visual display terminal

Your version of Internet Explorer is either running in "Compatibility View" or is too outdated to display this site. If you believe your version of Internet Explorer is up to date, please remove this site from Compatibility View by opening Tools > Compatibility View settings (IE11) or clicking the broken page icon in your address bar (IE9, IE10)

visual display terminal

Missouri S&T - Missouri University of Science and Technology

Environmental Health and Safety


Ergonomic Guide for Visual Display Terminal (VDT) Computer Workstations 

Computers have revolutionized the way we work. People whose occupations involve spending prolonged periods of time at a computer workstation are subjected to stressors that may lead to painful, debilitating conditions.

Adjustable chairs and desks, well-designed keyboards and proper lighting all contribute to the reduction of stressors that can be placed on the Visual Display Terminal (VDT) worker. The resulting stress may cause higher levels of fatigue and tension during the day. You can be more re comfortable and productive when ergonomic thinking is applied to the computer workstation.

Prolonged exposure to a non ergonomic working environment may lead to the development of Cumulative Trauma Disorders, or CTD's. CTD's are problems that arise slowly and unnoticeably over time which can lead to injury or disability. Even small adjustments to the workstation environment can lead to greater comfort and reduce the chance of future injury occurring. Read on to learn how ergonomics can make the computer workstation better--and healthier--for you.


Cumulative Trauma Disorders, or CTD's are a class of injuries that arise from putting excessive pressure on the body to perform over a period of time. Four major factors contribute to their development:

Even small forces with high frequencies of repetition may cause or contribute to CTD's.

The most common CTD's among VDT users are:

Back and shoulder problems can be caused by stresses due to sitting without good back support or improper heights of the workstation relative to the body, often created by poor chair height adjustment. Lack of flexibility in workstation design can also contribute to these problems.

Tendinitis is an inflammation of a tendon, usually near a joint or bony surface. Often, tendinitis caused by office work occurs in the lower arm/hand or shoulder regions.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is a specific injury that often begins as tendinitis in the wrist or hand area and becomes progressively worse, leading to other problems. The thumb and first two or three fingers are affected due to median nerve involvement. Repetitive motions such as typing extensively with the wrists in a bent position can contribute to the onset of carpal tunnel syndrome.

The Cumulative Trauma Disorder usually begins when a VDT user does not address working situations that are merely bothersome. Over time, the slight irritation being experienced may develop into a serious injury.

Applying ergonomic thinking to workstations can result in a reduced chance of CTD's occurring.


The chair is a key component in the ergonomics of a computer workstation. A good chair is one that allows you to maintain a variety of comfortable task positions while working throughout the day.

While there is no "perfect" working posture for everyone, the following guidelines are useful for improving the body geometry of the workstation:

Feeling tension in your legs, back or shoulders could be a sign of poor chair adjustment, such that it is not providing the body adequate support.

Sometimes sitting in a stationary position for a long period of time can lead to muscle fatigue. Moving your body around during the day can help reduce muscle strains and lower wear and tear on your disks and spine.

A key point to remember is that you should be able to rest your feet flat on the floor without the chair putting pressure on the backs of your legs, which may in turn reduce whole-body blood circulation.


Proper posture while using a VDT can help prevent tension or stiffness in the neck, back and shoulders.

Use these posture checkpoints to reduce stress on the muscle and skeletal system:

Following these guidelines helps your body maintain a healthy, natural geometry at the VDT. For best results, stay within stated ranges when making adjustments for individual preference.


Screen clarity to the eye and office lighting both affect your well being when using a VDT. Some technical parameters of the VDT screen, as well as the eye itself, are influencing factors.

Here are guidelines for the best interaction between the VDT screen and your eyes.


Use of computer workstations is becoming the standard in a growing number of occupations. Ergonomics can assure that individuals function most effectively and protect their health as modern technology is applied in more areas of our society.

These general guidelines will help you stay more alert and reduce strain and fatigue while using a VDT:

Following the guidelines contained in this web page will help you to be more productive and enhance the health and well-being of your body. At the end of the day, you will also feel better and enjoy your leisure hours free of pain and stiffness.

If problems should arise, consult a health care professional as soon as possible to avoid potential injury or the development of a disabling condition.

Environmental Health and Safety Missouri University of Science and Technology

Missouri University of Science and Technology

Missouri S&T is an equal opportunity/access/affirmative action/pro-disabled and veteran employer and does not discriminate on the basis of sex in our education programs or activities, pursuant to Title IX and 34 CFR Part 106. For more information, see S&T's Nondiscrimination Policy or Equity and Title IX . © 2022 Curators of the University of Missouri.

Version 1.76 is now available! Read about the new features and fixes from February.

Terminal Basics

Visual Studio Code includes a full featured integrated terminal that conveniently starts at the root of your workspace. It provides integration with the editor to support features like links and error detection .

To open the terminal:

The integrated terminal can run commands such as mkdir and git just like a standalone terminal. VS Code's terminal has additional functionality called shell integration that tracks where commands are run with decorations on the left of a command and in the scrollbar.

Note: Open an external terminal with the ⇧⌘C (Windows, Linux Ctrl+Shift+C ) keyboard shortcut if you prefer to work outside VS Code.

Terminal shells

The integrated terminal can use various shells installed on your machine, with the default being pulled from your system defaults. Shells are detected and presented in the terminal profiles dropdown.

A detected profile can be chosen in the dropdown next to the new terminal button. Some examples on Windows include PowerShell, Command Prompt, Git Bash and WSL

You can learn more about configuring terminal shells in the terminal profiles article.

Managing terminals

The terminal tabs UI is on the right side of the terminal view. Each terminal has an entry with its name, icon, color, and group decoration (if any).

Activating the Launch Profile button will show all detected and manually configured profiles

Terminal instances can be added by selecting the + icon on the top-right of the TERMINAL panel, selecting a profile from the terminal dropdown, or by triggering the ⌃⇧` (Windows, Linux Ctrl+Shift+` ) command. This action creates another entry in the tab list associated with that terminal.

Remove terminal instances by hovering a tab and selecting the Trash Can button, selecting a tab item and pressing Delete , using Terminal: Kill the Active Terminal Instance command, or via the right-click context menu.

Navigate between terminal groups using focus next ⇧⌘] (Windows, Linux Ctrl+PageDown ) and focus previous ⇧⌘[ (Windows, Linux Ctrl+PageUp ) .

Icons may appear to the right of the terminal title on the tab label when a terminal's status changes. Some examples are a bell (macOS) and for tasks, displaying a check mark when there are no errors and an X otherwise. Hover the icon to read status information, which may contain actions.

Groups (split panes)

Multiple terminals can be placed side-by-side are called a group and are created by splitting a terminal:

Tip: The working directory for the new terminal depends on the terminal.integrated.splitCwd setting .

Navigate between terminals in a group by focusing the previous pane, ⌥⌘← (Windows, Linux Alt+Left ) , or the next pane, ⌥⌘→ (Windows, Linux Alt+Right ) .

Dragging and dropping tabs in the list will rearrange them. Dragging a tab into the main terminal area allows moving a terminal from one group to another.

Moving a terminal into its own group can be done with the Terminal: Unsplit Terminal command through the Command Palette or in the right-click context menu.

Terminals in editor area

Terminal in the editor area, also known as terminal editors, can be created through the Terminal: Create New Terminal in Editor Area and Terminal: Create New Terminal in Editor Area to the Side commands or by dragging a terminal from the terminal view into the editor area.

Terminal editors are presented like regular text file tabs

Terminal editors are ideal if you want a complex workbench layout such as terminals on either side of an editor or terminals arranged in two dimensions. Below PowerShell and WSL terminals are stacked in an editor group to the right of a group of file editors.

Terminal editors are can be layed out using the editor group layout system, for example 2 terminals could sit to the right of a text editor

The terminal.integrated.defaultLocation setting can change the default terminal location to be in either the view or editor areas.

Navigating the buffer

The content in the terminal is called the buffer, with the section right above the bottom viewport being called "scrollback". The amount of scrollback kept is determined by the terminal.integrated.scrollback setting and defaults to 1000 lines.

There are various commands available to navigate around the terminal buffer:

Command navigation is also available (see shell integration ):

Scrolling will happen instantaneously, but can be configured to animate over a short duration with the terminal.integrated.smoothScrolling setting.

The terminal features sophisticated link detection with editor integration and even extension contributed link handlers. Links are activated by mousing over the link so an underline appears, then hold Ctrl / Cmd and click.

There are several built-in link handlers that are used in the following priority order:

URIs/URLs: These are links that look like URIs, such as , vscode://file/path/to/file or file://path/to/file . These will open using the standard handler for the protocol. For example, https links will open the system browser at that location.

Opening a URI link will open it in the system browser

File links: These are links to files that have been verified to exist on the system. These will open the file in a new editor tab and support many common line/column formats such as file:1:2 , file:line 1, column 2 .

Activating a file link will open it in an editor

Folder links: These are similar to file links but will open a new VS Code window at the folder.

Activating a folder link will open it in a new window

Word links: This is the fallback link type and uses the terminal.integrated.wordSeparators setting to define word boundaries and make nearly all text into words. Activating a word link will search the workspace for the word, if there is a single result it will open, otherwise it will present the search results. Word links are considered "low confidence" and will not show an underline or tooltip unless Ctrl / Cmd is held. They also have limited support for line and column suffixes.

Activating a word link 'terminal:15' will open a Quick Pick searching the workspace for all files containing 'terminal', choosing an option will open the file at line 15

The Open Detected Link command ( ⇧⌘O (Windows, Linux Ctrl+Shift+O ) ) can be used to access links via the keyboard:

Open Detected Link opens a quick pick with all links in the viewport, split into categories

Tip: If link verification causes performance issues, like in high latency remote environments, it can be disabled via the terminal.integrated.enableFileLinks setting .

Extensions handling links

Extensions can contribute link providers which allow the extension to define what happens when clicked. An example of this is the GitLens extension detecting Git branch links.

When GitLens is installed, hovering a branch name will provide custom behavior to open the branch in the UI

Keyboard accessibility

Links are keyboard accessible through several commands that open links based on the type of link.

Copy & paste

The keybindings for copy and paste follow platform standards:

Copying is done automatically on selection when terminal.integrated.copyOnSelection is enabled.

By default there is a warning when pasting multiple lines, which can be disabled with the terminal.integrated.enableMultiLinePasteWarning setting. This is only done when the shell does not support "bracketed paste mode". When that mode is enabled, the shell is indicating that it can handle multiple line pasting.

Using the mouse

Right-click behavior.

The right-click behavior differs based on the platform:

This can be configured using the terminal.integrated.rightClickBehavior setting. The options are:

Reposition the cursor with Alt

Alt and left-click will reposition the cursor to underneath the mouse. This works by simulating arrow keystrokes, which may not work reliably for some shells or programs. This feature can be disabled with the terminal.integrated.altClickMovesCursor setting.

Mouse events mode

When applications running in the terminal turn on mouse events mode, such as Vim mouse mode, mouse interaction is sent to the application instead of the terminal. This means that clicking and dragging will no longer create a selection. Terminal selection can be forced by holding the Alt key on Windows and Linux, this can also be done with the Option key on macOS but requires enabling the terminal.integrated.macOptionClickForcesSelection setting first.

The integrated terminal has find functionality that can be triggered with ⌘F (Windows, Linux Ctrl+F ) .

Find in the terminal will highlight all text matching the query

Tip: Ctrl+F can be sent to the shell by removing the workbench.action.terminal.focusFind command from commands to skip shell .

Run selected text

To use the runSelectedText command, select text in an editor and run the command Terminal: Run Selected Text in Active Terminal via the Command Palette ( ⇧⌘P (Windows, Linux Ctrl+Shift+P ) ), the terminal will attempt to run the selected text. If no text is selected in the active editor, the entire line that the cursor is on will run in the terminal.

Tip: Also run the active file using the command workbench.action.terminal.runActiveFile .

Maximizing the terminal

The terminal view can be maximized by clicking the maximize panel size button with the upwards chevron icon. This will temporarily hide the editors and maximize the panel. This is useful to temporarily focus on a large amount of output. Some developers use VS Code as a standalone terminal by opening a new window, maximizing the panel, and hiding the side bar.

There is a Terminal: Select All command, which is bound to Cmd+A on macOS, but does not have a default keybinding on Windows and Linux as it may conflict with shell hotkeys. To use Ctrl+A to select all, add this custom keybinding:

Drag and drop file paths

Dragging a file into the terminal will input the path into the terminal, with escaping to match the active shell.

Automating terminals with tasks

The Tasks feature can be used to automate the launching of terminals, for example, the following .vscode/tasks.json file will launch a Command Prompt and PowerShell terminal in a single terminal group when the window starts:

This file could be committed to the repository to share with other developers or created as a user task via the workbench.action.tasks.openUserTasks command.

Working directory

By default, the terminal will open at the folder that is opened in the Explorer. The terminal.integrated.cwd setting allows specifying a custom path to open instead:

Split terminals on Windows will start in the directory that the parent terminal started with. On macOS and Linux, split terminals will inherit the current working directory of the parent terminal. This behavior can be changed using the terminal.integrated.splitCwd setting:

There are also extensions available that give more options such as Terminal Here .

Fixed dimension terminals

The Terminal: Set Fixed Dimensions command allows changing the number of columns and rows that the terminal and it's backing psuedoterminal uses. This will add scroll bars when necessary, which may lead to an unpleasant UX and is generally not recommended, but it is a common ask on Windows in particular for reading logs or long lines when paging tools aren't available.

You can also right-click on a terminal tab and select Toggle Size to Content Width ( ⌥Z (Windows, Linux Alt+Z ) ) to resize the number of terminal columns to the largest wrapped line in the terminal.

The basics of the terminal have been covered in this document. Read on to find out more about:

Common questions

I'm having problems launching the terminal.

There's a dedicated troubleshooting guide for these sorts of problems.

Why is nvm complaining about a prefix option when the integrated terminal is launched?

nvm (Node Version Manager) users often see this error for the first time inside VS Code's integrated terminal:

This is mostly a macOS problem and does not happen in external terminals. The typical reasons for this are the following:

To resolve this issue, you need to track down where the old npm is installed and remove both it and its out-of-date node_modules. Find the nvm initialization script and run which npm before it runs, which should print the path when you launch a new terminal.

Once you have the path to npm, find the old node_modules by resolving the symlink by running a command something like this:

This will give you the resolved path at the end:

From there, removing the files and relaunching VS Code should fix the issue:

Why does macOS make a ding sound when I resize terminal split panes?

The keybindings ⌃⌘← and ⌃⌘→ are the defaults for resizing individual split panes in the terminal. While they work, they also cause a system "invalid key" sound to play due to an issue in Chromium. The recommended workaround is to tell macOS to no-op for these keybindings by running this in your terminal:

I'm having problems with the terminal rendering. What can I do?

By default, the integrated terminal will render using GPU acceleration on most machines. Typically when there are rendering problems it's an issue of something in your hardware/OS/drivers not playing nicely with the GPU renderer. The first thing to try is to disable GPU acceleration, trading off rendering speed for DOM-based rendering, which is more reliable:

See the GPU acceleration section for more information.

I see 1~ or [201~ when I paste something

This normally means that the program/shell running inside the terminal requested to turn on "bracketed paste mode" but something doesn't support it properly. To work around this, you could run printf "\e[?2004l" to disable it for that session or add the following to your ~/.inputrc file:

Ctrl+A, Ctrl+R output ^A, ^R on zsh

This can happen if zsh is in Vim mode instead of Emacs mode, due to setting $EDITOR or $VISUAL to vi / vim in your init scripts.

To work around this, you have two options:

How can I configure Cmd+. to map to Ctrl+C like macOS' built-in terminal?

The macOS default terminal uses Cmd+. to perform the same as Ctrl+C . To get this behavior in VS Code, add this custom keybinding :

Why are the colors in the terminal not correct?

One of our accessibility features we enable by default is to ensure a minimum contrast ratio of at least 4.5 is met for the foreground text. This feature ensures that text is readable regardless of the shell and theme used which is not possible otherwise. To disable this feature, you can set:

See the minimum contrast ratio section for more information.

U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

The .gov means it’s official. Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.

The site is secure. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Save citation to file

Email citation, add to collections.

Add to My Bibliography

Your saved search, create a file for external citation management software, your rss feed.

Review on the possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying visual display terminal-associated dry eye disease


Background: Visual display terminal (VDT) use is a key risk factor for dry eye disease (DED). Visual display terminal (VDT) use reduces the blink rate and increases the number of incomplete blinks. However, the exact mechanisms causing DED development from VDT use have yet to be clearly described.

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to conduct a review on pathophysiological mechanisms promoting VDT-associated DED.

Methods: A PubMed search of the literature investigating the relationship between dry eye and VDT was performed, and relevance to pathophysiology of DED was evaluated.

Findings: Fifty-five articles met the inclusion criteria. Several pathophysiological mechanisms were examined, and multiple hypotheses were extracted from the articles. Visual display terminal (VDT) use causes DED mainly through impaired blinking patterns. Changes in parasympathetic signalling and increased exposure to blue light, which could disrupt ocular homeostasis, were proposed in some studies but lack sufficient scientific support. Together, these changes may lead to a reduced function of the tear film, lacrimal gland, goblet cells and meibomian glands, all contributing to DED development.

Conclusion: Visual display terminal (VDT) use appears to induce DED through both direct and indirect routes. Decreased blink rates and increased incomplete blinks increase the exposed ocular evaporative area and inhibit lipid distribution from meibomian glands. Although not adequately investigated, changes in parasympathetic signalling may impair lacrimal gland and goblet cell function, promoting tear film instability. More studies are needed to better target and improve the treatment and prevention of VDT-associated DED.

Keywords: DED; VDT; VDT-associated dry eye; dry eye disease; pathophysiology; tear film.

© 2022 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

Tear film and important associated…

Tear film and important associated structures. Meibomian glands, the lacrimal gland and goblet…

Interblink interval (IBI) and tear…

Interblink interval (IBI) and tear film break‐up time (TBUT) in two different settings.…

Flowchart of the stepwise search…

Flowchart of the stepwise search strategy and methodology.

Possible mechanisms involved in visual…

Possible mechanisms involved in visual display terminal (VDT)‐associated dry eye development. Visual display…

Ocular protection index (OPI) is…

Ocular protection index (OPI) is the ratio between the tear film break‐up time…

Possible effects of blue light…

Possible effects of blue light on the ocular surface. Blue light emitted by…

Similar articles

Publication types

Related information

Grant support.

LinkOut - more resources

Full text sources.


full text provider logo

NCBI Literature Resources

MeSH PMC Bookshelf Disclaimer

The PubMed wordmark and PubMed logo are registered trademarks of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Unauthorized use of these marks is strictly prohibited.


  1. Visual display terminals ppt

    visual display terminal

  2. Visual display terminals : usability issues and health concerns /edited by John Bennett c1984

    visual display terminal

  3. Visual display terminals ppt

    visual display terminal

  4. Vdt(visual display terminal) 증후군

    visual display terminal

  5. Visual display terminals ppt

    visual display terminal

  6. Pin on Yaser Khalifa

    visual display terminal


  1. Russia And US Panic !! Turkey Launches New 6th Generation Tactical Weapon to Replace Bayraktar TB2

  2. QSTECH X WALLPlus LED All-in-one Display Terminal

  3. Sharp/NEC Transportation Solutions

  4. Manual pemrograman ATS48 menggunakan display terminal

  5. 영상표시단말기 증후군(VDT증후군) 예방 교육 동영상

  6. [Full Session] Session 24: Visual Displays


  1. Computer and visual display terminals (VDT) vision syndrome …

    Computer and visual display terminals syndrome is a constellation of symptoms ocular as well as extraocular associated with prolonged use of visual display terminals. This syndrome is gaining importance in this modern era because of the widespread use of …

  2. Quality Evaluation of Visual Display Terminal Syndrome Videos

    Visual display terminal syndrome is a health problem that occurs when an individual looks at a visual display terminal for a long time. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of YouTube videos on visual display terminal syndrome. YouTube was searched using the keywords "visual display terminal syn …

  3. Ergonomic Guide for Visual Display Terminal (VDT) Computer Workstations ...

    Ergonomic Guide for Visual Display Terminal (VDT) Computer Workstations Computers have revolutionized the way we work. People whose occupations involve spending prolonged periods of time at a computer workstation are subjected to stressors that may lead to painful, debilitating conditions.

  4. The visual display terminal issue: a consideration of its …

    In this paper the VDT issue is considered with reference to: the known physiology of the visual and postural mechanisms; the psychological factors such as fatigue, boredom, stress and performance of operators; and the clinical aspects of ocular comfort.

  5. The association between visual display terminal use and dry …

    Prolonged use of visual display terminals (VDTs) has been suggested as an important risk factor for DED. Purpose: This review aims to study the association between DED and VDT use with an emphasis on the prevalence of DED among VDT users and harmful daily duration of VDT use.

  6. The influence of visual display terminal use on the physical and …

    Visual display terminals (VDT) are standard equipment for many office workers. Their use, however, may increase the risk of developing adverse conditions related to vision, the musculoskeletal system, and mental health.

  7. Integrated Terminal in Visual Studio Code

    To open the terminal: Use the Ctrl+` keyboard shortcut to toggle the terminal panel. Use the Ctrl+Shift+` keyboard shortcut to create a new terminal. Use the View > Terminal or Terminal > New Terminal menu commands. From the Command Palette ( Ctrl+Shift+P ), use the View: Toggle Terminal command.

  8. Definition of 'visual display terminal'

    visual display unit in British English noun computing a device with a screen that displays characters or graphics representing data in a computer memory. It usually has a keyboard or light pen for the input of information or inquiries Abbreviation: VDU Collins English Dictionary. Copyright © HarperCollins Publishers

  9. Is the skin affected by work at visual display terminals?

    According to some reports, mainly from Norway and Sweden, visual display terminal work is suspected of causing skin rashes. In three different studies, we have tried to elucidate the question, and the results indicate that there might be a relation between VDT work and aggravation of some common skin diseases such as rosacea, seborrheic and atopic …

  10. Review on the possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying visual

    Background: Visual display terminal (VDT) use is a key risk factor for dry eye disease (DED). Visual display terminal (VDT) use reduces the blink rate and increases the number of incomplete blinks. However, the exact mechanisms causing DED development from VDT use have yet to be clearly described.