the publisher's name are abbreviated, the publication date follows the publisher's name, and the medium of publication is recorded. . . . In both styles, the first line of the entry is flush with the left margin, and the second and subsequent lines are indented.
MLA Anderson, Iain. This Is Our Music: Free Jazz, the Sixties, and American Culture . Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 2007. Print. The Arts and Intellectual Life in Mod. Amer.
( MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers , 7th ed. The Modern Language Association of America, 2009)
Finding Bibliographic Information for Online Sources
"For Web sources, some bibliographic information may not be available, but spend time looking for it before assuming that it doesn't exist. When information isn't available on the home page, you may have to drill into the site, following links to interior pages. Look especially for the author's name, the date of publication (or latest update), and the name of any sponsoring organization. Do not omit such information unless it is genuinely unavailable. . . . "Online articles and books sometimes include a DOI (digital object identifier). APA uses the DOI, when available, in place of a URL in reference list entries." (Diana Hacker and Nancy Sommers, A Writer's Reference With Strategies for Online Learners , 7th ed. Bedford/St. Martin's, 2011)
By clicking “Accept All Cookies”, you agree to the storing of cookies on your device to enhance site navigation, analyze site usage, and assist in our marketing efforts.
- Request Info
- Do Research
- About the Library
- Dickinson Scholar
- Ask a Librarian
- My Library Account
Citing Sources: Sample Notes and Bibliography Citations
- Style Links & Samples
- Sample Reference List Citations
- Sample Notes and Bibliography Citations
- Sample Author Date Citations
- Citing Nontraditional Sources in Chicago
- Sample Citations
- Major Changes to the New MLA
- Capitalization and Personal Names in Foreign Languages
- Citation Consultations Policy
- Citing Primary Sources
- Ancient Texts
The following examples display the entry first as it would appear in the bibliography (B) , the footnote/endnote (F) , and the shortened footnote/endnote (SF) , which is used when a source is cited more than once. Notes are numbered consecutively throughout a paper and include references to specific page numbers. Bibliographic entries use hanging indentation, while footnotes and endnotes use paragraph-style indentation. See the information box to the right for more information.
Books with One Author:
Nagel, Joane. Gender and Climate Change: Impacts, Science, Policy . New York: Routledge, 2016.
1. Joane Nagel, Gender and Climate Change: Impacts, Science, Policy (New York: Routledge, 2016), 107-8.
1. Nagel, Gender and Climate Change , 107-8 .
Books with Multiple Authors:
Weinberg, Arthur, and Lila Weinberg. Clarence Darrow: A Sentimental Rebel . New York: Putnam's Sons, 1980.
2. Arthur Weinberg and Lila Weinberg, Clarence Darrow: A Sentimental Rebel (New York: Putnam's Sons, 1980), 56.
2. Weinberg and Weinberg, Clarence Darrow , 56.
Four or More Authors:
For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the bibliography; in the note, list only the first author, followed by et al . (“and others”):
2. Dana Barnes et al., Plastics: Essays on American Corporate Ascendance in the 1960s ...
2. Barnes et al., Plastics ...
Work in an Anthology (a book with an editor who collected essays by different authors):
Dayan, Peter. “The Romantic Renaissance.” In Poetry in France , edited by Keith Aspley and Peter France, 333-43. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1992.
3. Peter Dayan, “The Romantic Renaissance,” in Poetry in France , ed. Keith Aspley and Peter France (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1992), 341.
3. Dayan, “The Romantic Renaissance,” 341.
Books with Edition Other than the First:
Rolle, Andrew F. California: A History . 5th ed. Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson, 1998.
4. Andrew F. Rolle, California: A History , 5th ed. (Wheeling, IL: Harland Davidson, 1998), 243.
4. Rolle, California , 243.
Book with Editor in Place of Author:
Hall, Kermit L, and James W. Ely, Jr., eds. The Oxford Guide to Supreme Court Decisions . New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
5. Kermit L. Hall and James W. Ely, Jr., eds., The Oxford Guide to Supreme Court Decisions (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 178.
5. Hall and Ely, The Oxford Guide to Supreme Court Decisions , 178.
Editor, Translator, Or Compiler Instead Of Author:
Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.
6. Richmond Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 91–92.
6. Lattimore, Iliad , 24.
Electronic Books and Books Consulted Online :
Cite these as you would a traditional book, but add the medium in which the book was accessed or a DOI or URL to the end of the citation. Since some e-readers do not use traditional pages to cite locations in a text you can include a chapter, section, or other information to cite a location.
Mackenzie, F. A. Korea's Fight for Freedom. Seattle, Washington: Amazon & Public Domain Books, 2004. Kindle edition.
7. F. A. Mackenzie, Korea's Fight for Freedom (Seattle, Washington: Amazon & Public Domain Books, 2004), location 35. Kindle edition.
7. Mackenzie, Korea's Fight for Freedom.
Thrall, Grant Ian. Land Use and Urban Form. New York: Methuen, 1987. http://rri.wvu.edu/WebBook/Thrallbook/Land%20Use%20and%20Urban%20Form.pdf
8. Grant Ian Thrall, Land Use and Urban Form (New York: Methuen, 1987), http://rri.wvu.edu/WebBook/Thrallbook/Land%20Use%20and%20Urban%20Form.pdf .
8. Thrall, Land Use and Urban Form.
Park, Soyeon. Underground. Seoul, South Korea: Daltagi, 2011. PDF e-book.
9. Soyeon Park, Underground (Seoul, South Korea: Daltagi, 2011), location 55. PDF e-book.
9. Park, Underground.
Articles, Magazines, and Newspapers
In a note, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any. In the bibliography, list the page range for the whole article.
Robertson, Noel. "The Dorian Migration and Corinthian Ritual." Classical Philology 75, no. 2 (1980): 1-22.
10. Noel Robertson, "The Dorian Migration and Corinthian Ritual," Classical Philology 75, no. 2 (1980): 16.
10. Robertson, "The Dorian Migration and Corinthian Ritual," 16.
Bent, Henry E. "Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 0-145. Accessed December 5, 2008. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.
11. Henry E. Bent, “Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 141, accessed December 5, 2008, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.
11. Bent, “Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree,” 141.
King, Victoria. "The Domesday Book." History Magazine , October/November 2001, 275-78.
12. Victoria King, "The Domesday Book," History Magazine , October/November 2001, 276.
12. King, "The Domesday Book," 276.
YoungSmith, Barron. "Green Room." Slate , February 4, 2009. http://www.slate.com/id/2202431/.
13. Barron YoungSmith, "Green Room," Slate , February 4, 2009, http://www.slate.com/id/2202431/.
13. YoungSmith, "Green Room."
Deo, Nisha. “Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer.” Exponent (West Lafayette, IN), Feb. 13, 2009.
14. Nisha Deo, “Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer,” Exponent (West Lafayette, IN), Feb. 13, 2009.
14. Deo, “Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer.”
Newspaper Article (anonymous author):
"Senatorial Contest in Illinois – Speech of Mr. Lincoln." New York Times, July 16, 1858, 4.
15. "Senatorial Contest in Illinois – Speech of Mr. Lincoln," New York Times , July 16, 1858, 4.
15. "Senatorial Contest in Illinois – Speech of Mr. Lincoln," 4.
- Unpublished Materials
References to conversations or to letters, e-mail or text messages, and the like received by the author are usually run in to the text or given in a note. They are rarely listed in a bibliography. The Chicago Manual of Style 16, 14.222.
16. Constance Conlon, e-mail message to author, April 17, 2000.
16. Conlon, e-mail.
Cotter, Cory. "The Weakest Link: The Argument for On-Wrist Band Welding." Unpublished manuscript, last modified December 3, 2008. Microsoft Word file.
17. Cory Cotter, "The Weakest Link: The Argument for On-Wrist Band Welding" (unpublished manuscript, December 3, 2008), Microsoft Word file.
17. Cotter, "The Weakest Link."
Lectures, papers presented at meetings, and the like:
D'Erasmo, Stacy. "The Craft and Career of Writing." Lecture, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, April 26, 2000.
18. Stacy D'Erasmo, "The Craft and Career of Writing" (Lecture, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, April 26, 2000).
18. D'Erasmo, "The Craft and Career of Writing."
Egmont Manuscripts. Phillipps Collection. University of Georgia Library.
19. James Oglethorpe to the Trustees, 13 January 1733, Phillipps Collection of Egmont Manuscripts,14200:13, University of Georgia Library.
19. Oglethorpe to the Trustees, 1733, Egmont Manuscipts.
Kallen, Horace. Papers. YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, New York.
20. Alvin Johnson, memorandum, 1937, file 36, Horace Kallen Papers, YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, New York.
20. Memorandum, 1937, YIVO Institute for Jewish Research.
Revere Family Papers. Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston.
21. Revere's Waste and Memoranda Book (vol. 1, 1761-83; vol. 2, 1783-97), Revere Family Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston.
21. Waste and Memoranda Book, Revere Family Papers.
- Specialized Formats
National Park Service. “Catoctin Mountain Park.” Last modified November 8, 2011. http://www.nps.gov/cato/index.htm .
22. “Catoctin Mountain Park,” National Park Service, last modified November 8, 2011, http://www.nps.gov/cato/index.htm .
22. “Catoctin Mountain Park.”
Neuman, Scott. “As Occupy Camps Close, What's Next For Movement?” National Public Radio . November 15, 2011. http://www.npr.org/2011/11/15/142359267/as-occupy-camps-close-whats-next-for-movement .
23. Scott Neuman, “As Occupy Camps Close, What's Next For Movement?,” National Public Radio , November 15, 2011, http://www.npr.org/2011/11/15/142359267/as-occupy-camps-close-whats-next-for-movement .
23. Neuman, “As Occupy Camps Close, What's Next For Movement?”
"Illinois Governor Wants to 'Fumigate' State's Government.” CNN.com . Last modified January 30, 2009. http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/01/30/illinois.governor.quinn/.
24. "Illinois Governor Wants to 'Fumigate' State's Government,” CNN.com, Last modified January 30, 2009, http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/01/30/illinois.governor.quinn/.
24. "Illinois Governor Wants to 'Fumigate' State's Government.”
Cases and Court Decisions:
Note: Almost all legal works use notes for documentation and few use bibliographies. The examples in this section, based on the recommendations in The Bluebook, are accordingly given in note form only. The Chicago Manual of Style 16, 14.283.
25. U.S. Const. art. I, § 4, cl. 2.
26. U.S. Const. amend. XIV, § 2.
B. United States Supreme Court decisions,
27. AT&T Corp. v. Iowa Utils. Bd., 525 U.S. 366 (1999).
27. AT&T , 525 U.S. at 366-367.
C. Lower federal-court decisions,
28. United States v. Dennis, 183 F. 201 (2d Cir. 1950).
28. Dennis , 183 F. at 202.
D. State- and local-court decisions,
29. Williams v. Davis, 27 Cal. 2d 746 (1946).
29. Williams , 27 Cal. 2d 746.
Legislative and Executive Documents:
A. Laws and statutes,
30. Homeland Security Act of 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-296, 116 Stat. 2135 (2002).
31. Homeland Security Act of 2002, 6 U.S.C. § 101 (2002).
B. Bills and resolutions,
32. Homeland Security Act of 2002, H.R. 5005, 107th Cong. (2002).
33. Homeland Security Act of 2002: Hearing on H.R. 5005, Day 3, Before the Select Comm. on Homeland Security , 107th Cong. 203 (2002) (statement of David Walker, Comptroller General of the United States).
Guggenheim, Davis, dir. An Inconvenient Truth. Hollywood, CA: Paramount, 2006. DVD.
Footnote: 1. Davis Guggenheim, dir., An Inconvenient Truth (Hollywood, CA: Paramount, 2006), DVD.
1. An Inconvenient Truth.
Table of Contents
Use this list to jump to specific sample types:
- Articles, Magazine, and Newspapers
Information about Footnotes and Endnotes
Notes and Bibliography
The Notes and Bibliography style of Chicago citations uses footnotes or endnotes to introduce resources as they are cited in a document. There is a bibliography at the end of the document.
When using the Notes and Bibliography style, be aware of the following:
- Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page, while endnotes all appear together at the end of the document, before the bibliography.
- Footnotes use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, ...) to consecutively count, while endnotes use Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, ...).
- Use the abbreviation “ibid.” (“the same place”) with a page number when repeating the same source that is used immediately before it. E.g.: Ibid., 63.
- In footnotes and endnotes, all authors’ names are written naturally: First name Last name.
- Bibliographic entries have hanging indentation (all lines after the first are indented to be underneath the first line), while footnotes and endnotes use paragraph-style indentation (where all lines have the same indentation and fall directly underneath the previous line).
- << Previous: Chicago
- Next: Sample Author Date Citations >>
- Last Updated: Jan 27, 2023 8:53 AM
- URL: https://libguides.dickinson.edu/citing
Please note that Internet Explorer version 8.x is not supported as of January 1, 2016. Please refer to this page for more information.
- Data Mining
- Situation Calculus
- Clustering Method
- Discrete Event Calculus
Rudiments of μ-Calculus
In Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics , 2001
2.8 Bibliographic notes and sources
We have already mentioned in the bibliographic notes after chapter 1 , the prototypes of μ-calculi considered by Park  and Emerson and Clarke  . The μ-calculus as a general purpose logical system, not confined to a particular application, originated with the work of Kozen  who proposed the modal μ-calculus as an extension of the propositional modal logic by a least fixed point operator (by duality, the logic comprises the greatest fixed points as well). Similar ideas appeared slightly earlier in the work of Pratt  , who based his calculus on the concept of a least root rather than least fixed point. Nearly at the same time, Immerman  and Vardi  independently gave a model-theoretic characterization of polynomial time complexity, using an extension of first-order logic by fixed-point operators (the subject not covered in this book). The modal μ-calculus of Kozen has subsequently received much study motivated both by the mathematical appeal of the logic, and by its potential usefulness for program verification. These studies revealed that the μ-calculus subsumes most of previously defined logics of programs (see  and references therein), is decidable in exponential time (Emerson and Jutla  ), and admits a natural complete proof system (Walukiewicz  ).
A slightly different approach to the μ-calculus was taken by the authors of this book [74 , 75 , 77 , 10 , 78] , who considered an algebraic calculus of fixed-point terms interpretable over arbitrary complete lattices or, more restrictively, over powerset algebras. We will reconcile the two views in Chapter 6 , by presenting the modal μ-calculus in our framework of powerset algebras.
The concept of an abstract μ-calculus as presented in Section 2.1 of this chapter has not been presented before; it can be viewed as a remote analogue of the concept of a combinatorial algebra in the λ-calculus (see Barendregt  ).
The Discrete Event Calculus Reasoner
Erik T. Mueller , in Commonsense Reasoning (Second Edition) , 2015
Formalize and run the Tweety example in the Bibliographic notes of Chapter 12 in the Discrete Event Calculus Reasoner.
Using the Discrete Event Calculus Reasoner, formalize and run Shanahan’s (1997b) kitchen sink scenario, which is described in Chapter 1 .
Formalize the WALK x-schema of Narayanan (1997) , and use the Discrete Event Calculus Reasoner to perform temporal projection for a scenario involving walking.
(Research problem) Formalize scuba diving, and use the Discrete Event Calculus Reasoner to understand scuba-diving incident reports. See Section 14.2 for a discussion of the use of the event calculus in natural language understanding.
(Research problem) The Discrete Event Calculus Reasoner currently produces models as output. Extend the Discrete Event Calculus Reasoner and a SAT solver to produce proofs for deduction problems using the techniques discussed by McMillan and Amla (2003, sec. 2) .
Michael L. Scott , in Programming Language Pragmatics (Third Edition) , 2009
7.14 Bibliographic Notes
References to general information on the various programming languages mentioned in this chapter can be found in Appendix A , and in the Bibliographic Notes for Chapters 1 and 6 Chapter 1 Chapter 6 . Welsh, Sneeringer, and Hoare [WSH77] provide a critique of the original Pascal definition, with a particular emphasis on its type system. Tanenbaum's comparison of Pascal and Algol 68 also focuses largely on types [Tan78] . Cleaveland [Cle86] provides a book-length study of many of the issues in this chapter. Pierce [Pie02] provides a formal and detailed modern coverage of the subject. The ACM Special Interest Group on Programming Languages launched a biennial workshop on Types in Language Design and Implementation in 2003.
What we have referred to as the denotational model of types originates with Hoare [DDH72] . Denotational formulations of the overall semantics of programming languages are discussed in the Bibliographic Notes for Chapter 4 . A related but distinct body of work uses algebraic techniques to formalize data abstraction; key references include Guttag [Gut77] and Goguen et al. [GTW78] . Milner's original paper [Mil78] is the seminal reference on type inference in ML. Mairson [Mai90] proves that the cost of unifying ML types is O(2 n ), where n is the length of the program. Fortunately, the cost is linear in the size of the program's type expressions, so the worst case arises only in programs whose semantics are too complex for a human being to understand anyway.
Hoare [Hoa75] discusses the definition of recursive types under a reference model of variables. Cardelli and Wegner survey issues related to polymorphism, overloading, and abstraction [CW85] . The new Character Model standard for the World Wide Web provides a remarkably readable introduction to the subtleties and complexities of multilingual character sets [Wor05] .
Tombstones are due to Lomet [Lom75, Lom85] [Lom75] [Lom85] . Locks and keys are due to Fischer and LeBlanc [FL80] . The latter also discuss how to check for various other dynamic semantic errors in Pascal, including those that arise with variant records. Constant-space (pointer-reversing) mark-and-sweep garbage collection is due to Schorr and Waite [SW67] . Stop-and-copy collection was developed by Fenichel and Yochelson [FY69] , based on ideas due to Minsky. Deutsch and Bobrow [DB76] describe an incremental garbage collector that avoids the “stop-the-world” phenomenon. Wilson and Johnstone [WJ93] describe a later incremental collector. The conservative collector described at the end of Section 7.7.3 is due to Boehm and Weiser [BW88] . Cohen [Coh81] surveys garbage-collection techniques as of 1981; Wilson [Wil92b] and Jones and Lins [JL96] provide somewhat more recent views.
Marco Brambilla , Piero Fraternali , in Interaction Flow Modeling Language , 2015
7.3.1 Context Extensions
The context assumes a particular relevance in mobile applications, which must exploit all the available information to deliver the most efficient interface. Therefore, the context must gather all the dimensions that characterize the user intent, the capacity of the access device and of the communication network, and the environment surrounding the user.
Various dimensions of the context relevant to mobile applications have been catalogued and characterized in several standards and standard proposals, briefly overviewed in the bibliographic notes at the end of this chapter. In this section, we exemplify the most interesting ContextDimensions and ContextVariables that characterize mobile application usage. The illustration is not meant to be exhaustive. Rather, its aim is exemplifying how the contextual features can be represented as IFML extensions and used to model the effect of context on the user interface. The main aspects of the Context are listed below. Some of them have to be considered as ContextDimensions (and thus allow the selection of a Context or another), while other are ContextVariables (thus enabling the use of their value as parameters within the IFML models).
Device: this family of context features can be exploited to specify the adaptation of the interface to different device characteristics, most notably the size and resolution of the screen. These features are usually exploited as ContextDimensions:
DiagonalSize : the physical size of the screen, measured as the screen’s diagonal;
SizeCategory : for convenience, screen sizes can be grouped in classes that can be treated homogenously (e.g., SMALL, NORMAL, LARGE, EXTRA LARGE); and
DensityCategory : for convenience, screen density measures can also be grouped in classes treated homogenously (e.g., LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH, EXTRA HIGH).
The following information becomes handy as ContextVariables, so as to calibrate precisely the UI rendering based on some calculation over the size data:
PixelSize : the actual horizontal and vertical size of the screen, measured in pixels;
Density : the quantity of pixels per unit area measured in dpi (dots per inch).
Other characteristics of the device may be considered, such as internal memory size, processing power, and battery status. However, they are less frequently used in the design of applications.
Network connectivity: this dimension can be used to adapt the quantity or quality of content published in the interface, based on the capacity of the network link (e.g., replacing the display of a large media file with a lighter preview when bandwidth is limited). The relevant ContextDimension is ConnectivityType , which denotes the kind of network available; it can have such values as NONE, BLUETOOTH, NFC, ETHERNET, MOBILE (E, G, 3G, 4G, …), WIFI, and WIMAX;
SensorStatus : denotes the activity status of the position engine of the device. It can have values such as: ACTIVE, INACTIVE.
Activity : denotes the physical user’s activity inferred by the sensor data; possible values are: still, walking, running, cycling, and in-vehicle.
The ContextVariables that can be exploited when the SensorStatus is ACTIVE are:
Location : denotes the position of the device, expressed in latitude and longitude coordinates;
Accuracy : denotes the accuracy of the position.
Speed : denotes the ground speed of the device.
Altitude : denotes the altitude above sea level of the device.
6.11 bibliographic notes.
Many of the issues discussed in this chapter feature prominently in papers on the history of programming languages. Pointers to several such papers can be found in the Bibliographic Notes for Chapter 1 . Fifteen papers comparing Ada, C, and Pascal can be found in the collection edited by Feuer and Gehani [FG84] . References for individual languages can be found in Appendix A .
Niklaus Wirth has been responsible for a series of influential languages over a 30-year period, including Pascal [Wir71] , its predecessor Algol W [WH66] , and the successors Modula [Wir77b] , Modula-2 [Wir85b] , and Oberon [Wir88b] . The case statement of Algol W is due to Hoare [Hoa81] . Bernstein [Ber85] considers a variety of alternative implementations for case , including multilevel versions appropriate for label sets consisting of several dense “clusters” of values. Guarded commands are due to Dijkstra [Dij75] . Duff's device was originally posted to netnews, the predecessor of Usenet news, in May of 1984. The original posting appears to have been lost, but Duff's commentary on it can be found at many Internet sites, including www.lysator.liu.se/c/duffs-device.html .
Debate over the supposed merits or evils of the goto statement dates from at least the early 1960s, but became a good bit more heated in the wake of a 1968 article by Dijkstra (“Go To Statement Considered Harmful” [Dij68b] ). The structured programming movement of the 1970s took its name from the text of Dahl, Dijkstra, and Hoare [DDH72] . A dissenting letter by Rubin in 1987 (“‘GOTO Considered Harmful’ Considered Harmful” [Rub87] ; Exercise 6.24 ) elicited a flurry of responses.
What has been called the “reference model of variables” in this chapter is called the “object model” in Clu; Liskov and Guttag describe it in Sections 2.3 and 2.4.2 of their text on abstraction and specification [LG86] . Clu iterators are described in an article by Liskov et al. [LSAS77] , and in Chapter 6 of the Liskov and Guttag text. Icon generators are discussed in Chapters 11 and 14 Chapter 11 Chapter 14 of the text by Griswold and Griswold [GG96] . The tree-enumeration algorithm of Exercise 6.20 was originally presented (without iterators) by Solomon and Finkel [SF80] .
Several texts discuss the use of invariants ( Exercise 6.26 ) as a tool for writing correct programs. Particularly noteworthy are the works of Dijkstra [Dij76] and Gries [Gri81] . Kernighan and Plauger provide a more informal discussion of the art of writing good programs [KP78] .
The Blizzard [SFL + 94] and Shasta [SG96] systems for software distributed shared memory (S-DSM) make use of sentinels ( Exercise 6.10 ). We will discuss S-DSM in Section 12.2.1 .
Michaelson [Mic89, Chap. 8] provides an accessible formal treatment of applicative-order, normal-order, and lazy evaluation. Friedman, Wand, and Haynes provide an excellent discussion of continuation-passing style [FWH01, Chaps. 7–8] .
Lifschitz (1989) created a list of commonsense reasoning benchmark problems, following a suggestion by John McCarthy. E. Davis (1990, pp. 4-12) presents a methodology for formalization of commonsense reasoning based on the use of benchmark problems. Sandewall (1994) proposes a systematic methodology for assessing entailment methods, which we discuss in the Bibliographic notes of Chapter 16 . McCarthy (1983, 1998a) argues that the field of artificial intelligence needs an equivalent to drosophilae, the fruit flies biologists use to study genetic mutations because of their short generation time. A list of unsolved benchmark problems and a few solved ones is maintained by Leora Morgenstern ( Morgenstern & Miller, 2014 ).
The kitchen sink scenario is from Shanahan (1990; 1997b, pp. 326-329; 1999a, pp. 426-428) . This scenario can be traced back to Siklóssy and Dreussi (1973, pp. 426, 429) and Hendrix (1973, pp. 149, 159-167) , who used the example of filling a bucket with water. McDermott (1982, pp. 129-133, 135-138) used the example of water flowing into a tank, and Hayes (1985, pp. 99-103) used the example of filling a bath. The shopping cart example is from Shanahan (1997b, pp. 302-304) . The hungry cat scenario is from Winikoff, Padgham, Harland, and Thangarajah (2002) .
One of the most influential applications of attribute grammars was the Cornell Synthesizer Generator [Rep84, RT88] [Rep84] [RT88] . Learn how the Generator used attribute grammars not only for incremental update of semantic information in a program under edit, but also for automatic creation of language based editors from formal language specifications. How general is this technique? What applications might it have beyond syntax-directed editing of computer programs?
The attribute grammars used in this chapter are all quite simple. Most are S- or L-attributed. All are noncircular. Are there any practical uses for more complex attribute grammars? How about automatic attribute evaluators? Using the Bibliographic Notes as a starting point, conduct a survey of attribute evaluation techniques. Where is the line between practical techniques and intellectual curiosities?
The first validated Ada implementation was the Ada/Ed interpreter from New York University [DGAFS + 80] . The interpreter was written in the set-based language SETL [SDDS86] using a denotational semantics definition of Ada. Learn about the Ada/Ed project, SETL, and denotational semantics. Discuss how the use of a formal definition aided the development process. Also discuss the limitations of Ada/Ed, and expand on the potential role of formal semantics in language design, development, and prototype implementation.
Version 5 of the Scheme language manual [ADH + 98] included a formal definition of Scheme in denotational semantics. How long is this definition, compared to the more conventional definition in English? How readable is it? What do the length and the level of readability say about Scheme? About denotational semantics? (For more on denotational semantics, see the texts of Stoy [Sto77] or Gordon [Gor79] .)
Version 6 of the manual [SDF + 07] switched to operational semantics. How does this compare to the denotational version? Why do you suppose the standards committee made the change? (For more information, see the paper by Matthews and Findler [MF08] .)
In More Depth.
7.4 Bibliographic notes and sources
The concept of a finite automaton took its shape in the fundamental work of Kleene  ; the equivalence between finite automata and regular expressions (Klenee theorem) established a general paradigm which is confirmed, in particular, by Theorem 7.3.6 above. We refer the reader to the bibliographic notes in the Chapter 5 (page 138) for more references to automata on finite and infinite words. Thatcher and Wright  and Doner  extended the concept of a finite automaton to (finite) trees, and Rabin  used automata on infinite trees in his landmark proof of decidability of the monadic second order arithmetic of n successors. We refer the reader to the exposition of the subject by Thomas [95 , 97] . The alternating version of a finite automaton was introduced at the same time as the alternating Turing machine  ; alternating automata on infinite trees were considered first by Muller and Schupp  .
A transformation of the formulas of the modal μ-calculus into Rabin tree automata was an essential part of the proof of the elementary decidability of this logic given by Streett and Emerson  . A more direct transformation via alternating automata was given later by Emerson and Jutla  . A converse translation, from automata to the μ-calculus, was shown in  , by which the equivalence in expressive power between the Rabin automata and the μ-calculus of fixed-point terms without intersection interpreted in the powerset algebra of trees was established. (Note that by the Rabin Theorem, adding intersection would not increase the expressive power of the μ-calculus.) In fact,  shows an equivalence on a more general level, namely between the μ-calculus over powerset algebras constructed from arbitrary algebras, and for a suitable concept of an automaton over arbitrary algebras. This result was subsequently extended to automata on semi-algebras in  . A similar concept of automaton over transition system was introduced by Janin and Walukiewicz  . A yet more general concept of automata over complete lattices with monotonic operations was considered by Janin  .
An equivalence between nondeterministic Büchi automata on trees and a kind of fixed-point expressions (essentially equivalent to fixed-point terms without intersection of the level Π 2 ) was discovered earlier by Takahashi  . The correspondence between fixed-point terms of level Π 2 (with intersection) interpreted in the powerset algebra of trees and nondeterministic Büchi automata was shown by the authors of this book  . (Note that this also yields the equivalence between nondeterministic and alternating Büchi automata on trees.) A more direct proof of this result was given later by Kaivola  .
Hendrix (1973) extends the language of STRIPS ( Fikes & Nilsson, 1971 ) to deal with “continuous, gradual change” ( Hendrix, 1973 , p. 146). A process such as filling a bucket is subject to “continuance conditions” (p. 161), or conditions necessary for the process to continue. Filling a bucket has the continuance conditions that the tap must be turned on, the bucket must be facing up, and the amount of water in the bucket must be less than its capacity. When any such condition is violated, the filling process is interrupted. Proposals for integrating continuous change into the situation calculus have been made by Gelfond, Lifschitz, and Rabinov (1991) , Pinto (1994) , and R. Miller and Shanahan (1994) . See the discussion in the Bibliographic notes of Chapter 16 . Proposals have been made for other formalisms for reasoning about action and change (Herrmann & Thielscher, 1996 ; McDermott, 1982 ; Sandewall, 1989a ; Van Belleghem, Denecker, & De Schreye, 1994 ). The area of qualitative reasoning, discussed in Section 17.1 , deals with continuous change. Shanahan (1995a) introduced the classical logic event calculus, which included the Trajectory predicate (p. 268). This predicate was previously introduced by Shanahan (1990) into a simplified version of the original event calculus ( Kowalski & Sergot, 1986 ).
The example of a falling object has been used by McCarthy (1963) , McCarthy and Hayes (1969, p. 479) , and Shanahan (1990, p. 598) . The method for showing ¬ StoppedIn (0, Falling ( Apple ), 1) in the proofs of Propositions 7.2 , 7.3 , 7.5, and 10.2 is taken from Shanahan (1997b, pp. 328-329 ; 2004, p. 161). Reiter (2001, pp. 149-150) discusses the use of fluents to represent processes or actions with duration. The AntiTrajectory predicate was introduced by R. Miller and Shanahan (1999, pp. 13-15; 2002, pp. 466-470) . The hot air balloon example is from R. Miller and Shanahan (1999, p. 14; 2002, p. 468) . Shanahan (1990) shows how multiple flows into a vessel can be handled. Van Belleghem, Denecker, and De Schreye (1994) show how to handle multiple simultaneous (and possibly continuously changing) influences on a quantity. R. Miller and Shanahan (1996) treat continuously changing parameters in the event calculus using differential equations. We have discussed trajectories in the context of continuous change. But as R. Miller and Shanahan (2002, p. 468) note, trajectories are not required to be continuous. They give the example of using a trajectory axiom to model a blinking light.
Data Mining Trends and Research Frontiers
Jiawei Han , ... Jian Pei , in Data Mining (Third Edition) , 2012
Mining complex data types poses challenging issues, for which there are many dedicated lines of research and development. This chapter presents a high-level overview of mining complex data types , which includes mining sequence data such as time series, symbolic sequences, and biological sequences; mining graphs and networks ; and mining other kinds of data, including spatiotemporal and cyber-physical system data , multimedia, text and Web data , and data streams .
Several well-established statistical methods have been proposed for data analysis such as regression, generalized linear models, analysis of variance, mixed-effect models, factor analysis, discriminant analysis, survival analysis, and quality control. Full coverage of statistical data analysis methods is beyond the scope of this book. Interested readers are referred to the statistical literature cited in the bibliographic notes ( Section 13.8 ).
Researchers have been striving to build theoretical foundations for data mining. Several interesting proposals have appeared, based on data reduction, data compression, probability and statistics theory, microeconomic theory, and pattern discovery–based inductive databases.
Visual data mining integrates data mining and data visualization to discover implicit and useful knowledge from large data sets. Visual data mining includes data visualization , data mining result visualization , data mining process visualization , and interactive visual data mining . Audio data mining uses audio signals to indicate data patterns or features of data mining results.
Many customized data mining tools have been developed for domain-specific applications , including finance, the retail and telecommunication industries, science and engineering, intrusion detection and prevention, and recommender systems. Such application domain-based studies integrate domain-specific knowledge with data analysis techniques and provide mission-specific data mining solutions.
Ubiquitous data mining is the constant presence of data mining in many aspects of our daily lives. It can influence how we shop, work, search for information, and use a computer, as well as our leisure time, health, and well-being. In invisible data mining , “smart” software, such as search engines, customer-adaptive web services (e.g., using recommender algorithms), email managers, and so on, incorporates data mining into its functional components, often unbeknownst to the user.
A major social concern of data mining is the issue of privacy and data security . Privacy-preserving data mining deals with obtaining valid data mining results without disclosing underlying sensitive values. Its goal is to ensure privacy protection and security while preserving the overall quality of data mining results.
Data mining trends include further efforts toward the exploration of new application areas; improved scalable, interactive, and constraint-based mining methods; the integration of data mining with web service, database, warehousing, and cloud computing systems; and mining social and information networks. Other trends include the mining of spatiotemporal and cyber-physical system data, biological data, software/system engineering data, and multimedia and text data, in addition to web mining, distributed and real-time data stream mining, visual and audio mining, and privacy and security in data mining.
Research Process: Intro
- Selecting a Topic
- Background Information
- Narrowing the Topic
- Library Terms
- Generating Keywords
- Boolean Operators
- Search Engine Strategies
- Google Searching
- Basic Internet Terms
- Research & The Web
- Search Engines
- Evaluating Books
- Evaluating Articles
- Evaluating Websites
- Bibliographic Information
- Off Campus Access
- Periodical Locator
- Basic Search
- Advanced, Subject, Author & Course Reserve Search
- Understanding the Search Results
- Call Numbers
The objective of this guide is to teach basic skills for doing research and information literacy skills to find, retrieve, analyze, and use the information effectively for lifelong learning. Learning these skills provides access to the ever expanding universe of information and knowledge.
The guide consists of a series instructional sections that are designed to teach the basic concepts of library research.
Librarians at the Research Information Desk can teach you how to access and effectively use the variety of materials in the library as well as in the research databases. If you need an extensive amount of help, librarians will provide one-on-one instructional tutoring for students doing research.
Contact the librarians:
- Phone: (301) 546-0476
- Email: [email protected]
- Chat: pgcc.libanswers.com
- Text Message: (301) 637-4609
You can also request one-on-one research assistance by completing our form: Research Consultation .
This LibGuide was adapted from the Quick Research Library Tutorial, a tutorial developed for the Prince George’s Community College Title III Grant Project, 2001-2002.
- Next: Research Process >>
- Last Updated: Jun 6, 2022 9:32 AM
- URL: https://pgcc.libguides.com/researchprocess
- Library Search
- View Library Account
- The Claremont Colleges Library
- Research Guides
Chicago Manual of Style (Notes-Bibliography System)
- Get Started
What is Chicago Style & Why Do We Cite?
What's new in the chicago 17th edition, chicago style guides, use zotero to cite your sources.
- Formatting Your Paper
- What to Cite
- Citing Books
- Citing Articles
- Citing Web Resources
- Citing Images
- Formatting Your Bibliography
- Get Additional Help
Citing your sources is a way to demonstrate academic honesty and is a way to avoid plagiarism.
Citing your work shows that you have:
- Completed quality research by listing the sources that you used to get your information.
- Are a responsible scholar by giving credit to other researchers and acknowledging their ideas.
- Provided a way for your reader to easily find the sources that have you used by citing them accurately in your paper using a bibliography, works cited page or reference list.
Chicago Style is commonly used to format papers and cite sources within history, art history and other humanities.
Although there are thousands of citation styles to choose from, they may vary with disciplines, with publishers, etc. You may need to speak with your professor about what style you should use for your assignment but remember to be consistent with your style and only use one style throughout your assignment. Explore this guide to learn more about how to cite using Chicago Style.
When to Cite Sources
When you are writing your research paper, any information you quote, summarize or paraphrase must be cited and documented. You must document all of your sources to avoid plagiarism.
How to Document Your Sources
The Chicago Manual of Style requires two components:
- Notes ( footnotes or endnotes ) – These are numbered and correspond to the super scripted numbers in the body of the text.
- A “Bibliography” page – A list of citations of all sources used at the very end of the paper.
Website Titles - If the website has a print counterpart (such as a newspaper), put the website name in italics. If not, use plain text.
Ibid. - The use of ibid. for repeated citations is no longer preferred. If the citation is the same as the one immediately preceding it, use a shortened citation that includes the author’s last name and relevant pages numbers.
Email - The preferred spelling is now email with no hyphen.
Generic Internet Terms - Do not capitalize generic internet terms such as web, internet or wireless network.
"They" as a Singular Pronoun - If the gender has been identified, “he” or “she” needs to be used appropriately. If the gender has not been identified, “they” should be used. So the following is now correct: Someone has left their student ID at the desk.
Accessed date - Accessed date is only required when citing a web resource that does not have a publication or last updated date available; however, you should check with your instructor to clarify expectations on documenting the date you accessed an information resource.
- Chicago Manual of Style (Citation Short Guide)
- Chicago Manual of Style (Website)
Citation Managers are tools to help you keep track of your citations as you research and to create/format your citations and bibliography. For example, Zotero allows you to keep citations, full text articles, and other research resources organized in one place. You can also use these tools to format your bibliographies and the notes/citations in your papers according to the appropriate style (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.).
Watch this video to learn more about Zotero
- Download Zotero Zotero is a free open source application that works with Firefox, Chrome, and Safari, you can also download a client to your computer. It is a good choice if you use just one computer when researching. You can access citation information when online or offline.
- Zotero How-to Guide This will take you to The Claremont Colleges website which will answer frequently asked questions.
- Zotero Short Guide (PDF) Download this guide to walk you through how to download Zotero on your computer.
Research Services Librarian
- Next: Formatting Your Paper >>
- Last Updated: Jan 20, 2023 5:16 PM
- URL: https://libguides.libraries.claremont.edu/chicago
The bibliography (as it is called in the note-bibliography system) is placed at the end of your paper, is a double-spaced alphabetized list of books, articles
A bibliography is a list of the sources you used in your notes. (Some teachers might also ask you to include sources you read but didn't end
In the notes-bibliography system, you signal that you have used a source by placing a superscript number at the end of the sentence in which
In Chicago/Turabian papers using the Notes and Bibliography (NB) citation system, all the sources you cite throughout the text of your paper are listed together
Journal article. In a note, cite specific page numbers. In the bibliography, include the page range for the whole article. For articles consulted online
A bibliography is a list of works (such as books and articles) written on a particular subject or by a particular author. Adjective:
Notes are numbered consecutively throughout a paper and include references to specific page numbers. Bibliographic entries use hanging indentation, while
Formalize and run the Tweety example in the Bibliographic notes of Chapter 12 in ... and Hoare [WSH77] provide a critique of the original Pascal definition
A bibliography is a list of works on a subject or by an author that were used or consulted to write a research paper, book or article. It can
Bibliographic citations are the full citation and appear in your Bibliography page in alphabetical order. They help you and the reader organize