Research-Methodology

Ethical Considerations

Ethical Considerations can be specified as one of the most important parts of the research. Dissertations may even be doomed to failure if this part is missing.

According to Bryman and Bell (2007) [1] the following ten points represent the most important principles related to ethical considerations in dissertations:

  • Research participants should not be subjected to harm in any ways whatsoever.
  • Respect for the dignity of research participants should be prioritised.
  • Full consent should be obtained from the participants prior to the study.
  • The protection of the privacy of research participants has to be ensured.
  • Adequate level of confidentiality of the research data should be ensured.
  • Anonymity of individuals and organisations participating in the research has to be ensured.
  • Any deception or exaggeration about the aims and objectives of the research must be avoided.
  • Affiliations in any forms, sources of funding, as well as any possible conflicts of interests have to be declared.
  • Any type of communication in relation to the research should be done with honesty and transparency.
  • Any type of misleading information, as well as representation of primary data findings in a biased way must be avoided.

In order to address ethical considerations aspect of your dissertation in an effective manner, you will need to expand discussions of each of the following points to at least one paragraph:

1. Voluntary participation of respondents in the research is important. Moreover, participants have rights to withdraw from the study at any stage if they wish to do so.

2. Respondents should participate on the basis of informed consent. The principle of informed consent involves researchers providing sufficient information and assurances about taking part to allow individuals to understand the implications of participation and to reach a fully informed, considered and freely given decision about whether or not to do so, without the exercise of any pressure or coercion. [2]

3. The use of offensive, discriminatory, or other unacceptable language needs to be avoided in the formulation of Questionnaire/Interview/Focus group questions.

4. Privacy and anonymity or respondents is of a paramount importance.

5. Acknowledgement of works of other authors used in any part of the dissertation with the use of Harvard/APA/Vancouver referencing system according to the Dissertation Handbook

6. Maintenance of the highest level of objectivity in discussions and analyses throughout the research

7. Adherence to Data Protection Act (1998) if you are studying in the UK

In studies that do not involve primary data collection, on the other hand, ethical issues are going to be limited to the points d) and e) above.

Most universities have their own Code of Ethical Practice. It is critically important for you to thoroughly adhere to this code in every aspect of your research and declare your adherence in ethical considerations part of your dissertation.

My e-book,  The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Dissertation in Business Studies: a step by step assistance  offers practical assistance to complete a dissertation with minimum or no stress. The e-book covers all stages of writing a dissertation starting from the selection to the research area to submitting the completed version of the work within the deadline. John Dudovskiy

Ethical Considerations in dissertation

[1] Bryman, A. &  Bell, E. (2007) “Business Research Methods”, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press.

[2] Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A. (2012) “Research Methods for Business Students” 6th edition, Pearson Education Limited.

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Ethical Considerations in Research | Types & Examples

Published on 7 May 2022 by Pritha Bhandari .

Ethical considerations in research are a set of principles that guide your research designs and practices. Scientists and researchers must always adhere to a certain code of conduct when collecting data from people.

The goals of human research often include understanding real-life phenomena, studying effective treatments, investigating behaviours, and improving lives in other ways. What you decide to research and how you conduct that research involve key ethical considerations.

These considerations work to:

  • Protect the rights of research participants
  • Enhance research validity
  • Maintain scientific integrity

Table of contents

Why do research ethics matter, getting ethical approval for your study, types of ethical issues, voluntary participation, informed consent, confidentiality, potential for harm, results communication, examples of ethical failures, frequently asked questions about research ethics.

Research ethics matter for scientific integrity, human rights and dignity, and collaboration between science and society. These principles make sure that participation in studies is voluntary, informed, and safe for research subjects.

You’ll balance pursuing important research aims with using ethical research methods and procedures. It’s always necessary to prevent permanent or excessive harm to participants, whether inadvertent or not.

Defying research ethics will also lower the credibility of your research because it’s hard for others to trust your data if your methods are morally questionable.

Even if a research idea is valuable to society, it doesn’t justify violating the human rights or dignity of your study participants.

Prevent plagiarism, run a free check.

Before you start any study involving data collection with people, you’ll submit your research proposal to an institutional review board (IRB) .

An IRB is a committee that checks whether your research aims and research design are ethically acceptable and follow your institution’s code of conduct. They check that your research materials and procedures are up to code.

If successful, you’ll receive IRB approval, and you can begin collecting data according to the approved procedures. If you want to make any changes to your procedures or materials, you’ll need to submit a modification application to the IRB for approval.

If unsuccessful, you may be asked to re-submit with modifications or your research proposal may receive a rejection. To get IRB approval, it’s important to explicitly note how you’ll tackle each of the ethical issues that may arise in your study.

There are several ethical issues you should always pay attention to in your research design, and these issues can overlap with each other.

You’ll usually outline ways you’ll deal with each issue in your research proposal if you plan to collect data from participants.

Voluntary participation means that all research subjects are free to choose to participate without any pressure or coercion.

All participants are able to withdraw from, or leave, the study at any point without feeling an obligation to continue. Your participants don’t need to provide a reason for leaving the study.

It’s important to make it clear to participants that there are no negative consequences or repercussions to their refusal to participate. After all, they’re taking the time to help you in the research process, so you should respect their decisions without trying to change their minds.

Voluntary participation is an ethical principle protected by international law and many scientific codes of conduct.

Take special care to ensure there’s no pressure on participants when you’re working with vulnerable groups of people who may find it hard to stop the study even when they want to.

Informed consent refers to a situation in which all potential participants receive and understand all the information they need to decide whether they want to participate. This includes information about the study’s benefits, risks, funding, and institutional approval.

  • What the study is about
  • The risks and benefits of taking part
  • How long the study will take
  • Your supervisor’s contact information and the institution’s approval number

Usually, you’ll provide participants with a text for them to read and ask them if they have any questions. If they agree to participate, they can sign or initial the consent form. Note that this may not be sufficient for informed consent when you work with particularly vulnerable groups of people.

If you’re collecting data from people with low literacy, make sure to verbally explain the consent form to them before they agree to participate.

For participants with very limited English proficiency, you should always translate the study materials or work with an interpreter so they have all the information in their first language.

In research with children, you’ll often need informed permission for their participation from their parents or guardians. Although children cannot give informed consent, it’s best to also ask for their assent (agreement) to participate, depending on their age and maturity level.

Anonymity means that you don’t know who the participants are and you can’t link any individual participant to their data.

You can only guarantee anonymity by not collecting any personally identifying information – for example, names, phone numbers, email addresses, IP addresses, physical characteristics, photos, and videos.

In many cases, it may be impossible to truly anonymise data collection. For example, data collected in person or by phone cannot be considered fully anonymous because some personal identifiers (demographic information or phone numbers) are impossible to hide.

You’ll also need to collect some identifying information if you give your participants the option to withdraw their data at a later stage.

Data pseudonymisation is an alternative method where you replace identifying information about participants with pseudonymous, or fake, identifiers. The data can still be linked to participants, but it’s harder to do so because you separate personal information from the study data.

Confidentiality means that you know who the participants are, but you remove all identifying information from your report.

All participants have a right to privacy, so you should protect their personal data for as long as you store or use it. Even when you can’t collect data anonymously, you should secure confidentiality whenever you can.

Some research designs aren’t conducive to confidentiality, but it’s important to make all attempts and inform participants of the risks involved.

As a researcher, you have to consider all possible sources of harm to participants. Harm can come in many different forms.

  • Psychological harm: Sensitive questions or tasks may trigger negative emotions such as shame or anxiety.
  • Social harm: Participation can involve social risks, public embarrassment, or stigma.
  • Physical harm: Pain or injury can result from the study procedures.
  • Legal harm: Reporting sensitive data could lead to legal risks or a breach of privacy.

It’s best to consider every possible source of harm in your study, as well as concrete ways to mitigate them. Involve your supervisor to discuss steps for harm reduction.

Make sure to disclose all possible risks of harm to participants before the study to get informed consent. If there is a risk of harm, prepare to provide participants with resources, counselling, or medical services if needed.

Some of these questions may bring up negative emotions, so you inform participants about the sensitive nature of the survey and assure them that their responses will be confidential.

The way you communicate your research results can sometimes involve ethical issues. Good science communication is honest, reliable, and credible. It’s best to make your results as transparent as possible.

Take steps to actively avoid plagiarism and research misconduct wherever possible.

Plagiarism means submitting others’ works as your own. Although it can be unintentional, copying someone else’s work without proper credit amounts to stealing. It’s an ethical problem in research communication because you may benefit by harming other researchers.

Self-plagiarism is when you republish or re-submit parts of your own papers or reports without properly citing your original work.

This is problematic because you may benefit from presenting your ideas as new and original even though they’ve already been published elsewhere in the past. You may also be infringing on your previous publisher’s copyright, violating an ethical code, or wasting time and resources by doing so.

In extreme cases of self-plagiarism, entire datasets or papers are sometimes duplicated. These are major ethical violations because they can skew research findings if taken as original data.

You notice that two published studies have similar characteristics even though they are from different years. Their sample sizes, locations, treatments, and results are highly similar, and the studies share one author in common.

Research misconduct

Research misconduct means making up or falsifying data, manipulating data analyses, or misrepresenting results in research reports. It’s a form of academic fraud.

These actions are committed intentionally and can have serious consequences; research misconduct is not a simple mistake or a point of disagreement about data analyses.

Research misconduct is a serious ethical issue because it can undermine scientific integrity and institutional credibility. It leads to a waste of funding and resources that could have been used for alternative research.

Later investigations revealed that they fabricated and manipulated their data to show a nonexistent link between vaccines and autism. Wakefield also neglected to disclose important conflicts of interest, and his medical license was taken away.

This fraudulent work sparked vaccine hesitancy among parents and caregivers. The rate of MMR vaccinations in children fell sharply, and measles outbreaks became more common due to a lack of herd immunity.

Research scandals with ethical failures are littered throughout history, but some took place not that long ago.

Some scientists in positions of power have historically mistreated or even abused research participants to investigate research problems at any cost. These participants were prisoners, under their care, or otherwise trusted them to treat them with dignity.

To demonstrate the importance of research ethics, we’ll briefly review two research studies that violated human rights in modern history.

These experiments were inhumane and resulted in trauma, permanent disabilities, or death in many cases.

After some Nazi doctors were put on trial for their crimes, the Nuremberg Code of research ethics for human experimentation was developed in 1947 to establish a new standard for human experimentation in medical research.

In reality, the actual goal was to study the effects of the disease when left untreated, and the researchers never informed participants about their diagnoses or the research aims.

Although participants experienced severe health problems, including blindness and other complications, the researchers only pretended to provide medical care.

When treatment became possible in 1943, 11 years after the study began, none of the participants were offered it, despite their health conditions and high risk of death.

Ethical failures like these resulted in severe harm to participants, wasted resources, and lower trust in science and scientists. This is why all research institutions have strict ethical guidelines for performing research.

Ethical considerations in research are a set of principles that guide your research designs and practices. These principles include voluntary participation, informed consent, anonymity, confidentiality, potential for harm, and results communication.

Scientists and researchers must always adhere to a certain code of conduct when collecting data from others .

These considerations protect the rights of research participants, enhance research validity , and maintain scientific integrity.

Research ethics matter for scientific integrity, human rights and dignity, and collaboration between science and society. These principles make sure that participation in studies is voluntary, informed, and safe.

Anonymity means you don’t know who the participants are, while confidentiality means you know who they are but remove identifying information from your research report. Both are important ethical considerations .

You can only guarantee anonymity by not collecting any personally identifying information – for example, names, phone numbers, email addresses, IP addresses, physical characteristics, photos, or videos.

You can keep data confidential by using aggregate information in your research report, so that you only refer to groups of participants rather than individuals.

These actions are committed intentionally and can have serious consequences; research misconduct is not a simple mistake or a point of disagreement but a serious ethical failure.

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Chapter 3: Research Ethics

In 1998 a medical journal called  The Lancet  published an article of interest to many psychologists. The researchers claimed to have shown a statistical relationship between receiving the combined measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and the development of autism—suggesting furthermore that the vaccine might even cause autism. One result of this report was that many parents decided not to have their children vaccinated (becoming a cultural phenomenon known as “anti-vaxxers”), which of course put them at higher risk for measles, mumps, and rubella. However, follow-up studies by other researchers consistently failed to find a statistical relationship between the MMR vaccine and autism—and it is generally accepted now that there is no relationship. In addition, several more serious problems with the original research were uncovered. Among them were that the lead researcher stood to gain financially from his conclusions because he had patented a competing measles vaccine. He had also used biased methods to select and test his research participants and had used unapproved and medically unnecessary procedures on them. In 2010  The Lancet  retracted the article, and the lead researcher’s right to practice medicine was revoked (Burns, 2010) [1] .

In 2011 Diederik Stapel, a prominent and well-regarded social psychologist at Tilburg University in the Netherlands, was found to have perpetrated an audacious academic crime – fabricating data [2] .Following a multi-university investigation, Stapel confessed to having made-up the data for at least 55 studies that he published in scientific journals since 2004. This revelation came as a shock to researchers, including some of his colleagues who had spent time and valuable resources designing and conducting studies that built on some of Stapel’s fraudulently published findings. Even more tragically, Stapel revealed that he had perpetrated the same fraud in 10 doctoral dissertations he oversaw, actions that caused harm to the academic careers of his former students. At a more general level, however, Stapel’s actions inflicted a serious blow to the honour code that scientists abide by. Science is, after all, a shared process of discovery that requires researchers to be honest about their work and findings – whether or not their research hypotheses are supported by the data they collect. Breaching this trust as seriously as Stapel did undermines the entire foundation of this process. Needless to say, Stapel was suspended from his position at Tilburg University. In addition, the American Psychological Association retracted a Career Trajectory Award it had presented to Stapel in 2009, and the Dutch government launched an investigation into his misuse of research funding. Stapel has since returned the doctorate he received from the University of Amsterdam, noting that his “behaviour of the past years are inconsistent with the duties associated with the doctorate.” Stapel also apologized to his colleagues, saying, “I have failed as a scientist and researcher. I feel ashamed for it and have great regret.” [3]

In political psychology, a contentious case of fraudulent data has resulted in a retracted paper from the prestigious journal, Science , as well as a rescinded job offer from Princeton University.  Michael LaCour, a graduate student in political science published a surprising result with Donald Green, an established professor at Columbia University: interacting with a gay canvasser can change a voter’s opinion of gay equality.  The myriad of LaCour’s fabricated information includes grants, awards, and ethical approval.  Although Green requested the retraction of the Science  article without consulting his co-author, LaCour stands by the data [4] .

In this chapter we explore the ethics of scientific research in psychology. We begin with a general framework for thinking about the ethics of scientific research in psychology. Then we look at some specific ethical codes for biomedical and behavioural researchers—focusing on the Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association and the Tri-Council Policy Statement (TCPS 2). Finally, we consider some practical tips for conducting ethical research in psychology.

  • Burns, J. F. (2010, May 24). British medical council bars doctor who linked vaccine to autism.  The New York Times . Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/25/health/policy/25autism.html?ref=andrew_wakefield ↵
  • Jump, P. (2011, November 28). A star’s collapse.  Inside Higher Ed . Retrieved from http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2011/11/28/scholars-analyze-case-massive-research-fraud ↵
  • Carey, B. (2011, November 2). Fraud case seen as a red flag for psychology research.  The New York Times . Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/03/health/research/noted-dutch-psychologist-stapel-accused-of-research-fraud.html ↵
  • Singal, J. (2015, May 29). The Case of the Amazing Gay-Marriage Data: How a Graduate Student Reluctantly Uncovered a Huge Scientific Fraud. New York Magazine . Retrieved from http://nymag.com/scienceofus/2015/05/how-a-grad-student-uncovered-a-huge-fraud.html ↵

Research Methods in Psychology - 2nd Canadian Edition Copyright © 2015 by Paul C. Price, Rajiv Jhangiani, & I-Chant A. Chiang is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS

Chapter three: research methodology 3.1 introduction, 3.9 ethical considerations.

Before the commencement of data collection, the researcher had to apply for an Ethical Clearance Certificate (see appendix) from the University of South Africa. This application was made through the supervisor and once granted the researcher proceeded to collect data. This was done as a way of ensuring that all relevant ethical issues were going to be observed. Research studies have to take into cognisance, a number of ethical issues. Punch (2004:281) is of the opinion that all social research involves ethical issues since it involves collecting data from people about people. Sieber (2009:106) concurs and states that applied research examines and experiments with issues that directly affect peoples’ lives and must therefore respect the interests of subjects and their communities. Research ethics consists of standards of right and wrong; they tell researchers to act in morally responsible ways and ethics come from two sources which are: society at large and research professions (Singleton & Straits, 2010:47).

The following ethical issues have been identified: informed consent; confidentiality, privacy, anonymity, protection from harm; and the right to withdraw (Barbour, 2008:53; Gibson & Brown, 2009:60 Sieber, 2009:106-117; Ruane, 2005:16-19; Patten, 2009:25; Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2011:75-104). These ethical considerations were upheld in this study as discussed in the following sections.

3.9.1 INFORMED CONSENT

Informed consent demands that research participants are fully informed about the purpose of the research as well as their role. In every discipline, it is considered

unethical to collect information without the knowledge of participants and their expressed willingness and informed consent (Kumar, 2005:212). Ryen (2004: 231) in Silverman, (2006: 319) posits that:

... informed consent … means the research subjects have the right to know that they are being researched, the right to be informed about the nature of the research and the right to withdraw at any time … The right to be informed means that potential research subjects should be given a detailed but non technical account (in a format that they understand) of the nature and aims of the research.

Kumar (2005:212) is of a similar opinion and states that:

... informed consent implies that subjects are made adequately aware of the type of information the researcher wants from them, why the information is being sought, what purpose it will be put to, how they are expected to participate in the study, and how it will directly and indirectly affect them. According to Cohen, Manion & Morisson (2011:77) the principle of informed consent arises from the subject’s right to freedom and self determination. In this research the written consent of the participants was sought (see Appendix V, pp. 301-302). Participants were individually informed about the purpose of the study and their role in the research. It was emphasised to the participants that their participation was voluntary.

3.9.2 CONFIDENTIALITY

Confidentiality deals with the disclosure of the information supplied by the research participants. Patten (2009:25) is of the view that researchers have an obligation not to disclose the information to others. Sieber (2009:117) concurs and states that confidentiality is an extension of the concept of privacy; it concerns data about the person and an agreement, as to how the data are to be handled in keeping with the subjects’ interests in controlling the access of others to information about themselves. These views have an implication on data storage and information dissemination. The researcher ensured that data (the tapes) were stored in a secure place which was not

accessible to any other person other than the researcher. The findings of the research were used for the purposes of the study only.

3.9.3 PRIVACY

Privacy refers to person’s interest in controlling the access of others to themselves (Sieber, 2009:117). Singleton & Straits (2010:60) have similar views as they state that the right to privacy is the individual’s right to decide when, where, to whom, and to what extent his or her attitudes, beliefs and behaviour will be revealed. The researcher first of all sought the informed consent of the research participants so that the data gathering process occurred with their full knowledge. A tape recorder was used extensively in this research and the permission of the participants to use this device was sought. No hidden device, electronic or otherwise, was used to record the unstructured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Participants were also assured that the data they provided were only to be used for research purposes only. This was very important as participants need to know that their privacy and sensitivity will be protected and to know what is going to happen with the information after recording (Henning, 2004:6).

3.9.4 ANONYMITY

Anonymity involves the protection of the identity of the research participants so that their identities remain unknown by people outside the study. Lewis (2008:67) says that anonymity means the identity of those taking part is not known outside the research team. The essence of anonymity is that information provided by participants should in no way reveal their identity (Cohen, Manion & Morrison 2011: 91). To meet the principle of anonymity, the collection of data should be done in such a way that the researcher cannot link specific information with individuals who provide it

(Ruane, 2005:19). According to Singleton & Straits (2010:61) anonymity can be ensured by removing names and other identifying information from the data as soon as possible, by not disclosing individuals identities in any reports of the study. In this study the identity of the research participants was protected through the use of pseudonyms where the need arose in writing the report. The respective schools taking part in the study were assigned numbers that were used in writing the report.

3.9.5 PROTECTION FROM HARM

Research participants need to be protected from any forms of harm be they physical, psychological and emotional. Bailey (1978: 384) in Kumar, (2005:212) says that harm includes not only hazardous medical experiments but also any social research that might involve such things as discomfort, anxiety, harassment, invasion of privacy, or demeaning or dehumanising procedures. Diener & Crandall, (1978) in Singleton & Straits, (2010:48), are of a similar opinion and posit that people can be harmed personally (by being humiliated or embarrassed, by losing their self esteem) and socially (by losing their trust in others) through their participation in research that may never threaten their physical being. In this study the researcher ensured that participants were protected from all forms of harm by upholding the personal dignity of all the research participants during interaction. The strict observance of the principles of confidentiality, anonymity, privacy and informed consent was also a way of protecting the research participants from harm.

3.9.6 THE RIGHT TO WITHDRAWAL

The right of participants to withdrawal means that research participants are free to withdraw from the research process at any time. Creswell (2005:12) states that participants have the right to refuse to participate in a study and can withdraw at any

time. In this study, when the informed consent of the participants was sought, it was also impressed upon them that participation was voluntary and that they could withdraw from the research at any time.

3.10 CHAPTER SUMMARY

This chapter presented the research methodology that was used to obtain data for the study. The research design adopted, that is, qualitative research and the phenomenological view, were identified and discussed at length. Data collection instruments as well as the analysis and interpretation of data were all discussed in detail. Measures to enhance the trustworthiness of the research findings were identified. Finally, research ethics that need to be upheld in the study were also discussed. The next chapter presents the research findings.

CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS OF DATA AND PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS

  • THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
  • HISTORY OF MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION
  • DEFINITION OF CULTURE AND MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION
  • GIBSON’S MODEL
  • GRANT AND SLEETER’S MODEL
  • BANKS’S MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION CONTINUUM
  • NIETO’S CHARACTERISTICS OF MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION
  • CHALLENGES TO MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION
  • LANGUAGE POLICY
  • TEACHER ATTITUDES AND EXPECTATIONS
  • CRITIQUE OF MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION
  • RESEARCH DESIGN
  • DATA COLLECTION
  • DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
  • DESCRIBING, CLASSIFYING AND INTERPRETING
  • ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS (You are here)
  • SCHOOL’S PARTICIPATION IN NATIONAL CULTURAL WEEK

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    CHAPTER 3 Methodology and research design 3.1 INTRODUCTION ... ethical considerations, and data collection and analysis. 3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN In this study the main focus was on the beliefs and practices of Sotho antenatal women. The researcher adopted a qualitative approach. Polit and Hungler (1993:36) describe a research design

  15. PDF CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction In Chapter 1, the research problem statement and objectives were stated. The applicable literature pertaining to the brief overview and transformational process of ... The ethical considerations, that needed to be taken into account when conducting the research, will also be highlighted.

  16. Chapter 3 Methodology 1. Introduction

    2. RESEARCH DESIGN. This research is exploratory in nature as it attempts to explore the experiences of mothers of incest survivors. Their subjective perceptions formed the core data of the study; hence it needed the method that would deal with the topic in an exploratory nature. For the purpose of this study, the research paradigm that was ...

  17. Ethical Considerations

    In order to address ethical considerations aspect of your dissertation in an effective manner, you will need to expand discussions of each of the following points to at least one paragraph: 1. Voluntary participation of respondents in the research is important. Moreover, participants have rights to withdraw from the study at any stage if they ...

  18. Ethical Considerations in Research

    Ethical considerations in research are a set of principles that guide your research designs and practices. Scientists and researchers must always adhere to a certain code of conduct when collecting data from people. The goals of human research often include understanding real-life phenomena, studying effective treatments, investigating ...

  19. Chapter 3: Research Ethics

    Chapter 3: Research Ethics In 1998 a medical journal called The Lancet published an article of interest to many psychologists. The researchers claimed to have shown a statistical relationship between receiving the combined measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and the development of autism—suggesting furthermore that the vaccine might even cause autism.

  20. Chapter 3

    Chapter 3 - Methodology This research is concerned with understanding women's' thoughts around breastfeeding and how they chose to feed their infant. It also hopes to discover whether or not the mothers received support and information regarding breastfeeding, which could have influenced their decision. ... Some ethical considerations ...

  21. Ethical Considerations

    3.10 CHAPTER SUMMARY . This chapter presented the research methodology that was used to obtain data for the study. The research design adopted, that is, qualitative research and the phenomenological view, were identified and discussed at length.

  22. (PDF) CHAPTER 3

    analysis, the ethical considerations and the research limitations of the project. 3.2 Research strategy The research held with respect to this dissertation was an applied one, b ut not