Systems, Roles, and Development Methodologies

Systems Analysis and Design, 8e

Kendall & Kendall

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Learning Objectives

  • Recall the basic types of computer-based systems that a systems analyst needs to address.
  • Understand how users working in context with new technologies change the dynamics of a system.
  • Realize what the many roles of the systems analyst are.
  • Comprehend the fundamentals of three development methodologies: SDLC, the agile approach, and object-oriented systems analysis and design .
  • Understand what CASE tools are and how they help a systems analyst.

Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Information—A Key Resource

  • Fuels business and can be the critical factor in determining the success or failure of a business
  • Needs to be managed correctly
  • Managing computer-generated information differs from handling manually produced data

Major Topics

  • Fundamentals of different kinds of information systems
  • Roles of systems analysts
  • Phases in the systems development life cycle as they relate to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) factors
  • Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools

Systems Analysts Recommend, Design, and Maintain Many Types of Systems for Users

  • Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
  • Office Automation Systems (OAS)
  • Knowledge Work Systems (KWS)
  • Management Information Systems (MIS)
  • Decision Support Systems (DSS)
  • Expert Systems (ES)
  • Executive Support Systems (ESS)
  • Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS)
  • Computer-Supported Collaborative Work Systems (CSCWS)

Strategic Level

Operational Level

Knowledge Level

Higher Level

A systems analyst may be involved with any or all of these systems at each organization level.

  • Transaction Processing System (TPS)
  • Process large amounts of data for routine business transactions
  • Boundary-spanning
  • Support the day-to-day operations of the company
  • Examples: Payroll Processing, Inventory Management
  • Office Automation System (OAS)
  • Supports data workers who share information, but do not usually create new knowledge
  • Examples: word processing, spreadsheets, desktop publishing, electronic scheduling, communication through voice mail, email, teleconferencing
  • Knowledge Work System (KWS)
  • Supports professional workers such as scientists, engineers, and doctors
  • Examples: computer-aided design systems, virtual reality systems, investment workstations
  • Management Information System (MIS)
  • Supports a broad spectrum of organizational tasks including decision analysis and decision making
  • Examples: profit margin by sales region, expenses vs. budgets
  • Decision Support System (DSS)
  • Aids decision makers in the making of decisions
  • Examples: financial planning with what-if analysis, budgeting with modeling
  • Expert System (ES) and Artificial Intelligence
  • Captures and uses the knowledge of an expert for solving a particular problem which leads to a conclusion or recommendation
  • Researching understanding natural language and the ability to reason through a problem to its logical conclusion
  • Executive Support System (ESS)
  • Helps executives to make unstructured strategic decisions in an informed way
  • Examples: drill-down analysis, status access
  • Group Decision Support System (GDSS)
  • Permit group members to interact with electronic support.
  • Examples: email, Lotus Notes
  • Computer-Supported Collaborative Work System (CSCWS)
  • CSCWS is a more general term of GDSS.
  • May include software support called groupware for team collaboration via network computers
  • Example: video conferencing, Web survey system

Integrating New Technologies into Traditional Systems

Ecommerce and Web Systems

  • Enterprise Resource Planning Systems

Wireless and Mobile Systems

Open Source Software

Need for Systems Analysis and Design

Systems Analysts Need to Be Aware that Integrating Technologies Affects all Types of Systems (Figure 1.2)

  • Increasing user awareness of the availability of a service, product, industry, person, or group
  • The possibility of 24-hour access for users
  • Improving the usefulness and usability of interface design
  • Creating a system that can extend globally rather than remain local, thus reaching people in remote locations without worry of the time zone in which they are located

Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (ERP)

  • Performs integration of many information systems existing on different management levels and within different functions
  • Example: SAP, Oracle
  • A system analyst may be asked to design standard or wireless and mobile communication networks that integrate voice, video, and email into organizational intranets or industry extranets.
  • A system analyst may also be asked to develop intelligent agents.
  • Example: iPhone, iPod, BlackBerry
  • Wireless communication is referred to as m-commerce (mobile commerce).
  • An alternative of traditional software development where proprietary code is hidden from the users
  • Open source software is free to distribute, share, and modify.
  • Characterized as a philosophy rather than simply the process of creating new software
  • Example: Linux Operating System, Apache Web Server, Mozilla Firefox Web Browser
  • Installing a system without proper planning leads to great user dissatisfaction and frequently causes the system to fall into disuse.
  • Lends structure to the analysis and design of information systems
  • A series of processes systematically undertaken to improve a business through the use of computerized information systems

Roles of the Systems Analyst

  • The analyst must be able to work with people of all descriptions and be experienced in working with computers.
  • Three primary roles:
  • Supporting expert
  • Agent of change

Qualities of the Systems Analyst

  • Problem solver
  • Communicator
  • Strong personal and professional ethics
  • Self-disciplined and self-motivated

Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

  • The systems development life cycle is a phased approach to solving business problems.
  • Developed through the use of a specific cycle of analyst and user activities
  • Each phase has unique user activities.

The Seven Phases of the Systems Development Life Cycle (Figure 1.3)

Incorporating Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) Considerations

  • The demand for analysts who are capable of incorporating HCI into the systems development process keeps increasing, as companies begin to realize that the quality of systems and the quality of work life can be improved by taking a human-centered approach at the outset of a project.

Identifying Problems, Opportunities, and Objectives

  • Interviewing user management
  • Summarizing the knowledge obtained
  • Estimating the scope of the project
  • Documenting the results
  • Feasibility report containing problem definition and objective summaries from which management can make a decision on whether to proceed with the proposed project

Determining Human Information Requirements

  • Interviewing
  • Sampling and investing hard data
  • Questionnaires
  • Observe the decision maker’s behavior and environment.
  • Prototyping
  • Learn the who, what, where, when, how, and why of the current system.
  • The analyst understands how users accomplish their work when interacting with a computer; and begin to know how to make the new system more useful and usable. The analyst should also know the business functions and have complete information on the people, goals, data, and procedure involved.

Analyzing System Needs

  • Create data flow, activity, or sequence diagrams.
  • Complete the data dictionary.
  • Analyze the structured decisions made.
  • Prepare and present the system proposal.
  • Recommendation on what, if anything, should be done

Designing the Recommended System

  • Design procedures for data entry.
  • Design the human-computer interface.
  • Design system controls.
  • Design database and/or files.
  • Design backup procedures.
  • Model of the actual system

Developing and Documenting Software

  • System analyst works with programmers to develop any original software.
  • Works with users to develop effective documentation.
  • Programmers design, code, and remove syntactical errors from computer programs.
  • Document software with help files, procedure manuals, and Web sites with Frequently Asked Questions.
  • Computer programs
  • System documentation

Testing and Maintaining the System

  • Test the information system.
  • System maintenance.
  • Maintenance documentation.
  • Problems, if any
  • Updated programs
  • Documentation

Implementing and Evaluating the System

  • Train users.
  • Analyst plans smooth conversion from old system to new system.
  • Review and evaluate system.
  • Trained personnel
  • Installed system

Some Researchers Estimate that the Amount of Time Spent on Systems Maintenance May Be as Much as 60 Percent of the Total Time Spent on Systems Projects (Figure 1.4)

The Impact of Maintenance

  • Maintenance is performed for two reasons:
  • Removing software errors
  • Enhancing existing software
  • Over time the cost of continued maintenance will be greater than that of creating an entirely new system. At that point it becomes more feasible to perform a new systems study.

Resource Consumption over the System Life (Figure 1.5)

Approaches to Structured Analysis and Design and to the Systems Development Life Cycle

  • Traditional systems development life cycle
  • CASE systems development life cycle
  • Object-oriented systems analysis and design
  • CASE tools are productivity tools for systems analysts that have been created explicitly to improve their routine work through the use of automated support.
  • Reasons for using CASE tools
  • Increasing analyst productivity
  • Improving analyst-user communication
  • Integrating life cycle activities

Case Tool Classifications

  • Upper CASE tools perform analysis and design.
  • Lower CASE tools generate programs from CASE design.

Upper CASE Tools

  • Create and modify the system design.
  • Help in modeling organizational requirements and defining system boundaries.

Lower CASE Tools

  • Lower CASE tools generate computer source code from the CASE design.
  • Source code is usually generated in several languages.
  • Decreases maintenance time
  • Generates error-free code

The Agile Approach

  • Core practices

Agile Values

  • Communication

Four Agile Resources

  • Resources are adjusted to ensure successful project completion.

Five Stages of Agile Development

  • Exploration
  • Iterations to the first release
  • Productionizing
  • Maintenance

Agile Project Development Process (Figure 1.7)

Object-Oriented (O-O) Systems Analysis and Design

  • Alternate approach to the structured approach of the SDLC that is intended to facilitate the development of systems that change rapidly in response to dynamic business environments
  • Analysis is performed on a small part of the system followed by design and implementation.
  • The cycle repeats with analysis, design, and implementation of the next part and this repeats until the project is complete.
  • Examines the objects of a system

Unified Modeling Language (UML) Phases

  • Define the use case model:
  • Use case diagram
  • Use case scenarios
  • Create UML diagrams.
  • Develop class diagrams.
  • Draw statechart diagrams.
  • Modify the UML diagrams.
  • Develop and document the system.

Choosing a Method

  • Choose either:
  • Object-oriented methodologies

When to Use SDLC

  • Systems have been developed and documented using SLDC.
  • It is important to document each step.
  • Upper level management feels more comfortable or safe using SDLC.
  • There are adequate resources and time to complete the full SDLC.
  • Communication of how new systems work is important.

When to Use Agile

  • There is a project champion of agile methods in the organization.
  • Applications need to be developed quickly in response to a dynamic environment.
  • A rescue takes place (the system failed and there is no time to figure out what went wrong).
  • The customer is satisfied with incremental improvements.
  • Executives and analysts agree with the principles of agile methodologies.

When to Use Object-Oriented

  • The problems modeled lend themselves to classes.
  • An organization supports the UML learning.
  • Systems can be added gradually, one subsystem at a time.
  • Reuse of previously written software is a possibility.
  • It is acceptable to tackle the difficult problems first.
  • Information is a key resource.
  • Systems analysts deal with many types of information systems.
  • Integration of traditional systems with new technologies
  • Roles and qualities of the systems analyst
  • The systems development life cycle
  • Agile systems development
  • Object-oriented systems development

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.  

Publishing as Prentice Hall

systems analysis and design

Systems Analysis and Design

Mar 15, 2019

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Systems Analysis and Design. Objectives. Define the terms system, analysis, and design Describe the principal functions of the systems analyst List and describe the phases of the systems development life cycle Describe the various data gathering and analysis tools

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Objectives • Define the terms system, analysis, and design • Describe the principal functions of the systems analyst • List and describe the phases of the systems development life cycle • Describe the various data gathering and analysis tools • Describe a selection of systems design tools • Explain the concept of prototyping • Explain the role of the maintenance task in the systems development life cycle

Contents • What is Systems Analysis and Design? • Systems Analyst • Systems Development Life Cycle • Preliminary Investigation • Analysis • Design • Development • Implementation

Systems Analysis and Design What is it? • System • organized set of related components established to accomplish certain task • Natural • Planned and placed by people • Computer system • A system that has computers as one of its components

Systems Analysis and Design What is it? • Systems analysis Process of studying an existing system to determine how it works and how it meets user needs • Systems design Process of developing a plan for an improved system, based upon the results of the systems analysis

Systems Analysis and Design Why do it? • Impetus for change • Internal force • External force • Authority for change • Approval of higher management

Systems Analyst • Professional computer employee who performs analysis and design • Change agent • Overcome reluctance of users to change • Typical career path • Programmer • Programmer / Analyst • Systems Analyst

Systems AnalystFunctions Coordination • Schedules and system-related tasks • Personnel • Manager • Programmers • Users • Vendors of computer equipment • Contractors

Systems AnalystFunctions Communication • Oral presentations • Written documentation Planning and design • Plans and designs new system • Involved from beginning of project through final implementation of the system

Systems AnalystPersonal Qualities • Analytical mind • Good communication skills • Self-discipline • Self-direction • Organizational skills • Creativity • Ability to work without tangible results

SDLCSystems Development Life Cycle • Preliminary investigation • Analysis • Design • Development • Implementation

SDLCPreliminary Investigation • Feasibility study / System survey • Determine the problem • Describe the problem • Understand management decisions • Organizational chart • Informal hierarchy • Produces rough plan and what to do

SDLCPreliminary Investigation Problem Definition • Nature of the problem Separate problem from symptoms of problem • Scope of the project Budget and schedule • Objectives of the project What user thinks system should do

SDLCPreliminary Investigation Report What you have found Recommendations Financially feasible

SDLCPreliminary Investigation Resulting Management Decision • Drop • Fix a simple problem • Authorize the analysis phase

SDLCAnalysis • Understand the existing system • Gather data • Analyze data • Establish system requirements

SDLCAnalysis – Data Gathering • Written documents • Interviews • Structured • Unstructured • Questionnaires • Observation • Visits by appointment • Participant observation • Sampling

SDLCAnalysis – Analyze Data • How the current system works • Determine system requirements • Basis for documentation • Tools • Data flow diagram (DFD) • Decision tables

SDLCAnalysis – Data Flow Diagram

SDLCAnalysis –Decision Tables

SDLCAnalysis – System Requirements • Detailed list of things the system must be able to do • Design is based upon system requirements • Agreement upon requirements is needed before proceeding

SDLCAnalysis – Report to Management • Summarize problems • Describe requirements • Cost analysis • Recommendations for next step • Obtain authorization to proceed

SDLCDesign • Planning the new system • Two phases • Preliminary design • Detail design

SDLCPreliminary Design Major system aspects • Centralized or distributed • Online or batch • PC-based? • How will input be captured? • Necessary reports

SDLCPreliminary Design • Make or buy decision • Packaged software • Meet at least 75% of requirements? • Change business procedures for part or all of remainder? • Customize for part of all of remainder? • Custom software • Programmers write code • Outsourcing • System is developed by external organization

SDLCPreliminary Design • Create an overall plan • Offer alternatives that meet requirements • Explain differences • Evaluate costs

SDLCPreliminary Design • Build a prototype • Limited working system of subset • Does not need true functionality • Output looks like anticipated system output • Working model that can be modified and fine-tuned • Uses high-level software tools – CASE • Best for small-scale systems

SDLCPreliminary Design CASE tools Computer-Aided Software Engineering • Supports specific analysis and design tasks • Integrated environment that supports the entire systems development process

SDLCPreliminary Design Presentation • All alternatives • Selected plan • Prototype of the system • Obtain authorization to proceed

SDLCDetail Design Parts of detail design phase • Output requirements • Input requirements • Files and databases • Systems processing • Systems controls and backup

SDLCDetail Design Output requirements • Medium • Type of reports • Contents

SDLCDetail Design

SDLCDetail Design Input requirements • Medium • Content • Input forms • Validation • Volume

SDLCDetail Design Files and Databases • Organization • Access • Format of records • Coordinate with database administrator regarding external databases and updating

SDLCDetail Design Flowchart Symbols

SDLCDetail Design Systems Controls and Backup • Insure that input is processed correctly • Prevent fraud and tampering • System journals • Backup of system files

SDLCDetail Design Report to Management • Detailed design specifications report • Presentation • Obtain authorization to proceed

SDLCDevelopment • Doing the work to bring the new system into being • Scheduling

SDLCDevelopment • Programming • Refine the design • Detailed logic flowcharts and pseudocode • Testing • Unit testing • System testing • Volume testing

SDLCImplementation • Converting to the new system • Training • Equipment conversion • File conversion • System conversion • Auditing • Evaluation • Maintenance

SDLCImplementation – Training • Begin during testing • User’s manual (Technical Writers) • Hands-on • Training consideration • Space • Equipment • Data • User’s schedules

SDLCImplementation – Conversion • Equipment • Planning • Installation of new equipment • File • Manual to electronic • Special programs to convert old format to new

SDLCImplementation – Conversion • System • Direct conversion • Phased conversion • Pilot conversion • Parallel conversion

SDLCImplementation –Auditing • Audit trail • Trace output back to source

SDLCImplementation – Evaluation • Working • Meets original requirements • Benefits • Meets budget • Improvements

SDLCImplementation – Maintenance Ongoing activity for life of system

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Master of Science in Management & Systems Systems Analysis, Design and Developement

Masy1-gc3210.

The course covers fundamentals of systems analysis and design. Topics include requirement gathering, system analysis, design and modeling of software specifications. As part of the course, students will learn skills, methodologies, techniques, tools and perspectives essential for system's analysts and designers to successfully develop information systems. The course explains various methodologies for systems analysis and design, including the traditional SDLC method, object oriented approaches, and various agile methodologies. Upon completion of this course, students are expected to be able to use a structured SDLC (System Development Lice Cycle) methodology to analyze IT system structures, model information processes, and design/redesign IT systems.

Please Note: Professor will not entertain any request for an assignment "redo" or "make-up" or extra credit assignment to improve grade

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DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

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System Analysis and Design Tutorial

  • System Analysis and Design Tutorial
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System Analysis and Design - Overview

Systems development is systematic process which includes phases such as planning, analysis, design, deployment, and maintenance. Here, in this tutorial, we will primarily focus on −

  • Systems analysis
  • Systems design

Systems Analysis

It is a process of collecting and interpreting facts, identifying the problems, and decomposition of a system into its components.

System analysis is conducted for the purpose of studying a system or its parts in order to identify its objectives. It is a problem solving technique that improves the system and ensures that all the components of the system work efficiently to accomplish their purpose.

Analysis specifies what the system should do .

Systems Design

It is a process of planning a new business system or replacing an existing system by defining its components or modules to satisfy the specific requirements. Before planning, you need to understand the old system thoroughly and determine how computers can best be used in order to operate efficiently.

System Design focuses on how to accomplish the objective of the system .

System Analysis and Design (SAD) mainly focuses on −

What is a System?

The word System is derived from Greek word Systema, which means an organized relationship between any set of components to achieve some common cause or objective.

A system is “an orderly grouping of interdependent components linked together according to a plan to achieve a specific goal.”

Constraints of a System

A system must have three basic constraints −

A system must have some structure and behavior which is designed to achieve a predefined objective.

Interconnectivity and interdependence must exist among the system components.

The objectives of the organization have a higher priority than the objectives of its subsystems.

For example, traffic management system, payroll system, automatic library system, human resources information system.

Properties of a System

A system has the following properties −

Organization

Organization implies structure and order. It is the arrangement of components that helps to achieve predetermined objectives.

Interaction

It is defined by the manner in which the components operate with each other.

For example, in an organization, purchasing department must interact with production department and payroll with personnel department.

Interdependence

Interdependence means how the components of a system depend on one another. For proper functioning, the components are coordinated and linked together according to a specified plan. The output of one subsystem is the required by other subsystem as input.

Integration

Integration is concerned with how a system components are connected together. It means that the parts of the system work together within the system even if each part performs a unique function.

Central Objective

The objective of system must be central. It may be real or stated. It is not uncommon for an organization to state an objective and operate to achieve another.

The users must know the main objective of a computer application early in the analysis for a successful design and conversion.

Elements of a System

The following diagram shows the elements of a system −

System Elements

Outputs and Inputs

The main aim of a system is to produce an output which is useful for its user.

Inputs are the information that enters into the system for processing.

Output is the outcome of processing.

Processor(s)

The processor is the element of a system that involves the actual transformation of input into output.

It is the operational component of a system. Processors may modify the input either totally or partially, depending on the output specification.

As the output specifications change, so does the processing. In some cases, input is also modified to enable the processor for handling the transformation.

The control element guides the system.

It is the decision–making subsystem that controls the pattern of activities governing input, processing, and output.

The behavior of a computer System is controlled by the Operating System and software. In order to keep system in balance, what and how much input is needed is determined by Output Specifications.

Feedback provides the control in a dynamic system.

Positive feedback is routine in nature that encourages the performance of the system.

Negative feedback is informational in nature that provides the controller with information for action.

Environment

The environment is the “supersystem” within which an organization operates.

It is the source of external elements that strike on the system.

It determines how a system must function. For example, vendors and competitors of organization’s environment, may provide constraints that affect the actual performance of the business.

Boundaries and Interface

A system should be defined by its boundaries. Boundaries are the limits that identify its components, processes, and interrelationship when it interfaces with another system.

Each system has boundaries that determine its sphere of influence and control.

The knowledge of the boundaries of a given system is crucial in determining the nature of its interface with other systems for successful design.

Types of Systems

The systems can be divided into the following types −

Physical or Abstract Systems

Physical systems are tangible entities. We can touch and feel them.

Physical System may be static or dynamic in nature. For example, desks and chairs are the physical parts of computer center which are static. A programmed computer is a dynamic system in which programs, data, and applications can change according to the user's needs.

Abstract systems are non-physical entities or conceptual that may be formulas, representation or model of a real system.

Open or Closed Systems

An open system must interact with its environment. It receives inputs from and delivers outputs to the outside of the system. For example, an information system which must adapt to the changing environmental conditions.

A closed system does not interact with its environment. It is isolated from environmental influences. A completely closed system is rare in reality.

Adaptive and Non Adaptive System

Adaptive System responds to the change in the environment in a way to improve their performance and to survive. For example, human beings, animals.

Non Adaptive System is the system which does not respond to the environment. For example, machines.

Permanent or Temporary System

Permanent System persists for long time. For example, business policies.

Temporary System is made for specified time and after that they are demolished. For example, A DJ system is set up for a program and it is dissembled after the program.

Natural and Manufactured System

Natural systems are created by the nature. For example, Solar system, seasonal system.

Manufactured System is the man-made system. For example, Rockets, dams, trains.

Deterministic or Probabilistic System

Deterministic system operates in a predictable manner and the interaction between system components is known with certainty. For example, two molecules of hydrogen and one molecule of oxygen makes water.

Probabilistic System shows uncertain behavior. The exact output is not known. For example, Weather forecasting, mail delivery.

Social, Human-Machine, Machine System

Social System is made up of people. For example, social clubs, societies.

In Human-Machine System, both human and machines are involved to perform a particular task. For example, Computer programming.

Machine System is where human interference is neglected. All the tasks are performed by the machine. For example, an autonomous robot.

Man–Made Information Systems

It is an interconnected set of information resources to manage data for particular organization, under Direct Management Control (DMC).

This system includes hardware, software, communication, data, and application for producing information according to the need of an organization.

Man-made information systems are divided into three types −

Formal Information System − It is based on the flow of information in the form of memos, instructions, etc., from top level to lower levels of management.

Informal Information System − This is employee based system which solves the day to day work related problems.

Computer Based System − This system is directly dependent on the computer for managing business applications. For example, automatic library system, railway reservation system, banking system, etc.

Systems Models

Schematic models.

A schematic model is a 2-D chart that shows system elements and their linkages.

Different arrows are used to show information flow, material flow, and information feedback.

Flow System Models

A flow system model shows the orderly flow of the material, energy, and information that hold the system together.

Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT), for example, is used to abstract a real world system in model form.

Static System Models

They represent one pair of relationships such as activity–time or cost–quantity .

The Gantt chart, for example, gives a static picture of an activity-time relationship.

Dynamic System Models

Business organizations are dynamic systems. A dynamic model approximates the type of organization or application that analysts deal with.

It shows an ongoing, constantly changing status of the system. It consists of −

Inputs that enter the system

The processor through which transformation takes place

The program(s) required for processing

The output(s) that result from processing.

Categories of Information

There are three categories of information related to managerial levels and the decision managers make.

Information Category

Strategic Information

This information is required by topmost management for long range planning policies for next few years. For example, trends in revenues, financial investment, and human resources, and population growth.

This type of information is achieved with the aid of Decision Support System (DSS).

Managerial Information

This type of Information is required by middle management for short and intermediate range planning which is in terms of months. For example, sales analysis, cash flow projection, and annual financial statements.

It is achieved with the aid of Management Information Systems (MIS).

Operational information

This type of information is required by low management for daily and short term planning to enforce day-to-day operational activities. For example, keeping employee attendance records, overdue purchase orders, and current stocks available.

It is achieved with the aid of Data Processing Systems (DPS).

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  • Computer Science and Engineering
  • System Analysis and Design (Web) 
  • Co-ordinated by : IISc Bangalore
  • Available from : 2009-12-31
  • Data and Information
  • Systems Analysis and Design Life Cycle
  • Information gathering
  • Feasibility analysis
  • Data Flow Diagrams
  • Process Specification
  • Data input methods
  • Logical Database Design
  • Object oriented systems modeling
  • Designing outputs
  • Document on Web
  • Control ? audit and security of information systems
  • Electronic Commerce
  • Web Content
  • Lecture Notes (1)
  • Handouts (50)
  • Self Evaluation (13)
  • Others (59)
  • System Design Tutorial
  • What is System Design
  • System Design Life Cycle
  • High Level Design HLD
  • Low Level Design LLD
  • Design Patterns
  • UML Diagrams
  • System Design Interview Guide
  • Crack System Design Round
  • System Design Bootcamp
  • System Design Interview Questions
  • Microservices
  • Scalability

System Analysis and Design Interview Topics for Freshers

  • Guide to System Design for Freshers
  • How to Whiteboard for System Design Interviews?
  • System Analysis | System Design
  • Analysis of Monolithic and Distributed Systems - Learn System Design
  • How to Crack System Design Interview Round
  • Importance of System Design for freshers/ New Grads
  • Top Most Asked System Design Interview Questions
  • Differences between System Analysis and System Design
  • Steps to Analyze and Design Object Oriented System
  • TCS Interview Experience for System Engineer
  • TCS Interview Experience For System Engineer
  • Infosys Interview Experience for Systems Engineer
  • Persistent Systems Interview Experience for Freshers
  • Infosys Interview Experience For System Engineer
  • Infosys Interview Experience for System Engineer

System Analysis is the “ what” before the “how” in system design. It provides the essential roadmap for crafting a system that is both effective and efficient in solving the intended problem. “Imagine you’re building a dream house. You wouldn’t start hammering nails without a detailed blueprint, right?”The same goes for software development.”

System analysis is the blueprint, while system design translates it into the actual system.

Important Topics for System Analysis and Design Guide

  • Information System(IS)
  • Characteristics(Properties) of a System Analysis
  • Classification of System Analysis
  • Distributed Systems
  • System Analysis and Design
  • System Analyst
  • System Development Life Cycle(SDLC)
  • Documentation of Systems
  • System Requirements Specification(SRS)
  • Fact Finding Techniques or Information Gathering Techniques
  • Modular and Structured Design
  • Form Design
  • Report Design
  • Process Modeling or Data Flow Diagram (DFD)
  • CASE Tools – Computer-Aided Software Engineering Tools
  • Implementation of Systems
  • Maintenance of Systems
  • Audit of Computer Systems
  • Concurrent Audit
  • Different Kinds of Information Systems

1. Information System(IS)

Information systems are integral to system design, shaping the architecture, data management, user interaction, and development process.

By carefully considering the role of IS, system designers can create systems that are robust, user-friendly, and meet the needs of their intended users.

Six Major Components of Information System:

Screenshot-2024-01-24-122013

2. Characteristics(Properties) of a System Analysis

Properties of a system analysis are:

  • Organization – Arrangement of components.
  • Interaction – Procedure in which each component functions with other components.
  • Interdependence – Dependence of one component on another component.
  • Integration – Refers to how a system is tied together.
  • Central Objective – The objective for the system to achieve.

3. Classification of System Analysis

Classification of system analysis is as follows:

  • Formal System – Planned or Documented procedures. For example – Scheduled meetings.
  • Informal System – Not described by Procedures. For example – Sales orders procession system through telephone call
  • Physical System – Tangible entities that may be static or dynamic. For example – Computer.
  • Abstract System – Conceptual Entities. For Example – Company.
  • Open System – Receives input and provides output to the environment. For example – Organisation.
  • Closed System – Isolated from environmental influences. it is rare in reality
  • Manual System – Require human intervention. For Example – The railway ticket counter
  • Automated System – Does not Require human intervention. For example – Traffic control system

Real Time Systems – Interactive processing system with severe time limitations. There are two types of Real Time systems. They are:

  • Hard Real Time Systems complete critical tasks on time. For example – Radar System
  • Soft Real Time Systems are the less restrictive type of real time systems. For example – Industrial Control System

System Users – The people who use information systems.

  • Internal Users – Employees of the business
  • External Users – Customer of the business

4. Distributed Systems

Distributed Systems: Data, Process and Interface components are distributed to multiple locations in computer networks.

Advantages of Distributed Systems:

  • Resource Sharing – Allows multiple computers to share resources such as files, printers, and processing power.
  • Computation Speedup – Faster execution of tasks as computations are carried out simultaneously.
  • Reliability – If one component or node fails, the system can continue functioning using alternative resources.
  • Communication – Facilitate efficient communication between nodes, allowing them to exchange information seamlessly.

The five layers of Distributed System architecture are:

  • Presentation Layer is the actual user interface and helps in input & output operations.
  • Presentation Logic layer include processing for establishing user interface.
  • Application Logic Layer includes all the logic and processing for support the application
  • Data Manipulation Layer Includes all the commands and logic for storing and retrieving data.
  • Data Layer is actual stored data in the database

5. System Analysis and Design

  • System Analysis – This involves studying the requirements of either the existing system or a new system in order to design an effective system.
  • System Design – Involves the process of creating a well-structured system with careful consideration of objectives and requirements.

Approaches to Development

Attempts to make system development less of an art and more of a science usually referred to as engineering techniques, are applied to system development. Techniques are:

  • Prototyping – Designing and building a scaled-down but fundamental version of a desired system is known as prototyping.
  • Joint Application Design(JAD) – Users, managers, and system developers are brought together for a series of intensive structured meetings run by a JAD session leader.
  • Participatory Design(PD) – Each user has an equal share in determining system requirements and in approving system design

6. System Analyst

A System Analyst is an individual responsible for analyzing requirements and designing information systems.

Role of a System Analyst

  • Change Agent – Introduce changes to the user organization.
  • Investigator and Monitor – Investigate the existing system to find the reasons for its failure and also monitor programs about time, cost and quality.
  • Architect – Creates a detailed physical design of candidate systems.
  • Psychologist – Interprets user thoughts, and assesses their behaviour to find facts about the system.
  • Motivator – Effective user training and proper motivation to use the system.
  • Intermediary – Diplomacy in dealing with people for acceptance of the system.

Duties of a System Analyst

  • Defining Requirements -Understand the user’s requirements.
  • Prioritising Requirements by Consensus – Meeting with all other users and arriving at a consensus.
  • Analysis – Analyses the working of the current system
  • Solving Problem s – Identify alternative solutions and select the best solution for a particular problem.
  • Drawing up Functional Specifications – Precise and detailed specifications so it can be used by system implementers.
  • Designing Systems – After specifications are accepted, the analyst designs the system
  • Evaluating System – Evaluate a system after it has been in use for a reasonable time.

Qualifications of a System Analyst

  • Analytical Skills – Includes system study, organizational knowledge, problem identification, problem analysis and problem solving.
  • Technical Skills – Includes knowledge of Programming languages, OS, DBMS, different type of computer
  • Management Skills – Includes resource management, project management, risk management, change management
  • Interpersonal Skills – Includes communication skills, working alone as well as in a team, facilitating groups, and managing expectations.

7. System Development Life Cycle(SDLC)

SDLC, or Software Development Life Cycle, is a common set of steps for system development used by many organizations.

SDLC consists of mainly seven steps or phases. These are:

  • Project Identification and Selection – Identifying the need for a new or improved system and selecting priorities for the system.
  • Project Initiation and Planning – Detailed work plan, specification of system scope and high-level system requirements.
  • Analysis – Includes study of requirements and feasibility.
  • Logical Design – it is not tied to any specific hardware and system software platform.
  • Physical Design – Turning logical design into technical specifications.
  • Implementation – Includes coding, testing and installation.
  • Maintenance – Making changes that users ask for and modifying the system to reflect and support changing business conditions.

8. Documentation of Systems

Documentation – It is the process of communicating about the system.

The steps involved in the process of documentation are:

  • Collection of source material for documentation
  • Documentation Plan
  • Review of Plan
  • Creation of Document
  • Testing of Document
  • Maintain Document

9. System Requirements Specification(SRS)

it is a set of complete and precisely stated properties along with the constraints of the system that the software must satisfy.

Characacteristics of a SRS

  • Unambiguous – Every requirement stated has only one interpretation.
  • Complete – It should include all functions and constraints intended by the system user.
  • Realistic & Achievable – The requirements should be realistic and achievable with current technology.
  • Verifiable & Consistent – No requirement should conflict with any other requirement.
  • Modifiable – Any necessary changes to requirements can be made easily.
  • Traceable – The origin of each requirement must be clear.
  • Useful – The SRS must address the needs of the operation and maintenance phase.

Structure or Outine of a SRS Document:

  • Introduction – Includes its purpose, scope, and objectives.
  • Informative description about the system – Includes Information flow representation, Description of sub-systems and System Interface, and the problems it aims to solve.
  • Functional Description of the system -Includes Restrictions, limitations, Performance, Design constraints, and software diagram.
  • Test and validation criteria – Includes Performance limitations, and expected software response.
  • Glossary – Definition of all technical or software-specific terms used in the document.
  • Bibliography – Reference of all documents related to the software.

System Design Specification or Software Design Specification

it gives a complete understanding of the details of each component of the system, and its associated algorithms, etc.

10. Fact Finding Techniques or Information Gathering Techniques

Techniques used for collecting data related to the existing system to learn the function of the existing system. Various fact-finding techniques are:

  • Interview – T his important fact-finding technique, where the system analysts gather information from individuals through face-to-face interaction.
  • Group Discussions – A group of staff members are invited by system analysts from different wings for discussion.
  • Site Visits – The system analysts visit sites to get information on the working of the system.
  • Presentation s – The customer makes a presentation of the existing system or about the organisation.
  • Questionnaires – Special purpose documents that allow the analyst to collect information and opinions.

The steps involved in the interview are Introduction, Asking Questions, Recording the interview, and Doing a final check. There are two types of interviews:

  • Structured – There is a specific set of questions to be asked to an interviewee.
  • Unstructured – No specific set of questions only a general goal or subject in mind.

Advantages of Interviews

  • Get individual’s views
  • Better clarity of the problem
  • The interviewee responds freely and openly

Disadvantages of Interviews

  • Very time consuming
  • Depends on the system analyst’s interpersonal skills
  • May be impractical due to the location

Feasibility Study

Consists of activities which determine the existence of the scope of developing an information system for the organisation. There are different feasibility study like

  • Technical Feasibility – Concerned with hardware, software and expertise required for the development of the system.
  • Operational Feasibility – All about problems that may arise during operations like useful information, response time, Accuracy, Security, and Efficiency.
  • Economical Feasibility – Judging whether the possible benefits of solving the problem is worthwhile or not.
  • Legal Feasibility – Consideration of copyright law, labour law, antitrust legislation, regulation, etc.

Cost Benefit Analysis

It involves analysing the costs associated with implementing and operating a system against the expected benefits it will bring. Different costs are

  • Cost of human resource s – Salaries of system analysts, software engineers, programmers, data entry operators, and clerical staff.
  • Cost of Infrastructure – Includes computers, cables, software, etc.
  • Cost of training – The developing and operating staff need to be trained for new technologies and systems.

11. Modular and Structured Design

Design – it bridges the gap between specifications and coding. Some of the properties of design are Verifiability, Traceability, Completeness, Consistency, Efficiency, and Simplicity.

Design Principles

These principles are meant to effectively handle the complexity of design.

These principles are:

  • Problem Partitioning – The system is divided into modules that are self-dependent.
  • Abstraction – Designing the outer view of the component without worrying about the details of implementation.
  • Top Down Design – Decomposing major components into their subordinate level components and interacting until the desired level of detail is achieved.
  • Bottom-Up Design – Process of combining modules to provide larger ones, to compile these to provide event larger ones and so till we arrive at one big module. This approach is more suitable as it starts from some existing modules.
  • Structure Chart – it depicts the division of a system into programs along with their internal structure.
  • Modularity – it means decomposing a system into smaller components (modules) that can be coded separately.

Guidelines for good design are:

  • Factoring – A system should be divided into as many relatively independent modules as possible.
  • A superordinate module should control not more than seven subordinates.
  • Coupling – The dependency levels between modules should be minimal.
  • Cohesion – A module should not perform more than one function.
The communication between modules should be through parameters. Boolean variables or flags can be used for communication. There are five types of coupling:
  • Data Coupling: Data is passed through parameters for communication.
  • Stamp Coupling: Data structure is passed through parameters for communication.
  • Control Coupling: Control information is passed through parameters for communication.
  • Common Coupling: Global data areas used by the multiple modules.
  • Content Coupling: One module can access the data inside another module and alter it. The same goes for the code of the moduls.
A module conforms itself to the performance of a single task.

There are seven types of cohesion. They are:

  • Functional Cohesion: If every instruction in the module is related to a single task.
  • Sequential Cohesio: All instructions in the module are related to each other the data that is passed to the module and sequence of the instruction matters.
  • Communicational Cohesion: All instructions in the module are related to each other the data that is passed to the module and the sequence of the instruction doesn’t matter.
  • Procedural Cohesion: Instructions are related to each other by the control flow.
  • Temporal Cohesion: All instructions are related to each other by only the flow of control and are unrelated to their sequence.
  • Logical Cohesion: The relation between instructions in the module is zero or bare minimum.
  • Coincidental Cohesion: There is no relationship between instructions in the module.

12. Form Design

Forms are used for collecting data from users. Form design refers to the process of creating intuitive and user-friendly forms.

The common GUI controls used in forms for inputs include:

  • Text Box: Allows for single or multiple lines of characters.
  • Radio Button: Helps quickly identify and select a particular value.
  • Check Box: Provides an option for the Yes/On value.
  • List Box: Requires the selection of a data item’s value from a list of possible choices.
  • Dropdown List: Suggests the existence of a hidden list of possible values.
  • Combination Box: Combines the capabilities of a text box and a list box.
  • Spin Box: Allows the user to make an input selection using navigation buttons.

Criteria for form design

To create a well-conceived and attractive design form, we have to satisfy the following criteria:

  • Organisation : Logical arrangement of form elements, Clear and intuitive information structure.
  • Consistency : Uniformity in design elements, Standardized layout, fonts, and colours.
  • Completeness : Inclusion of all necessary fields, Avoidance of unnecessary or redundant questions.
  • Flexible Entry: Accommodation of various input formats, Clear instructions and validation for user guidance.
  • Economy : Concise form with essential elements, Balanced information collection for user convenience.

13. Report Design

Reports are used for presenting and summarizing data in a structured format. Report design refers to the process of creating clear, organized, and user-friendly layouts for displaying information.

Types of Output for Report Design

  • Internal Outputs – Intended for the owners of the system and the user within the organization. Examples: Detailed Reports, Summary Reports, etc.
  • External Outputs – Intended for customers, suppliers, partners and regulatory agencies. Examples: Invoices, Account statements, paycheques, telephone bills, etc.

Criteria for report design

For producing a good report following criteria should be considered:

  • Relevance : Focuses on information essential to the report’s goals.
  • Accuracy : Ensures that data and facts are reliable and error-free.
  • Clarity : Uses clear language, concise formatting, and visual aids for effective communication.
  • Timeliness : Ensures that the information remains current and applicable.
  • Cost : Balances the quality of the report with the associated costs.
  • User Interface Design

it involves creating interfaces that facilitate effective communication between users and computer systems. It focuses on making interactions intuitive, efficient, and user-friendly.

If you are interested to learn more about design, you can refer Design Pattern Tutorial.

14. Process Modeling or Data Flow Diagram (DFD)

Graphical representation of the function and process, which capture, manipulate, store and distribute data between components within a system.

The components of a Data Flow Diagram(DFD) are:

  • Entities or Source or Sink of Data : Include the source and destination of the data.
  • Process : The tasks performed on the data are known as processes.
  • Data Storage : Data storage includes the database of the system.
  • Data Flow: The movement of data in the system is known as data flow.

here are the notations for the components:

dfd2

Notations for the components of DFD.

15. CASE Tools – Computer-Aided Software Engineering Tools

All software that supports managerial, technical, or administrative aspects of any part of the software development process is termed as CASE tools.

Use of CASE Tools:

  • Facilitating Single Design Methodology : Aiding in the standardization of the development process.
  • Rapid Application Development : Improving the speed and quality of system development.
  • Testing : Enhancing the testing process through automated checking.
  • Documentation : Improving the quality and uniformity of documentation.
  • Project Management : Automating various activities involved in project management.
  • Productivity and Cost Reduction : Automating various activities in system development and increasing the productivity of the development team.

Role of CASE Tools:

  • Project Management
  • Data Dictionary
  • Code Generation
  • Schema Generation
  • Creation of Metadata for Data Warehouse
  • Reverse Engineering
  • Re-engineering
  • Document Generation
  • Version Control
  • Object-Oriented Analysis and Design
  • Software Testing
  • Data Modeling
  • Project Scheduling
  • Cost Estimation

Advantages of CASE Tools:

  • Integrated Development Environment
  • Guidance in Development
  • Consistency Between the Model and Documentation

Types or Components of CASE Tools:

  • Planning and Management Tools
  • Analysis Tools
  • Design Toolset
  • Information Integrator
  • Code Generator
  • Database Design Toolset
  • User Interface Generator
  • Report Generator

COMPONENTS-OF-CASE-TOOL

The components of CASE tools.

  • Rational Rose: One of the most widely used CASE tools in the software community.
  • UML modeling: The Unified Modeling Language is primarily a graphical modeling language used to express designs.
  • Emerging CASE tools: Integrated CASE (I-CASE).
  • Object-Oriented CASE tools: Paradigm Plus from Protosoft, Rational Rose from Rational, and WithClass

16. Implementation of Systems

It involves coding, testing, creating necessary hardware, and providing training to end-users.

System Testing

A holistic approach to testing the application. Types include Recovery Testing, Security Testing, Stress Testing, Performance Testing, Response Testing, Usability and Documentation Testing.

  • Alpha Testing: Carried out by the customer at the developer site in a controlled environment.
  • Beta Testing: Carried out at one or more customer sites by end-users.

Converting Old System to the New System:

Can be performed in several ways depending on system criticality and related issues:

  • Direct Conversion: Old system is shut down, and the new system starts.
  • Pilot Conversion: New system is installed at a single pre-decided location.
  • Parallel Conversion: Old system runs alongside the new system until management and users are satisfied.
  • Phased Conversion: Different sub-systems of the new system are used in conjunction until the whole new system is converted.

17. Maintenance of Systems

Monitoring, evaluating, and modifying the information system to make necessary desirable changes. Maintenance activity has four key stages:

  • Help Desk : Initial stage for users to report issues or seek assistance.
  • Analysis : In-depth examination of reported issues and system performance.
  • Implementation : Incorporation of enhancements based on analysis findings.
  • Release : Deployment of the modified information system to users.

Different Maintenance Activities

  • Corrective Maintenance: Rectifying design, coding, and implementation problems detected after system implementation.
  • Adaptive Maintenance : Changes in the operation system, hardware, or DBMS.
  • Perfective Maintenance: Adding new functionalities and features to the software.
  • Preventive Maintenance: Changes made to software to make it easily maintainable and prevent system failure in the future.

Legacy System: A very old and large system modified heavily since its inception. Solutions include replacing software with a package, re-implementing from scratch, discarding software, freezing maintenance and phasing in a new system, or reverse engineering the legacy system.

18. Audit of Computer Systems

An assessment of an information system to provide recommendations and advice to improve system performance and security. It is done by an IS auditor. Objectives of the audit are:

  • To improve the quality of the information system.
  • Prevent failure.
  • Speed up the process.
  • Improve cost performance.
  • Increase efficiency.
  • Reduce risk and enhance system security.
  • Standardization.

Responsibility and Authority of the System Auditor:

  • Should firmly maintain professional ethics.
  • Should be aware of the ethical demands on themselves.
  • Should meet internal and external trust by performing an accurate and sincere system audit.
  • Must maintain confidentiality of the information provided to them.
  • May demand data and material from the division being audited.
  • May also demand a report on the implementation of improvements to an audit division as suggested by them.

Factors Audited by IS Auditor:

  • Audit of response time: Actual response time compared with the desired response time.
  • Audit of broken links: Findings of broken or unavailable links on the website.
  • Database Audit: Checking the database integrity and availability.
  • Network Audit: Checking the vulnerability and configuration of the network.
  • Transaction Audit: Process to find who made changes, what changes were made, and whether the changes were authorized.
  • Audit of Computer Security: Reviewing physical and logical security measures.
  • Audit of Application: Assessment of manual and programmed internal controls of the information system.

Some Important Terms

  • Visual Audit Pro – A software that audits activities like logging on/off, and collects information about software and hardware.
  • E-Z Audit -A software that gives information on RAM capacity, network card name, network connect speed, MAC address and TCP/IP information.
  • IDEA(Interactive Data Extraction and Analysis) – Used to import information from the database to be audited for further analysis by the auditor.
  • Audit Trail – A log of changes made in data, settings and related changes.

Risk Assessment – Evaluating threats and vulnerabilities of IS. two methods are there for analysing the risks:

  • Quantitative Risk Analysis – Gives an idea about the amount of risks involved with an event.
  • Qualitative Risk Analysis – Gives the degree of risk associated with the institution’s system, networks and information assets.

Disaster Recovery Plan

  • Disaster – Earthquakes, floods, fires and terrorist attacks can severely damage an organisation’s computing infrastructure.
  • Disaster Recovery Plan – A document containing procedures for emergency response, extended backup operations and recovery.

Techniques applied for contingency situations are:

  • In-house backup – The process of storing data backups within the organization
  • Alternate Storage Area – Store one copy of all AIS files and databases at an alternative site.
  • The Disaster Recovery Toolkit – A highly valuable collection of items and documents for ensuring business continuity in disaster.

Contingency Planning Steps:

  • Develop the plan.
  • Test the plan.
  • Maintain the plan.

19. Viruses

One of the biggest security threats to computer systems can cause irreparable damage to certain systems. Anti-virus measures for protecting against viruses include:

  • Make a backup of all data.
  • Use anti-virus software.
  • Open email attachments with caution.
  • Regularly update software.
  • Stay updated about the latest security news.

20. Concurrent Audit

Data is audited while the transaction is in progress. It helps in finding missing audit trails and is also used in monitoring largely integrated and automated systems.

Concurrent Audit Techniques

  • Integrated Test Facility (ITF) Technique : Auditing software is embedded into the client software.
  • The Snapshot Technique: Embedded auditing software takes a snapshot before and after the process of critical processing.
  • System Control Audit Review File (SCARF): Embedded auditing software monitors the system transaction uninterruptedly and stores the collected information in a SCARF master file.
  • Continuous and Intermittent Simulation techniques (CIS): Used DBMS to trap exceptions.

21. Different Kinds of Information Systems

Management information system (mis).

It helps the organization produce information that can aid in improving decision-making, problem-solving, controlling operations, and creating new products or services.Generates semi-structured, ad-hoc reports tailored for strategic management. Examples: Marketing information systems.

Transaction Processing System (TPS)

TPS processes data from business operations, providing essential support for day-to-day operations. Handles routine transactions, employs fixed periodic reporting, and serves operational management needs. Examples: Sales processing systems, and online reservation systems.

Decision Support System (DSS)

DSS utilizes analytical models, specialized databases, and internal data to provide interactive decision support. Offers reports like sensitivity and what-if analyses, catering to individual manager’s decision-making needs. Example: Geographic Information System (e.g., IBM’s Geo-Manager).

Expert System

Expert Systems apply knowledge from a specific field, delivering expert advice within a defined domain. Provides human-like expert advice; sought by managers seeking specialized knowledge. Example: Medical diagnostic expert systems (e.g., MYCIN).

If you are a beginner and want to learn about system design then you can refer to System Design Tutorial.

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Powerpoint Templates and Google slides for Systems Analysis And Design

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  1. Information System Analysis & Design ABMA Level 4|| Lesson 2 ||SDLC Models

  2. Information System Analysis & Design ABMA Level 4||Lesson 4|| Role of the system analyst

  3. System Analysis and Design Lecture 4

  4. Information System Analysis & Design ABMA Level 4 || Lesson 6|| Requirements categories

  5. Lecture 1

  6. SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN (HINDI)

COMMENTS

  1. Systems Analysis And Design Fundamentals (Chapter 1)

    1-*. Analysts are being called to design a plethora of new systems and applications. May be asked to develop under the standard called Bluetooth. Intelligent agents are software that can assist users with tasks in which the software learns preferences from of users over time and then acts on those preferences.

  2. PDF Chapter 1: Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design

    Title: Chapter 1: The Systems Analyst and Information Systems Development Author: Fernando Maymí Created Date: 8/20/2020 10:53:30 AM

  3. Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design

    NikRHassan1. The document is a PowerPoint presentation on systems analysis and design. It covers several topics: - The definition and goals of systems analysis and design. Common reasons for project failures. - An overview of the systems development life cycle (SDLC) process, including the planning, analysis, design, and implementation phases.

  4. System Analysis and Design

    Download now. System Analysis and Design. 1. System Analysis and Design Prepared By: Syed Aamir Abbas Muhammad Safdar MPhil Student (Semester-I) 2012-14 Minhaj University Lahore. 2. Objectives Define the terms system, system analysis, and system design. Types of systems. Describe the principal functions of the systems analyst. List and describe ...

  5. PPT

    Presentation Transcript. Systems Analysis and Design. Objectives • Define the terms system, analysis, and design • Describe the principal functions of the systems analyst • List and describe the phases of the systems development life cycle • Describe the various data gathering and analysis tools • Describe a selection of systems ...

  6. Introduction To System Analysis and Design

    16 Analysis The system proposal is the initial deliverable that describes what business requirements the new system should meet. The deliverable from this phase is both an analysis and a high-level initial design for the new system. 17 Design In this phases it is decided how the system will operate, in terms of the hardware, software, and ...

  7. Systems Analysis & Design

    The course covers fundamentals of systems analysis and design. Topics include requirement gathering, system analysis, design and modeling of software specifications. As part of the course, students will learn skills, methodologies, techniques, tools and perspectives essential for system's analysts and designers to successfully develop ...

  8. PDF INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

    2 Chapter 1 Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design 1 For more information on the problem, see Capers Jones, Patterns of Software System Failure and Success, ... exposes you to everything about the topic. By definition, systems analysts do things and challenge the current way that organizations work. To get the most out of this

  9. Chapter 1: Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design

    Download ppt "Chapter 1: Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design". Learning Objectives Systems development life cycle Identify the four phases How it came about Methodology alternatives Team roles & skill sets Object-oriented systems characteristics Object-oriented systems analysis & design The Unified Process & its extensions The Unified ...

  10. Systems Analysis and Design, 11 Edition Scott Tilley and Harry ...

    Chapter1_Introduction to System Analysis and Design - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. This document provides an overview of systems analysis and design. It defines key terms like information systems, systems analysts, and different development approaches.

  11. ch01

    ch01- Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design.ppt - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online.

  12. System Analysis and Design (SAD )

    INTRODUCTION System Analysis and Design (SAD ) 2 Information System Information systems are software applications which manage large amounts of data. Most of the software out there is information systems software, written in languages such as Java, C++, .NET and the like. 3 The Bad News 30% of large IT projects are cancelled before completion.

  13. Lecture Notes

    Topics Lecture notes 1-3 Introduction to Axiomatic Design 4 Information Content and Robustness 5 Information Content (cont.) Project Discussion 6-7 Multi-FR Design 8-9 Information Content (cont.) Supplementary Lecture Note 11-12 Design of Systems 13 Guest Lecture 14 Design of Manufacturing Systems 15

  14. System Analysis

    System Analysis. It is the very first step in any system development and the critical phase where developers come together to understand the problem, needs, and objectives of the project. Some of the key aspects of system analysis are: Problem Identification: It involves identifying the issues that the system is aiming to address.

  15. System Analysis and Design

    Systems Analysis. It is a process of collecting and interpreting facts, identifying the problems, and decomposition of a system into its components. System analysis is conducted for the purpose of studying a system or its parts in order to identify its objectives. It is a problem solving technique that improves the system and ensures that all ...

  16. An Introduction to System Analysis & Design

    Watch the full lecture at https://bcsonlinelectures.com Information SystemsSystem Analysis and DesignLecture 1.1 - An Introduction to System Analysis & Desig...

  17. Computer Science and Engineering

    Systems Analysis and Design Life Cycle: Teacher Slides-Module 2: PPT Slides: 0.146: Systems Analysis and Design Life Cycle: Worked Examples-Module 2: PDF: 0.013: Systems Analysis and Design Life Cycle: Question Bank-Module 2: PDF: 0.009: Information gathering: Teacher Slides-Module 3: PPT Slides: 0.116:

  18. System Analysis and Design (SAD)

    14 likes • 9,199 views. Sachith Perera. This is a presentation which we prepared in order to explain what System Analysis and Design (SAD) is to our class under the second year module. Technology. 1 of 13. Download now. System Analysis and Design (SAD) System Analysis &. Question 1.

  19. Systems Analysis and Design, 8th Edition

    Systems Analysis and Design, 8th Edition offers students a hands-on introduction to the core concepts of systems analysis and systems design. Following a project-based approach written to mimic real-world workflow, the text includes a multitude of cases and examples, in-depth explanations, and special features that highlight crucial concepts and emphasize the application of fundamental theory ...

  20. System Analysis and Design Interview Topics for Freshers

    System Analysis and Design. System Analysis - This involves studying the requirements of either the existing system or a new system in order to design an effective system. System Design - Involves the process of creating a well-structured system with careful consideration of objectives and requirements. Approaches to Development.

  21. Systems Analysis And Design PowerPoint Presentation and Slides

    Systems analysis powerpoint presentation slides. This complete presentation has PPT slides on a wide range of topics highlighting the core areas of your business needs. It has professionally designed templates with relevant visuals and subject driven content. This PPT is also compatible with Google Slides.

  22. System concepts- System Analysis and design

    System concepts- System Analysis and design. A system is a collection of elements organized for a common purpose. A system has three basic elements: input, processing, and output. Other key elements include control, feedback, boundaries, environment, and interfaces. A system analyst is responsible for identifying organizational needs, analyzing ...

  23. System Analysis and Design PowerPoint Presentation Slides

    Download our editable System Analysis and Design PPT template to explain the phases, importance, and need of system analysis and design. 100% customizable deck! Related Products. SWOT Analysis. $5.00. Add to Wish List Add to Compare. Systems Theory. $5.00. Add to Wish List Add to Compare ...

  24. 51 Best Presentation Slides for Engaging Presentations (2024)

    Use clear and legible fonts, and maintain a consistent design throughout the presentation. 2. Visual appeal: Incorporate visually appealing elements such as relevant images, charts, graphs, or diagrams. Use high-quality visuals that enhance understanding and make the content more engaging.